Staying normal in an abnormal corner of the world: mental health counseling in Israel.In the course of the last four years, Israeli citizens have repeatedly been exposed to terrorist attacks, and there are several other issues in Israel's current situation that highlight the need for intensive mental health counseling. The article focuses on Israeli school counselors and describes some of the problems they were obliged o·blige
v. o·bliged, o·blig·ing, o·blig·es
1. To constrain by physical, legal, social, or moral means.
2. to face in order to help schoolchildren schoolchildren school npl → écoliers mpl;
(at secondary school) → collégiens mpl; lycéens mpl
schoolchildren school , their families, or the entire school system stay normal in an abnormal situation. These issues include: death and mourning, social cohesion as a risk factor, immigrants' maladjustment maladjustment /mal·ad·just·ment/ (mal?ah-just´ment) in psychiatry, defective adaptation to the environment.
1. Faulty or inadequate adjustment.
2. , unemployment, intercultural in·ter·cul·tur·al
Of, relating to, involving, or representing different cultures: an intercultural marriage; intercultural exchange in the arts. conflicts, and spiritual debates. Implications for mental health counseling are offered.
People are amazed a·maze
v. a·mazed, a·maz·ing, a·maz·es
1. To affect with great wonder; astonish. See Synonyms at surprise.
2. Obsolete To bewilder; perplex.
v.intr. when they realize that the entire land area of the State of Israel is smaller than Yosemite Park and that the total number of its residents is smaller than the number of those living in the city of New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of . Their amazement stems from the gap between these numbers and the prominent presence of Israel in the world news, especially in the course of the last four years, since the outbreak of another cycle of bloody armed conflict between Israel and the Palestinians. Moreover, Israel's name is frequently mentioned in the context of several major recent developments in the world. The U.S. military operation in Iraq is one of these. Although Iraq is far away from Israel, before the U.S. troops' invasion of Iraq, Israel's citizens were trained how to use a gas mask gas mask, face covering or device used to protect the wearer from injurious gases and other noxious materials by filtering and purifying inhaled air. In addition to military use (see chemical warfare), gas masks are employed in mining, in industrial chemistry, and by in case of an Iraqi chemical attack on Israel. The reason for these preparations was the 1991 Gulf War, when U.S. troops invaded Iraq, and the Iraqis attacked Israel's civilian population in response. Although Israel had no part in that military operation, about 40 Iraqi Scud missiles hit some of its crowded urban civilian centers.
Some of Israel's unique characteristics (e.g., an immigrant society, in which Jews and Muslims coexist; being surrounded by hostile countries; compulsory military service for every Jewish male and female adolescent; very meager mea·ger also mea·gre
1. Deficient in quantity, fullness, or extent; scanty.
2. Deficient in richness, fertility, or vigor; feeble: the meager soil of an eroded plain.
3. natural resources; and an extremely condensed con·dense
v. con·densed, con·dens·ing, con·dens·es
1. To reduce the volume or compass of.
2. To make more concise; abridge or shorten.
a. geographical area) and their implications for counseling school and university students have been described (Israelashvili, 1993, 1996). The current article focuses on issues related to mental health counseling that Israeli school counselors had to address in the course of the last four years, since the outbreak of the most recent Israeli-Palestinian armed conflict in September 2000, known as the Al Aqsa Intifada.
According to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. the Board of Directors of the American Mental Health Counselors A mental health counselor is a professional who provides counseling to individuals, couples, families, groups, or larger systems. A mental health counselor may also have training in educational and vocational counseling (MacCluskie & Ingersoll 2001). Association (cited in Palmo, 1996), mental health counseling deals with the provision of professional counseling services for the purposes of prevention of mental and emotional disorders emotional disorder
An emotional illness.
emotional disorder Emotional disability Psychiatry Behavior, emotional, and/or social impairment exhibited by a child or adolescent that consequently disrupts the child's or and promotion of optimal mental health. In Israel, mental health counseling is not a certified profession. Nevertheless, most Israeli school counselors have recently faced the challenge of providing mental health counseling to prevent illness and dysfunctional behavior. This is due to the stream of events and threats that many Israeli school children have recently been intensively exposed to as described below.
A NEED FOR MENTAL HEALTH COUNSELING IN ISRAELI SCHOOLS
A differential approach is needed when working with children of various ages. Regardless of age, exposure to certain types of events poses a threat to anyone s mental health. Recently, many Israeli school children have been intensively exposed to one kind of extremely threatening event, namely terrorist attacks.
Since the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948, and even before, its residents have often been exposed to terrorism. But the incidence of such attacks increased dramatically following the 1973 Yom Kippur War Yom Kippur War: see Arab-Israeli Wars. , following the failure of a coordinated attempt of Arab nations to defeat Israel. Another sharp increase in terrorist attacks against Israeli citizens started in 1993, following the Israeli-Palestinian agreement also called the Oslo accords
The Oslo Accords, officially called the Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government Arrangements or Declaration of Principles (DOP ; this increased terrorist activity has not abated Abated, an ancient technical term applied in masonry and metal work to those portions which are sunk beneath the surface, as in inscriptions where the ground is sunk round the letters so as to leave the letters or ornament in relief.
From 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica . Four features characterize the last wave of attacks: (a) Attacks are frequently conducted by a suicide bomber Noun 1. suicide bomber - a terrorist who blows himself up in order to kill or injure other people
act of terrorism, terrorism, terrorist act - the calculated use of violence (or the threat of violence) against civilians in order to attain goals that are political , who explodes him or herself within a crowd of Israelis; (b) No Israeli is really safe against such a suicidal bomber because attacks have been conducted almost everywhere in Israel, not only along the borders or against the settlements within the contested occupied territories This article is about occupied territory in general: for more specific discussion of the territories captured by Israel in the Six-Day War, see Israeli-occupied territories.
Occupied territories , killing and wounding people of all ages, especially Jews but also some Israeli Muslims and Christians; (c) Usually, the Israeli army (IDF (Intermediate Distribution Frame) A wiring rack located between the MDF (main distribution frame) and the intended end user devices (telephones, routers, PCs, etc.). Cables run from the outside world to the MDF and then to the IDFs. See MDF and wiring rack. ) conducts reprisals REPRISALS, war. The forcibly taking a thing by one nation which belonged to another, in return or satisfaction for a injury committed by the latter on the former. Vatt. B., 2, ch. 18, s. 342; 1 Bl. Com. ch. 7.
2. on the terrorist organization that claims responsibility for the attack; and in addition (d) In an effort to prevent future attacks, the IDF conducts various military operations This is a list of missions, operations, and projects. Missions in support of other missions are not listed independently. World War I
''See also List of military engagements of World War I
See also Murder.
Fanatical Moslem sect that smoked hashish and murdered Crusaders (11th—12th centuries). [Islamic Hist.: Brewer Note-Book, 52]
conspirator and assassin of Julius Caesar. [Br. of terrorist leaders. In both cases, of reprisals and assassinations, innocent Palestinian civilians may be wounded or killed. Thus, terrorist attacks cause damage not only to Israeli civilians but also to Palestinian civilians as well. Moreover, damage caused by terrorist attacks is not limited to those who have been in the area where the attack occurred. Rather, the media instantly brings any event to the houses of all. Israeli media The following is a list of Israeli media. Print media
tr.v. pro·tract·ed, pro·tract·ing, pro·tracts
1. To draw out or lengthen in time; prolong: disputants who needlessly protracted the negotiations.
2. than it used to be.
Generally speaking, research has indicated that exposure to a terrorist attack is frightening but does not always lead to major mental health problems. Several indicators show that the Israeli population is resilient and adjusts well to war-related emergencies (Bleich, Gelkopf, & Solomon, 2003). Nevertheless, in such circumstances of protracted threat and violence, school systems are expected to continue functioning in spite of the stress, and to offer mental health services health services Managed care The benefits covered under a health contract to the children and through them to their families (Milgram, 1993). School counselors, who usually focus on the promotion of students' wellness, are in charge of these services (Noam & Hermann, 2002; Shen Shen, in the Bible, place, perhaps close to Bethel, near which Samuel set up the stone Ebenezer. & Sink, 2002). The mental health issues that Israeli school counselors are obliged to deal with include mourning, social cohesion issues, effects of unemployment, inter-cultural conflicts, and spiritual debates
Approximately 1,000 Israeli citizens have been killed in terrorist attacks since the 1993 Oslo agreement (IDF Spokesman, 2004). Unfortunately, school-aged children were killed, others lost their parents or relatives, and for some it was "that nice neighbor from next door." In addition, thousands of others who were exposed to these attacks were damaged, physically or psychologically. In the case of a terrorist attack, an estimated 10% to 20% of school students might be in need of help (Chen, Chung, Chen, Fang, & Chen, 2003; Israelashvili, 1999). It is plausible to assume that the rate of Palestinian school children that are in need of help following a violent attack is similar. Unfortunately, in the West Bank and Gaza there are neither data about the scope of the need for mental health services among schoolchildren nor a significant amount of counselors or psychologists who work within the school settings. Several students found support and comfort within their families and social networks. Yet, many are in need of professional support in order to adjust (i.e., internalize internalize
To send a customer order from a brokerage firm to the firm's own specialist or market maker. Internalizing an order allows a broker to share in the profit (spread between the bid and ask) of executing the order. the loss of their beloved and face the future). Hence, many counselors found themselves confronted with the need to conduct an intervention that discussed issues of death and mourning.
On one occasion, an Israeli school counselor was asked to talk with one of the children in her charge whose mother was murdered by a terrorist. While talking to Noun 1. talking to - a lengthy rebuke; "a good lecture was my father's idea of discipline"; "the teacher gave him a talking to"
rebuke, reprehension, reprimand, reproof, reproval - an act or expression of criticism and censure; "he had to this 10-year-old, the counselor uncovered a family secret about the father, who had been seriously injured in a previous terrorist attack several months ago, and, unlike what everybody thought, was still unable to manage his life independently. In an attempt to debrief de·brief
tr.v. de·briefed, de·brief·ing, de·briefs
1. To question to obtain knowledge or intelligence gathered especially on a military mission.
2. the child, the counselor asked him to draw a picture of his feelings. The pictures, made in red and black colors, represented a child who wished to join his mother, who "left him by himself to help the father recover." It was evident that the child felt completely lost in his new situation. The counselor was afraid that the child might do something suicidal to join his mother. To prevent this, the counselor thought of three possible channels of help-giving: counseling the child himself, counseling the father on how to support his child, and consulting with the child's class teacher on ways to follow and support the child inside and outside the class. Clearly what was needed was a comprehensive effort, on all these channels, so as to minimize the risk. The only problem was the counselor's commitment to the other 200 schoolchildren, for whose various normal-developmental problems she was supposed to be catering.
Hence, for some school counselors, the problem also becomes a quantitative one: How to give the most appropriate attention to a child at urgent risk, while so many others also require support? This dilemma especially emerges among counselors working in areas suffering from repeated terrorist attacks, such as the city of Jerusalem. Below are some examples of the problems that Israeli school counselors have encountered in the last few years in pursuit of their schoolchildren's mental health.
HANDLING MATTERS OF SOCIAL COHESION
Beyond the person who had been directly hurt by a terrorist attack, there are other people who are less directly involved but nevertheless are affected by the same event. One example is peers' response to the death of one of their classmate's relatives. The following example is only one out of many cases.
M., a ninth grader, was a leading figure in her class. She was loved and admired by many for her vividness and positive character. M's mother was murdered by a terrorist while she was driving on the highway from her work back home. This event came as a great shock to the school, but especially to her classmates Classmates can refer to either:
Furthermore, M. was wondering how she should respond to her father's new expectations of her as the one who would be in charge of their daily living. One of M's major concerns was that she felt badly about the fact that "the whole school" was aware of her sorrow. In spite of many people's efforts to prevent it, several months later, M. made up her mind to leave for a residential school, far away from home and her previous school. The whole class felt that it was their fault, having been unable to help her overcome the tragedy and readjust re·ad·just
tr.v. re·ad·just·ed, re·ad·just·ing, re·ad·justs
To adjust or arrange again.
re to the new circumstances.
Following M.'s mother's assassination, the academic achievements of the entire class dropped significantly. However, from the resilience and mental health point of view, the major problem was that the ultimate cohesion of this class, usually considered as a protective factor, came to be at risk. The school counselor's main task was to conduct a group intervention that would foster social cohesion by supporting students' differentiation between their own well-being and their loyalty and care to M.
Although not of the same importance as other aspects of M's situation, another source of strain for M and her remaining family members was the major economic problem that they all had to face due to the passing away of one of the family providers. This is not unique to M's case; indirectly, Israel's security problems brought about widespread economic hardship and unemployment to many individuals and families who, in response, look for mental health counseling.
The Israeli-Palestinian armed conflict has a major impact on the economic situation, both in Israel and the Palestinian Authority Palestinian Authority (PA) or Palestinian National Authority, interim self-government body responsible for areas of the West Bank and Gaza Strip under Palestinian control. . For example, tourism, known to be one of Israel's major financial resources, has almost totally stopped. In addition, in order to prevent terrorist attacks, Palestinian workers have not been allowed to work within most of Israel. Unfortunately, these conflict-related problems were compounded by the crisis on the international technology market that had major negative financial impact on hi-tech companies around the world. The Israel economy is profoundly implicated im·pli·cate
tr.v. im·pli·cat·ed, im·pli·cat·ing, im·pli·cates
1. To involve or connect intimately or incriminatingly: evidence that implicates others in the plot.
2. in the world's hi-tech activity and has, as a consequence, suffered from another drastic reduction in its financial status. For many adults, the hi-tech crisis and the resulting unemployment brought great psychological strain; for many adolescents, it spelled the end of long-term vocational plans, while, more immediately, it constituted a source of conflict between them and their unemployed or financially strained parents.
Occupationally, counselors sometimes find themselves addressing mental health issues that emerge in the course of a discussion on vocational issues (Pace & Quinn, 2000), such as a complaint about the lack of meaning and goals in life. School counselors, similarly, have had to address schoolchildren's problem behavior initiated by parents' unemployment. One of the questions that an unemployed person (and his or her children) may ask oneself would be--why not immigrate im·mi·grate
v. im·mi·grat·ed, im·mi·grat·ing, im·mi·grates
To enter and settle in a country or region to which one is not native. See Usage Note at migrate.
v.tr. to another state? What actually attaches me to this society? These questions become crucial once the person realizes that there are not any clear-cut answers to them.
Several factors shape the intercultural make-up of Israeli society. One of them is the mix of religions--Jews, Christians, Muslims, and Druze; within each of them, there are people with various levels of religious practice (i.e., ultra-orthodox, orthodox, and secular). Add to this the many cultural differences between Jews who immigrated to Israel from European or American countries List of American countries
Any member of the Turkic-speaking peoples who today live mainly in west-central Russia east to the Ural Mountains, in Kazakhstan, and in western Siberia. They first appeared as nomadic tribes in northeastern Mongolia in the 5th century. & Horenczyk, 2003). According to Tatar and Horenczyk, Arab counselors conceptualize con·cep·tu·al·ize
v. con·cep·tu·al·ized, con·cep·tu·al·iz·ing, con·cep·tu·al·iz·es
To form a concept or concepts of, and especially to interpret in a conceptual way: the conflict as a minority struggle to attain equality, while the Israeli Jewish counselors perceive the conflict in terms of the survival struggle of Jews in the face of a threatening Arab world “Arab States” redirects here. For the political alliance, see Arab League.
The Arab World (Arabic: العالم العربي; Transliteration: al-`alam al-`arabi) stretches from the Atlantic Ocean in the .
Occasionally, differences in opinions held by members of various segments of Israeli society (e.g., Jews vs. Muslims; new immigrants from the former USSR USSR: see Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. vs. new immigrants from Ethiopia; ultra-orthodox Jews and Muslims vs. secular Jews and Muslims, respectively; and others) might lead to acts of mutual aggression. Hence, many school counselors are called on to conduct conflict resolution workshops, in an attempt to reduce violence and antisocial antisocial /an·ti·so·cial/ (-so´sh'l)
1. denoting behavior that violates the rights of others, societal mores, or the law.
2. denoting the specific personality traits seen in antisocial personality disorder. behavior. In those inter-cultural conflicts where debates may spill into physical or verbal expressions of aggression, school counselors are obliged to ignore their own political and social views and help schoolchildren overcome the traumatic event A traumatic event is an event that is or may be a cause of trauma. The term may refer to one of the followiong:
Because of being unable to ignore the terrifying ter·ri·fy
tr.v. ter·ri·fied, ter·ri·fy·ing, ter·ri·fies
1. To fill with terror; make deeply afraid. See Synonyms at frighten.
2. To menace or threaten; intimidate. pictures on television and almost everywhere else in their surroundings, Israeli and Palestinian adolescents face major spiritual questions: "What is good?" "Who is good?" "Is there anyone who is 'good' in this situation?" "What is right?" "Where is God in such horrible occasions?" "Who am I?" These are only a few of the many questions every person, especially an adolescent, will start asking her or himself when living under the conflict conditions that characterize the Middle East. Adults' answers to such questions may often seem unsatisfactory to adolescents. Moreover, adolescents may well realize that most Israeli adults are using denial as a way of survival. According to Terror Management Theory Terror management theory (TMT) is a developing area of study within the academic study of psychology.Empirical support for TMT has originated from more than 175 published experiments which have been conducted cross-culturally both nationally and internationally. (Solomon, 2004). (TMT TMT 1 Tarsometatarsal 2 Thermomechanical treatment 3 Treatment, see there ) (Greenberg, Arndt, Simon, Pyszczynski, & Solomon, 2000), encounter with mortality salience sa·li·ence also sa·li·en·cy
n. pl. sa·li·en·ces also sa·li·en·cies
1. The quality or condition of being salient.
2. A pronounced feature or part; a highlight.
Noun 1. while being unable to use avoidant mechanisms in order to escape from the emotional terror feeling that is adjunct to exposure to death, will lead to greater identification with the norms of the surrounding people. Practically speaking, most schoolchildren will tend to deny the questions mentioned above and they will try to follow their Israeli Jewish, Israeli Arab, or Palestinian class-mates. Nonetheless, sooner or later, some of them will turn to the counselor, asking for help in finding better answers (Jones & Kafetsios, 2002). Can the school counselor really help in finding the answers?
The continuation of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict
IMPLICATIONS FOR MENTAL HEALTH COUNSELING
Many people would agree that the Middle East is only part of the global scene. Since September 11, 2001, many nations around the world are intensively occupied with efforts to protect themselves from terrorism (Jordan, 2002; Post, 2002). Citizens of these nations are now bothered by daily hassles (e.g., airport security) with which Israelis have been familiar for several years. Thus, most of the problems listed here seem to have become international, rather than being more specifically related to the Israeli experience. To the extent this is the case, some lessons from the Israeli experience might be useful to mental health
counselors worldwide, which are described below.
Support for terror victims as is consistent with the essence of the mental health counseling identity. A terrorist attack, defined as an act of violence against innocent people, is inhumane in·hu·mane
Lacking pity or compassion.
inhu·manely adv. behavior. Hence, exposure to such an attack will naturally be shocking and may lead to extreme responses. Some of these extreme responses are listed in DSM- IV (American Psychiatric Association The American Psychiatric Association (APA) is the main professional organization of psychiatrists and trainee psychiatrists in the United States, and the most influential world-wide. Its some 148,000 members are mainly American but some are international. , 2000), like social discomfort, lack of close friends (i.e., avoidant personality disorder avoidant personality disorder Psychology A pervasive pattern of social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy, and hypersensitivity to negative evaluation, which begins by early adulthood, and is present in various contexts
Using proactive interventions. In light of the evident need for counseling following a terrorist attack, another general conclusion that can be drawn from the Israeli experience is that mental health counselors' interventions should be proactive in addition to being reactive. Thus, preventive mental health interventions health intervention Health care An activity undertaken to prevent, improve, or stabilize a medical condition should be initiated, especially at the community level (Granot, 1995), whenever the probability of a large-scale threat increases. In order to do this kind of intervention, mental health services should be established within each community and each school, and preliminary guidance on how and when to intervene should be offered to the relevant staff. This recommendation fits the growing awareness of the need to develop more school-based mental health counseling centers (Bugai & Manning, 2002; Hall & Torres, 2002; Vanderbleek, 2004).
Preferring comprehensive intervention. Following direct or indirect exposure to a traumatic event, counselors' interventions are needed simultaneously at the individual, group, and organizational levels. Many schoolchildren and their teachers are in need of either crisis or post-crisis intervention. The existence of such a need is not always obvious to other adults, such as the school principal or the students' parents. Sometimes adults are not even aware of the school-based support services support services Psychology Non-health care-related ancillary services–eg, transportation, financial aid, support groups, homemaker services, respite services, and other services (Kirkley & Medway, 2003). Once a school counselor is willing and is able to conduct a preventive intervention to minimize mental health problems following an exposure to a traumatic event, this should be done in a comprehensive way (i.e., intervention directed at the school principal and his or her managing team, the school teachers, parents, community representatives and, of course, the children themselves). It should be noted that many of the activities needed in these cases are not unique to terror attacks. Rather, they are very similar to counseling interventions required whenever a school counselor has to intervene in times of a sudden death in schools (Page & Chandler, 1994; Thompson, 1995). However, the problem that the counselor might face in times of a terrorist attack is the work load that stems from the need to intervene among different populations, using different techniques, within a very short period of time. More details about the "how" and "when" of these interventions, drawing on experience in the Israeli school system can be found in Klingman (2002).
Helping the helpers. Members of the school support team (i.e., educational counselor, educational psychologist, teachers of special education, school nurse, and school religious authority if the student is in a religious school) must coordinate their activities in advance and have their own opportunities for guidance, debriefing de·brief·ing
1. The act or process of debriefing or of being debriefed.
2. The information imparted during the process of being debriefed.
Noun 1. and mutual support (Seri, Mallach, Lisha, & Libman, 2001). For many school counselors, family support is not enough, as the stories and problems are tough and stress evoking by themselves. The major solution that counselors found was to establish their own professional support group, sometimes on a daily basis, in which discussion of any issue was legitimate. This model of collegial col·le·gi·al
a. Characterized by or having power and authority vested equally among colleagues: "He . . . support group, rather than reliance on the natural support group, was offered to teams of school teachers, usually under the guidance of the school counselor.
Advocating the power of counseling. Finally, a belief in the power of counseling should be advocated. A detailed analysis of 10 terrorist attacks taking place in Israel in the course of 1974 to 1975 led Ayalon (1983) to conclude that a lot can and should be done in order to prevent mental health problems among victims of terrorist attacks. There has been much supportive evidence to this effect in the intervening years. Moreover, it was often the school counselor, functioning as a mental health counselor, while incorporating knowledge of normal and developmental issues, who made the difference in helping people survive such abnormal circumstances. By doing so, Israeli counselors, who live and work in this abnormal corner of the world, foster the notion that in the future there will be much more demand for professionals conducting mental health counseling.
Ayalon, O. (1983). Coping with terrorism: The Israeli case. In D. Meichenbaum & M. E. Jaremco (Eds.), Stress reduction and prevention (pp. 293-340). New York: Plenum.
American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders--IV. Washington: American Psychiatric Association.
Bleich, A., Gelkopf, M.., & Solomon, Z. (2003). Exposure to terrorism, stress-related mental health symptoms, and coping behaviors among a nationally representative sample in Israel. JAMA JAMA
Journal of the American Medical Association : Journal of the American Medical Association JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association is an international peer-reviewed general medical journal, published 48 times per year by the American Medical Association. JAMA is the most widely circulated medical journal in the world. , 290, 612-620.
Bugaj, S. J., & Manning, R. L. (2002). Suggestions for improving the delivery of therapeutic staff support in the public schools. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 24, 88-93.
Chen, H., Chung, H., Chen, T., Fang, L., & Chen, J. P. (2003). The emotional distress emotional distress n. an increasingly popular basis for a claim of damages in lawsuits for injury due to the negligence or intentional acts of another. Originally damages for emotional distress were only awardable in conjunction with damages for actual physical harm. in a community after the terrorist attack on the World Trade Center. Community Mental Health Journal, 39, 157-165.
Ellis, A. (1992). First order and second order change in Rational-Emotive Therapy: A reply to Lyddon (1990). Journal of Counseling and Development, 70, 449-451.
Fong, M. (1990). Mental health counseling: The essence of professional counseling. Counselor Education and Supervision, 30, 106-113.
Granot, H. (1995). Israeli emergency social and mental health services in the Gulf War: Observations and experiences of a mental health professional. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 17, 336-346.
Greenberg, J., Arndt, J., Simon, L., Pyszczynski, T., & Solomon, S. (2000). Proximal and distal defenses in response to reminders of one's mortality: Evidence of a temporal sequence. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin is a scientific journal published by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology (SPSP). It publishes original empirical papers on subjects like social cognition, attitudes, group processes, social influence, intergroup relations, , 26, 91-99.
Hall, A. S., & Torres, I. (2002). Partnerships in preventing adolescent stress: Increasing self-esteem, coping, and support through effective counseling. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 24, 97-109.
I.D.F. Spokesman announcement (2004). Retrieved November 26, 2004, from http://www1.idf.il/SIP_STORAGE/DOVER/files/7/21827.doc
Israelashvili, M. (1993). High density: School counseling in Israel. International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling, 16, 189-194.
Israelashvili, M. (1996). Students' counseling in Israeli universities. International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling, 19, 55-63.
Israelashvili, M. (1999). Adolescents' help-seeking behavior in times of community crisis. International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling. 21, 87-96.
Jones, L., & Kafetsios, K. (2002). Assessing adolescent mental health in war-affected societies: The significance of symptoms. Child Abuse and Neglect, 26, 1059-1080.
Jordan, K. (2002). Providing crisis counseling to New Yorkers after the terrorist attack on the World Trade Center. Family Journal Counseling and Therapy for Couples and Families, 10, 139-144.
Kirkley, K. O., & Medway, F. J. (2003). Promoting children's resilience and coping following September 11, 2001: An e-mail analysis. School Psychology International, 24, 166-181.
Klingman, A. (2002). Children under stress of war. In A. M. La Greca, W. K. Silverman, E. M. Vernberg and M. C. Roberts (Eds.), Helping children cope with disasters and terrorism (pp. 359-380). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association The American Psychological Association (APA) is a professional organization representing psychology in the US. Description and history
The association has around 150,000 members and an annual budget of around $70m. .
Mate, R. L., & Kelly, K. R. (1997). Research publication in the Journal of Mental Health Counseling as an indicator of professional identity development. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 19, 286-294.
Milgram, N (1993). War related stress in Israeli children and youth. In L. Goldberger & S. Brenitz (Eds.), Handbook of stress: Theoretical and clinical aspects (pp. 656-676). New York: The Free Press.
Noam, G. G., & Hermann, C. A. (2002). Where education and mental health meet: Developmental prevention and early intervention ear·ly intervention
n. Abbr. EI
A process of assessment and therapy provided to children, especially those younger than age 6, to facilitate normal cognitive and emotional development and to prevent developmental disability or delay. in schools. Development & Psychopathology psychopathology /psy·cho·pa·thol·o·gy/ (-pah-thol´ah-je)
1. the branch of medicine dealing with the causes and processes of mental disorders.
2. abnormal, maladaptive behavior or mental activity. , 14, 861-875.
Pace, D., & Quinn, L. (2000). Empirical support of the overlap between career and mental health counseling of university students. Journal of College Student Psychotherapy, 14, 41-50.
Page, R. C., & Chandler, J. (1994). Effects of group counseling on ninth-grade at-risk students The term at-risk students is used to describe students who are "at risk" of failing academically, for one or more of any several reasons. The term can be used to describe a wide variety of students, including,
Palmo, A. J. (1996). Professional identity of the mental health counselor. In W. J. Weikel & A. J. Palmo (Eds.). Foundations of mental health counseling (2nd ed.; pp. 51-69). Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas Publisher.
Post, J. M. (2002). Differentiating the threat of chemical and biological terrorism Noun 1. biological terrorism - terrorism using the weapons of biological warfare
act of terrorism, terrorism, terrorist act - the calculated use of violence (or the threat of violence) against civilians in order to attain goals that are : Motivations and constraints. Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology, 8, 187-200.
Seri, N. Mallach, S., Lisha, E., & Libman, R. (2001). A preventive counseling intervention in times of emergence in the Gus Katif elementary school elementary school: see school. . The School Counseling, 10, 204-216. (Hebrew).
Shen, Y. J., & Sink, C. A. (2002). Helping elementary-age children cope with disasters. Professional School Counseling, 5, 322-330.
Tatar, M., & Horenczyk, G. (2003). Dilemmas and strategies in the counseling of Jewish and Palestinian Arab children in Israeli schools. British Journal of Guidance and Counseling guidance and counseling, concept that institutions, especially schools, should promote the efficient and happy lives of individuals by helping them adjust to social realities. , 31, 375-391.
Thompson, R. A. (1995). Being prepared for suicide or sudden death in schools: Strategies to restore equilibrium. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 17, 264-277.
Vanderbleek, L. M. (2004). Engaging families in school-based mental health treatment. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 26, 211-224.
Moshe Israelashvili, Ph.D., is with the School of Education, Tel Aviv University Tel Aviv University (TAU, אוניברסיטת תל־אביב, את"א) is Israel's largest on-site university. , Tel Aviv Tel Aviv (tĕl əvēv`), city (1994 pop. 355,200), W central Israel, on the Mediterranean Sea. Oficially named Tel Aviv–Jaffa, it is Israel's commercial, financial, communications, and cultural center and the core of its largest , Israel E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org