Special education referral, evaluation, and placement practices for preschool English language learners.Abstract. The number of English language English language, member of the West Germanic group of the Germanic subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages (see Germanic languages). Spoken by about 470 million people throughout the world, English is the official language of about 45 nations. learners (ELLs) in early childhood regular and special education services has increased dramatically in the past decade. A survey was conducted with 141 early childhood administrators and teachers to examine their beliefs and practices concerning the special education referral, evaluation, and placement process for preschool ELLs and their families. Survey questions were designed to gather information about: 1) how cultural and language differences were addressed, 2) what strategies were used to ensure parent participation of ELL children, and 3) what training was available and being used by early childhood professionals. Data were coded and percentages of similar responses calculated to understand participants' beliefs, attitudes, and practices. Results indicate that inconsistencies in methods are used to determine home language and English 1. English - (Obsolete) The source code for a program, which may be in any language, as opposed to the linkable or executable binary produced from it by a compiler. The idea behind the term is that to a real hacker, a program written in his favourite programming language is proficiency pro·fi·cien·cy
n. pl. pro·fi·cien·cies
The state or quality of being proficient; competence.
Noun 1. proficiency - the quality of having great facility and competence , a lack of clarity regarding the purpose of instruments used for screening and evaluating ELL children, a need for reliable and valid screening and assessment tools in a variety of languages, a need for interpreters who are trained in early childhood terms and the special education referral, evaluation, and placement process, and a need for more teacher training on meeting the needs of culturally and linguistically diverse families.
Children of immigrant families are the fastest growing population in the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. (United States Census Bureau The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census as defined in Title , 2003). In 2003, an estimated 33.5 million people, or nearly 12 percent of the U.S. population, was ) is a part of the United States Department of Commerce. foreign-born for·eign-born
Foreign by birth; not native to the country in which one resides.
Adj. 1. foreign-born - of persons born in another area or country than that lived in; "our large nonnative population"
nonnative (Larsen Larsen may refer to:
See also Matthews. & Ewen, 2006; Meyer Mey·er , Annie Florance Nathan 1867-1951.
American writer and a founder of Barnard College at Columbia University (1889). Her plays include The Dominant Sex (1911) and Black Souls (1932). , Madden mad·den
v. mad·dened, mad·den·ing, mad·dens
1. To make angry; irritate.
2. To drive insane.
To become infuriated. , & McGrath McGrath or MacGrath may refer to: Geography
While normal Vietnamese has not used Han characters since the 18th century, the standards TCVN 5773 and TCVN , Hmong Hmong
Mountain-dwelling peoples of China, Vietnam, Laos, and Thailand who speak Hmong-Mien languages. There are also émigré communities in the U.S., France, and elsewhere. , Korean Korean, language of uncertain ancestry. It is thought by some scholars to be akin to Japanese, by others to be a member of the Altaic subfamily of the Ural-Altaic family of languages (see Uralic and Altaic languages), and by still others to be unrelated to any known , and Arabic are among the top five languages spoken in the homes of families with ELLs (Hopstock & Stephenson, 2003).
Early childhood regular and special education services have been particularly impacted by these population changes. Nineteen states experienced a 100 percent or more increase in the number of immigrant children under age 6 during the last decade, and approximately 44 percent of ELL students attending public schools are in prekindergarten through 3rd grade (Mathews & Ewen, 2006). Similarly, in 2005, twenty-five percent of the children attending Head Start spoke a language (mostly Spanish) other than English in their homes (Hamm Hamm, village, Luxembourg
Hamm, village, S Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, near Luxembourg city. Gen. George S. Patton is buried in the large U.S. military cemetery there. , 2006). In response to the large number of young ELL students participating in preschool education preschool education: see kindergarten; nursery school.
Childhood education during the period from infancy to age five or six. Institutions for preschool education vary widely around the world, as do their names (e.g. and the need to appropriately educate the increasing number of culturally and linguistically diverse learners, 12 of the 38 states and the District of Columbia District of Columbia, federal district (2000 pop. 572,059, a 5.7% decrease in population since the 1990 census), 69 sq mi (179 sq km), on the east bank of the Potomac River, coextensive with the city of Washington, D.C. (the capital of the United States). that have state preschool services use ELL as an "at-risk at-risk
Being endangered, as from exposure to disease or from a lack of parental or familial guidance and proper health care: efforts to make the vaccine available to at-risk groups of children. " category or as a factor to prioritize pri·or·i·tize
v. pri·or·i·tized, pri·or·i·tiz·ing, pri·or·i·tiz·es Usage Problem
To arrange or deal with in order of importance.
v.intr. enrollment of eligible children (Mathews & Ewen, 2006).
North Carolina's population reflects this national picture. It is well-documented that North Carolina North Carolina, state in the SE United States. It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean (E), South Carolina and Georgia (S), Tennessee (W), and Virginia (N). Facts and Figures
Area, 52,586 sq mi (136,198 sq km). Pop. has the fastest growing Latino population in the United States, nearly a 400 percent increase since 1990, and six to seven times faster than the national growth rate (North Carolina State Data Center, 2001). In fact, 27.5 percent of the state's population growth from 1990 to 2004 was made up of Latino families. Fifty-seven Adj. 1. fifty-seven - being seven more than fifty
cardinal - being or denoting a numerical quantity but not order; "cardinal numbers" percent of the total enrollment growth in North Carolina public schools between the 2000-01 and 2004-05 school years can be attributed to the Latino population (North Carolina Department of Public Instruction, 2006).
Within North Carolina and nationwide, early childhood teachers and administrators in both regular and special education are being challenged in new ways by the cultural and linguistic differences of ELLs. These circumstances CIRCUMSTANCES, evidence. The particulars which accompany a fact.
2. The facts proved are either possible or impossible, ordinary and probable, or extraordinary and improbable, recent or ancient; they may have happened near us, or afar off; they are public or are exacerbated by the speed at which these changes have taken place, thus creating enormous challenges to service providers responsible for assessing, determining eligibility, and providing educational services to young ELLs (Bevan-Brown, 2001; Burnette Burnette could be:
This page or section lists people with the surname Valenzuela. , Copeland Copeland may refer to: Places
Out of proportion, as in size, shape, or amount.
dispro·por representation of children by race/ethnicity in their special education programs (United States Congress, 2004).
Research indicates that although children with limited English proficiency may be able to orally communicate in English in social situations with peers and adults in as little as one to two years, the Years, The
the seven decades of Eleanor Pargiter’s life. [Br. Lit.: Benét, 1109]
See : Time skills required to be cognitively and academically proficient pro·fi·cient
Having or marked by an advanced degree of competence, as in an art, vocation, profession, or branch of learning.
An expert; an adept. in English may take as long as five to eight years to develop (Cummins This article is about the diesel engine manufacturer. For other uses, see Cummins (disambiguation).
Cummins Inc. (NYSE: CMI) is a maker of diesel and natural gas engines whose corporate headquarters is located in Columbus, Indiana. , 1981, 2005; Lake & Pappamihiel, 2003; Tabors, 1997). This fact alone brings into question the efficacy of assessment results for children with limited English proficiency when they are evaluated for special services For Special Services, first published in 1982, was the second novel by John Gardner featuring Ian Fleming's secret agent, James Bond. Carrying the Glidrose Publications copyright, it was first published in the United Kingdom by Jonathan Cape and in the United States by . Even after the initial adjustment period, children may continue to learn at a slower pace, due to language differences or unfamiliar teaching styles (Barrera, Corso, & MacPherson Mac·pher·son , James 1736-1796.
Scottish poet who claimed to have translated the works of Ossian, a third-century Gaelic poet and warrior. Although based on unauthenticated original texts, the translations influenced many writers. , 2003; Grossman Grossman is a family name of germanic and Jewish Ashkenazi origin (in German Grossmann or Großmann).
In addition, early childhood professionals are faced with the task of ensuring active family participation of ELLs in a culturally responsive manner, regardless of potential language barriers. In accordance Accordance is Bible Study Software for Macintosh developed by OakTree Software, Inc.
As well as a standalone program, it is the base software packaged by Zondervan in their Bible Study suites for Macintosh. with legal mandates under IDEA 2004, particularly the provision of nondiscriminatory evaluation and procedural safeguards for family participation, early childhood professionals must ensure that appropriate measures are taken to facilitate open and effective communication between service providers and families of ELL children (National Association for the Education of Young Children The National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) is the largest nonprofit association in the United States representing early childhood education teachers, experts, and advocates in center-based and family day care. [NAEYC NAEYC National Association for the Education of Young Children (Washington, DC) ], 2005). According to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. Barrera, Corso, and MacPherson (2003), common problems related to parent involvement in the referral, evaluation, and placement process include insufficient methods for: 1) determining cultural and linguistic differences that contribute to or inhibit inhibit /in·hib·it/ (in-hib´it) to retard, arrest, or restrain.
1. To hold back; restrain.
2. communication between parents and professionals, 2) gathering information from families using culturally sensitive processes, 3) communicating assessment results and placement options with families within a culturally responsive framework, and 4) developing and maintaining culturally appropriate methods of communication with families after a child begins receiving special services.
Understanding successful strategies as well as gaps in support for children who are ELLs and their families will help ensure greater success for them as they navigate (1) "Surfing the Web." To move from page to page on the Web.
(2) To move through the menu structure in a software application. through the public school system. To better understand the dynamics surrounding sur·round
tr.v. sur·round·ed, sur·round·ing, sur·rounds
1. To extend on all sides of simultaneously; encircle.
2. To enclose or confine on all sides so as to bar escape or outside communication.
n. the referral, evaluation, and placement process, as well as methods for encouraging family participation for preschool children who are ELLs, the authors conducted a statewide survey with administrators and teachers in North Carolina who provide regular and special education services to young children. The study was designed to address the following three questions:
1. How are cultural and language differences being addressed during the special education referral, evaluation, and placement process for preschool ELLs?
2. What accommodations are being made to ensure parent participation during the special education referral, evaluation, and placement process?
3. Have classroom teachers and special education professionals been trained on cultural and linguistic practices relevant to the referral, evaluation, and placement process?
All of the participating programs (n = 31) were located in North Carolina. As shown in Table 1, the programs included child care centers, public schools, and Head Start centers. Approximately two-thirds of the programs were located in the Piedmont Piedmont, region, Italy
Piedmont (pēd`mŏnt), Ital. Piemonte, region (1991 pop. 4,302,565), 9,807 sq mi (25,400 sq km), NW Italy, bordering on France in the west and on Switzerland in the north. or central region of the state. Another seven programs were in the mountains of the western region, and five programs were from the eastern coastal region. Most programs were located in urban/suburban service areas. All of the programs provided services to children with disabilities and ELLs.
Total Sample. A total of 141 participants returned surveys. However, one survey was excluded from analyses because of incomplete data. Thus, data from 140 surveys were included in all analyses. Of these 140 respondents In the context of marketing research, a representative sample drawn from a larger population of people from whom information is collected and used to develop or confirm marketing strategy. , 31 completed administrator surveys and 109 completed teacher surveys. Except for one administrator, all of the participants were female. The race/ethnicity of the participants for the total sample included: American Indian American Indian
or Native American or Amerindian or indigenous American
Any member of the various aboriginal peoples of the Western Hemisphere, with the exception of the Eskimos (Inuit) and the Aleuts. or Alaska Alaska (əlă`skə), largest in area of the United States but third smallest (exceeding only Vermont and Wyoming) in population, occupying the northwest extremity of the North American continent, separated from the coterminous United States Native (1.4 percent); Asian (0.7 percent); black or African American African American Multiculture A person having origins in any of the black racial groups of Africa. See Race. (32.1 percent); Hispanic Hispanic Multiculture A person of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race Social medicine Any of 17 major Latino subcultures, concentrated in California, Texas, Chicago, Miam, NY, and elsewhere or Latino (2.1 percent); white (62.4 percent); and other (2.1 percent).
Administrators. Table 2 depicts the demographic data for the administrator survey subsample sub·sam·ple
A sample drawn from a larger sample.
tr.v. sub·sam·pled, sub·sam·pling, sub·sam·ples
To take a subsample from (a larger sample). (n = 31), consisting of mostly child care center directors, preschool special education directors for public school districts, and school principals. The race/ ethnicity ethnicity Vox populi Racial status–ie, African American, Asian, Caucasian, Hispanic distribution of the administrator survey subsample was proportionally pro·por·tion·al
1. Forming a relationship with other parts or quantities; being in proportion.
2. Properly related in size, degree, or other measurable characteristics; corresponding: similar to the total sample distribution. Responses concerning the highest level of education completed indicated that all but one of the administrators had some college training, including two-thirds with a master's mas·ter's
A master's degree. or doctoral degree. All but five administrators reported being in their current job for 1-10 years, and most had worked as early childhood education administrators for more than a decade.
Teachers. Table 3 shows the demographic data for the teacher survey subsample (n = 109). By far, the majority of teacher survey respondents were classroom teachers. In addition, six speech/language pathologists
emanating from or pertaining to Europe.
European bat lyssavirus
European beech tree
see cryptococcosis. and African American decent. More than half of the teacher survey respondents had college degrees. Nearly two-thirds reported being in their current job for up to five years and another 24 percent for 5-10 years. Approximately two-thirds of the teachers reported working in the field of early childhood education for 1-10 years.
Two types of measures--a program administrator survey and a teacher survey--were developed to investigate current practices associated with the referral, evaluation, and placement process for preschool ELLs. A literature search was conducted to identify trends and issues related to ELLs and the special education referral, evaluation, and placement process for ELL students. Questions were drafted for each category of services (referral, evaluation, placement) to obtain information related to both ELL children and their families. A cover sheet was added that explained the purpose of the survey, included instructions for completing the survey, and asked participants for personal demographic information (name and contact information). Other personal demographics The attributes of people in a particular geographic area. Used for marketing purposes, population, ethnic origins, religion, spoken language, income and age range are examples of demographic data. were included at the end of the survey (position, gender, race/ethnicity, number of years in early childhood, preservice and inservice training). In addition, program directors were asked to provide information, such as type of program (e.g., public school kindergarten kindergarten [Ger.,=garden of children], system of preschool education. Friedrich Froebel designed (1837) the kindergarten to provide an educational situation less formal than that of the elementary school but one in which children's creative play instincts would be , private child care center), service area (rural, urban, suburban), and teaching staff characteristics (e.g., number of bilingual bi·lin·gual
a. Using or able to use two languages, especially with equal or nearly equal fluency.
b. staff). Each measure was piloted with early childhood professionals, and questions were revised accordingly.
Both surveys comprised multiple choice and short answer open-ended questions A closed-ended question is a form of question, which normally can be answered with a simple "yes/no" dichotomous question, a specific simple piece of information, or a selection from multiple choices (multiple-choice question), if one excludes such non-answer responses as dodging a . The administrator survey consisted of 45 questions and the teacher survey contained 36 questions. Questions concerning the referral process focused on language proficiency Language proficiency or linguistic proficiency is the ability of an individual to speak or perform in an acquired language. As theories vary among pedagogues as to what constitutes proficiency, there is little consistency as to how different organisations in the home language (two questions), English language proficiency (three questions), and the preschool screening process (four questions). The surveys included a total of four diagnostic evaluation diagnostic evaluation Workup Medtalk An evaluation used to diagnose disease Components Medical Hx, CXR or other images, collection of specimens from blood for lab analysis process questions on each of the following topics: the instruments used, the language in which they were administered, the evaluation administration process, and strategies used to meet the needs of ELL children during diagnostic evaluations. Two questions were asked about administrators' and teachers' perceptions of how language and cultural diversity needs were taken into account during the IEP IEP
In currencies, this is the abbreviation for the Irish Punt.
The currency market, also known as the Foreign Exchange market, is the largest financial market in the world, with a daily average volume of over US $1 trillion. process. The surveys contained five questions to learn about accommodations for parents of ELLs throughout the referral, evaluation, and placement process. Additionally, administrators were asked six questions about the skills and training of their teaching staff. The surveys took 20-30 minutes to complete.
Initially, a doctoral student recruited programs through telephone or face-to-face (jargon, chat) face-to-face - (F2F, IRL) Used to describe personal interaction in real life as opposed to via some digital or electronic communications medium. interviews with the program/school administrator. The doctoral student was trained on confidentiality procedures; interviewing techniques; methods for identifying possible programs/schools from each program type (e.g., Head Start, public schools, community child care centers) and according to state regions; and guidelines guidelines,
n.pl a set of standards, criteria, or specifications to be used or followed in the performance of certain tasks. for documenting and organizing recruitment activities and data entry. During the recruitment interviews, program administrators were asked if: 1) they enrolled children ages 3-4 years old, 2) they enrolled children who were English language learners, and 3) they enrolled children with disabilities. Forty-nine programs that met these criteria were asked to participate in the study.
Once it was determined that a program was eligible to participate in the study, packets of consent letters and surveys were mailed or delivered in person to program administrators, who disseminated disseminated /dis·sem·i·nat·ed/ (-sem´i-nat?ed) scattered; distributed over a considerable area.
Spread over a large area of a body, a tissue, or an organ. and collected them. Completed surveys were placed in an envelope to ensure confidentiality. Follow-up follow-up,
n the process of monitoring the progress of a patient after a period of active treatment.
follow-up plan phone calls and e-mails were made as needed as needed prn. See prn order. during the data collection process. During the implementation of the project, a concern arose regarding the disproportional dis·pro·por·tion·al
dispro·por responses by geographic region. Therefore, in order to ensure a statewide perspective on the topic, such agencies as the North Carolina Department of Public Instruction's Division of Exceptional Children and Head Start regional consultants were contacted to disseminate dis·sem·i·nate
v. dis·sem·i·nat·ed, dis·sem·i·nat·ing, dis·sem·i·nates
1. To scatter widely, as in sowing seed.
2. additional surveys during program meetings.
The responses for each survey were entered into an Excel A full-featured spreadsheet for Windows and the Macintosh from Microsoft. It can link many spreadsheets for consolidation and provides a wide variety of business graphics and charts for creating presentation materials. spreadsheet spreadsheet
Computer software that allows the user to enter columns and rows of numbers in a ledgerlike format. Any cell of the ledger may contain either data or a formula that describes the value that should be inserted therein based on the values in other cells. . Two individuals verified ver·i·fy
tr.v. ver·i·fied, ver·i·fy·ing, ver·i·fies
1. To prove the truth of by presentation of evidence or testimony; substantiate.
2. the results for each item against the original protocol to ensure accuracy. Two individuals independently read and coded responses to open-ended questions to look for similar patterns and themes for each question on the two surveys. Differences in coding categories were discussed and reconciled for each question. Two sets of data analyses were conducted to examine the beliefs and practices of early childhood regular and special education professionals. First, descriptive data were examined by administrators, teachers, and for the overall sample. Second, data were examined to understand patterns of similarities and differences for each research question and area of service (referral, evaluation, placement). Percentages were calculated by using SPSS A statistical package from SPSS, Inc., Chicago (www.spss.com) that runs on PCs, most mainframes and minis and is used extensively in marketing research. It provides over 50 statistical processes, including regression analysis, correlation and analysis of variance. 14.0 for each multiple-choice mul·ti·ple-choice
1. Offering several answers from which the correct one is to be chosen: a multiple-choice question.
2. question and coded response for each survey. It should be noted that percentages for some questions exceeded 100 percent, since multiple answers were allowed.
Questions about language proficiency in the home language, English proficiency, and the preschool screening process were included to better understand beliefs and practices concerning the referral process. The results pertaining per·tain
intr.v. per·tained, per·tain·ing, per·tains
1. To have reference; relate: evidence that pertains to the accident.
2. to these aspects of the referral process are as follows.
Language Proficiency. Five questions about language proficiency were included in the surveys--two pertaining to home language proficiency and three concerning English language proficiency. Administrators and teachers reported the same top three methods for both identifying the child's home language and determining the amount of proficiency for the home language (shown in Table 4), including: meetings with parents at school, written forms completed by parents, and home visits.
Results for the third question, which pertained to how English language proficiency was determined, suggest that observations at school, language proficiency tests, and home observations are the most frequent methods used. When asked to identity the language proficiency tests used for this purpose, administrators most frequently cited two instruments: the IDEA Oral Language Proficiency Test (IPT IPT - IP Telephony II) and the Miami-Dade Oral Language Proficiency Test. It is interesting to note that the third most prevalent instrument reported was the DIAL-3, a developmental screen. In fact, teachers reported the DIAL-3 as the most prevalent instrument for assessing English language proficiency, followed by nonspecific nonspecific /non·spe·cif·ic/ (non?spi-sif´ik)
1. not due to any single known cause.
2. not directed against a particular agent, but rather having a general effect.
1. speech/language tests, and the Miami-Dade Oral Language Proficiency Test.
The last question asked how English language proficiency information was used. Administrators reported using this information for individualized in·di·vid·u·al·ize
tr.v. in·di·vid·u·al·ized, in·di·vid·u·al·iz·ing, in·di·vid·u·al·iz·es
1. To give individuality to.
2. To consider or treat individually; particularize.
3. planning, and to determine how well ELL children communicate and the language spoken by their family, or whether a referral was needed. The teachers' responses indicated the same reasons, but in a slightly different order of frequency with determining how well children can communicate and the language of the family the most frequent way the information was used, followed by whether further referral was needed and for individualized planning purposes.
Screening Process. To better understand teachers' beliefs and practices concerning developmental screening for preschool ELLs, four questions were included in the survey, as shown in Table 5. The first question simply asked respondents to identify the developmental screening instrument(s) they use. Both administrators and teachers reported the DIAL-3 as being the most prevalent screening instrument used (46.2 percent and 53.8 percent, respectively). Administrators reported using the Head Start National Reporting System and the Brigance as the next most frequently used screening instruments, while teachers reported using the Learning Accomplishment Profile-Diagnostic (LAP-D LAP-D Link Access Protocol - D Channel ) and the Brigance.
In response to the next question (about the number of times per year children are screened), administrators and teachers alike reported that the majority of children were screened one time per year (47.8 percent and 40.5 percent, respectively). Approximately 40 percent of respondents reported screening children twice a year, and a small number of respondents stated that children were screened three times a year. A few teachers indicated a combination of times, depending on the instrument used.
Almost all of the respondents reported that most developmental screens were administered in English. Spanish was the second most frequently spoken language, and a few teachers reported other languages spoken, including Hmong, French, Vietnamese, and Arabic.
In the fourth question related to screening, participants were asked to identify the process they used to screen ELLs more precisely. Administrators and teachers were in agreement about the most frequently used strategies, including: administering the screening in children's home children's home n → centro de acogida para niños
children's home n → foyer m d'accueil (pour enfants)
children's home n language; having an interpreter A high-level programming language translator that translates and runs the program at the same time. It translates one program statement into machine language, executes it, and then proceeds to the next statement. assist with the screening; administering missed items in the opposite language; and administering the screen in English only. Sixty percent of administrators and 49 percent of teachers indicated that interpreters received training related to the screening process.
Diagnostic Evaluation Process. Four questions about the diagnostic evaluation process were included in the survey, as shown in Table 6. First, participants were asked to identify the language(s) in which the diagnostic evaluations were administered. The responses were similar to those about the screening responses, with participants indicating that most diagnostic evaluations are administered in English, followed by Spanish, and then other languages (Arabic, French, Hmong, Icelandic, and Vietnamese).
Second, participants were asked to identify the diagnostic assessment instruments used during the evaluation process. Approximately one-fifth of both administrators and teachers reported the Preschool Language Scale-4 as being the most prevalent instrument used during the diagnostic evaluation process. Administrators reported the DIAL3 and Bayley Bayley is a surname, and may refer to:
Next, participants were asked to indicate other strategies used to gather information during the diagnostic evaluation process. By far, both administrators and teachers (74.2 percent and 88.4 percent, respectively) reported classroom observations as the most prevalent method for obtaining information relevant to the diagnostic evaluation process. To a lesser extent, screening tools and parent reports, work samples, and home visits were other methods used to gather evaluation information.
Lastly, respondents were asked to describe the process used for diagnostic evaluation of ELLs. Administrators and teachers reported three main strategies used to facilitate this process: administering assessments in children's home language, having an interpreter assist with the screening, and administering missed items in the opposite language. Forty-two percent of administrators and 27 percent of teachers stated that interpreters received training related to assisting with the diagnostic evaluation process.
Placement-IEP Process. As depicted de·pict
tr.v. de·pict·ed, de·pict·ing, de·picts
1. To represent in a picture or sculpture.
2. To represent in words; describe. See Synonyms at represent. in Table 7, participants were asked how IEP goals reflected the culture of ELL children. Forty percent of the teachers reported they did not know the answer to this question. Of the remaining 60 percent, approximately 40 percent of both administrators and teachers reported that cultural and language differences were taken into account in the children's IEPs. Almost 30 percent of administrators and 20 percent of teachers reported that parent participation helped ensure this aspect in the IEP goals. Unfortunately, nearly a quarter of the administrators and 18 percent of teachers said no effort was made to reflect cultural and linguistic differences in IEPs.
The second question about the IEP process asked respondents to indicate the ways that language needs are addressed in IEPs. Two-thirds of the administrators and almost half of the teachers reported that a bilingual assessor helped with the IEP and/or and/or
Used to indicate that either or both of the items connected by it are involved.
Usage Note: And/or is widely used in legal and business writing. the home language was included in IEP goals. Administrators also stated that they had meetings with parents and solicited therapist input to help address language needs in IEPs. A third of the teachers answered "yes" to this question but did not have specific examples because the IEP was developed by someone else (e.g., therapist, testing center). A small percentage of both types of respondents indicated that the IEP was in English only and no effort was made to address language needs in the IEP.
Administrators and teachers were asked five questions about accommodations to help ensure the participation of parents from culturally and linguistically diverse populations whose children are ELLs. Results indicate that little information was gathered about specific issues related to language or culture during the screening process. However, increased efforts were made to gather information about language and cultural differences and to include parents of ELLs once a referral was made and during the diagnostic evaluation and IEP processes, as shown in Table 8.
Both administrators and teachers reported demographics, medical information, parent concerns, and background information as the most prevalent forms of information gathered. Administrators reported that parents sometimes completed screening tools and information about language and cultural differences as additional aspects of the screening process. Teachers reported information about language and cultural differences as a more prevalent type of information gathered during the screening process than completed screening tools from parents. A small percentage of respondents in both groups indicated that no information was gathered from parents during the screening process.
Administrators and teachers were in agreement about the priorities of the types of information gathered from families once a child was referred. The responses fell into three categories. First, respondents asked families about their children's experience with English. Second, the families' concerns were taken into account, such as language preferences in the home and goals for their children. The third most important information gathered during the referral process was the children's interaction with their home language and the country of origin for the parents and children.
The methods used to obtain information with the family during the diagnostic evaluation process included: face-to-face meetings at school, written documents, information about the parent/primary caregiver care·giv·er
1. An individual, such as a physician, nurse, or social worker, who assists in the identification, prevention, or treatment of an illness or disability.
2. goals for the child, and home visits. Once completed, results were shared with parents using similar methods, such as face-to-face meetings at school and written documents (evaluation results). Also, respondents indicated that interpreters were used to help explain the results approximately 40 percent of the time.
Lastly, when asked about strategies used to help parents participate in IEP meetings, almost all of the participants reported using interpreters. Translating the written information into the home language was the next most frequently used strategy. About 10 percent of the respondents reported using family advocates to help families participate in IEP meetings.
Administrators were asked a series of questions related to preservice and inservice training for teachers and teacher assistants concerning cultural and linguistics linguistics, scientific study of language, covering the structure (morphology and syntax; see grammar), sounds (phonology), and meaning (semantics), as well as the history of the relations of languages to each other and the cultural place of language in human practices during the referral, evaluation, and placement process (shown in Table 9). Slightly more than half of the administrators, when asked if any teaching staff were bilingual, reported the presence of teachers and teacher assistants in their programs who spoke a language other than English. Not surprisingly, Spanish was the second language for all but a few of the bilingual teachers and teacher assistants.
When asked to describe the roles the bilingual teachers and teacher assistants assumed to help ELLs, they reported assisting children during classroom interactions; supporting parents during meetings, conferences, and home visits; offering one-on-one one-on-one
1. Consisting of or being direct communication or exchange between two people: one-on-one instruction.
2. Sports Playing directly or exclusively against a single opponent. tutoring; translating written documents; and providing professional development for other staff. Responses to the same question for parents included: interacting with parents during meetings, conferences, and home visits; translating written documents related to parent communication; and providing professional development for other staff.
Administrators also were asked about methods used to prepare teachers and teacher assistants for instructing ELLs. For both groups, the majority of training is provided through local conferences and staff development events. College coursework coursework
work done by a student and assessed as part of an educational course
Noun 1. coursework - work assigned to and done by a student during a course of study; usually it is evaluated as part of the student's was the second most frequent method of professional development for both groups. The remaining methods of training differed for each group. For teachers, other methods of training included district-wide staff development, state conferences, and national conferences. For teacher assistants, the other methods of training were on-site on-site
Done or located at the site, as of a particular activity: on-site monitoring of a production run; an on-site film shoot. staff development, state conferences, and district-wide staff development. No teacher assistants reported receiving training at national conferences.
Discussion and Recommendations
As the population of ELLs has increased across the United States, early childhood regular and special educators have struggled to distinguish learning differences from language differences. Well-intentioned well-in·ten·tioned
Marked by or having good intentions: a well-intentioned but clumsy waiter; well-intentioned criticism. professionals often are challenged by these circumstances. On the one hand, they feel bound to follow the procedures stated in federal, state, and local policies for providing appropriate education services, while at the same time they search for new strategies that will help them effectively serve ELLs and their families.
In this study, early childhood administrators and teachers were asked about their beliefs and practices related to the referral, diagnostic evaluation, and placement process for preschool ELLs and their families. These professionals served English language learners in community child care centers, Head Start, and pre-kindergarten Pre-kindergarten (also called Pre-K) refers to the first formal academic classroom-based learning environment that a child customarily attends in the United States. It begins around the age of four in order to prepare for the more didactic and academically intensive public school settings. Based on the information provided, it is evident that the methods being used by professionals during these processes are still evolving.
Determining Language Proficiency
Several important findings emerged concerning language proficiency. First, there was no consistent approach for determining language proficiency in either the home language or English, and respondents relied heavily on observational data. Differences in social language usage and cognitive and academic language usage are well-documented, as is the time required to acquire cognitive and academic language proficiency (Cummins, 1981, 2005). Thus, understanding the home language and English proficiency of children is a crucial step in distinguishing language and learning differences. Also, it is likely that language proficiency will look different according to the context of an observation, so consistent methods of observation would be a better predictor of language usage. Only a third of the participants reported using published measures to examine language proficiency, and some participants reported using assessments designed to screen or assess development. Assessments of language proficiency should rely on instruments designed for that purpose, not those designed to assess cognition cognition
Act or process of knowing. Cognition includes every mental process that may be described as an experience of knowing (including perceiving, recognizing, conceiving, and reasoning), as distinguished from an experience of feeling or of willing. or other areas of development (NAEYC, 2005). A systematic approach to determining language proficiency in both the home language and English should include observations in multiple settings, specific checklists or other guidance in addition to narrative observation data, and criteria to determine when a child is ready to be screened or assessed in English. Also, staff could be trained on language proficiency measures as another method for gathering data. Lastly, a process for explaining the purpose and procedures for determining language proficiency could be jointly developed with families and shared with professionals and families.
Screening and Evaluation Issues
A collective theme throughout the survey responses was the need for professional training to understand the purpose and appropriate uses of screening, assessment, and language proficiency instruments. Clearly, confusion existed about how to use these different types of instruments. This is a serious problem and should be viewed as a contributing factor as to why children are inappropriately placed in special education.
Also, the selection of instruments needs to be appropriate to the children's cultural and linguistic characteristics. Recent studies have outlined some of the problems with screening and assessing ELLs, including the disproportionate number of children being identified for special education services (Artiles, Rueda Rueda may refer to one of the following.
Portuguese dictator (1932-1968) known for his programs of fiscal austerity and his attempts to repress growing opposition in Portugal's African colonies. , & Higareda, 2005; Bevan-Brown, 2001; Espinosa, 2005; Keller-Allen, 2006; Mardell-Czudnowski, Chen, Elliott Elliott may refer to:
possessing the best body in the whole world. like the hottest, sexiest body ever! the feeling of his skin kills me and sends me straight to heaven. , Goldenberg Goldenberg may refer to:
Close to half of the participants reported that children's culture Children's culture can be defined in a great number of ways and suffers from being an incredibly broad category. In recent times the study of children's cultural artifacts, children's media and literature and the myths and discourses spun around the notion of childhood have all and language were not taken into account for IEP goals, a practice that can have serious consequences. Three- and 4-year-old children are forming important aspects of their cultural identity and language that will impact them for a lifetime, and recent research indicates that bicultural bi·cul·tur·al
Of or relating to two distinct cultures in one nation or geographic region: bicultural education.
bi·cul and bilingual education bilingual education, the sanctioned use of more than one language in U.S. education. The Bilingual Education Act (1968), combined with a Supreme Court decision (1974) mandating help for students with limited English proficiency, requires instruction in the native is the most effective approach (Araujo Araujo may refer to:
Results related to the second research question suggest that programs are making efforts to include families of ELLs. Many parents of ELLs received oral and written communications in their home language and participated in discussions of their child's performance with the aid of an interpreter. One critical factor that emerged from the data was a need for interpreter training on basic terms related to early childhood education, special education, screening and assessment instruments, and the referral/ evaluation/placement process. As a result, family members could obtain more precise information, which would likely increase their participation throughout the process. Also, greater efforts need to be taken to include families in the IEP process. This problem is not unique to ELL children and their families. However, it is exacerbated by language and cultural differences.
Staff Training Needs
Clearly there is a need for more professional development to prepare administrators, teachers, and teacher assistants for meeting the needs of culturally and linguistically diverse children and families. Through additional training, early childhood professionals could learn strategies for developing referral, evaluation, and placement procedures that would more effectively distinguish learning and language differences, as well as instructional practices that support second language acquisition and honor As a verb, to accept a bill of exchange, or to pay a note, check, or accepted bill, at maturity. To pay or to accept and pay, or, where a credit so engages, to purchase or discount a draft complying with the terms of the draft. cultural practices. In addition, many respondents indicated they were attempting to learn a second language themselves. Training in Spanish and other prevalent languages could mean more bilingual professionals, which would greatly enhance communication for children in the classroom and families during the referral, evaluation, and placement process. Finally, the method of providing training to professionals needs to take into account the accessibility to professional development for the different types of service providers. It should be noted that the responses pertaining to staff training were reported only by administrators. Similar questions could be asked of both teachers and administrators in future studies, to gain a more complete picture of staff development concerning their skills in working with ELL children and their families.
The study reported on has limitations. The sampling of early childhood professionals is modest in size. In addition, because some teachers and administrators were from the same programs, additional research should be completed with independent samples.
Population projections for the 21st century emphasize a continuing trend toward greater diversity, linguistically and culturally. Early childhood programs are often the first place that immigrant families learn about educational expectations in the United States. Yet, because of rapid population changes, early childhood educators This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject.
Please help recruit one or [ improve this article] yourself. See the talk page for details. often feel unprepared to provide quality services to ELL children and their families. This study identified challenges, practices, gaps in services, and successes experienced by early childhood regular and special education professionals during the referral, evaluation, and placement process. The results can help inform policymakers and professionals as they move toward developing new, more effective strategies and policies.
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Institution established by firms engaged in similar activities to enable them to offset transactions with one another in order to limit payment settlements to net balances. on Disabilities and Gifted Education Gifted education is a broad term for special practices, procedures and theories used in the education of children who have been identified as gifted or talented. Programs providing such education are sometimes called Gifted and Talented Education (GATE) or . (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED449637)
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Evaluation, Dissemination dissemination Medtalk The spread of a pernicious process–eg, CA, acute infection Oncology Metastasis, see there and Assessment Center.
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The first public release of a translator to Scheme by Matt Birkholz, Jim Miller, and Ron Weiss, written at Digital Equipment Corporation's Cambridge Research Laboratory runs .
Hamm, K. (2006). More than meets the eye More Than Meets the Eye was the three-part series premiere for the 1984 cartoon The Transformers. The three-part pilot was originally known simply as The Transformers : Head Start programs, participants, families, and staff in 2005. [Electronic Version]. Head Start Series, 8. Retrieved March 23, 2007, from www.clasp CLASP - Computer Language for AeronauticS and Programming . org/publications/hs_brief8.pdf.
Hopstock, P. J., & Stephenson, T. G. (2003). Native languages of LEP (Light Emitting Polymer) An organic polymer that glows (emits photons) when excited by electricity. LEP screens are used to make organic LED (OLED) displays and are expected to compete with LCD screens in the future. See OLED. students (Special Topic Report #1). Retrieved October 10, 2006, from www.devassoc.com/pdfs/lep_st1.pdf.
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tr.v. i·so·lat·ed, i·so·lat·ing, i·so·lates
1. To set apart or cut off from others.
2. To place in quarantine.
3. intrinsic intrinsic /in·trin·sic/ (in-trin´sik) situated entirely within or pertaining exclusively to a part.
1. Of or relating to the essential nature of a thing.
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NHSA National Homeland Security Agency
NHSA National Heart Savers Association
NHSA National Haitian Student Alliance
NHSA Neighborhood Housing Service of America
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Belinda J. Hardin
The University of North Carolina at Greensboro Additionally, UNCG is home to a bevy of research institutes and centers including the Center for Applied Research, Center for Creating Writing in the Arts, Center for Global Business Education & Research, Center for Biotechnology, Genomics & Health Research, Center for Music Research and
The University of North Carolina at Greensboro
Ellen S El·len , Mount
A peak, 3,514.2 m (11,522 ft) high, of southern Utah. . Peisner-Feinberg
Frank Porter Graham Frank Porter Graham (14 October 1886 - 16 February 1972) was a Democratic U.S. Senator from the U.S. state of North Carolina.
Born in Fayetteville in south central North Carolina in 1886, Graham graduated from the University of North Carolina in Chapel Hill in 1909. Child Development Institute
The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill is a public, coeducational, research university located in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States. Also known as The University of North Carolina, Carolina, North Carolina, or simply UNC
Table 1 Program Characteristics by Geographic Region and Service Area Type (n=31) Geographic Region Number of Program Type Programs Coast Piedmont Mountains Child care 14 45.2% 2 6.5% 10 32.3% 0 0.0% Head Start 7 22.6% 1 3.2% 6 19.4% 1 3.2% Public School 10 32.3% 2 6.5% 4 12.9% 6 19.4% Total 31 100.0% 5 16.1% 20 64.5% 7 22.6% Service Area Type Urban/ Both Program Type Rural Suburban Child care 1 3.2% 12 38.7% 0 0.0% Head Start 6 19.4% 0 0.0% 0 0.0% Public School 1 3.2% 1 3.2% 10 32.3% Total 8 25.8% 13 41.9% 10 32.3% Table 2 Position, Race/Ethnicity, and Highest Level of Education for Administrator Survey Participants (n=31) Administrator Survey (n=31) Position n % Directors 19 61.3% Directors/Teachers 2 6.5% Assistant Directors 1 3.2% Other (a) 9 29.0% Race/Ethnicity American Indian or Alaska Native 1 3.2% Asian 0 0.0% Black or African American 6 19.4% Hispanic or Latino 2 6.5% White 20 64.5% Other (b) 2 6.5% Highest Level of Education High school diploma/GED 1 3.2% Associate's degree 4 12.9% Doctoral degree 6 19.4% Bachelor's degree 1 3.2% Master's degree 16 51.6% High school diploma/some coursework 3 9.7% Notes: (a) Other = 5 Preschool special education coordinators, 3 Principals, 1 Education specialis (b) Other = 1 Arabic/African American, 1 Unknown Table 3 Teacher Survey Participants: Demographic Data (n=109) Teacher Survey (n=109) N % Position Teachers 95 87.2% Speech/Language Pathologists 6 5.5% Teacher Assistants 4 3.7% Other (a) 4 3.7% Race/Ethnicity American Indian or Alaska Native 1 0.9% Asian 1 0.9% Black or African American 39 35.8% Hispanic or Latino 1 0.9% White 66 60.6% Other (b) 1 0.9% Highest Level of Education (c) High school diploma/GED 6 5.5% Associate's degree 15 13.8% Doctoral degree 1 0.9% Bachelor's degree 34 31.2% Master's degree 25 22.9% High school diploma/some coursework 25 22.9% Notes: (a) Other = 1 Migrant program recruiter, 1 School psychologist, 1 Therapist, 1 Disability services worker (b) Other = 1 Irish/German American (c) Three participants did not respond to this item. Table 4 Language Proficiency Questions for Administrators (n=31) and Teachers (n=109) Survey Question Administrator Survey Home language de- 75.9% Meeting with parents at termined through: school 44.8% Written form completed by parents 34.5% Home visits Home language pro- 82.1% Meeting with parents at ficiency determined school through: 35.7% Written form completed by parents 28.6% Home visits English language 72.4% Observations in school proficiency deter- 34.5% Language proficiency test mined through: 24.1% Observations in home Language proficien- 33.3% IDEA Oral Language cy tests used: Proficiency Test (IPT) 20.5% Miami-Dade Oral Lan- guage Proficiency 16.7% DIAL-3 Language proficien- 50.0% Individualized planning cy information 20.0% Determine how well is used for/to: children communicate and language of family 20.0% Determine further testing needed 20.0% Determine referral Survey Question Teacher Survey Home language de- 65.9% Meeting with parents at termined through: school 56.0% Written form completed by parents 45.1% Home visits Home language pro- 60.9% Meeting with parents at ficiency determined school through: 44.8% Written form completed by parents 37.9% Home visits English language 80.2% Observations in school proficiency deter- 30.8% Language proficiency test mined through: 30.8% Observations in home Language proficien- 40.0% DIAL-3 cy tests used: 23.3% Speech/Language tests 20.0% Miami-Dade Oral Language Proficiency Language proficien- 37.0% Determine how well children cy information communicate/language of is used for/to: family 28.3% Determine referral 26.1% Individualized planning Table 5 Screening Process Questions for Administrators (n=31) and Teachers (n=109) Survey Question Administrator Survey Developmental screening 46.2% DIAL-3 instrument used 19.2% Head Start National Reporting System 15.4% Brigance Times per year children 47.8% One time are screened 47.8% Two times 21.7% Three times Languages developmental 100.0% English screening administered in 80.8% Spanish Process used to screen ELL 70.8% Administered in home children language 62.5% Interpreter assists 37.5% Missed items are ad- ministered in opposite language 25.0% Administered in English only Survey Question Teacher Survey Developmental screening 53.8% DIAL-3 instrument used 16.3% LAP-D 11.3% Brigance Times per year children 40.5% One time are screened 41.8% Two times 11.4% Three times 5.1% Combination depending on instrument Languages developmental 95.7% English screening administered in 80.4% Spanish 7.6% Variety (Hmong, Arabic, Vietnamese, French) Process used to screen ELL 73.8% Administered in children home language 65.5% Interpreter assists 26.2% Administered in English only 22.6% Missed items are administered in opposite language Table 6 Diagnostic Evaluation Process Questions for Administrators (n=31) and Teachers (n=109) Survey Question Administrator Survey Languages diagnostic 83.9% English evaluation adminis- 54.8% Spanish tered in 19.4% Other languages Diagnostic assessments 19.2% Preschool Language used Scale-4 15.4% FLAP 15.4% DIAL-3 15.4% Bayley Scales Other strategies used 74.2% Classroom observations during diagnostic 21.7% Screenings evaluation process 19.4% Parent report 17.4% Work samples Process used for 60.9% Administered in home diagnostic evaluation language of ELL children 52.2% Interpreter assists 13.0% Missed items are administered in opposite language Survey Question Teacher Survey Languages diagnostic 86.8% English evaluation adminis- 79.1% Spanish tered in 37.4% Other languages Diagnostic assessments 21.5% Preschool Language Scale-4 used 20.0% DIAL-3 20.0% LAPR or LAP3 Other strategies used 88.4% Classroom observations during diagnostic 21.7% Screenings evaluation process 21.7% Parent report 15.9% Home visits Process used for 70.6% Administered in home diagnostic evaluation language of ELL children 60.3% Interpreter assists 26.5% Missed items are administered in opposite language Table 7 IEP Process Questions for Administrators (n=31) and Teachers (n=109) Survey Question Administrator Survey How IEP goals reflect 41.2% Takes into account home culturally diverse language and culture back- ground of ELL 29.4% Parent participation children 23.5% None Ways language needs 63.2% Bilingual assessor or are addressed in IEP home language included 15.8% Other (parent meetings, therapist input) 15.8% None 5.3% English only Survey Question Teacher Survey How IEP goals reflect 38.0% Takes into account home culturally diverse language and culture background of ELL 40.0% Unknown children 20.0% Parent participation 18.0% None Ways language needs 46.7% Bilingual assessor or are addressed in IEP home language included 33.3% Yes, language unknown 15.6% English only 6.7% None Table 8 Parent Participation in the Screening, Referral, Diagnostic Evaluation, and IEP Process, as Reported by Administrators (n=31) and Teachers (n=109) Survey Question Administrator Survey Type of information 47.6% Typical demographics, gathered from medical, parent concerns, parents during background screening process 28.6% Screenings 23.8% Information about language/ culture 9.5% None Information 90.5% Amount of English spoken in related to cultural/ child's home language differences 85.7% Frequency of child's interactions obtained from with English only primary caregivers 81.0% Family's language preference when child is for their child referred for 81.0% Parents' goals for the child diagnostic evaluation 76.2% Frequency of child's interactions with home language 71.4% Child's country of origin 61.9% Parents' country of origin Methods used to 90.5% Face-to-face meeting at school obtain information 76.2% Written documents from the family as 61.9% Parent/primary caregiver part of the diagnostic goals for the child evaluation process 42.9% Home visit Methods used to 45.0% Face-to-face meeting share results of 45.0% Written explanation of results diagnostic evaluation 40.0% Interpreter assists with the with parents explanation of results Parent strategies 100.0% Interpreters used during IEP 84.2% Written information in home meetings language 10.5% Advocate Survey Question Teacher Survey Type of information 69.5% Typical demographics, gathered from medical, parent concerns, parents during background screening process 20.3% Information about language/ cultural 18.6% Screenings 8.5% None Information 87.8% Amount of English spoken related to cultural/ in child's home language differences 77.0% Frequency of child's obtained from interactions with primary caregivers English only when child is 75.7% Frequency of child's referred for interactions with home diagnostic evaluation language 74.3% Parents' goals for the child 73.0% Family's language preference for their child 67.6% Parents' country of origin 60.8% Child's country of origin Methods used to 88.8% Face-to-face meeting at obtain information school from the family as 65.0% Written documents part of the diagnostic 56.3% Parents'/primary care-givers' evaluation process goals for the child 33.8% Home visit Methods used to 49.3% Written explanation of share results of results diagnostic evaluation 44.8% Face-to-face meetings with parents 35.8% Interpreter assists with the explanation of results Parent strategies 85.5% Interpreters used during IEP 58.1% Written information in meetings home language 9.7% Advocate Table 9 Content and Methods of Preservice and Inserviee Training, as Reported by Administrators (n=31) Survey Question Administrator Survey Do any teachers/teacher 51.9% Yes assistants speak a 48.1% No language other than English? If yes, what other 100.0% Spanish languages? 3.7% Farsi Role of bilingual 50.0% Interactions with child in classroom teacher/teacher 35.0% Interactions with parents (meetings, assistant with conferences, home visits) children 10.0% Tutoring 5.0% Translates written documents 5.0% Professional development for other staff Role of bilingual 86.7% Interactions with parents (meetings, teacher/teacher IEP meetings, conferences, home assistant with visits) parents 33.3% Translates written documents 6.7% Professional development for other staff Methods for preparing 60.9% Local conferences/staff development teachers for 47.8% College coursework instructing 26.1% District-wide staff development ELL children 26.1% State conferences 8.7% National conferences Methods for preparing 61.9% Local conferences/staff development teacher assistants 52.4% College coursework for instructing 47.6% On-site staff development ELL children 33.3% State conferences 23.8% District-wide staff development 0.0% National conferences