Study of the phenological stages and competitive indices in the intercropping of potato and safflower.
Intercropping is the growing of two or more crops simultaneously on the same piece of land. It is the predominant cropping system in the tropics tropics, also called tropical zone or torrid zone, all the land and water of the earth situated between the Tropic of Cancer at lat. 23 1-2°N and the Tropic of Capricorn at lat. 23 1-2°S. and sub-tropics and is typically practiced by small-scale and subsistence farmers . Most scholars assert the most main factor in cooperation mechanism and its superiority in intercropping is time deference which it reads to distinguish majority of time required to growth . The findings experiment showed that potato intercropping with a plant like corn is a suitable cultivation guideline in relation to adjust the potato micro Lima. In one hand, from cropping to gather the potato s canopy, because of existence the reaction places, some of sunlight didn't be use and this condition cause devoting the soil s moisture, in other hand, it cause increasing it s temperature which it hoer negative impact on potato growth. Some of studying in this regard proved that if a shading plant like a corn grows with potato in the formwork form·work
The structure of boards that make up a form for pouring concrete in construction. of a suitable mixture system, adjusting potato s micro Lima, it can utilize some of devoted sunlight . In a carried out investigation on soybean soybean, soya bean, or soy pea, leguminous plant (Glycine max, G. soja, or Soja max) of the family Leguminosae (pulse family), native to tropical and warm temperate regions of Asia, where it has been and sunflower sunflower, any plant of the genus Helianthus of the family Asteraceae (aster family), annual or perennial herbs native to the New World and common throughout the United States. intercropping, sunflower plant have vast and horizontal leaves, having helophyte receptacle and leaves character, and it hare more and lasting which these characteristics with intense intercom petition of species cause succession the plant in intercropping . Impact of plant density on growth stages in deferent deferent /def·er·ent/ (-ent) conveying anything away, as from a center.
Carrying down or away, as a duct or vessel. plans isn't same. . Stages of phonology phonology, study of the sound systems of languages. It is distinguished from phonetics, which is the study of the production, perception, and physical properties of speech sounds; phonology attempts to account for how they are combined, organized, and convey meaning s potato include emergence, flowering and crop ripening ripening
said of meat. See curing. . Potato have short-day timbering tim·ber·ing
Timber or objects and structures made of it. and long-day flowering. Flowering of potato is influenced by temperature so that impact of day temperature is lee and impact of night temperature especially on 18 C temperatures is remarkable . Safflower safflower, Eurasian thistlelike herb (Carthamus tinctorius) of the family Asteraceae (aster family). Safflower, or false saffron, has long been cultivated in S Asia and Egypt for food and medicine and as a costly but inferior substitute for the true saffron is a long day plant and speed of its growth is followed by day during and temperature of manual influence . While providing each of cultivated productions and crops, if it corn be enough all factors affecting on growth, corn expend ex·pend
tr.v. ex·pend·ed, ex·pend·ing, ex·pends
1. To lay out; spend: expending tax revenues on government operations. See Synonyms at spend.
2. the ideal yield, because grain s yield due to transitions of photosynthesis material from photosynthesis organs to grains. If two species corn crop on the mixture from, one corn consider competition total conception. That is to say, in the intercropping, one of species may act more successful rather than another one with the aid of water, light and food materials, and with increasing its yield; it may reduce another one's yield. Therefore, reducing out-species competition, one corn improves the production random in intercropping system. Available competition among the components of intercropping is being controlled by means of morphologic and physiologic differences and by cultivation factors like relation of cultivation in mixture, application of fertilizers and relative time . In order to study the competition in the intercropping various competition indexes are being used.
Generally, competitive index is classified into groups; complementary bores capacity of competition and pressure of competition. Complementary source index demonstrate the rate of components in using the common and limited sources .
In this study, the two potatoes and safflower plants were utilized in order to assess the advantage of the intercropping over the pure cropping in terms of stages of phenological and competition indexes. Because, through the manner of the phases of growth, ripening, and harvest, the largest probability of the ecological nest distiction of the nutrition, water and light requirements is anticipated, and it is expected that as the inter-species competition decreases and the contribution increases, the foundation is laid for the efficiency of the combination.
Material and Method
In the year 2010, the experiment was conducted in the research field of Mohaggeg Ardabili University, Babolan region, 1350m above sea level, with a altitlongitude of 48', 20" N[degrees] and a latitude of 38', 15" E[degrees]. The average of the annual precipitation of the studied region is about 400 mm. The soil of this region is of the loamy sand type, has a pH tantamount tan·ta·mount
Equivalent in effect or value: a request tantamount to a demand.
[From obsolete tantamount, an equivalent, from Anglo-Norman to 7.09, and bears a suitable drainage. In order to prepare the field, a mold-board ploughing was done in the autumn and a light disk was used to grind the clods and to level the earth in the spring. Afterwards, by means of a Farower, the streams and mounds were built. Both plants of the combination were synchronously cultivated. First the potato tubers were planted on the mounds into the depth of 15 cm. The cultivation rows were 75 cm apart from each other and the plants of every row eere 22 cm apart so that the density of potato became 6 plants per [m.sup.2]. Afterwards, in the intercropping, the safflower seeds were planted on the mounds among the potato plants with densities of 6, 12 and 18 plants per [m.sup.2]. Meanwhile, the safflower pure cropping was conducted at the densities of 6, 21 and 18 plants per [m.sup.2].The weeds of the field were manually controlled during the growing season growing season, period during which plant growth takes place. In temperate climates the growing season is limited by seasonal changes in temperature and is defined as the period between the last killing frost of spring and the first killing frost of autumn, at which . At the end of the growing season, the plants of the middle rows were utilized in order to calculate the yield and yield components. The two side-rows of every plot as well as 0.5m from the ends of the rows were presumed as the margins. RCCij (Relative Crowding Coefficient) and Aggresirity coefficient are being accounted of the most important competition indexes RCCij is due to below Formula 1 :
RCCij = Yij/Yii + Yji/Yjj Formula (1)
ii,Yjj respectrively stand for the yield of i, j sepecies of the pure cropping, while Yij, Yji stand for the yield of i, j species of the intercropping. If the article RCCij equalls 1, two component of mixture have same competitive capacities. If the article RCCij to be more than 1, speice of "i" is more superiority than speice of "j" and if the article RCCij to be less than 1, speice of "j" is more superiority than speice of "i". Aggresivity Coefficient is due to below Formula 2 :
Aij = Yij/Yii - Yji/Yjj Formula (2)
In this formula, if the Aij to be positive, the specie SPECIE. Metallic money issued by public authority.
2. This term is used in contradistinction to paper money, which in some countries is emitted by the government, and is a mere engagement which represents specie. "i" would be Aggressive and if the Aggressive to be negative, the specie "j" would be Aggressive and in zero condition, power of competition for two species would be evaluated alike.
In order to study the impact of various experimental treatments on deferent stages of potato s growth, the nothing the times of day from cropping to emergence (budding and emerging of 50 percent of plant), flowering (50 percent of plant) and crop ripening was carried out. In order the study of impact of treatments on various stages of safflower growth, the noting the time of day from stage of cropping to emergence, stem elongation elongation, in astronomy, the angular distance between two points in the sky as measured from a third point. The elongation of a planet is usually measured as the angular distance from the sun to the planet as measured from the earth. , receptacles appearance, flowering and crop ripening was the carried out Statistical analysis of the data was carried out by means of SAS (1) (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, www.sas.com) A software company that specializes in data warehousing and decision support software based on the SAS System. Founded in 1976, SAS is one of the world's largest privately held software companies. See SAS System. software while Excel 2007 was used to draw the figures.
Results and Discussion
The Treatment Variances Analysis Concerning the Phenology phe·nol·o·gy
1. The scientific study of periodic biological phenomena, such as flowering, breeding, and migration, in relation to climatic conditions.
2. Stages of Potato Pure Cropping and its Interrcropping with Safflower:
The result of analysis of variance treatments related to phenologhy in intercropping and pure potato plant showed that expect the emergeence stage, There is significant statistical defferences in other phenology stages include; flowering and crop ripening (Table1).
Mean Comparison of the Treatments Concerning the Phenology Stages of Potato Pure Cropping and Intercropping with Safflower:
It s seemed that potato plants in uni-crop come immediately flowering as a result of receiving more sunlight and increasing the randoman of attracting the sun during the day. Whereas shading which safflower plants shadow on potato plants during the growth stage in intercropping treatments, cause postponing the flowering. In agitation, with increasing safflower density with potato flowering was seen lately as a result closely and nearly to croped plants in intercropping and more shading (Table 2).
In potato and corn intercropping, shading whom long plants on potato plants during the growth stage to cause postponing the flowering and crop ripening . Also, in corn and potato intercropping, accelerating the emergence of plants, and flowering in potato plants, lots of photosynthetic pho·to·syn·the·sis
The process in green plants and certain other organisms by which carbohydrates are synthesized from carbon dioxide and water using light as an energy source. Most forms of photosynthesis release oxygen as a byproduct. production materials is devoting the expanding and growth the plants, growing organs and in conclusion, it cause lasting the growth stage . In another searching over potato plant, it is announced with increasing mixture component density; figures of produced stems per square meter Noun 1. square meter - a centare is 1/100th of an are
centare, square metre
area unit, square measure - a system of units used to measure areas would increase too and in conclusion, period of growing potato plants and postpone its flowering [6 and 12].
The Results of the Treatments Variance Analysis Concerning the Phenology Stages of Safflower Pure Cropping and its Intercropping with Potato:
The result of analysis of variance treatment of pure and intercropping safflower with potato showed that expect the emergeence stage, all of phenology stages have significant statistical defference include; stem elongetion, receptacleps appearance, flowering and crop ripening (Table 3). The investigation of the treatments concerning the yield and yield components of safflower, proved that the treatments of pure cropping produced more yield than those of the intercropping. Morever it was oberved that, in the intercropping, an increase in safflower density causes the decrease in seeds number per receptacle and in seed yield; however this causes an increase in receptacle number per plant and seed weight (Table3).
Mean Comparison of the Treatments Concerning the Phenology Stages of Safflower Pure Cropping and Intercropping with Potato:
The average of safflower plants phenology stages in various treatment showed that pure cropping treatments immediately expire rather than intercropping treatments in all growth stages include; emergeence, stem elongation, flowering and crop rippering. In pure crop treatments and intercropping safflower with potato, with increasing the safflower density, emergeence stage immediately was occured but stem elongationtog stage, receptacleps, flowering and crop rippering was lately occurred (Table 4).
In another investigation is announced that increase that increase the safflower crop density causing the continoues growth and posponing in flowering and crop rippering stages . Ehsanzade, et al  reported that whit increacing plant density, plant growth rate and light obsorption were increaced. Also emergence stage was shorten in high plant density. Other researchers reported that in high plant density, the period of steming stage was longer .
Evaluation of Competitive Index in Safflower and Potato Intercropping:
In order to evaluate the competitive indexes in intercropping, Relative Crowding Coefficient (RCCij) and aggressively index (Aij) are being used. Relative Crowding Coefficient (RCCij) in all treatments about potato is found more than one which it demonstrate the superiority of competitive potato than safflower. Also, to be smaller about safflower demonstrate the safflower s competitive weakness rather than potato. Aggressively index (Aij) about potato in all intercropping treatments found more than zero and about the safflower is found lee than zero.
This problem shows that there is a competition between two species of intercropping: potato and safflower and potato have been superiority competitionly rather than safflower. Therefore, one can say that when portion of each two plants will increase in mixture crop, that plants would be superior [16 and 17].
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(1) Gholamreza Rahimi Darabad, (2) Morteza Barmaki, (2) Raouf Seyed Sharifi, (3) Saeid Hokmalipour, (4) Shirin Asadi and (1) Mehdi Aghighi Shahverdi Kandi
(1) Student of Master Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran.
(2) Assistant Professor, Agriculture and Plant Breeding plant breeding, science of altering the genetic pattern of plants in order to increase their value. Increased crop yield is the primary aim of most plant-breeding programs; advantages of the hybrids and new varieties developed include adaptation to new agricultural Group, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran.
(3) Ardabil Branch, Young Researchers Club, Islamic Azad University, Ardabil, Iran.
(4) MS.c. Student of weed sciense of Mohaghegh Ardabili University Established in 1978 as "The Agricultural Institute" (آموزشکده کشاورزی) under the supervision of Tabriz University, it became independent in 1996 as a separate university. . Ardabil, Iran.
Mehdi Aghighi Shahverdi Kandi, Student of Master Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran.
Table 1: Analysis variance of phenology stages of potato. MS Emergence Crop s.o.v df stage Flowerig Tubering ripening Replication 2 0.21 ns 5.41 * 7.15 * 30.08 * Treatment 3 7.4 ns 10.1 ns 11.08 ns 101.16 ns Error 6 2.03 4.32 7.07 25.06 Cv (%) -- 6.2 8.61 6.52 10.2 Table 2: Mean comparison of potato traits in itercropping whit sofflower. Flowerig Tubering Crop ripening Treatment (Day) (Day) (Day) 1:0 26 d 28 d 124.33 d 1:1 29.66 c 31.33 c 130 c 1:2 32.03 b 34.33 b 128.33 b 1:3 34.18 a 38.66 a 138.33 a Note: 1:0 is potatoes pure cropping, 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 are intercropping of potato (6 plants [m.sup.2]) with 6, 12 and 18 plants [m.sup.2] safflower respectively * Numbers with the same letter, have no significant difference. Table 3: Analysis variance of phenology stages of safflower. MS Emergence Stem S.O.V df stage elongation Replication 2 2.05 ns 9.55 ** Potato density (PD) 1 10.88** 33.52** Safflower density (SD) 2 16.05** 20.02** PDxSD 2 0.22 ns 0.35 ns Error 10 18.58 20.22 Cv (%) -- 16.05 10.97 MS Emergence of Crop S.O.V receptacles Flowering ripening Replication 45.05** 6.72** 51.72** Potato density (PD) 16.72** 42.02** 28.38** Safflower density (SD) 43.55** 72** 76.05** PDxSD 1.72* 0.5 ns 1.73ns Error 8.32 14.72 23.18 Cv (%) 15.94 12.7 13 Table 4: Mean comparison of sofflower traits in pour and itercropping whit potato. Stem Emergence of elongation receptacles Flowerig Crop ripening Treatment (Day) (Day) (Day) (Day) 0:1 38.5 c 69.31 c 101.24 c 129 c 0:2 40.25 b 70.45 b 103.12 b 131 b 0:3 43.88 a 71.12 a 107.25 a 134 a :1 40.83 c 70.52 c 106.5 c 135 c 1:2 42. 54 b 72.62 b 109.3 b 137 b 1:3 45.18 a 75.82 a 111.8 a 139 a Note: 0:1, 0:2 and 0:3 are safflower pour cropping with 6, 12 and 18 plants per [m.sup.2] respectively. Note: 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 are intercropping of potato (6 plants per [m.sup.2]) whit 6, 12 and 18 safflowers per [m.sup.2] respectively. * Numbers with the same letter, have no significant difference. Table 5: Yield evaluations in intercropping of potato and safflower. Treatment RCCij Aij 1:1 1.72 c -0.35 c 1:1 1.48 a -0.19 a 1:3 1.32 b -0.11 b Note: 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 are intercropping of potato (6 plants [m.sup.2]) with 6, 12 and 18 plants [m.sup.2] safflower respectively. * Numbers with the same letter, have no significant difference.
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|Title Annotation:||Original Article|
|Author:||Darabad, Gholamreza Rahimi; Barmaki, Morteza; Sharifi, Raouf Seyed; Hokmalipour, Saeid; Asadi, Shiri|
|Publication:||Advances in Environmental Biology|
|Article Type:||Clinical report|
|Date:||Nov 1, 2011|
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