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Speech and language assessment: a verbal behavior analysis.



Introduction

As practitioners concerned with treating speech-language disorders, one of our primary goals is to accurately and efficiently determine which communication skills should be targeted for intervention. How do we know when something needs to be taught? What defines a skill deficit or a communication breakdown ? In everyday terms, a speech-language problem is signaled when a breakdown occurs in the interaction between a speaker and a listener. That is, we say that communication is successful when the outcome of an interaction is effective (i.e., functional), but when the interaction is weak and ineffective, we suspect a deficit in the repertoire of one of the communication partners. Thus, the critical aspect that defines communicative competence Communicative competence is a linguistic term which refers to a learner's L2 ability. It not only refers to a learner's ability to apply and use grammatical rules, but also to form correct utterances, and know how to use these utterances appropriately.  lies in the success of the dyad dyad /dy·ad/ (di´ad) a double chromosome resulting from the halving of a tetrad.

dy·ad
n.
1. Two individuals or units regarded as a pair, such as a mother and a daughter.

2.
, a dynamic process comprised of functional units of discourse between a speaker and a listener, even when these roles are assumed within a single individual (e.g., Lodhi & Greer, 1989; Palmer, 1998; Skinner Skin·ner , B(urrhus) F(rederick) 1904-1990.

American psychologist. A leading behaviorist, Skinner influenced the fields of psychology and education with his theories of stimulus-response behavior.
, 1957).

Despite the fundamentally social nature of communication, assessment tools for speech-language deficits rarely take into account this requisite speaker-listener unit, nor is it routine to test for, describe, or analyze specific breakdowns in this unit. Most speech-language assessments in widespread use today evaluate response topographies (forms of responses) alone, without regard for a functional analysis of the causal variables that lead to the specific topographic topographic

describing or pertaining to special regions.
 features of responses. Indeed, much assessment time and energy is expended ex·pend  
tr.v. ex·pend·ed, ex·pend·ing, ex·pends
1. To lay out; spend: expending tax revenues on government operations. See Synonyms at spend.

2.
 in classifying speech-language performance, not by its role within a unit of functional communication between a speaker and a listener (i.e., cause and effect), but instead only by its arbitrarily-labeled categories describing non-function based properties such as word structure (e.g., nouns, verbs, plurals), modality modality /mo·dal·i·ty/ (mo-dal´i-te)
1. a method of application of, or the employment of, any therapeutic agent, especially a physical agent.

2.
 (expressive, receptive receptive /re·cep·tive/ (re-cep´tiv) capable of receiving or of responding to a stimulus. ), relationship (e.g., antonyms/synonyms, agreement), or other inferred characteristics (e.g., ellipsis A three-dot symbol used to show an incomplete statement. Ellipses are used in on-screen menus to convey that there is more to come. , nomination, phonological pho·nol·o·gy  
n. pl. pho·nol·o·gies
1. The study of speech sounds in language or a language with reference to their distribution and patterning and to tacit rules governing pronunciation.

2.
 process). This focus is illustrated by ASHA's (1993) definition of language disorder language disorder Speech pathology Any defect in verbal communication and the ability to use or understand the symbol system for interpersonal communication. See Dyslexia.  as an impairment Impairment

1. A reduction in a company's stated capital.

2. The total capital that is less than the par value of the company's capital stock.

Notes:
1. This is usually reduced because of poorly estimated losses or gains.

2.
 in "comprehension and/or use of spoken, written, and/or other symbol systems. The disorder may involve (1) the form of language (phonology phonology, study of the sound systems of languages. It is distinguished from phonetics, which is the study of the production, perception, and physical properties of speech sounds; phonology attempts to account for how they are combined, organized, and convey meaning , morphology morphology

In biology, the study of the size, shape, and structure of organisms in relation to some principle or generalization. Whereas anatomy describes the structure of organisms, morphology explains the shapes and arrangement of parts of organisms in terms of such
, and syntax syntax: see grammar.
syntax

Arrangement of words in sentences, clauses, and phrases, and the study of the formation of sentences and the relationship of their component parts.
), (2) the content of language (semantics semantics [Gr.,=significant] in general, the study of the relationship between words and meanings. The empirical study of word meanings and sentence meanings in existing languages is a branch of linguistics; the abstract study of meaning in relation to language or ), and/or (3) the function of language in communication (pragmatics pragmatics

In linguistics and philosophy, the study of the use of natural language in communication; more generally, the study of the relations between languages and their users.
) in any combination." Although function is an element of this definition, this usage of the term refers to a linguistic feature of language (pragmatics) in contrast to Skinner's analysis of function in which environmental variables describe (and thus, define) the contingent relation that accounts for each particular instance of an utterance ut·ter·ance 1  
n.
1.
a. The act of uttering; vocal expression.

b. The power of speaking; speech: as long as I have utterance.

c.
 (i.e., language). As such, linguistic descriptions are less adequate for applied work (i.e., treatments) than is Skinner's model, which specifies the variables that evoke e·voke  
tr.v. e·voked, e·vok·ing, e·vokes
1. To summon or call forth: actions that evoked our mistrust.

2.
 and strengthen verbal behavior.

To be sure, a thorough topographic description of an individual's speech-language repertoire may be a necessary component to plan an appropriate therapy program, but it is insufficient to accomplish the task because a key element of the evaluation is missing. Our job during assessment is to document not merely occurrences of wrong responses to assessment items, but also the speaker-listener environment (antecedent ANTECEDENT. Something that goes before. In the construction of laws, agreements, and the like, reference is always to be made to the last antecedent; ad proximun antecedens fiat relatio.  and consequent con·se·quent  
adj.
1.
a. Following as a natural effect, result, or conclusion: tried to prevent an oil spill and the consequent damage to wildlife.

b.
 variables) in which the topography topography (təpŏg`rəfē), description or representation of the features and configuration of land surfaces. Topographic maps use symbols and coloring, with particular attention given to the shape and elevations of terrain.  occurs. If a functional analysis of the speaker-listener exchange is omitted from the assessment, a critical part of language learning is at risk of being excluded from an effective intervention plan (Damico, 1993; Frost & Bondy, 2006; LaRue, Weiss, & Cable, 2008; Rowland & Schweigert, 1993; Spradlin & Siegel, 1982; Sundberg, 2008).

Meaning defined by environmental context. The meaning of verbal behaviors is a function of their controlling variables (Hegde, 2008; Skinner, 1957). Speakers and listeners do not "make mistakes," "use the wrong word," or "fail to generalize generalize /gen·er·al·ize/ (-iz)
1. to spread throughout the body, as when local disease becomes systemic.

2. to form a general principle; to reason inductively.
" in the ordinary sense. A response does not occur in a vacuum, without its controlling variables or variable (Austin, 1975; Bates Bates   , Katherine Lee 1859-1929.

American educator and writer best known for her poem "America the Beautiful," written in 1893 and revised in 1904 and 1911.
, 1976; Catania, 2006; Schlinger, 1995; Searle, 1969) and attempting to catalog catalog, descriptive list, on cards or in a book, of the contents of a library. Assurbanipal's library at Nineveh was cataloged on shelves of slate. The first known subject catalog was compiled by Callimachus at the Alexandrian Library in the 3d cent. B.C.  responses without this information prevents our understanding of what a particular response "means." It is the analysis of a response form within a context defined by antecedent and consequent variables that allows us to determine whether the response is correct or not. For example, the cause-effect context in which a thirsty thirst·y  
adj. thirst·i·er, thirst·i·est
1. Desiring to drink.

2. Arid; parched: thirsty fields.

3. Craving something: thirsty for news.
 person asks for water please is different than that in which he or she is not thirsty but nevertheless emits water in responding to a teacher's instructions to repeat after me: "water." The point is the same regardless of topographies; saying water in New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of
 or agua in Costa Rica or Wasser in Germany does not "mean" the same thing when one wants water as it does when one is responding to say "water" or repita "agua" or bitte wiederhole "Wasser."

Topography is interesting only in terms of the functional context in which it occurs. The point applies whether considering a single topography (e.g., water, agua, Wasser) or equivalent forms (synonyms). Whether assessing or treating speech-language skills, a knowledgeable clinician clinician /cli·ni·cian/ (kli-nish´in) an expert clinical physician and teacher.

cli·ni·cian
n.
 will recognize that the conditions that evoke pickle pickle, general term for fruits or vegetables preserved in vinegar or brine, usually with spices or sugar or both. Vegetables commonly pickled include the beet, cabbage, cauliflower, cucumber, olive, onion, pepper, and tomato.  and cucumber cucumber, fruit of Cucumis sativus, a species of gourd whose many varieties are descended from a plant native to Asia and Africa. Cucumber is classified in the division Magnoliophyta, class Magnoliopsida, order Violales, family Curcurbitaceae.  are not at all the same as those stimuli that evoke pickle and predicament Predicament
Dancy, Captain Ronald

must persecute friend to save own skin. [Br. Lit.: Loyalties, Magill I, 533–534]

Gordian

knot inextricable difficulty; Alexander cut the original. [Gk. Hist.
. It is not the words that mean the same thing; antecedent and consequent relations (e.g., request vs. repeat contingencies) are what explain the occurrence of these forms. That is, forms may be interchangeable only to the extent that they share the same controlling variables. Thus, "meaning" is topography within a contingent relation of controlling variables and it is this contingent arrangement that establishes function (i.e., meaning).

Without assessing the controlling variables (motivation, discriminative dis·crim·i·na·tive  
adj.
1. Drawing distinctions.

2. Marked by or showing prejudice: discriminative hiring practices.
 stimuli, consequent stimuli) that evoke and strengthen or weaken speech-language responses, we may fail to identify appropriate functional (cause-effect) relations by which defective forms (e.g., grammatical errors) of a disorder should be remediated. Evaluations that result in effective intervention plans include an examination of the reasons (controlling variables) that an individual's verbal environment would occasion or maintain particular speech-language topographies (right or wrong) in the first place. We must account for these occurrences by determining the conditions that evoke and maintain them, to adequately prescribe pre·scribe
v.
To give directions, either orally or in writing, for the preparation and administration of a remedy to be used in the treatment of a disease.
 a treatment program that will eliminate, modify, or otherwise resolve these errors.

In sum, a complete speech-language account (Skinner, 1957) would describe not only the form of a speaker's response but it would also explain the function of interactions between a speaker and a listener, resulting in a detailed description of response errors in terms of their topographies (specific words) and the environmental contexts (antecedent/consequent stimuli) in which those topographical errors occur. This would provide both the description (topography) and the explanation (function) for any given response. Such an account is essential for planning and carrying out effective interventions, whether they involve simple or complex treatments. Without such information, we risk embarking on an incomplete or poorly articulated treatment program that produces or maintains errors (i.e., poor stimulus control Stimulus control
We refer to stimulus control when a discriminative stimulus changes the probability of a behavior (operant response). The discriminative stimulus comes to control behavior when it predicts something about the consequences of that behavior.
 over correct responses), resulting in gaps (e.g., splinter SPLINTER - A PL/I interpreter with debugging features.

[Sammet 1969, p.600].
 skills) in the overall verbal repertoire (see Baker, LeBlanc, & Raetz, 2008; Greer & Ross, 2008).

Treatment Efficacy

A perplexing per·plex  
tr.v. per·plexed, per·plex·ing, per·plex·es
1. To confuse or trouble with uncertainty or doubt. See Synonyms at puzzle.

2. To make confusedly intricate; complicate.
 discrepancy DISCREPANCY. A difference between one thing and another, between one writing and another; a variance. (q.v.)
     2. Discrepancies are material and immaterial.
 currently exists with respect to assessment and treatment of speech-language disorders. On the one hand, standardized assessment tools that dominate in the field of speech language pathology are based on, and result in, a linguistic description of speech-language, yet, at best, these assessments can only weakly inform treatment because a linguistic approach to treatment does not exist (Hegde & Maul, 2006). It is true that not all speech pathologists rely solely on standardized tools to inform their treatments. However, whether they use standardized tests alone or they supplement them with other information (e.g., language samples), the analysis of skills for the purpose of diagnosis and treatment planning In radiotherapy, Treatment Planning is the process in which a team consisting of radiation oncologists, medical radiation physicists and dosimetrists plan the appropriate external beam radiotherapy treatment technique for a patient with cancer. Typically, medical imaging (i.e.  is linguistically based. This is handicapping because, despite linguistic information from the assessment, the therapist lacks the functional analysis of verbal behavior needed to effect behavior change Behavior change refers to any transformation or modification of human behavior. Such changes can occur intentionally, through behavior modification, without intention, or change rapidly in situations of mental illness. , which is the sole aim of therapy. Moreover, he or she must look elsewhere (i.e., applied behavior analysis Some of the information in this article may not be verified by . It should be checked for inaccuracies and modified to cite reliable sources.

Applied behavior analysis (ABA)
) for effective teaching tools (e.g., Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007; Hegde, 1998; Miltenberger, 2001) and formats (e.g., Lovaas & Smith, 2003) that can support clinical intervention. By contrast, a functional (behavioral) approach to speech-language has already been described for both assessment (e.g., Carr & Durand, 1985; Duker, 1999; Frost & Bondy, 2002; Greer & Ross, 2008; Hart & Rogers-Warren, 1978; Lerman et al., 2005; Spradlin, 1963; Sundberg, 2008; Sundberg & Partington, 1998) and for treatment (see Hegde, 1998, Ogletree & Oren, 2001, and Sautter & LeBlanc, 2006 for reviews). Despite this, it is only speech-language treatment that seems to have been influenced by behavior analysis and its technology (e.g., Bourgeois, 1992; Kouri, 2005; Rvachew, 1994) whereas assessment of these disorders remains firmly linguistically based on tools (see Directory, American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, ASHA, 2009) that do not include or provide for an analysis of environmental variables that control the speech-language performances assessed.

It is perhaps this problem referred to by proponents of informal (i.e., criterion-referenced) assessments (Notari & Bricker, 1990; Romanczyk, Lockshin, & Matey mat·ey  
adj. Chiefly British
Sociable; friendly.


matey
Adjective

Brit informal friendly or intimate

Adj. 1.
, 2001) for children with a diagnosis of Autism autism (ô`tĭzəm), developmental disability resulting from a neurological disorder that affects the normal functioning of the brain. It is characterized by the abnormal development of communication skills, social skills, and reasoning.  Spectrum Disorder A spectrum disorder in psychiatry is hard to define precisely but is a mental disorder having something to do with a spectrum of subtypes or closely related disorders. The spectrum model is proposed as a more coherent way of understanding psychiatric symptomatology.  (ASD ASD
abbr.
atrial septal defect


ASD Atrial septal defect, see there
). These advocates argue that, for this population at least, standardized assessments typically do not identify appropriate curricular targets. Although focused on the needs of individuals with ASD, these and other discussions (National Autism Center, 2009) emphasize the issue of treatment efficacy for all individuals receiving speech-language intervention and the need to administer assessments that are comprehensive enough to inform treatment.

The Purpose of Assessment

Speech-language assessment is conducted for many reasons. It can provide diagnostic labels (e.g., specific language impairment Specific language impairment (SLI) is a developmental language disorder that can affect both expressive and receptive language. SLI is a relatively "pure" language impairment, meaning that is not related to or caused by other developmental disorders, hearing loss or acquired brain , apraxia apraxia

Disturbance in carrying out skilled acts, caused by a lesion in the cerebral cortex; motor power and mental capacity remain intact. Motor apraxia is the inability to perform fine motor acts. Ideational apraxia is loss of the ability to plan even a simple action.
 of speech, aphasia aphasia (əfā`zhə), language disturbance caused by a lesion of the brain, making an individual partially or totally impaired in his ability to speak, write, or comprehend the meaning of spoken or written words. ) and help determine therapy progress. It can also support documentation required by agencies, such as performance comparisons (i.e., norm-referenced data) for Individualized in·di·vid·u·al·ize  
tr.v. in·di·vid·u·al·ized, in·di·vid·u·al·iz·ing, in·di·vid·u·al·iz·es
1. To give individuality to.

2. To consider or treat individually; particularize.

3.
 Educational Plans in schools, and status updates for reimbursement Reimbursement

Payment made to someone for out-of-pocket expenses has incurred.
 purposes in medical and clinical settings. But by far, one of the most important purposes of an assessment tool is to provide adequate information to plan an effective intervention that fits into a sequenced curriculum of skills. As mentioned earlier, most standardized assessment tools used by SLPs are based theoretically on a linguistic analysis of language for which no corresponding treatment methods are available. This "conceptual inconsistency in·con·sis·ten·cy  
n. pl. in·con·sis·ten·cies
1. The state or quality of being inconsistent.

2. Something inconsistent: many inconsistencies in your proposal.
" (Hegde & Maul, 2006) results from several historical influences on the development of the profession's theoretical base and may explain the prominence (Novak & Pelaez, 2004) of diagnostic labels (e.g., apraxia, auditory processing disorder Auditory Processing Disorder (APD) (previously known as "Central Auditory Processing Disorder" (CAPD) is a disorder in how auditory information is processed in the brain. It is not a sensory (inner ear) hearing impairment; individuals with APD usually have normal peripheral hearing ) in terms of hypothetical constructs in lieu of Instead of; in place of; in substitution of. It does not mean in addition to.  function-based explanations of behavior. Duchan (2008) traces the current conceptual perspective in speech pathology speech pathology
n.
The science concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of functional and organic speech defects and disorders. Also called speech-language pathology.
 from an emphasis on psychological processing (1945 to 1965) to linguistics linguistics, scientific study of language, covering the structure (morphology and syntax; see grammar), sounds (phonology), and meaning (semantics), as well as the history of the relations of languages to each other and the cultural place of language in human  (1965 to 1975) and, finally, to pragmatics (1975 to 2000) at which time "we reconsidered and reframed language in light of its communicative com·mu·ni·ca·tive  
adj.
1. Inclined to communicate readily; talkative.

2. Of or relating to communication.



com·mu
, linguistic, cultural, and everyday-life contexts" (p. 2). It is unclear what is meant by "everyday-life contexts," but a functional (cause-effect) analysis of language may be the goal. Much of what is described in this historical review hints at the need to address behavioral function (see also Prizant & Duchan, 1981) and there is a tangential tan·gen·tial   also tan·gen·tal
adj.
1. Of, relating to, or moving along or in the direction of a tangent.

2. Merely touching or slightly connected.

3.
 nod to behavior analysis evident in Duchan's program descriptions that include sabotage sabotage [Fr., sabot=wooden shoe; hence, to work clumsily], form of direct action by workers against employers through obstruction of work and/or lowering of plant efficiency. Methods range from peaceful slowing of production to destruction of property.  techniques (i.e., motivating operations; Laraway, Snycerski, Michael, & Poling, 2003) and response intents (i.e., mand, tact, intraverbal; Skinner 1957). Despite this, the descriptive focus, including that widely available (e.g., Pinker, 1994) to general consumers interested in language development, remains clearly non-behavioral (e.g., psycholinguistic psy·cho·lin·guis·tics  
n. (used with a sing. verb)
The study of the influence of psychological factors on the development, use, and interpretation of language.
 skills, linguistic relationships). What has evolved, and permeates the field of speech pathology, appears to be largely a non-behavioral view of language learning in which a functional analysis for many professionals may not mean a causal, explanatory ex·plan·a·to·ry  
adj.
Serving or intended to explain: an explanatory paragraph.



ex·plan
 analysis of verbal behavior in terms of the environmental stimuli that evoke and maintain it but, rather, may resonate res·o·nate  
v. res·o·nat·ed, res·o·nat·ing, res·o·nates

v.intr.
1. To exhibit or produce resonance or resonant effects.

2.
 more as a description of the "use of language." This can impede im·pede  
tr.v. im·ped·ed, im·ped·ing, im·pedes
To retard or obstruct the progress of. See Synonyms at hinder1.



[Latin imped
 prescription and remediation efforts by failing to provide a full account of speech-language performance: speaker-listener interactions comprised of not only topographic/structural descriptions but also of functional (i.e., causal) explanations for the occurrence of those topographies.

Challenges to Resolve

A number of issues present both assessment and clinical application challenges for speech pathologists and others responsible for teaching speech-language skills. We propose that solutions are available to help resolve these issues by applying a behavioral analysis to the assessment process initially and, later, throughout treatment. Our discussion of these concerns follows.

1. Receptive-Expressive Dichotomy di·chot·o·my  
n. pl. di·chot·o·mies
1. Division into two usually contradictory parts or opinions: "the dichotomy of the one and the many" Louis Auchincloss.
 

Speech-language and its assessment is typically described as consisting of two categories, receptive and expressive. Accordingly, treatment plans are likely to channel the therapeutic focus into this same dichotomy. As a result, speaker and listener repertoires may be regarded as simply two halves of a common cognitive process in which words are "understood" in one modality and "used" in another. Instead of considering language as performance (i.e., behavior), this traditional view of language implies that a language entity exists structurally as a type of cognitive holding tank from which appropriate responses (i.e., "meaning") are chosen to fit a particular communicative situation. The notion is that speakers toggle To alternate back and forth between two states.

toggle - To change a bit from whatever state it is in to the other state; to change from 1 to 0 or from 0 to 1. This comes from "toggle switches", such as standard light switches, though the word "toggle" actually refers to
 between selecting a word and using it. It is significant, however, that we do not appeal to a similar cognitive account to explain nonverbal non·ver·bal  
adj.
1. Being other than verbal; not involving words: nonverbal communication.

2. Involving little use of language: a nonverbal intelligence test.
 behaviors, such as scratching an itch or scrubbing See data scrubbing, memory scrubbing and audio scrubbing.  a pot. No one would assert that, when the mosquito mosquito (məskē`tō), small, long-legged insect of the order Diptera, the true flies. The females of most species have piercing and sucking mouth parts and apparently they must feed at least once upon mammalian blood before their eggs can  bites, we select a scratch from a mental reservoir of available muscle actions. We would be satisfied to contend that the itchiness itchiness

pruritus.
 occurred, we scratched it, and the itch went away.

In contrast to linguistic explanations of language, a behavioral view posits that we would not "use" a word, water for example, any more than we would "use a reach" (Skinner, 1957, p. 7) to obtain the water itself. Instead, antecedent and consequent conditions related to water are sufficient to evoke either response, whether a nonverbal reach for water or a verbal water (Hegde & Maul, 2006). Nothing is gained by inserting a hypothetical construct In scientific theory a hypothetical construct is an explanatory variable which is not directly observable. For example, the concepts of intelligence and motivation are used to explain phenomena in psychology, but neither is directly observable.  (receptive or expressive "use") into an explanation of why the response occurred. We still have to account for each instance of the proposed use (Sundberg & Michael, 2001). This requires identifying the response of interest as part of a unit of motivational variables, prompts, instructions, and consequences. Instead of residing at-the-ready in a sort of cognitive container, speech-language skills are more usefully characterized as different repertoires based on separate functional relations between antecedent and consequent conditions (Hegde & Maul, 2006; Schlinger, 1995; Sundberg & Michael, 2001).

Appealing to hypothetical constructs to explain instances of verbal behavior can obscure a clinician's efforts to pinpoint errors during assessment and to target a coordinated sequence of skills for remediation. Consider a situation in which a child does well on a receptive test of verb verb, part of speech typically used to indicate an action. English verbs are inflected for person, number, tense and partially for mood; compound verbs formed with auxiliaries (e.g., be, can, have, do, will) provide a distinction of voice.  tense but fails verb items on an expressive test (e.g., CELF-4; Semel, Wiig, & Secord, 2003). Is the problem with the speaker repertoire (expressive) in general or with verb tense specifically? Should treatment consist of repeating verb tense forms while looking at pictures (e.g., the boy is running) or should it provide practice in completing sentences (e.g., Bob is walking but Reggie is ...), with pictures or without? What if the learner can label pictures with progressive verb forms (e.g., TWF-2; German, 2000), but cannot complete sentences with correct verb forms, or changes verb tense when asked to repeat sentences (e.g., CELF-4; also CELF-P, Wiig, Secord, & Semel, 2004; TOLD-P:3, Newcomer & Hammill, 1988), a task that essentially tests echoic e·cho·ic  
adj.
1. Of or resembling an echo.

2. Imitative of natural sounds; onomatopoeic: an echoic word.

Adj. 1.
 skills? Is this a problem of verb tense, sentence completion, or poor repetition (i.e., echoic)? What about the learner who can say rhyming rhyme also rime  
n.
1. Correspondence of terminal sounds of words or of lines of verse.

2.
a. A poem or verse having a regular correspondence of sounds, especially at the ends of lines.

b.
 words but cannot point to them (e.g., PLS-4; Zimmerman, Steiner, & Pond, 2002)? Is the problem receptive or does it indicate a poor (possibly covert COVERT, BARON. A wife; so called, from her being under the cover or protection of her husband, baron or lord. ) echoic repertoire (i.e., "expressive")? How are we to interpret results of a test that shows a child can point to a puppy puppy

the young of the canine species; usually used up to the age of 12 months.


fading puppy syndrome
see fading kitten/puppy syndrome.

puppy pyoderma
see impetigo.
 in response to which one is little but cannot tell you the opposite of big? Should you work on adjectives, opposites, or general expressive skills? These situations exemplify ex·em·pli·fy  
tr.v. ex·em·pli·fied, ex·em·pli·fy·ing, ex·em·pli·fies
1.
a. To illustrate by example: exemplify an argument.

b.
 the difficulty in determining intervention targets from assessments where skills are not explained functionally (i.e., by their controlling variables) but, instead, they are defined linguistically and categorized cat·e·go·rize  
tr.v. cat·e·go·rized, cat·e·go·riz·ing, cat·e·go·riz·es
To put into a category or categories; classify.



cat
 topographically as either receptive or expressive.

2. Mismatch mismatch

1. in blood transfusions and transplantation immunology, an incompatibility between potential donor and recipient.

2. one or more nucleotides in one of the double strands in a nucleic acid molecule without complementary nucleotides in the same position on the other
 Between Assessment Focus and Real-World Contingencies

Most speech-language tests in wide use today are standardized instruments (ASHA, 2009) that provide information about skills solely according to according to
prep.
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.

2. In keeping with: according to instructions.

3.
 linguistic parameters, described earlier as topographic responses. However, the speech-language behavior emitted by an individual does not exist in a topography-only sense, absent its effect on a listener (Skinner, 1957) and, in the real world, topographic errors (thoup for soup) are disregarded dis·re·gard  
tr.v. dis·re·gard·ed, dis·re·gard·ing, dis·re·gards
1. To pay no attention or heed to; ignore.

2. To treat without proper respect or attentiveness.

n.
 (Hart & Rogers-Warren, 1978) unless their form is too deviant (e.g., my doggy runded away). Topographies become functional entities (i.e., meaningful) only when they occur in a dynamic environment consisting of at least one speaker and one listener. We cannot know what a speaker means if we hear him or her say shoe merely on the basis of the topography (word) itself. We need access to the speaker's reasons, a description of the conditions that evoked e·voke  
tr.v. e·voked, e·vok·ing, e·vokes
1. To summon or call forth: actions that evoked our mistrust.

2.
 such a response (Hegde, 2008). Functional speech-language behavior is evoked and strengthened in a unit in which antecedent and consequent stimuli occur in temporal proximity to an instance of a speaker's topographic behavior and combine to become functional communication (see Sautter & LeBlanc, 2006). Therefore, its description, to be useful for treatment planning, must involve more than just a description of topography. Instead, we need to describe speech-language behavior more functionally (e.g., Baker et al., 2008; Greer & Ross, 2008; Koegel & Koegel, 1995) with resulting evaluation tools (e.g., Sundberg, 2008; Partington & Sundberg, 1998) that take this functional unit into account.

3. Treatment Interference Due to Problem Behavior

We have often heard the sentiment expressed by clinicians and others that "I can't work with this person until his (or her) behavior is fixed." It is true that interfering behavior is a problem, yet it need not preclude our assessment and teaching efforts. A good first step is to ask "if he were speaking English (or any language) right now, instead of crying, hitting, running away, what would he be saying?"

Through functional analysis (Iwata, Dorsey, Slifer, Bauman, & Richman, 1994), it is possible to identify and address weak speech-language repertoires that are functioning as problem behavior. Functions have been identified that indicate problem behavior, although not recognizable as true language in form, is indeed functioning as language to gain access to (i.e., request) attention, tangibles, or escape from task demands (e.g., Dwyer-Moore & Dixon, 2007; Kodak, Northup, & Kelley, 2007).

For learners with weak communication skills disguised as problem behavior, listener skills are often the initial focus of therapy (i.e., compliance training) because these skills were the weakest (and thus most salient) during assessment. Although listener skills are critically important in the overall speech-language repertoire, focusing initial treatment on those skills may be unproductive for learners with interfering behavior problems. From a functional standpoint, this is because the consequences for listener responses do not directly benefit the speaker (Skinner, 1957). Learners who already find little to compel Compel - COMpute ParallEL  them to engage in treatment are unlikely to be motivated by generalized gen·er·al·ized
adj.
1. Involving an entire organ, as when an epileptic seizure involves all parts of the brain.

2. Not specifically adapted to a particular environment or function; not specialized.

3.
 social reinforcers (i.e., praise) when they can emit TO EMIT. To put out; to send forth,
     2. The tenth section of the first article of the constitution, contains various prohibitions, among which is the following: No state shall emit bills of credit.
 easier responses (e.g., hitting) that readily produce consequences of greater value to them. For the learner with a history of failure for speech-language attempts, mand (i.e., request) assessment and training is a good first choice (Esch, 2009; Koegel & Koegel, 1995) because the consequences that maintain mand behavior are specific and are of direct benefit (i.e., you get what you ask for). The key issue is to train responses that are equivalent in function (e.g., access to attention) but yet are more socially acceptable in form (e.g., asking instead of hitting).

Typically developing children develop a strong repertoire of mands before other verbal operants (Bijou & Baer, 1965; Novak, 1996) and, like any other learner, when this skill set is defective, it is not unusual to see problem behaviors arise that fill the functional vacuum. Therefore, the task of assessment is to identify not only inappropriate response form, but its function. Without determining function, eliminating an offensive form alone is unlikely to succeed. Through assessment of verbal functions, the therapist can identify appropriate mands to teach in order to provide the learner, child or adult, with speech-language responses that are adaptive in the natural environment, regardless of diagnosis (e.g., ASD, traumatic brain injury Traumatic brain injury (TBI), traumatic injuries to the brain, also called intracranial injury, or simply head injury, occurs when a sudden trauma causes brain damage. TBI can result from a closed head injury or a penetrating head injury and is one of two subsets of acquired brain ), disability label (e.g., developmental language impairment, aphasia, apraxia of speech), or educational setting (e.g., home, school, hospital, clinic).

4. Identifying and Sequencing Intervention Targets

Assessment should lead to a plan for intervention, a prescriptive pre·scrip·tive  
adj.
1. Sanctioned or authorized by long-standing custom or usage.

2. Making or giving injunctions, directions, laws, or rules.

3. Law Acquired by or based on uninterrupted possession.
 list of targets to be acquired (LeBlanc, Dillon, & Sautter, 2009). When assessments identify deficits in nonfunctional, topographic terms alone (e.g., derivational der·i·va·tion  
n.
1. The act or process of deriving.

2. The state or fact of being derived; originating: a custom of recent derivation.

3. Something derived; a derivative.
 adjectives, inflection inflection, in grammar. In many languages, words or parts of words are arranged in formally similar sets consisting of a root, or base, and various affixes. Thus walking, walks, walker have in common the root walk and the affixes -ing, -s, and  verbs), it can be difficult to pinpoint specific speech-language responses that would be manageable therapy targets or to determine how they fit together as part of a competent verbal repertoire. What should we teach first--nouns, opposites, plurals, or colors? Should we work to resolve word-finding problems before number repetition or relational vocabulary? Because none of us has access to a learner's perceptions or cognitions (Schlinger, 1995; see also, Schlinger, this issue), targets identified in linguistic terms are not easily modifiable until they are re-interpreted as a measurable, observable set of responses, defined as part of a functional verbal unit comprised of antecedent and consequent stimuli. Given these more concrete criteria, it is easy to see how topographic descriptions alone do not resolve our diagnostic task.

Functions of verbal behavior. No doubt most readers of this journal are familiar with Skinner's (1957) analysis of verbal behavior, which provides a useful theoretical framework for assessing, and thus treating, speech-language behavior in terms of the environmental variables that control verbal responses (see also Greer & Ross, 2008; Hegde, this issue; Sundberg, 2008; Sundberg & Partington, 1998). Table 1 presents five of these verbal operants that are most relevant to our discussion. In brief, consider the conditions under which we might emit the response cookie cookie

File or part of a file put on a Web user's hard disk by a Web site. Cookies are used to store registration data, to make it possible to customize information for visitors to a Web site, to target Web advertising, and to keep track of the products a user wishes to
. When hungry, we might ask for cookie. We could say cookie! in response to seeing, smelling, or tasting one even if we are not hungry. Given the instruction say 'cookie', we may emit the required repetition. Also, we could likely respond cookie to one of many verbal stimuli related to the topic of cookies (e.g., what did your mom She goes to the gym.  bake, what does c-o-o-k-i-e spell). Finally, we might read cookie if we saw it written on the Keebler[R] box. The foregoing examples are identified as mand, tact, echoic, intraverbal, and textual tex·tu·al  
adj.
Of, relating to, or conforming to a text.



textu·al·ly adv.
 operants, respectively, and, in each instance, the form of the response is the same, yet the environmental conditions (antecedent/consequent stimuli) in which each response would likely be emitted are not at all equivalent. When assessments provide this level of speech-language information, a more effective intervention plan can be designed, one that addresses not only response topographies but response function as well, thus ensuring a more integrated language learning experience for those we teach.

Sequential targets. Assessments need to do more than just identify what needs to be taught. Intervention targets also need to be sequenced in such a way that the learner's new communication skills achieve success in his or her verbal community as quickly as possible (Greer & Ross, 2008). Teaching targets sequenced according to a functional analysis of verbal behavior may be more efficient than following traditionally defined sequences (i.e., receptive before expressive) (Miguel & Petursdottir, 2009). For example, Williams and Greer (1993) demonstrated that, when targets were defined in terms of their verbal function, children learned functional and spontaneous speech, whereas, when linguistic targets were taught, the children learned fewer forms and functions. This study shows that when the variables that control a speech-language target response are identified, they can be used, modified, or otherwise brought to bear on the response of interest to help a therapist effect change in the learner's verbal behavior to ultimately become a more competent speaker. As we shall see in the next section (see Error Analysis below), this is a powerful tool for therapists.

Sometimes the controlling variables for certain intervention targets are inside the learner's body and thus they are inaccessible to the clinician. Response targets like these, often called feelings (e.g., tired, happy, sad, angry, sick), are difficult to teach because, as clinicians, we cannot verify the presence/absence of the stimuli that evoke them. Yet these and other private events (Schlinger & Poling, 1998; Skinner, 1957) are commonly tested in speech-language assessments (e.g., PLS-4; ROWPVT, Brownell, 2000; TOLD-P:3) and are often selected as targets to teach labeling non-verbal stimuli (i.e., tact) to children whose tact repertoires are weak even for stimuli that are outside the skin and thus are verifiable by teacher and learner alike (e.g., book, wagon wagon: see carriage.
wagon

Four-wheeled vehicle designed to be drawn by draft animals. Wagons have been used from the 1st century BC; early examples used spoked wheels with metal rims, pivoted front axles, and linchpins to secure the wheels.
, pizza). Because of this, assessments that identify controlling variables for potential intervention targets (e.g., Sundberg, 2008) have the advantage of pointing clinicians toward appropriate targets and, at the same time, focusing their efforts away from targets that may seem important but that are premature in the developmental-functional curriculum.

5. Error analysis

The purpose of speech-language assessment is to identify response errors in the learner's verbal repertoire so treatment can be provided that will eliminate these errors in the day-to-day communication environment and replace them with more adequate responses. As discussed, a careful analysis of the controlling relations for speech-language responses can provide valuable information for treatment planning.

The value of an error. Error responses are instructive in·struc·tive  
adj.
Conveying knowledge or information; enlightening.



in·structive·ly adv.
 for clinicians because they tell us precisely what variables control the extant ex·tant  
adj.
1. Still in existence; not destroyed, lost, or extinct: extant manuscripts.

2. Archaic Standing out; projecting.
 incorrect response. An analysis of these errors allows us to thereby establish correct responses and to eliminate stimuli as prompts (i.e., multiple control) that are extraneous ex·tra·ne·ous  
adj.
1. Not constituting a vital element or part.

2. Inessential or unrelated to the topic or matter at hand; irrelevant. See Synonyms at irrelevant.

3.
, but currently required, to evoke these responses (Sundberg & Michael, 2001).

For example, a learner may indeed be able to correctly answer How many feet does a duck have when visiting the duck pond A duck pond is a pond for ducks and other water birds. Often such ponds are artificial and ornamental in nature, in public parks for example. Sometimes they may be less ornamental, in a farmyard for example.

Some duck ponds are purposefully built for the shooting of duck.
 at the park but may not be able to emit the same correct response on the ride home when the visual stimulus (i.e., the duck) is absent. By cataloging the conditions in which a desired response does and does not occur, we have the information we need to write intervention plans to transfer control from the current evocative e·voc·a·tive  
adj.
Tending or having the power to evoke.



e·voca·tive·ly adv.
 variables to those that should evoke and maintain correct responding.

Functional independence of operants and stimulus control transfer. Whereas a verbally competent speaker may readily tact after learning to mand, or to respond intraverbally after learning to point to an item, this seemingly seem·ing  
adj.
Apparent; ostensible.

n.
Outward appearance; semblance.



seeming·ly adv.
 automatic transfer of function does not occur easily for individuals with speech-language impairment. For example, in a study of tact, mand, and intraverbal responding (Sundberg, San Juan San Juan, city, Argentina
San Juan (săn wän, Span. sän hwän), city (1991 pop. 353,476), capital of San Juan prov., W Argentina. It is a commercial and industrial center in an agricultural region.
, Dawdy, & Argiielles, 1990), individuals with traumatic brain injury demonstrated hierarchies of acquisition, showing that verbal functions (e.g., tact, mand) could be acquired from echoic or textual (i.e., letters) control but that stimulus control transfer (Catania, 1998) from one function to another did not occur without direct training.

A growing body of literature in error analysis has shown the functional independence of many language-related responses (e.g., Braam & Poling, 1983; Hall & Sundberg, 1987; Lamarre & Holland, 1985; Luciano, 1986; Miguel, Petursdottir, Carr, & Michael, 2008; Partington & Bailey, 1993; Petursdottir, Carr, Lechago, & Almason, 2008; Sidman, 1971; Sigafoos, Doss, & Reichle, 1989; Twyman, 1995; Watkins, Pack-Teixeira, & Howard, 1989) and stimulus control transfer has been reported for several verbal functions.

Sweeney-Kerwin, Carbone, O'Brien, Zecchin, and Janecky (2007) transferred control of mand responses by children diagnosed with ASD from nonverbal stimuli (i.e., tact) to appropriate motivating conditions. In another study of children with ASD, Goldsmith, LeBlanc, and Sautter (2006) reported successful transfer of stimulus control to bring tact responses under intraverbal control. A study by Lerman et al. (2005) illustrates particularly well the value of analyzing language responses by their controlling variables. In this study, a child could tact baby but could not mand baby nor emit any baby-related intraverbal responses. The specificity of this type of information, by verbal function, clearly pinpoints treatment goals (e.g., teach mand and intraverbal responses for the same topography as that acquired under tact control).

Clinical competence with stimulus control transfer is particularly useful in identifying appropriate intraverbal targets and in providing treatment that avoids inducing errors with this complex repertoire. Whereas the conditions that might evoke a single mand, tact, or echoic response are fairly straightforward, the variables controlling any particular intraverbal response can be numerous. For instance, a mand requires only sufficient motivating conditions; the tact is evoked by a particular nonverbal stimulus; and an echoic, in general terms, is simply a repetition of an auditory auditory /au·di·to·ry/ (aw´di-tor?e)
1. aural or otic; pertaining to the ear.

2. pertaining to hearing.


au·di·to·ry
adj.
 model. On the other hand, a competent speaker has an intraverbal repertoire in which a single response is under the control of tens, perhaps hundreds, of antecedent stimuli that evoke it. For example, under appropriate conditions, we could easily emit the intraverbal response salsa to stimuli such as what's tortilla dip called, let's chop See channel op.

1. CHOP - channel op
2. (language, tool) Chop - A code generator by Alan L. Wendt <wendt@CS.ColoState.EDU> for the lcc C compiler front end. Version 0.6 is interfaced with Fraser and Hanson's lcc front end.
 tomatoes to make some..., what dance class are you taking, and any number of other salsa-related questions. But learners with weak speech-language repertoires will be challenged by any one of these stimuli and, as we have suggested, simply teaching a selection, tact, echoic, or mand response is unlikely to result in an extensive salsa repertoire.

A behavioral interpretation of the findings discussed above dissuades us from cognitive explanations of deficits identified through our assessments. Because a learner can point to a dog when asked, but cannot name a dog when he sees one is not well explained by saying that he does not yet have the concept of dog. Instead, we can more profitably turn our attention to the variables that evoke various dog responses to plan and carry out an effective treatment program. We cannot blame learners or their disability for error responses when we have yet to arrange appropriate stimulus conditions that will evoke and strengthen more accurate responses. Indeed, clinicians who understand how to assess error responses in terms of their controlling variables have a distinct advantage in helping learners increase their speech-language skills (Sundberg & Michael, 2001) by strengthening appropriate stimulus conditions under which particular target responses occur.

Functional Assessment in Speech-Language Pathology

A few models (partial or comprehensive) are available for functional assessment of speechlanguage disorders (e.g., Baker et al., 2008; Carr & Durand, 1985; Grow, Kelley, Roane, & Shillingsburg, 2008; Lerman et al., 2005; Partington & Sundberg, 1998; Sundberg, 2008; note: SLPs interested in functional assessment related to feeding disorders are referred to Piazza piazza

Open square or marketplace, surrounded by buildings, in an Italian town or city. It was equivalent to the plaza of Spanish-speaking countries. The term became more widely used in the 16th–18th century, denoting any large open space with buildings around it.
 & Roane, 2009) and researchers have called for increased attention to environmental variables for analysis of communication disorders (e.g., Hyter, 2007; Roth & Spekman, 1984). However, in general, SLPs largely rely on standardized, linguistic-based assessment tools to provide diagnostic information, which are unlikely to inform or adequately support efforts to design appropriate and effective intervention programs. It is perhaps not surprising, then, that speech-language pathologists often turn to criterion-referenced tests to develop appropriate intervention targets, although, absent analyses of causal variables, such informal measures arguably ar·gu·a·ble  
adj.
1. Open to argument: an arguable question, still unresolved.

2. That can be argued plausibly; defensible in argument: three arguable points of law.
 offer no advantage over their standardized counterparts in terms of providing a behavioral analysis of language performances, which we maintain is essential for effective treatment planning.

Database of Speech-Language Tests

As a first step in bridging this gap, it would be helpful to have a "translation" of existing assessment instruments, reinterpreted according to the verbal functions that are represented by their test items. To that end, we examined a group of speech-language tests (Tables 2 through 7) designed to diagnose diagnose /di·ag·nose/ (di´ag-nos) to identify or recognize a disease.

di·ag·nose
v.
1. To distinguish or identify a disease by diagnosis.

2.
 aphasia, apraxia of speech, articulation articulation

In phonetics, the shaping of the vocal tract (larynx, pharynx, and oral and nasal cavities) by positioning mobile organs (such as the tongue) relative to other parts that may be rigid (such as the hard palate) and thus modifying the airstream to produce speech
 and phonological disorders, and language disorders (expressive, receptive, or both). Assessments for other speech-language disorders such as fluency flu·ent  
adj.
1.
a. Able to express oneself readily and effortlessly: a fluent speaker; fluent in three languages.

b.
 (i.e., stuttering stuttering or stammering, speech disorder marked by hesitation and inability to enunciate consonants without spasmodic repetition. Known technically as dysphemia, it has sometimes been attributed to an underlying personality disorder. ), voice quality, and dysphagia dysphagia /dys·pha·gia/ (-fa´jah) difficulty in swallowing.

dys·pha·gia or dys·pha·gy
n.
Difficulty in swallowing or inability to swallow.
 (swallowing disorders) were excluded from the database.

The assessment database consists of 28 standardized speech-language tests that were selected from among those commonly used at a university-based speech and language clinic. The clinic is associated with a graduate program for SLP (Service Location Protocol) An IETF standard used to announce and discover services such as printers and file shares on an IP network. Apple used SLP prior to Mac OS 10.2, but migrated to its Bonjour technology. SLP is also used in SIP-based IP telephony applications. , which is accredited accredited

recognition by an appropriate authority that the performance of a particular institution has satisfied a prestated set of criteria.


accredited herds
cattle herds which have achieved a low level of reactors to, e.g.
 by ASHA's Council on Academic Accreditation in Audiology audiology /au·di·ol·o·gy/ (aw?de-ol´ah-je) the study of impaired hearing that cannot be improved by medication or surgical therapy.

au·di·ol·o·gy
n.
 and Speech-Language Pathology. Tests are administered to individuals referred for diagnostic purposes or, in the case of established clients, the tests are given to document progress toward therapeutic goals.

The database lists the probable controlling variables for responses required in each test or subtest. For some test items, it is likely that multiple stimuli must be self-generated to emit a "correct" response (e.g., self-echoics). Thus, a more complex analysis may be needed in which additional variables are considered (e.g., joint control, Lowenkron, 2006; emergent emergent /emer·gent/ (e-mer´jent)
1. coming out from a cavity or other part.

2. pertaining to an emergency.


emergent

1. coming out from a cavity or other part.

2. coming on suddenly.
 relations, Sidman, 1994; see also BarnesHolmes, Barnes-Holmes, & Cullinan, 2000; autoclitics, Skinner, 1957). Nevertheless, a beginning analysis is offered, listing the test item's probable controlling variables for 5 of Skinner's verbal operants mand, echoic, tact, intraverbal, and textual, and for the nonverbal operant operant /op·er·ant/ (op´er-ant) in psychology, any response that is not elicited by specific external stimuli but that recurs at a given rate in a particular set of circumstances.

op·er·ant
adj.
 involving listener relations commonly referred to as receptive language.

Procedures

Each test (or subtest) was coded according to the verbal operant represented by the inherent or implied antecedent conditions prescribed pre·scribe  
v. pre·scribed, pre·scrib·ing, pre·scribes

v.tr.
1. To set down as a rule or guide; enjoin. See Synonyms at dictate.

2. To order the use of (a medicine or other treatment).
 by the test and by any other information available with respect to the functional unit represented by each test item. Antecedent conditions included examiner's instructions (e.g., point to, say what I say, tell me about), materials, allowed prompts, and actual or implied motivating operations (Laraway et al., 2003; Michael, 1982, 2004) to evoke appropriate responses. In some assessments, allowed prompts changed the operant being tested by providing additional stimuli that could exert control over the response. Tables 2 through 7 specify these situations (when they could be identified by the test protocol) with the letter P (prompt) under the appropriate operant column, indicating a potential change in, or addition to, the basic operant being tested.

Other factors that informed the coding procedure included controlling variables that were only implied, but not directly tested, due to the nature of the test (i.e., informant informant Historian Medtalk A person who provides a medical history  assessments, see Table 5). Such indirect assessments are so designated in the Comments column.

Each test or component subtest was coded twice, once by the first author, a board certified See certification.  behavior analyst and speech-language pathologist, and again by the second author, a graduate-level speech-language pathology student with an undergraduate degree “First degree” redirects here. For the BBC television series, see First Degree.

An undergraduate degree (sometimes called a first degree or simply a degree
 in behavior analysis. In the case of disagreement, an independent behavior analyst reviewed items until agreement was reached.

Code Definitions

Test items were coded according to Skinner's (1957) five basic verbal operants (mand, tact, intraverbal, echoic, textual) or, in the case of nonverbal operants, as receptive items. To be precise, the test items themselves were not operants, but they were coded as such because of the type of functional unit that would exist if a correct response to the test item occurred and was reinforced. It should be noted, however, that in many general testing situations, reinforcement reinforcement /re·in·force·ment/ (-in-fors´ment) in behavioral science, the presentation of a stimulus following a response that increases the frequency of subsequent responses, whether positive to desirable events, or  is specifically proscribed PROSCRIBED, civil law. Among the Romans, a man was said to be proscribed when a reward was offered for his head; but the term was more usually applied to those who were sentenced to some punishment which carried with it the consequences of civil death. Code, 9; 49.  (presumably pre·sum·a·ble  
adj.
That can be presumed or taken for granted; reasonable as a supposition: presumable causes of the disaster.
 to maintain test integrity). For this reason, no such functions are assumed to be established through the testing procedure with the assessments in our database. For the examiner-practitioner, advantages of withholding reinforcement during assessment should be carefully evaluated as some studies have shown improved test performance under reinforcement, compared to non-reinforcement conditions (e.g., Edlund, 1972; Koegel et al., 1997).

Mand. A test item was coded mand (M) if there was evidence that the item evaluated responses under the control of a motivating operation or if a consequence, provided or implied, was responsespecific (e.g., child says cookie and gets cookie).

Echoic. Items coded echoic (E) presented verbal stimuli for which a correct response would be verbal with point-to-point correspondence. For example, a correct echoic response to the instruction "Say 'what's your name'" would be what's your name.

Tact. A tact (T) code designated items in which a non-verbal stimulus (e.g., picture, object) was presented to evoke a verbal response. For example, an item would be coded T if it instructed the examiner to show a picture of a house, with house being the correct response. Note, however, that in both assessment and instructional situations, it is a frequent practice to add the question what's this when presenting pictures or objects to test "labels." In such cases, a response is more accurately described as being under both tact (house picture) and intraverbal (what's this) stimulus control. Items were also coded T if a nonverbal stimulus was given to evoke verbal responses regarding attributes such as stimulus feature, function, or class (e.g., a correct answer would be bounce or beach instead of ball).

Intraverbal. A test item was coded intraverbal (IV) if it contained a verbal stimulus to evoke a verbal response that did not match (repeat) the examiner's model. For example, if the verbal stimulus was what's your name, a correct response under the control of intraverbal contingencies might be Riley. Items were also coded IV if a verbal stimulus was presented to evoke verbal responses regarding stimulus attributes such as feature, function, or class (e.g., wheel, ride in, or vehicle instead of car).

Textual. A test item was coded textual (Tx) if the assessment instructed the examiner to present a written stimulus and a correct response required reacting to the written material verbally (i.e., reading). Items were further designated intraverbal (IV) if reading comprehension was required.

Receptive. Items asking the examiner to present an instruction, in which a correct response would be nonverbal, were coded as receptive (R). Examples of R-coded items are point to cup, give me the pencil, and show me jumping. Items were also coded R if a conditional discrimination was required regarding stimulus attributes (e.g., point to the one that has a tail instead of point to dog). Note that other operants are implicated im·pli·cate  
tr.v. im·pli·cat·ed, im·pli·cat·ing, im·pli·cates
1. To involve or connect intimately or incriminatingly: evidence that implicates others in the plot.

2.
 in conditional discriminations and these are designated in the Tables (e.g., echoic, tact).

Finally, items that may have required multiple controlling variables are so designated with the probable operants marked within parentheses.

Following the database (Tables 2-7 below), we present a summary in which we discuss patterns found in our analysis along with implications for future work on this topic.

Results, Discussion, and Considerations for the Future

Information from the speech-language assessment database points to several issues of interest for future investigations.

First, analysis of the database revealed a striking omission omission n. 1) failure to perform an act agreed to, where there is a duty to an individual or the public to act (including omitting to take care) or is required by law. Such an omission may give rise to a lawsuit in the same way as a negligent or improper act.  in traditional speech-language tests. The mand function, widely regarded as the earliest verbal operant established (Bijou & Baer, 1965; Schlinger, 1995; Sundberg, 2008) and of greatest benefit to speakers (Skinner, 1957), was assessed in only two of the 28 database tests (PLS-4; REEL-3, Bzoch, League, & Brown, 2003). Despite their inclusion, the mand function in these tests was only indirectly evaluated (i.e., informant report, such as parent or caregiver care·giv·er
n.
1. An individual, such as a physician, nurse, or social worker, who assists in the identification, prevention, or treatment of an illness or disability.

2.
 responses, was either required or allowed). This means that relevant motivating conditions for the occurrence of mands were not directly arranged or evaluated for their evocative effects.

Moreover, it is of particular concern that mand contingencies were absent from the three assessments for aphasia, an acquired neurological disorder Noun 1. neurological disorder - a disorder of the nervous system
nervous disorder, neurological disease

disorder, upset - a physical condition in which there is a disturbance of normal functioning; "the doctor prescribed some medicine for the disorder";
 that often is profoundly damaging to speechlanguage repertoires. It would seem that, of all the verbal functions potentially impaired in aphasia, the mand would be of foremost importance to evaluate and, if weak, to re-establish quickly. Collectively, aphasia tests in the database represent a total of 475 response opportunities for persons with aphasia, yet the tests contained no mand contingencies to evaluate this critically important repertoire for these individuals. Behavioral researchers have begun to offer alternative (i.e., non-traditional) models for the description of aphasia deficits (Baker et al., 2008), but functional evaluation of this critical skill in the repertoires of actual individuals appears unaddressed in this population.

Next, analysis of the assessment database brought the importance of stimulus control into clearer focus on at least two issues related to its identification. Unlike assessments in which controlling stimuli are specified by the test items (e.g., tact, mand), traditional speech-language tests may unintentionally require multiple stimulus control for correct responding. At other times, they may inadvertently provide multiple stimuli (i.e., prompts) when it is undesirable to do so. As a result, test items may be harder or easier than they are meant to be, obscuring the repertoire purportedly pur·port·ed  
adj.
Assumed to be such; supposed: the purported author of the story.



pur·port
 being tested. That is, learners would be disadvantaged if they do not have the requisite learning history to respond correctly when doing so requires control by more than one independent variable or when, conversely con·verse 1  
intr.v. con·versed, con·vers·ing, con·vers·es
1. To engage in a spoken exchange of thoughts, ideas, or feelings; talk. See Synonyms at speak.

2.
, multiple stimuli must be in place for the learner to respond correctly to items intended to test a single function.

Several assessments in the database illustrated this issue in which it seemed that several stimuli must, or could, converge con·verge  
v. con·verged, con·verg·ing, con·verg·es

v.intr.
1.
a. To tend toward or approach an intersecting point: lines that converge.

b.
 to evoke a correct response, thereby risking confounded test results. For example, some assessments (e.g., TOLD-P:3) require the learner to listen to a word and then repeat only part of it (e.g., say 'baseball' without saying 'base'). Although this clearly evaluates echoic control, other repertoires may be required (e.g., intraverbal, autoclitic; Schlinger, 2008; Skinner, 1957), particularly since the correct response must necessarily omit o·mit  
tr.v. o·mit·ted, o·mit·ting, o·mits
1. To fail to include or mention; leave out: omit a word.

2.
a. To pass over; neglect.

b.
 part of the echoic model, as a self-editing response.

Multiple control was also implicated in situations where instructions to the learner seemed ambiguous (e.g., prompting a pointing response with tell me; PLS-4). In this case, although a pointing response is presumably sufficient to be scored as correct, a learner who not only points but also responds verbally (i.e., it's that one!) may have a more sophisticated repertoire than a learner who only points to the answer. If so, this information would be important for treatment planning. Multiple control required for correct responding was also evident in assessment items where the actual function being evaluated changed as a result of prompts allowed during correction procedures. For example, the Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation (GFTA-2; Goldman & Fristoe, 2000) consists of asking what's this while showing pictures one at a time. Each response is then evaluated for point-to-point correspondence with the phonemic pho·ne·mic  
adj.
1. Of or relating to phonemes.

2. Of or relating to phonemics.

3. Serving to distinguish phonemes or distinctive features.
 elements of the (unspoken) model. As such, this test evaluates a tact repertoire (more precisely, a tact-intraverbal repertoire). However, if no response occurs, an echoic prompt is allowed (e.g., say 'house'). Thus, the task changes from one requiring tact/intraverbal control to one that requires echoiconly control. However, because the pictures are presumably still present, the clinician cannot be certain whether there is partial tact control over an echoic response, should one occur.

These examples illustrate the difficulty in trying to assess speech-language skills with assessments that specify only topography, and not contingencies, required for a correct response. That is, individuals without the requisite learning history or those with obvious impairment (e.g., aphasia) may have only part of the skills necessary to perform well on these assessments and, without a clear identification of the variables required for correct responding, the learner's repertoire may appear more or less deficient de·fi·cient
adj.
1. Lacking an essential quality or element.

2. Inadequate in amount or degree; insufficient.



deficient

a state of being in deficit.
. Therefore, assessments to identify therapy intervention targets need to clearly identify (1) the stimulus control for various operants that define a competent speech-language repertoire and (2) the foundational, cumulative repertoires that may need to be in place (e.g., tact, listener) to support more complex responding (e.g., intraverbal). This explication ex·pli·cate  
tr.v. ex·pli·cat·ed, ex·pli·cat·ing, ex·pli·cates
To make clear the meaning of; explain. See Synonyms at explain.



[Latin explic
 should take into consideration recent research and supporting literature regarding complex speech-language skills such as naming and categorization (e.g., Miguel et al., 2008; Petursdottir et al., 2008), equivalence (Sidman, 1994), and other derived relations (e.g., Rosales & Rehfeldt, 2007).

Speech-language assessments yielding a functional hierarchy of skill deficits have the advantage of being more prescriptive for subsequent intervention than are those that yield structural-only descriptions of errors (Baker et al., 2008; Lerman et al., 2005; Sundberg et al., 1990). This is because the independent variables governing, and thus crucial to, behavior change are not typically assessed, described, or otherwise addressed in traditional speech-language assessments (although there is evidence of emerging interest in the contextual communication environment; e.g., Hyter, 2007). One recently published assessment of verbal functions and related language skills is the Verbal Behavior Milestones Assessment and Placement Program (VB-MAPP, Sundberg, 2008), which provides clinicians with a hierarchy of 170 skills developmentally referenced from ages 0--48 months. Skills are balanced across the verbal functions (e.g., mand, tact, intraverbal, echoic) and related areas (e.g., social skills, linguistic skills, reading) in order to avoid the rote rote 1  
n.
1. A memorizing process using routine or repetition, often without full attention or comprehension: learn by rote.

2. Mechanical routine.
 responding that can occur when out-of-sequence skills are taught (e.g., intraverbal) without having first established the requisite supporting functions, such as tact and listener repertoires (also see Greer & Ross, 2008). To address behaviors that may interfere with skill acquisition, an additional component test, the VB-MAPP Barriers Assessment, identifies 24 potential learning barriers to which environmental (i.e., behavioral) solutions can be applied in order to maximize instructional efficiency.

Future research needs to establish the clinical efficacy of the VB-MAPP and other function-based speech-language assessments (e.g., Partington & Sundberg, 1998) as they become available. In the meantime Adv. 1. in the meantime - during the intervening time; "meanwhile I will not think about the problem"; "meantime he was attentive to his other interests"; "in the meantime the police were notified"
meantime, meanwhile
, assessments of this sort offer immediate clinical benefit over non-functional speech-language tests because they allow clinicians to identify speaker-listener deficits according to developmental norms in a curricular sequence and, at the same time, they pinpoint the environmental variables that currently control these responses errors. By identifying the variables of which errors are a function, assessments like the VB-MAPP also highlight the stimuli that do not yet control desired speech-language responses; thus, interventions can be designed that incorporate stimulus control transfer procedures for more effective and efficient learning. Practitioners who have yet to access function-based speech-language assessments can nevertheless begin to analyze their existing evaluation tools (some of which may appear in the database) for the likely functions represented by these instruments. This first-step would be invaluable for informing treatments by assisting therapists in the selection and sequencing of appropriate targets for their interventions.

Additional research is needed to further elucidate e·lu·ci·date  
v. e·lu·ci·dat·ed, e·lu·ci·dat·ing, e·lu·ci·dates

v.tr.
To make clear or plain, especially by explanation; clarify.

v.intr.
To give an explanation that serves to clarify.
 speaker-listener functions. For example, Poon poon  
n.
Any of several trees of the genus Calophyllum, of southern Asia, having light hard wood used for masts and spars.



[Sinhalese p
 and Butler (1972) suggest there may be developmental influences on intraverbal relations (e.g., different acquisition stages for how, when, where). As noted earlier, Baker et al. (2008) offer an initial functionbased taxonomy taxonomy: see classification.
taxonomy

In biology, the classification of organisms into a hierarchy of groupings, from the general to the particular, that reflect evolutionary and usually morphological relationships: kingdom, phylum, class, order,
 for evaluating speaker-listener repertoires following neurological neurological, neurologic

pertaining to or emanating from the nervous system or from neurology.


neurological assessment
evaluation of the health status of a patient with a nervous system disorder or dysfunction.
 impairment (i.e., aphasia). Lerman and colleagues (2005) discuss positive treatment implications by including existing responses in functional assessments of the verbal repertoire. Yes-no responding has been assessed and trained across the verbal functions (Shillingsburg, Kelley, Roane, Kisamore, & Brown; 2009) following demonstrations that these responses did not generalize from one operant (e.g., mand) to another (e.g., tact) without specific training. Finally, Carr and Firth firth or frith, Scottish term applied to an arm of the sea, usually an estuary or strait. For Firth of Clyde, see Clyde; for Firth of Forth, see Forth.  (2005) call for researchers and practitioners alike to publish results of individual treatments based on Skinner's (1957) analysis of verbal behavior. Key to this body of evidence would be the contributions of speech pathologists in which speech-language assessments and clinical progress reports include analyses of independent variables (i.e., functions) that are responsible for topographies of interest.

There is much to be explained in verbal behavior (Sundberg, 1991) and much is still speculative (Palmer, 1998). Nevertheless, the utility of our assessments will be strengthened by a more thorough accounting of the observable variables that control speech-language behavior. If it is true that "learning occurs best when embedded Inserted into. See embedded system.  within functional activities" (Rowland & Schweigert, 1993, p. 173), then assessment that includes a functional account is essential.

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(Asterisk (1) See Asterisk PBX.

(2) In programming, the asterisk or "star" symbol (*) means multiplication. For example, 10 * 7 means 10 multiplied by 7. The * is also a key on computer keypads for entering expressions using multiplication.
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v.tr.
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n. pl. mi·lieus or mi·lieux
1. The totality of one's surroundings; an environment.

2. The social setting of a mental patient.



milieu

[Fr.] surroundings, environment.
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tr.v. e·lic·it·ed, e·lic·it·ing, e·lic·its
1.
a. To bring or draw out (something latent); educe.

b. To arrive at (a truth, for example) by logic.

2.
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n.
One that indicates or foreshadows what is to come; a forerunner.

tr.v. har·bin·gered, har·bin·ger·ing, har·bin·gers
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n.
1. An easily deceived person.

2. A person who functions as the tool of another person or power.

tr.v. duped, dup·ing, dupes
To deceive (an unwary person). See Synonyms at deceive.
.

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Of or relating to psychiatry.


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Author Contact Information

Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to the first author.

Barbara E. Esch

Esch Behavior Consultants, Inc.

P. O. Box 20002

Kalamazoo, MI 49019

Phone: 561-676-7212

E-mail: besch1@mac.com

Kate B. LaLonde

Esch Behavior Consultants, Inc.

P.O.Box 20002

Kalamazoo, MI 49019

John W. Esch

Esch Behavior Consultants, Inc.

P. O. Box 20002

Kalamazoo, MI 49019
Table 1. Descriptions of five elementary verbal operants
(Skinner, 1957)

Verbal          Antecedent events that               Response
Operant            evoke the operant

Mand             Motivating conditions        Asking (e.g., Airplane)
              (e.g., wants toy airplane)

Echoic          Verbal stimulus (vocal)     Repeating (e.g., Airplane)
               (e.g., "Say 'airplane'")

Tact           Nonverbal stimulus (e.g.,    Labeling (e.g., Look Mommy,
               Airplane flies overhead)             Airplane!)

Intraverbal      Verbal stimulus (any)        Conversation (e.g., No,
               (e.g., "Did you arrive by             airplane)
                       train?")

Textual        Verbal stimulus (textual)     Reading (e.g., Airplane)
                (e.g., Word: AIRPLANE)

Verbal          Consequent events that
Operant         strengthen the operant

Mand             Specified by the mand
               (e.g., Gets toy airplane)

Echoic            Generalized social
                  reinforcers (e.g.,
                       "Right!")

Tact              Generalized social
                reinforcers (e.g., Mom:
              "Wow! That's really big!")

Intraverbal       Generalized social
              reinforcers (e.g., "Oh, how
                   was the flight?")

Textual           Generalized social
               reinforcers (e.g., "Good
                      reading!")

NOTE: Functions that may involve complex language behavior (e.g.,
problem solving, remembering, joint control, emergent relations)
are outside the scope of this paper. Readers interested in these
topics are referred to Donahoe and Palmer (1994), Lowenkron (2006),
or Rehfeldt and Barnes-Holmes (2009).

Table 2. Aphasia Tests

                                                 Implied Function of
                                                    lest items (3)

                                                      Verbal

  Test and      Sub-test name or
  author(s)     description                    Mand   Echoic   Tact

Boston          Items 1-8
Assessment      Items 9-11                                     (x)
of Severe       Items 12-17
Aphasia         Items 18-23                             x
(BASA)          Items 24-27                                    (x)
Helm-           Item 28                                         x
Estabrooks      Items 29-30                                     x
at al. (1989)   Items 31-32                                    (x)
                Items 33-35                                     x
                Items 36-37                                    (x)
                Items 38-40                                    (x)
                Items 41-43                                    (x)
                Items 44-46                                    (x)
                Items 47-49                            (x)      x
                Items 50-54                                     x
                Item 55                                        (x)
                Items 56-59
                Items 60-61                            (x)

Reading         Subtest 1: Word-Visual                 (x)      x
Comprehen       Subtest 2: Word-Auditory               (x)      x
sion battery    Subtest 3: Word-Semantic               (x)      x
for Aphasia     Subtest 4: Functional
(RCBA-2)          Reading                              (x)      x
LaPointe &      Subtest 5: Synonyms                    (x)      x
Horner          Subtest 6: Sentence-Picture            (x)      x
(1998)          Subtest 7: Paragraph-Picture           (x)      x
                Subtest 8: Paragraph-Factual           (x)
                Subtest 9:
                  Paragraph-Inferential                (x)
                Subtest 10: Morpho-Syntax              (x)
                Subtest 11: Letter
                  Discrimination                       (x)
                Subtest 12: Letter Naming
                Subtest 13: Letter
                  Recognition                          (x)
                Subtest 14: Lexical Decision           (x)
                Subtest 15: Semantic
                  Categorization
                Subtest 16: Oral Reading:
                  Words
                Subtest 17: Oral Heading:
                  Sentences

Western         Spontaneous Speech
Aphasia           A: Conversational
Battery             Questions
Revised           B: Picture Description                        x
Kertesz         Auditory Verbal
(2007)              Comprehension
                  A: Yes/No Questions                          (x)
                  B: Auditory Word
                    Recognition
                  C: Sequential Commands
                Repetition                              x
                Naming & Word Finding
                  A: Object Naming                      P       x
                  B: Word Fluency
                  C: Sentence Completion
                  D: Responsive Speech

                                                Implied Function of
                                                   lest items (3)

                                                        Verbal

  Test and      Sub-test name or
  author(s)     description                    Intraverbal   Textual

Boston          Items 1-8                           x         P (b)
Assessment      Items 9-11                         (x)         (x)
of Severe       Items 12-17                         x
Aphasia         Items 18-23
(BASA)          Items 24-27
Helm-           Item 28                            (x)
Estabrooks      Items 29-30                        (x)
at al. (1989)   Items 31-32
                Items 33-35                         x
                Items 36-37
                Items 38-40                        (x)         (x)
                Items 41-43
                Items 44-46                        (x)         (x)
                Items 47-49                         x
                Items 50-54                                     x
                Item 55                            (x)         (x)
                Items 56-59
                Items 60-61                         x

Reading         Subtest 1: Word-Visual             (x)          x
Comprehen       Subtest 2: Word-Auditory           (x)          x
sion battery    Subtest 3: Word-Semantic           (x)          x
for Aphasia     Subtest 4: Functional
(RCBA-2)          Reading                          (x)          x
LaPointe &      Subtest 5: Synonyms                (x)          x
Horner          Subtest 6: Sentence-Picture        (x)          x
(1998)          Subtest 7: Paragraph-Picture       (x)          x
                Subtest 8: Paragraph-Factual        x           x
                Subtest 9:
                  Paragraph-Inferential             x           x
                Subtest 10: Morpho-Syntax          (x)          x
                Subtest 11: Letter
                  Discrimination                    x          (x)
                Subtest 12: Letter Naming                       x
                Subtest 13: Letter
                  Recognition                                   x
                Subtest 14: Lexical Decision       (x)          x
                Subtest 15: Semantic
                  Categorization                    x           x
                Subtest 16: Oral Reading:
                  Words                                         x
                Subtest 17: Oral Heading:
                  Sentences                                     x

Western         Spontaneous Speech
Aphasia           A: Conversational
Battery             Questions                       x
Revised           B: Picture Description            x
Kertesz         Auditory Verbal
(2007)              Comprehension
                  A: Yes/No Questions               x
                  B: Auditory Word
                    Recognition                                 x
                  C: Sequential Commands
                Repetition
                Naming & Word Finding
                  A: Object Naming                 (x)
                  B: Word Fluency                   x
                  C: Sentence Completion            x
                  D: Responsive Speech              x

                                               Nonverbal

  Test and      Sub-test name or
  author(s)     description                    Listener

Boston          Items 1-8
Assessment      Items 9-11                         x
of Severe       Items 12-17                        x
Aphasia         Items 18-23
(BASA)          Items 24-27                        x
Helm-           Item 28
Estabrooks      Items 29-30                        P
at al. (1989)   Items 31-32                        x
                Items 33-35                       (x)
                Items 36-37                        x
                Items 38-40                        x
                Items 41-43                        x
                Items 44-46                        x
                Items 47-49
                Items 50-54
                Item 55                            x
                Items 56-59                        x
                Items 60-61

Reading         Subtest 1: Word-Visual             x
Comprehen       Subtest 2: Word-Auditory           x
sion battery    Subtest 3: Word-Semantic           x
for Aphasia     Subtest 4: Functional
(RCBA-2)          Reading                          x
LaPointe &      Subtest 5: Synonyms                x
Horner          Subtest 6: Sentence-Picture        x
(1998)          Subtest 7: Paragraph-Picture       x
                Subtest 8: Paragraph-Factual       x
                Subtest 9:
                  Paragraph-Inferential            x
                Subtest 10: Morpho-Syntax          x
                Subtest 11: Letter
                  Discrimination
                Subtest 12: Letter Naming         (x)
                Subtest 13: Letter
                  Recognition                      x
                Subtest 14: Lexical Decision       x
                Subtest 15: Semantic
                  Categorization
                Subtest 16: Oral Reading:
                  Words
                Subtest 17: Oral Heading:
                  Sentences

Western         Spontaneous Speech
Aphasia           A: Conversational
Battery             Questions
Revised           B: Picture Description
Kertesz         Auditory Verbal
(2007)              Comprehension
                  A: Yes/No Questions
                  B: Auditory Word
                    Recognition                    x
                  C: Sequential Commands           x
                Repetition
                Naming & Word Finding
                  A: Object Naming
                  B: Word Fluency
                  C: Sentence Completion
                  D: Responsive Speech

  Test and      Sub-test name or
  author(s)     description                    Comments

Boston          Items 1-8
Assessment      Items 9-11
of Severe       Items 12-17                    Imitative prompts
Aphasia         Items 18-23
(BASA)          Items 24-27                    Imitative prompts
Helm-           Item 28
Estabrooks      Items 29-30
at al. (1989)   Items 31-32
                Items 33-35
                Items 36-37
                Items 38-40
                Items 41-43
                Items 44-46
                Items 47-49
                Items 50-54
                Item 55
                Items 56-59                    Includes match-to-sample
                Items 60-61

Reading         Subtest 1: Word-Visual
Comprehen       Subtest 2: Word-Auditory
sion battery    Subtest 3: Word-Semantic
for Aphasia     Subtest 4: Functional
(RCBA-2)          Reading
LaPointe &      Subtest 5: Synonyms
Horner          Subtest 6: Sentence-Picture
(1998)          Subtest 7: Paragraph-Picture
                Subtest 8: Paragraph-Factual
                Subtest 9:
                  Paragraph-Inferential
                Subtest 10: Morpho-Syntax
                Subtest 11: Letter
                  Discrimination
                Subtest 12: Letter Naming
                Subtest 13: Letter
                  Recognition
                Subtest 14: Lexical Decision
                Subtest 15: Semantic
                  Categorization
                Subtest 16: Oral Reading:
                  Words
                Subtest 17: Oral Heading:
                  Sentences

Western         Spontaneous Speech
Aphasia           A: Conversational
Battery             Questions
Revised           B: Picture Description
Kertesz         Auditory Verbal
(2007)              Comprehension
                  A: Yes/No Questions
                  B: Auditory Word
                    Recognition
                  C: Sequential Commands
                Repetition
                Naming & Word Finding
                  A: Object Naming
                  B: Word Fluency              Categories
                  C: Sentence Completion       Fill-in-blank
                  D: Responsive Speech         WH-questions

(a) Items marked (x) indicate additional operant repertoires
required or assessed by this item

(b) Correction prompts may additionally assess this operant

Table 3. Apraxia Tests

                                                    Implied function
                                                    of test items (a)

                                                        Verbal

                     Sub-test name or
Test and author(s)   description                    Mand    Echoic

Apraxia battery
for Adults
(ABA-2)              Diadochokinetic Rate                     x
Dabul (2000)
                     Increasing Word Length                   x
                     (A & B)

                     Limb Apraxia & Oral
                     Apraxia

                     Latency Time and Utterance
                     Time for Polysyllabic Words

                     Repeated trials                          x

                     Inventory of Articulation
                     Characteristics of Apraxia

Kaufman Speech                                        x
Praxis Test for
Children (KSPT)
Kaufman (1995)

Test of Oral and     Limb Apraxia: Proximal
Limb Apraxia         Gestures
(TOLA)
Helm-Estabrooks      Limb Apraxia: Distal
(1992)               Gestures

                     Oral Apraxia

                     Gestured Pictures

The Apraxia          Volitional Oral Movement--       x
Profile:             Verbal
Preschool (P)
School-age (S)       Diadochokinesis                  x
Hickman (1997)       Words (repetition) (P)           x
                       (S) Difficult word             x
                           repetition
                     Phrases and Sentences (P, S)     x
                       (S) Rhymes                     x
                       (S) Counting                 P (b)
                       (S) Prosody                    x

                     Connected Speech Sample                 (x)

                                                    Implied function
                                                    of test items (a)

                                                      Verbal

                     Sub-test name or
Test and author(s)   description                       Tact

Apraxia battery
for Adults
(ABA-2)              Diadochokinetic Rate
Dabul (2000)
                     Increasing Word Length
                     (A & B)

                     Limb Apraxia & Oral
                     Apraxia

                     Latency Time and Utterance          x
                     Time for Polysyllabic Words

                     Repeated trials

                     Inventory of Articulation           x
                     Characteristics of Apraxia

Kaufman Speech
Praxis Test for
Children (KSPT)
Kaufman (1995)

Test of Oral and     Limb Apraxia: Proximal
Limb Apraxia         Gestures
(TOLA)
Helm-Estabrooks      Limb Apraxia: Distal
(1992)               Gestures

                     Oral Apraxia

                     Gestured Pictures

The Apraxia          Volitional Oral Movement--
Profile:             Verbal
Preschool (P)
School-age (S)       Diadochokinesis
Hickman (1997)       Words (repetition) (P)
                       (S) Difficult word
                           repetition
                     Phrases and Sentences (P, S)
                       (S) Rhymes
                       (S) Counting                      x
                       (S) Prosody

                     Connected Speech Sample             x

                                                 Implied function
                                                 of test items (a)

                                                      Verbal

                     Sub-test name or
Test and author(s)   description                    Intraverbal

Apraxia battery
for Adults
(ABA-2)              Diadochokinetic Rate
Dabul (2000)
                     Increasing Word Length
                     (A & B)

                     Limb Apraxia & Oral
                     Apraxia

                     Latency Time and Utterance         (x)
                     Time for Polysyllabic Words

                     Repeated trials                    (x)

                     Inventory of Articulation           x
                     Characteristics of Apraxia

Kaufman Speech
Praxis Test for
Children (KSPT)
Kaufman (1995)

Test of Oral and     Limb Apraxia: Proximal
Limb Apraxia         Gestures
(TOLA)
Helm-Estabrooks      Limb Apraxia: Distal
(1992)               Gestures

                     Oral Apraxia

                     Gestured Pictures

The Apraxia          Volitional Oral Movement--
Profile:             Verbal
Preschool (P)
School-age (S)       Diadochokinesis
Hickman (1997)       Words (repetition) (P)
                       (S) Difficult word
                           repetition
                     Phrases and Sentences (P, S)
                       (S) Rhymes
                       (S) Counting
                       (S) Prosody

                     Connected Speech Sample

                                                  Implied function
                                                  of test items (a)

                                                      Verbal

                     Sub-test name or
Test and author(s)   description                      Textual

Apraxia battery
for Adults
(ABA-2)              Diadochokinetic Rate
Dabul (2000)
                     Increasing Word Length
                     (A & B)

                     Limb Apraxia & Oral
                     Apraxia

                     Latency Time and Utterance
                     Time for Polysyllabic Words

                     Repeated trials

                     Inventory of Articulation           x
                     Characteristics of Apraxia

Kaufman Speech
Praxis Test for
Children (KSPT)
Kaufman (1995)

Test of Oral and     Limb Apraxia: Proximal
Limb Apraxia         Gestures
(TOLA)
Helm-Estabrooks      Limb Apraxia: Distal
(1992)               Gestures

                     Oral Apraxia

                     Gestured Pictures

The Apraxia          Volitional Oral Movement--
Profile:             Verbal
Preschool (P)
School-age (S)       Diadochokinesis
Hickman (1997)       Words (repetition) (P)
                       (S) Difficult word
                           repetition
                     Phrases and Sentences (P, S)
                       (S) Rhymes
                       (S) Counting
                       (S) Prosody

                     Connected Speech Sample

                                                     Nonverbal

                     Sub-test name or
Test and author(s)   description                     Listener

Apraxia battery
for Adults
(ABA-2)              Diadochokinetic Rate                x
Dabul (2000)
                     Increasing Word Length
                     (A & B)

                     Limb Apraxia & Oral
                     Apraxia

                     Latency Time and Utterance
                     Time for Polysyllabic Words

                     Repeated trials

                     Inventory of Articulation
                     Characteristics of Apraxia

Kaufman Speech                                           x
Praxis Test for
Children (KSPT)
Kaufman (1995)

Test of Oral and     Limb Apraxia: Proximal              x
Limb Apraxia         Gestures
(TOLA)
Helm-Estabrooks      Limb Apraxia: Distal                x
(1992)               Gestures

                     Oral Apraxia                        x

                     Gestured Pictures                   x

The Apraxia          Volitional Oral Movement--          x
Profile:             Verbal
Preschool (P)
School-age (S)       Diadochokinesis                     x
Hickman (1997)       Words (repetition) (P)              x
                       (S) Difficult word                x
                           repetition
                     Phrases and Sentences (P, S)        x
                       (S) Rhymes                        x
                       (S) Counting
                       (S) Prosody                       x

                     Connected Speech Sample

                     Sub-test name or
Test and author(s)   description                    Comments

Apraxia battery                                     Requires
for Adults                                          comprehension
(ABA-2)              Diadochokinetic Rate           of "as
Dabul (2000)                                        many as" and
                     Increasing Word Length         "as fast as"
                     (A & B)

                     Limb Apraxia & Oral            Imitative
                     Apraxia                        prompts

                     Latency Time and Utterance
                     Time for Polysyllabic Words

                     Repeated trials                Also requires
                                                    self-echoic
                     Inventory of Articulation
                     Characteristics of Apraxia

Kaufman Speech
Praxis Test for
Children (KSPT)
Kaufman (1995)

Test of Oral and     Limb Apraxia: Proximal         Imitative
Limb Apraxia         Gestures                       prompts
(TOLA)
Helm-Estabrooks      Limb Apraxia: Distal           Imitative
(1992)               Gestures                       prompts

                     Oral Apraxia                   Imitative
                                                    prompts

                     Gestured Pictures

The Apraxia          Volitional Oral Movement--
Profile:             Verbal
Preschool (P)
School-age (S)       Diadochokinesis
Hickman (1997)       Words (repetition) (P)
                       (S) Difficult word
                           repetition
                     Phrases and Sentences (P, S)   Requires
                       (S) Rhymes                   prosody
                       (S) Counting                 echoic
                       (S) Prosody

                     Connected Speech Sample        Morpheme/in
                                                    telligibility
                                                    analysis

(a) Items marked (x) indicate additional operant repertoires required
or assessed by this item

(b) Correction prompts may additionally assess this operant

Table 4. Articulation/Phonology Tests

                                                          Implied
                                                         function of
                                                         test items
                                                             (a)

                                                            Verbal

Test and authors)         Sub-test name or description   Mand   Echoic

Bankson-Bernthal Test                                           P (b)
of Phonology (BBTOP)
Bankson & Bernthal
(1990)

Clinical Assessment of    Articulation Inventory:                 P
Articulation and          consonants
Phonology (CAAP)          Articulation Inventory:
Secord & Donohue          sentences                               x
(2002)                    Phonological Processs Probes            P

Comprehensive Test of     Elision                                 x
Phonological              Rapid Color Naming
Processing for ages 5     Blending Words                          x
and 6(CTOPP)              Sound Matching                          x
Wagner et al. (1999)      Rapid Object Naming
                          Memory for Digits                       x
                          Nonword repetition                      x
                          Blending Nonwords                       x

Goldman-Fristoe Test                                              P
of Articulation (GFTA-
2)
Goldman & Fristoe
(2000)

Hodson Assessment of                                              P
Phonological Patterns
(HAPP-3)
Hodson (2004)

Khan-Lewis                                                        P
Phonological Analysis
(KLPA-2)
Khan & Lewis (2002)

Photo Articulation Test                                           P
(PAT-3)
Lippke et al. (1997)

                                                            Implied
                                                          function of
                                                          test items
                                                             (a)

                                                           Verbal

Test and authors)         Sub-test name or description      Tact

Bankson-Bernthal Test                                         x
of Phonology (BBTOP)
Bankson & Bernthal
(1990)

Clinical Assessment of    Articulation Inventory:             x
Articulation and          consonants
Phonology (CAAP)          Articulation Inventory:
Secord & Donohue          sentences
(2002)                    Phonological Processs Probes        x

Comprehensive Test of     Elision
Phonological              Rapid Color Naming                  x
Processing for ages 5     Blending Words
and 6 (CTOPP)             Sound Matching                      x
Wagner et al. (1999)      Rapid Object Naming                 x
                          Memory for Digits
                          Nonword repetition
                          Blending Nonwords

Goldman-Fristoe Test                                          x
of Articulation (GFTA-
2)
Goldman & Fristoe
(2000)

Hodson Assessment of                                          x
Phonological Patterns
(HAPP-3)
Hodson (2004)

Khan-Lewis                                                    x
Phonological Analysis
(KLPA-2)
Khan & Lewis (2002)

Photo Articulation Test                                       x
(PAT-3)
Lippke et al. (1997)

                                                           Implied
                                                         function of
                                                        test items (a)

                                                           Verbal

Test and authors)         Sub-test name or description   Intraverbal

Bankson-Bernthal Test
of Phonology (BBTOP)
Bankson & Bernthal
(1990)

Clinical Assessment of    Articulation Inventory:             P
Articulation and          consonants
Phonology (CAAP)          Articulation Inventory:
Secord & Donohue          sentences
(2002)                    Phonological Processs Probes

Comprehensive Test of     Elision                             x
Phonological              Rapid Color Naming                  x
Processing for ages 5     Blending Words                      x
and 6 (CTOPP)             Sound Matching                      x
Wagner et al. (1999)      Rapid Object Naming                 x
                          Memory for Digits
                          Nonword repetition
                          Blending Nonwords

Goldman-Fristoe Test                                         (x)
of Articulation (GFTA-
2)
Goldman & Fristoe
(2000)

Hodson Assessment of                                         (x)
Phonological Patterns
(HAPP-3)
Hodson (2004)

Khan-Lewis                                                   (x)
Phonological Analysis
(KLPA-2)
Khan & Lewis (2002)

Photo Articulation Test                                      (x)
(PAT-3)
Lippke et al. (1997)

                                                           Implied
                                                          function of
                                                          test items
                                                             (a)

                                                            Verbal

Test and authors)         Sub-test name or description     Textual

Bankson-Bernthal Test
of Phonology (BBTOP)
Bankson & Bernthal
(1990)

Clinical Assessment of    Articulation Inventory:
Articulation and          consonants
Phonology (CAAP)          Articulation Inventory:
Secord & Donohue          sentences
(2002)                    Phonological Processs Probes

Comprehensive Test of     Elision
Phonological              Rapid Color Naming
Processing for ages 5     Blending Words
and 6 (CTOPP)             Sound Matching
Wagner et al. (1999)      Rapid Object Naming
                          Memory for Digits
                          Nonword repetition
                          Blending Nonwords

Goldman-Fristoe Test
of Articulation (GFTA-
2)
Goldman & Fristoe
(2000)

Hodson Assessment of
Phonological Patterns
(HAPP-3)
Hodson (2004)

Khan-Lewis
Phonological Analysis
(KLPA-2)
Khan & Lewis (2002)

Photo Articulation Test
(PAT-3)
Lippke et al. (1997)

                                                         Nonverbal

Test and authors)         Sub-test name or description    Listener

Bankson-Bernthal Test
of Phonology (BBTOP)
Bankson & Bernthal
(1990)

Clinical Assessment of    Articulation Inventory:
Articulation and          consonants
Phonology (CAAP)          Articulation Inventory:
Secord & Donohue          sentences
(2002)                    Phonological Processs Probes

Comprehensive Test of     Elision                            (x)
Phonological              Rapid Color Naming                 (x)
Processing for ages 5     Blending Words
and 6 (CTOPP)             Sound Matching
Wagner et al. (1999)      Rapid Object Naming
                          Memory for Digits
                          Nonword repetition
                          Blending Nonwords

Goldman-Fristoe Test
of Articulation (GFTA-
2)
Goldman & Fristoe
(2000)

Hodson Assessment of
Phonological Patterns
(HAPP-3)
Hodson (2004)

Khan-Lewis
Phonological Analysis
(KLPA-2)
Khan & Lewis (2002)

Photo Articulation Test
(PAT-3)
Lippke et al. (1997)

(a) Items marked (x) indicate additional operant repertoires
required or assessed by this item

(b) Correction prompts may additionally assess this operant

Table 5. Receptive-Expressive Language Tests

                                                             Implied
                                                             function
                                                             of test
                                                            items (a)

                                                              Verbal

Test and author(s)         Sub-test name or description        Mand

Clinical Evaluation of     Concepts & Following
Language Fundamentals      Directions
Ages 5-8 (CELF-4)          Word Structure
Semel et al. (2003)        Recalling Sentences
                           Formulated Sentences
                           Word Classes 1 (ages 5-7)
                           Word Classes 2 (ages 8-21)
                           Sentence Structure
                           Expressive Vocabulary
                           Understanding Spoken
                           Paragraphs
                           Phonological Awareness
                           Word Associations
                           Number Repetition
                           Familiar Sequences
                           Rapid Automatic Naming
                           Pragmatics Profile

Clinical Evaluation of     Sentence Structure
Language Fundamentals      Word Structure
Preschool                  Expressive Vocabulary
(CELF-P2)                  Concepts & Following
Wiig et al. (2004)         Directions
                           Recalling Sentences
                           Basic Concepts
                           Word Classes (Ages 4-6)
                           Recalling Sentences in Context
                           Phonological Awareness

Comprehensive              Receptive Vocabulary
Receptive and Expressive   Expressive Vocabulary
Vocabulary Test
(CREVT)
Wallace & Hammill
(1994)

MacArthur-Bates            Checklist of words, phrases,
Communicative              sentences
Development Inventories    Instructions to mark words
Fenson et al. (2007)       child uses

Preschool Language         Auditory Comprehension
Scale (PLS-4)
Zimmerman et al. (2002)    Expressive Communication             x

Receptive-Expressive       Receptive
Emergent Language Test     Expressive                           x
(REEL-3)
Bzoch et al. (2003)

Test of Language           Picture Vocabulary
Development--Primary       Relational Vocabulary
(TOLD-P:3)                 Oral Vocabulary
Newcomer & Hamill          Grammatic Understanding
(1988)                     Sentence Imitation
                           Grammatic Completion
                           Word Discrimination
                           Phonemic Analysis
                           Word Articulation

                                                             Implied
                                                             function
                                                             of test
                                                            items (a)

                                                              Verbal

Test and author(s)         Sub-test name or description       Echoic

Clinical Evaluation of     Concepts & Following
Language Fundamentals      Directions
Ages 5-8 (CELF-4)          Word Structure
Semel et al. (2003)        Recalling Sentences                  x
                           Formulated Sentences                (x)
                           Word Classes 1 (ages 5-7)           (x)
                           Word Classes 2 (ages 8-21)          (x)
                           Sentence Structure                  (x)
                           Expressive Vocabulary
                           Understanding Spoken
                           Paragraphs
                           Phonological Awareness               x
                           Word Associations                  P (b)
                           Number Repetition                    x
                           Familiar Sequences                   x
                           Rapid Automatic Naming
                           Pragmatics Profile

Clinical Evaluation of     Sentence Structure                  (x)
Language Fundamentals      Word Structure
Preschool                  Expressive Vocabulary
(CELF-P2)                  Concepts & Following                (x)
Wiig et al. (2004)         Directions
                           Recalling Sentences                  x
                           Basic Concepts                      (x)
                           Word Classes (Ages 4-6)             (x)
                           Recalling Sentences in Context       x
                           Phonological Awareness               x

Comprehensive              Receptive Vocabulary                (x)
Receptive and Expressive   Expressive Vocabulary
Vocabulary Test
(CREVT)
Wallace & Hammill
(1994)

MacArthur-Bates            Checklist of words, phrases,
Communicative              sentences
Development Inventories    Instructions to mark words
Fenson et al. (2007)       child uses

Preschool Language         Auditory Comprehension              (x)
Scale (PLS-4)
Zimmerman et al. (2002)    Expressive Communication             x

Receptive-Expressive       Receptive                            x
Emergent Language Test     Expressive                           x
(REEL-3)
Bzoch et al. (2003)

Test of Language           Picture Vocabulary                  (x)
Development--Primary       Relational Vocabulary
(TOLD-P:3)                 Oral Vocabulary
Newcomer & Hamill          Grammatic Understanding             (x)
(1988)                     Sentence Imitation                   x
                           Grammatic Completion
                           Word Discrimination                 (x)
                           Phonemic Analysis                    x
                           Word Articulation                    P

                                                             Implied
                                                             function
                                                             of test
                                                            items (a)

                                                              Verbal

Test and author(s)         Sub-test name or description        Tact

Clinical Evaluation of     Concepts & Following
Language Fundamentals      Directions
Ages 5-8 (CELF-4)          Word Structure                       x
Semel et al. (2003)        Recalling Sentences
                           Formulated Sentences                 x
                           Word Classes 1 (ages 5-7)           (x)
                           Word Classes 2 (ages 8-21)          (x)
                           Sentence Structure                  (x)
                           Expressive Vocabulary                x
                           Understanding Spoken
                           Paragraphs
                           Phonological Awareness
                           Word Associations
                           Number Repetition
                           Familiar Sequences
                           Rapid Automatic Naming               x
                           Pragmatics Profile

Clinical Evaluation of     Sentence Structure                  (x)
Language Fundamentals      Word Structure                       x
Preschool                  Expressive Vocabulary                x
(CELF-P2)                  Concepts & Following                (x)
Wiig et al. (2004)         Directions
                           Recalling Sentences
                           Basic Concepts                      (x)
                           Word Classes (Ages 4-6)             (x)
                           Recalling Sentences in Context
                           Phonological Awareness

Comprehensive              Receptive Vocabulary                (x)
Receptive and Expressive   Expressive Vocabulary
Vocabulary Test
(CREVT)
Wallace & Hammill
(1994)

MacArthur-Bates            Checklist of words, phrases,
Communicative              sentences
Development Inventories    Instructions to mark words
Fenson et al. (2007)       child uses

Preschool Language         Auditory Comprehension              (x)
Scale (PLS-4)
Zimmerman et al. (2002)    Expressive Communication             x

Receptive-Expressive       Receptive                            x
Emergent Language Test     Expressive                           x
(REEL-3)
Bzoch et al. (2003)

Test of Language           Picture Vocabulary                  (x)
Development--Primary       Relational Vocabulary
(TOLD-P:3)                 Oral Vocabulary
Newcomer & Hamill          Grammatic Understanding             (x)
(1988)                     Sentence Imitation
                           Grammatic Completion
                           Word Discrimination
                           Phonemic Analysis
                           Word Articulation                    x

                                                              Implied
                                                             function
                                                              of test
                                                             items (a)

                                                              Verbal

Test and author(s)         Sub-test name or description     Intraverbal

Clinical Evaluation of     Concepts & Following
Language Fundamentals      Directions
Ages 5-8 (CELF-4)          Word Structure                        x
Semel et al. (2003)        Recalling Sentences
                           Formulated Sentences                  x
                           Word Classes 1 (ages 5-7)             x
                           Word Classes 2 (ages 8-21)            x
                           Sentence Structure                   (x)
                           Expressive Vocabulary                 x
                           Understanding Spoken
                           Paragraphs                            x
                           Phonological Awareness               (x)
                           Word Associations                     x
                           Number Repetition                    (x)
                           Familiar Sequences                   (x)
                           Rapid Automatic Naming
                           Pragmatics Profile

Clinical Evaluation of     Sentence Structure                   (x)
Language Fundamentals      Word Structure                        x
Preschool                  Expressive Vocabulary                 x
(CELF-P2)                  Concepts & Following
Wiig et al. (2004)         Directions
                           Recalling Sentences
                           Basic Concepts                       (x)
                           Word Classes (Ages 4-6)               x
                           Recalling Sentences in Context
                           Phonological Awareness               (x)

Comprehensive              Receptive Vocabulary
Receptive and Expressive   Expressive Vocabulary                 x
Vocabulary Test
(CREVT)
Wallace & Hammill
(1994)

MacArthur-Bates            Checklist of words, phrases,
Communicative              sentences
Development Inventories    Instructions to mark words
Fenson et al. (2007)       child uses

Preschool Language         Auditory Comprehension               (x)
Scale (PLS-4)
Zimmerman et al. (2002)    Expressive Communication              x

Receptive-Expressive       Receptive                             x
Emergent Language Test     Expressive                            x
(REEL-3)
Bzoch et al. (2003)

Test of Language           Picture Vocabulary
Development--Primary       Relational Vocabulary                 x
(TOLD-P:3)                 Oral Vocabulary                       x
Newcomer & Hamill          Grammatic Understanding
(1988)                     Sentence Imitation
                           Grammatic Completion                  x
                           Word Discrimination                   x
                           Phonemic Analysis                     x
                           Word Articulation                     x

                                                             Implied
                                                             function
                                                             of test
                                                            items (a)

                                                              Verbal

Test and author(s)         Sub-test name or description      Textual

Clinical Evaluation of     Concepts & Following
Language Fundamentals      Directions
Ages 5-8 (CELF-4)          Word Structure
Semel et al. (2003)        Recalling Sentences
                           Formulated Sentences
                           Word Classes 1 (ages 5-7)
                           Word Classes 2 (ages 8-21)
                           Sentence Structure
                           Expressive Vocabulary
                           Understanding Spoken
                           Paragraphs
                           Phonological Awareness
                           Word Associations
                           Number Repetition
                           Familiar Sequences
                           Rapid Automatic Naming
                           Pragmatics Profile

Clinical Evaluation of     Sentence Structure
Language Fundamentals      Word Structure
Preschool                  Expressive Vocabulary
(CELF-P2)                  Concepts & Following
Wiig et al. (2004)         Directions
                           Recalling Sentences
                           Basic Concepts
                           Word Classes (Ages 4-6)
                           Recalling Sentences in Context
                           Phonological Awareness

Comprehensive              Receptive Vocabulary
Receptive and Expressive   Expressive Vocabulary
Vocabulary Test
(CREVT)
Wallace & Hammill
(1994)

MacArthur-Bates            Checklist of words, phrases,
Communicative              sentences
Development Inventories    Instructions to mark words
Fenson et al. (2007)       child uses

Preschool Language         Auditory Comprehension
Scale (PLS-4)
Zimmerman et al. (2002)    Expressive Communication

Receptive-Expressive       Receptive
Emergent Language Test     Expressive
(REEL-3)
Bzoch et al. (2003)

Test of Language           Picture Vocabulary
Development--Primary       Relational Vocabulary
(TOLD-P:3)                 Oral Vocabulary
Newcomer & Hamill          Grammatic Understanding
(1988)                     Sentence Imitation
                           Grammatic Completion
                           Word Discrimination
                           Phonemic Analysis
                           Word Articulation

                                                            Nonverbal

Test and author(s)         Sub-test name or description      Listener

Clinical Evaluation of     Concepts & Following                 x
Language Fundamentals      Directions
Ages 5-8 (CELF-4)          Word Structure
Semel et al. (2003)        Recalling Sentences
                           Formulated Sentences                (x)
                           Word Classes 1 (ages 5-7)            x
                           Word Classes 2 (ages 8-21)           x
                           Sentence Structure                   x
                           Expressive Vocabulary
                           Understanding Spoken
                           Paragraphs
                           Phonological Awareness
                           Word Associations
                           Number Repetition
                           Familiar Sequences
                           Rapid Automatic Naming
                           Pragmatics Profile

Clinical Evaluation of     Sentence Structure                   x
Language Fundamentals      Word Structure
Preschool                  Expressive Vocabulary
(CELF-P2)                  Concepts & Following                 x
Wiig et al. (2004)         Directions
                           Recalling Sentences
                           Basic Concepts                       x
                           Word Classes (Ages 4-6)              x
                           Recalling Sentences in Context
                           Phonological Awareness

Comprehensive              Receptive Vocabulary                 x
Receptive and Expressive   Expressive Vocabulary
Vocabulary Test
(CREVT)
Wallace & Hammill
(1994)

MacArthur-Bates            Checklist of words, phrases,
Communicative              sentences
Development Inventories    Instructions to mark words
Fenson et al. (2007)       child uses

Preschool Language         Auditory Comprehension               x
Scale (PLS-4)
Zimmerman et al. (2002)    Expressive Communication

Receptive-Expressive       Receptive                            x
Emergent Language Test     Expressive
(REEL-3)
Bzoch et al. (2003)

Test of Language           Picture Vocabulary                   x
Development--Primary       Relational Vocabulary
(TOLD-P:3)                 Oral Vocabulary
Newcomer & Hamill          Grammatic Understanding              x
(1988)                     Sentence Imitation
                           Grammatic Completion
                           Word Discrimination
                           Phonemic Analysis
                           Word Articulation

Test and author(s)         Sub-test name or description     Comments

Clinical Evaluation of     Concepts & Following
Language Fundamentals      Directions
Ages 5-8 (CELF-4)          Word Structure
Semel et al. (2003)        Recalling Sentences
                           Formulated Sentences
                           Word Classes 1 (ages 5-7)
                           Word Classes 2 (ages 8-21)
                           Sentence Structure
                           Expressive Vocabulary
                           Understanding Spoken
                           Paragraphs
                           Phonological Awareness
                           Word Associations
                           Number Repetition
                           Familiar Sequences
                           Rapid Automatic Naming
                           Pragmatics Profile               Informant

Clinical Evaluation of     Sentence Structure
Language Fundamentals      Word Structure
Preschool                  Expressive Vocabulary
(CELF-P2)                  Concepts & Following
Wiig et al. (2004)         Directions
                           Recalling Sentences
                           Basic Concepts
                           Word Classes (Ages 4-6)
                           Recalling Sentences in Context
                           Phonological Awareness

Comprehensive              Receptive Vocabulary
Receptive and Expressive   Expressive Vocabulary
Vocabulary Test
(CREVT)
Wallace & Hammill
(1994)

MacArthur-Bates            Checklist of words, phrases,
Communicative              sentences                        Informant
Development Inventories    Instructions to mark words
Fenson et al. (2007)       child uses

Preschool Language         Auditory Comprehension           Allows
Scale (PLS-4)                                               informant
Zimmerman et al. (2002)    Expressive Communication         Allows
                                                            informant

Receptive-Expressive       Receptive                        Informant
Emergent Language Test     Expressive                       Informant
(REEL-3)
Bzoch et al. (2003)

Test of Language           Picture Vocabulary
Development--Primary       Relational Vocabulary
(TOLD-P:3)                 Oral Vocabulary
Newcomer & Hamill          Grammatic Understanding
(1988)                     Sentence Imitation
                           Grammatic Completion
                           Word Discrimination
                           Phonemic Analysis
                           Word Articulation

(a) Items marked (x) indicate additional operant repertoires required
or assessed by this item

(b) Correction prompts may additionally assess this operant

Table 6. Expressive Language Tests

                                                  Implied function of
                                                     test items (a)

                                                         Verbal
                     Sub-test name or
Test and author(s)   description                 Mand    Echoic   Tact

Expressive One-                                                     x
Word Picture
Vocabulary lest
(LOWPVT)
Gardner (1990)

Expressive                                                          x
Vocabulary Test
(EVT)
Williams (1997)

Structured                                                          x
Photographic
Expressive
Language Test
(SPELT-3)
Dawson et al.
(2003)

Test of Word
Finding              Picture Naming Nouns                P (b)      x
(TWF-2)
German (2000)
                     Sentence Completion
                     Naming                                P
                     Picture Naming Verbs                  P        x

                     Picture Naming Categories             P        x

                                                  Implied function of
                                                     test items (a)

                     Sub-test name or
Test and author(s)   description                 Intraverbal   Textual

Expressive One-                                      (x)
Word Picture
Vocabulary lest
(LOWPVT)
Gardner (1990)

Expressive                                            x
Vocabulary Test
(EVT)
Williams (1997)

Structured                                            x
Photographic
Expressive
Language Test
(SPELT-3)
Dawson et al.
(2003)

Test of Word
Finding              Picture Naming Nouns
(TWF-2)
German (2000)
                     Sentence Completion
                     Naming                           x
                     Picture Naming Verbs

                     Picture Naming Categories

                                                 Nonverbal
                     Sub-test name or
Test and author(s)   description                 Listener    Comments

Expressive One-
Word Picture
Vocabulary lest
(LOWPVT)
Gardner (1990)

Expressive
Vocabulary Test
(EVT)
Williams (1997)

Structured
Photographic
Expressive
Language Test
(SPELT-3)
Dawson et al.
(2003)

Test of Word                                                 Accuracy
Finding              Picture Naming Nouns           (x)        plus
(TWF-2)                                                      response
German (2000)                                                  time
                     Sentence Completion
                     Naming                         (x)
                     Picture Naming Verbs           (x)
                                                             Accuracy
                                                               plus
                     Picture Naming Categories      (x)      response
                                                               time

(a) Items marked (x) indicate additional operant repertoires required
or assessed by this item

(b) Correction prompts may additionally assess this operant

Table 7. Receptive Language Tests

                                              Implied function of
                                                 test items (a)

                                                     Verbal
                     Sub-test name or
Test and author(s)   description              Mand   Echoic   Tact

Peabody Picture                                       (x)     (x)
Vocabulary Test
(PPVT-3)
Dunn el al.
(1997)

Receptive One-                                        (x)     (x)
Word Picture
Vocabulary lest
(ROWPVT)
Brownell (2000)

Test for Auditory    Vocabulary                       (x)     (x)
Comprehension
of Language          Grammatical Morphemes            (x)     (x)
(TACL-3)
Carrow-Woolfolk      Elaborated Phrases and           (x)     (x)
(1999)               Sentences

                                               Implied function of
                                                  test items (a)

                                                      Verbal

                     Sub-test name or
Test and author(s)   description              Intraverbal   Textual

Peabody Picture
Vocabulary Test
(PPVT-3)
Dunn el al.
(1997)

Receptive One-
Word Picture
Vocabulary lest
(ROWPVT)
Brownell (2000)

Test for Auditory    Vocabulary
Comprehension
of Language          Grammatical Morphemes
(TACL-3)
Carrow-Woolfolk      Elaborated Phrases and
(1999)               Sentences

                                              Nonverbal
                     Sub-test name or
Test and author(s)   description              Listener

Peabody Picture                                   x
Vocabulary Test
(PPVT-3)
Dunn el al.
(1997)

Receptive One-                                    x
Word Picture
Vocabulary lest
(ROWPVT)
Brownell (2000)

Test for Auditory    Vocabulary                   x
Comprehension
of Language          Grammatical Morphemes        x
(TACL-3)
Carrow-Woolfolk      Elaborated Phrases and       x
(1999)               Sentences

(a) Items marked (x) indicate additional operant repertoires
required or assessed by this item
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Author:Esch, Barbara E.; LaLonde, Kate B.; Esch, John W.
Publication:The Journal of Speech-Language Pathology and Applied Behavior Analysis
Date:May 13, 2010
Words:14747
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