Structures sonores de l'humanisme en France: de Maurice Sceve.Pierre Bonniffet. Structures sonores de l'humanisme en France: de Maurice Sceve: Delie, object de plus haulte vertu (Lyon, 1544) a Claude Le Jeune Claude Le Jeune (1528 to 1530 – buried September 26, 1600) was a French composer of the late Renaissance. He was the primary representative of the musical movement known as musique mesurée , Second livre li·vre
1. See Table at currency.
2. A money of account formerly used in France and originally worth a pound of silver. des Meslanges (Paris, 1612).
Bibliotheque Litteraire de la Renaissance "La Renaissance" is the national anthem of the Central African Republic., adopted upon independence in 1960. The words were written by the then Prime Minister, Barthélémy Boganda. 57. Paris: Honore Champion Editeur, 2005. 712 pp. index. illus. gloss, bibl. [euro]133. ISBN ISBN
International Standard Book Number
ISBN International Standard Book Number
ISBN n abbr (= International Standard Book Number) → ISBN m : 2-7453-1143-3.
The importance of the relationship between music and poetry in the Renaissance has long been recognized, and there are a number of recent excellent studies on the subject (those by Edwin Duval, Cynthia Skenazi, and James Helgeson, for example). The relationship between music and the celestial spheres This article is about material celestial spheres from Antiquity to the Renaissance. For modern uses of the celestial sphere in astronomy and navigation, see Celestial sphere. is often referred to by poets of the Renaissance, and the influence of Ficino, who theorized that the effect that music produced upon the listener was the result of the similarity between the nature of music and human physiology, had a profound effect upon both poets and musicians.
In this massive tome (a doctoral thesis), Pierre Bonniffet, who is both a musicologist mu·si·col·o·gy
The historical and scientific study of music.
musi·co·log and a singer, undertakes an exhaustive study of the question from a Ficinian-inspired humanist perspective. Like all French doctoral theses, this one immediately impresses the reader with the vast amount of research its author has pursued on primary and secondary sources from the period and on critical studies from our own time. The bibliography even has a section listing colloquia col·lo·qui·a
A plural of colloquium. and Festschriften either devoted to the precise subject of poetry and music in the Renaissance or containing at least one paper or article on the subject.
In his introduction, Bonniffet takes issue with musicologists A musicologist is someone who studies musicology. An ethnomusicologist is someone who studies ethnomusicology; a zoomusicologist is someone who studies zoomusicology. , such as Gustave Reese, who see the music of Josquin des Pres as a watershed in the evolution of European music. According to Bonniffet such a division obtains only for sacred music, since secular music underwent a metamorphosis a generation after Josquin's death, under the influence of humanism. Bonniffet's study accordingly begins at the height of popularity of the chanson chanson
French art song. The unaccompanied chanson for a single voice part, composed by the troubadours and later the trouvères, first appeared in the 12th century. parisienne as practiced by Sermisy, Janequin, and Certon, and since he is interested in the relation between word and music, his study treats, logically enough, only vocal music.
Bonniffet does not agree with Duval's contention that the dizains of Sceve's Delie were intended to be sung, even though some of them were set to music. He contends that in Sceve's eyes the complex sound patterns of his long poem are not only the equivalent of music but are in fact superior to music. Accordingly, Bonniffet divides his study into two principal sections, the first dealing primarily with the Delie and entitled "The Poetic Sound Corpus: Music in Question" ("Le Corps sonore poetique: la musique en question"). He then embarks on a study of Sceve's text from a largely phonetic-stylistic perspective, which is not without interest, but which, in this reader's opinion, suffers from the attendant problems of such an approach, namely the danger of imposing subjective values onto sounds and sound patterns. He also sees in the Delie what he calls a spiral movement, defined as a "movement by which a poetic or vocal sound structure is developed concentrically in the evocation of a referent" ("le mouvement par lequel une structure sonore poetique ou vocale se developpe dé·vel·op·pé
A ballet movement in which one leg is raised to the knee of the supporting leg and fully extended.
[French, from past participle of développer, to develop; see develop.] de maniere concentrique dans l'evocation d'un referent," 642), not an easy concept to grasp or to apply, particularly in reference to a poetic text. Bonniffet then devotes an interesting chapter to the evocation of the lute lute, musical instrument that has a half-pear-shaped body, a fretted neck, and a variable number of strings, which are plucked with the fingers. The long lute, with its neck much longer than its body, seems to have been older than the short lute, existing very early in two dizains of Sceve (344 and 345) and contrasts them with Louise Labe's sonnet twelve ("Lut compagnon de ma calamite cal·a·mite
Any of various extinct, chiefly carboniferous trees of the genus Calamites, related to the modern-day herbaceous horsetails (Equisetum). "). Whereas for Sceve the lute takes second place to the power of the Lady's gaze and as a corollary the poetic text takes precedence over music, Labe's sonnet reveals her to be a musician for whom music is at least the equal of poetry and whose verse is meant to be sung.
In the second part of his study, Bonniffet demonstrates how the accent which Labe put on the musical component of poetry became more and more important as the century progressed. Ficino and his musical theories exerted a strong influence on musicians and poets alike, and the four elements which were believed to make up the universe and the four humors thought to form the human constitution are seen to correspond to the four parts of vocal music. This is why music was credited with genuine (not just metaphoric) curative powers, since the right musical balance would help restore a humoral hu·mor·al
1. Relating to body fluids, especially serum.
2. Relating to or arising from any of the bodily humors.
Pertaining to or derived from a body fluid. imbalance in the human body. In accordance with the importance of the number four in both cosmology and physiology, Bonniffet devotes the bulk of this section to an original, if not always convincing, examination of thirty-three songs (the scores of which are included) from the perspective of the four "fureurs" (furors) of Ficinian philosophy: the fureur poetique, the fureur dionysiaque and apolinienne, and the most elevated of all: la fureur d'amour.
This work is certainly worthy of the attention of any scholar working on the relationship between text and music in the French Renaissance. However, a caveat to literary scholars is in order: this study is difficult reading for those without a solid grounding in music theory, and its primary audience will be musicologists.
LANCE K. DONALDSON-EVANS
University of Pennsylvania (body, education) University of Pennsylvania - The home of ENIAC and Machiavelli.
Address: Philadelphia, PA, USA.