Printer Friendly

Spatio-temporal variations in the community structure of macrobenthic invertebrate fauna of Gharana Wetland (reserve), Jammu (J&K, India).


Wetlands are among the most productive ecosystems of the world with specific ecological characteristics, functions and values. They are essential life- supporting systems providing a wide array of benefits to human kind. Their high productivity places them among the richest and most biologically diverse ecosystems in the world (Kivaisi, 2001; Samsunlu et al, 2002)[1,2]. The importance of wetland habitats for human society and as a store of biological diversity has become increasingly recognized on a global scale since the late 1960s (Cowan, 1995[3]; Ramsar COP8, 2002)[4]. Most of the wetlands in India are host to rare, threatened and endangered species endangered species, any plant or animal species whose ability to survive and reproduce has been jeopardized by human activities. In 1999 the U.S. government, in accordance with the U.S.  of flora and fauna (Menon, 2004)[5]. Macrobenthos are greater than 0.5 mm size, exhibit variety of body shapes, feeding styles, reproductive modes and perform varieties of ecological functions. They act as a connecting link
For transportation corridors, see Fixed Link, bridge, and tunnel.

A Connecting Link is the name given to a municipal or county road in the Canadian Province of Ontario that has been downloaded to the county or city.
 between the biotopes of substratum sub·stra·tum  
n. pl. sub·stra·ta or sub·stra·tums
a. An underlying layer.

b. A layer of earth beneath the surface soil; subsoil.

2. A foundation or groundwork.

 and water column in the aquatic systems. They take part in breakdown of particulate organic material and export energy to higher trophic level trophic level
A group of organisms that occupy the same position in a food chain.

trophic level 
 and can potentially support offshore and pelagic pelagic

living in the middle or near the surface of large bodies of water such as lakes or oceans.
 communities (Schrijvers et al, 1996; Lee, 1997)[6,7]. The developmental stages of many macrobenthic organisms are pelagic, forming important components of plankton plankton: see marine biology.

Marine and freshwater organisms that, because they are unable to move or are too small or too weak to swim against water currents, exist in a drifting, floating state.
 community, that in turn is consumed by fish and thus having high influence on pelagic fisheries. Thus, the estimation of benthic ben·thos  
1. The collection of organisms living on or in sea or lake bottoms.

2. The bottom of a sea or lake.

 production is useful to assess the fishery production of a particular area (Sultan Ali et al, 1983)[8]. Benthic invertebrate invertebrate (ĭn'vûr`təbrət, –brāt'), any animal lacking a backbone. The invertebrates include the tunicates and lancelets of phylum Chordata, as well as all animal phyla other than Chordata.  are particularly favored because they are relatively sedentary and therefore representative of local conditions (Cook, 1976) [9]. Thus, in freshwater ecosystems, macro invertebrate indicator taxa are widely used to assess the quality and pollution status of a water body (Reynoldson, 1984) [10]. The present study has been undertaken to determine the community structure, density and other ecological characteristics of macrobenthic fauna in relation to physico- chemical parameters of the wetland so that this piece of information could be utilized to evaluate the present status of the wetland.

Study Area

Gharana Wetland (Reserve) 32[degrees] 32' 26" N, 74[degrees] 41' 24" E is situated in Jammu and Kashmir Jammu and Kashmir: see Kashmir.
Jammu and Kashmir

State (pop., 2001: 10,143,700), northern India. With an area of 39,146 sq mi (101,387 sq km), it occupies the southern portion of the Kashmir region of the northwestern Indian subcontinent and is
 State, Northwestern India (~) 10 miles east of the Indo-Pakistan International border (Fig.1). Gharana Wetland is under J&K Wildlife Protection Act, 1978 and is declared as 'Important Bird Area'. This wetland lies along the Palaearctic - Oriental migratory route of aquatic birds and thus, besides being the habitat of different biota biota /bi·o·ta/ (bi-o´tah) all the living organisms of a particular area; the combined flora and fauna of a region.

The flora and fauna of a region.
, this wetland serves as a wintering ground for many species of the birds. During the period of present study (March, 2008 to February, 2009), Gharana Wetland (Reserve) was divided into four stations:

Station I: This station lies close to Gharana village and is under continuous stress of anthropogenic an·thro·po·gen·ic  
1. Of or relating to anthropogenesis.

2. Caused by humans: anthropogenic degradation of the environment.
 influences. Cattle-bathing, washing of vehicles and disposal of cowdung along with other house-hold waste materials are the common activities occurring at this station.

Station II: It is about 300 m away from St I. Despite being very close to Gharana village, this station is not under much anthropogenic stress as compared to Station I.

Station III: It is situated exactly opposite to St I and is about 600 m away from St II.

It is bordered by large agricultural fields and thus receives agricultural run- off from these fields.

Station IV: It is about 530 m away from St I and is situated on the road side. This station receives a spill over Verb 1. spill over - overflow with a certain feeling; "The children bubbled over with joy"; "My boss was bubbling over with anger"
bubble over, overflow

seethe, boil - be in an agitated emotional state; "The customer was seething with anger"

 water from Ranbir Canal.


Material and Methods

Sampling: Macro-benthic invertebrate samples were collected monthly by using Ekmann's dredge from the preselected stations. Four bottom samples were taken from each station to minimize the sampling error. Samples collected were then sieved through sieve no. 40 having 256 meshes per sq. cm (Edmondson and Winberg, 1971) [11] and packed in labeled polythene pol·y·thene  
n. Chiefly British
Variant of polyethylene.

[poly- + (e)th(yl)ene.
 bags. Samples were washed in the laboratory; organisms were sorted and then preserved in 5% formalin formalin /for·ma·lin/ (for´mah-lin) formaldehyde solution.

An aqueous solution of formaldehyde that is 37 percent by weight.
 or 90% ethylalcohol for further identification.

Qualitative analysis Qualitative Analysis

Securities analysis that uses subjective judgment based on nonquantifiable information, such as management expertise, industry cycles, strength of research and development, and labor relations.
: The qualitative analysis of preserved samples of macro- benthic invertebrate fauna was done by following Ward and Whipple (1959)[12], Needham and Needham (1962)[13], Macan (1964)[14], Tonapi (1980)[15], Adoni (1985)[16] and Pennak (1989)[17].

Quantitative analysis Quantitative Analysis

A security analysis that uses financial information derived from company annual reports and income statements to evaluate an investment decision.

: Preserved samples of macro-benthic invertebrate fauna were subjected to quantitative analysis applying the formula: n = O/(a.s ) (10,000), where n is the number of macro-benthic invertebrates per meter square, O is the number of organisms counted, a is the area of metallic sampler in square meter Noun 1. square meter - a centare is 1/100th of an are
centare, square metre

area unit, square measure - a system of units used to measure areas
 and s is the number of samples taken at each station (Welch, 1948) [18].

Physico-chemical Parameters

All the physico-chemical characteristics of water were determined at the sampling sites. The water and air temperature was recorded by a mercury bulb thermometer, depth by a meter rod and transparency by secchi disc. pH of the water was determined by using a portable pH meter (Hanna, model HI 98130). Dissolved oxygen of the water was estimated by sodium azide sodium azide NaN3 Microbiology A toxic salt added–concentration, 0.01%, to a transport medium of lab specimens–eg, urine for culturing bacteria, which prevents oxidative phosphorylation and bacterial overgrowth  modification of Winkler's method, FCO FCO n abbr (BRIT) (= Foreign and Commonwealth Office) → Min. de AA. EE

FCO n abbr (Brit) (= Foreign and Commonwealth Office) →
2 by Titrimetric ti·tri·met·ric  
Of or relating to measurement by titration.

[titr(ation) + -metric.]

 method, chlorides by Argentometeric method (A.P.H.A., 1985) [19]. Carbonates and bicarbonates were determined as per I. S. I. Method (1973)[20], A.P.H.A. (1985)[19] and Adoni (1985)[16].

Statistical methods

Standard Deviation (sd) was calculated using the formula: SD = [square root of ([summation][d.sup.2]/n)], where d is the deviation from the mean (x - [x.sup.-]) and n is the total number of observations. Species diversity was determined by applying Shannon-Weaver Diversity Index (Shannon and Weaver 1949)[21], H' = -[[summation].sup.s.sub.i=1][p.sub.i].ln([p.sub.i]), in which H' is the information content of sample (bits/individuals), S is the number of species and [p.sub.i] is the proportion of total species belonging to ith species. Simpson's Index of dominance (C) was calculated according to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.

2. In keeping with: according to instructions.

 Stone and Pence (1978)[22], C = [[summation].sup.s.sub.i=1][p.sub.i.sup.2] where [p.sub.i] is the proportion of total number of individuals of each species. Species richness This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject.
Please help recruit one or [ improve this article] yourself. See the talk page for details.
 was determined applying Marglefs Index (Marglef, 1968)[23], d' = S - 1/[Log.sub.n] (N), in which S is the total number of species, N is the total number of individuals in sample and [Log.sub.n] is the Natural log. Evenness was calculated using the Pielou's Index, E = H'/ln S (Pielou, 1969)[24], where H' is the Index of diversity of Shannon-Weaver, ln is the Natural log and S is the total number of species.

Scattergrams, resulting from plotting changes in overall macrobenthic abundance (dependent variable) against corresponding changes in the physico-chemical factors (independent variables), and the fitted regression lines (y = a + bx) were computed to predict any change in the quantitative relationship between the dependent and independent variables In mathematics, an independent variable is any of the arguments, i.e. "inputs", to a function. These are contrasted with the dependent variable, which is the value, i.e. the "output", of the function.  (Chattopadhyay and Banerjee, 2007)[25]. Percentage similarity of the macrobenthic invertebrate communities in different seasons was calculated by Sorenson's Quotient of Similarity (Sorenson, 1948)[26], Q/S = 2j/a + b (100), where j is the number of species common to both samples, a is the total number of species in sample 1 and b is the total number of species in sample 2. Morisita-Horn Index (Wolda, 1983)[27] was applied to determine the similarity of macrobenthic communities in different seasons in terms of abundance using the formula: MH = 2 [[summation].sup.n.sub.i=1] ([N.sub.ia] [N.sub.ib])/([d.sub.a] + [d.sub.b]) [N.sub.a][N.sub.b], in which [N.sub.ia] & [N.sub.ib] number of individuals of species 'i' in the samples for site a and b, [N.sub.a] & [N.sub.b] are the number of individuals in the samples from sites a and b and n is the total number of species.

Diversity indices were correlated using Karl Pearson's Coefficient of Correlation coefficient of correlation
n. pl. coefficients of correlation
See correlation coefficient.

Noun 1. coefficient of correlation
 which was tested at 5% level using Student-t test. Two-way ANOVA anova

see analysis of variance.

ANOVA Analysis of variance, see there
 was used to determine whether there is significant temporal variations in the different characteristics of macrobenthic community among different seasons/months as well as stations. Correlation Coefficient Correlation Coefficient

A measure that determines the degree to which two variable's movements are associated.

The correlation coefficient is calculated as:
, Student-t test and Two-way ANOVA was calculated with the help of Microsoft Excel (tool) Microsoft Excel - A spreadsheet program from Microsoft, part of their Microsoft Office suite of productivity tools for Microsoft Windows and Macintosh. Excel is probably the most widely used spreadsheet in the world.

Latest version: Excel 97, as of 1997-01-14.
 (MS Office, 2007) and SPSS A statistical package from SPSS, Inc., Chicago ( that runs on PCs, most mainframes and minis and is used extensively in marketing research. It provides over 50 statistical processes, including regression analysis, correlation and analysis of variance.  Software (Ver. 16.0).


Physico-chemical Parameters:

The physico-chemical variables for Gharana Wetland are presented in Table 1. The range of air and water temperature throughout the study period varied from 14 to 39 0C and 13 to 35 0C respectively. The range of depth and transparency varied from 6.5 to 85 cm and 1.5 to 58.5 cm respectively, the lowest being during the premonsoon and highest during monsoon period. pH varied widely from 6.6 to 9.6 but it indicated an alkaline condition during most of the study period. Concentration of Dissolved Oxygen was observed to fluctuate from 1.6 to 8.4 mg/l and of free carbon dioxide carbon dioxide, chemical compound, CO2, a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is about one and one-half times as dense as air under ordinary conditions of temperature and pressure.  from 0-40 mg/l. Carbonates were found absent during most of the months. Higher concentration of bicarbonates was observed during late winters and spring. Calcium concentration ranged from 16.04 to 64.16 mg/l. Chloride (518.96 mg/l) and magnesium (94.77 mg/l) displayed its highest values at St I.

Community Composition

Present investigations on macrobenthic invertebrate fauna of Gharana Wetland (Reserve) revealed the presence of three major Phyla- Annelida, Arthropoda, and Mollusca. A total of 39 species of macrobenthic invertebrates were identified, 5 species of Phylum phylum, in taxonomy: see classification.  Annelida, 30 species of Arthropoda and 4 species of Mollusca (Table 2). Arthropoda dominated the macrobenthic community (77.72%) whereas remaining phyla phy·la  
Plural of phylum.
 exhibited the lower percentages viz. Annelida (13.73%) and Mollusca (8.55%) (Fig. 3). Maximum species (34) were found at St I followed by 29 species at St IV, 28 species at St III and a minimum of 25 species at St II.


Phylum Annelida was represented by two classes- Class Oligochaeta Noun 1. class Oligochaeta - earthworms

Annelida, phylum Annelida - segmented worms: earthworms; lugworms; leeches

oligochaete, oligochaete worm - hermaphroditic terrestrial and aquatic annelids having bristles borne singly along the length
 (3 species) and Hirudinea (2 species). Of all the annelid taxa, Helobdella sp. Blanchard was exclusively recorded at St III while Hirudinaria granulosa (Savigny) was completely absent at St I. Class Insecta, the only contributor to Phylum Arthropoda Noun 1. phylum Arthropoda - jointed-foot invertebrates: arachnids; crustaceans; insects; millipedes; centipedes

animal kingdom, Animalia, kingdom Animalia - taxonomic kingdom comprising all living or extinct animals
, was comprised of 5 orders namely Coleoptera (12 species), Diptera (8 species), Hemiptera (7 species), Odonata (2 species) and Ephemeroptera (1 species). Among arthropods, only 14 species were abundant and ubiquitous including Sphaerodema annulatum Fabricius, Sphaerodema molestum Duf., Laccotrephes maculates (Fabricius), Corixa hieroglyphica Duf., Notonecta sp. Linne, Regimbartia attenuata (Fabricius), Berosus pulchellus Mackleay, Hydrovatus acuminatus Motschulsky, Hypophorus sp. Sharp, Laccophilus flexusus (Aube), Canthydrus laetibilis (Walker), Paedrus extraneus Wied., Chironomus sp. Meigen and Culicoides sp. Latreille. Phylum Mollusca Noun 1. phylum Mollusca - gastropods; bivalves; cephalopods; chitons

animal kingdom, Animalia, kingdom Animalia - taxonomic kingdom comprising all living or extinct animals
 was represented by Class Gastropoda which comprised of 4 species. These species belonged to 3 families: Planorbidae, Lymnaedae and Viviparidae. Only Gyraulus sp. inhabited all the stations (Table 2).

Population Dynamics Population dynamics is the study of marginal and long-term changes in the numbers, individual weights and age composition of individuals in one or several populations, and biological and environmental processes influencing those changes.  

The standing crop of total macrobenthic population throughout the study period was highest at St I (19287 ind.[m.sup.-2]) followed by St II (6345 ind.[m.sup.-2]), St IV (4725 ind.[m.sup.-2]) and St III (4059 ind.[m.sup.-2]). A well marked seasonal variation in total macrobenthic invertebrate fauna existed that ranged from 9-6489 ind.[m.sup.-2] at St I, 81- 2151 ind.[m.sup.-2] at St II, 54-477 ind.[m.sup.-2] at St III and 126-675 ind.[m.sup.-2] at St IV. Macrobenthic fauna acquired their peak in the month of September at St I (6489 ind.[m.sup.-2]), St II (2151 ind.[m.sup.-2]) and IV (675 ind.[m.sup.-2]) while during April at St III (603 ind.[m.sup.-2]) (Fig. 2a). On the other hand, minimum density was recorded in May at all the stations. Comparative account of annual percent contribution of annelids to macrobenthic density at different stations revealed that annelids contributed 9.52%, 17.73%, 23.28% and 17.33% at St I, II, III and IV respectively (Fig. 3). Comparison between stations showed the highest density of annelids (153 ind.[m.sup.2] [+ or -] 364.60) at St I, thus contrasting with the lowest density (68.25 ind.[m.sup.-2] [+ or -] 86.60) at St IV. ST II and III had the density of 93.75 ind.[m.sup.-2] [+ or -] 241.45 and 78.75 ind.[m.sup.-2] [+ or -] 102.49 respectively. Maximum annelid population was recorded in September at St I (1350 ind.[m.sup.- 2]) and St II (891 ind.[m.sup.-2]) while during April at St III (288 ind.[m.sup.-2]) and St IV (261 ind.[m.sup.-2]). Complete absence of annelids was observed during March, May and October to November at St III. At St IV, annelids were found to be absent from May-August (Fig. 2b).

Maximum annelid density at all the stations was mainly contributed by Class Oligochaeta. The density of Oligochaetes was observed to be highest at St I (153 ind.[m.sup.-2] [+ or -] 364.60). Among Oligochaetes, the participation of Tubifex tubifex Tubifex tubifex, also called the sludge worm, is a species of tubificid segmented worm that inhabits the sediments of lakes and rivers on several continents. T.  was shown to be maximum at all the stations with highest mean standing crop at St I (136.5 ind.[m.sup.-2] [+ or -] 369.36) followed by St II (84 ind.[m.sup.-2] [+ or -] 241.42), St III (67.5 ind.[m.sup.-2] [+ or -] 98.97) and St IV (60.75 ind.[m.sup.-2] [+ or -] 84.12).

Arthropods contributed 86.00%, 76.88%, 59.87% and 60.38% (Fig. 3) to the total arthropod arthropod

Any member of the largest phylum, Arthropoda, in the animal kingdom. Arthropoda consists of more than one million known invertebrate species in four subphyla: Uniramia (five classes, including insects), Chelicerata (three classes, including arachnids and horseshoe
 density with mean standing crop of 1382.25 ind.[m.sup.-2] [+ or -] 1752.79, 406.5 ind.[m.sup.-2] [+ or -] 357.34, 202.5 ind.[m.sup.-2] [+ or -] 131.12 and 237.75 ind.[m.sup.-2] [+ or -] 146.53 at St I, II, III and IV respectively. Maximum density of arthropods was observed during November at St I (5265 ind.[m.sup.-2]) and St IV (513 ind.[m.sup.-2]), during September at St II (1260 ind.[m.sup.-2]) and during December at St III (414 ind.[m.sup.-2]). Least arthropod count was recorded during May at St I (9 ind.[m.sup.-2]), August at St II (0 ind.[m.sup.-2]) and July at St III (36 ind.[m.sup.-2]) and St IV (27 ind.[m.sup.-2]) (Fig. 2c).

Figure 3 represented the relative abundance of various orders of arthropoda of four stations. During the present investigations, dipterans ranked first in their numerical abundance at St I (1079.25 ind.[m.sup.-2] [+ or -] 1534.65) and St II (264 ind.[m.sup.-2] [+ or -] 310.76). Dominance of Dipterans at these stations was owing to the greater density of Chironomus at St I (958.5 ind.[m.sup.-2] [+ or -] 1551.03) as well as at St II (229.5 ind.[m.sup.-2] [+ or -] 289.83). Conversely, Coleoptera occupied significant place in terms of their numerical abundance at St III (139.5 ind.[m.sup.-2] [+ or -] 126.51) and St IV (129 ind.[m.sup.-2] [+ or -] 118.79) thereby leading to the peak of total arthropod population during winter at these stations.

Ephemeroptera recorded their complete absence at St III and IV while comparatively more density of ephemeropterans at St I (4.5 ind.[m.sup.-2] [+ or -] 10.71) as compared to St II (2.25 ind.[m.sup.-2] [+ or -] 7.46) was observed. Among Hemiptera, Notonecta sp. and Corixa hieroglyphica donated maximum to the total hemipteran population at all the stations. Odonates were found to be absent at St II while their presence was recorded at rest of the stations in the monsoon period.

Molluscs weakly occurred at St I (4.48%), St II (5.39%) and St III (16.85%) in terms of their annual percent contribution to the total macrobenthic invertebrates at different stations. St IV ranked second in its percent contribution (22.29%) to the total macrobenthic fauna (Fig. 3). The mean density of molluscs was observed to be highest at St IV (87.75 ind.[m.sup.-2] [+ or -] 86.80) followed by St I (72 ind.[m.sup.-2] [+ or -] 106.43) and St III (57 ind.[m.sup.-2] [+ or -] 78.06). The least density of mollusks was recorded at St II (28.5 ind.[m.sup.-2] [+ or -] 36.53). Maximum molluscan mol·lus·can also mol·lus·kan  
Of or relating to the mollusks.

A mollusk.
 density was documented in August at St I (288 ind.[m.sup.-2]) and St II (126 ind.[m.sup.-2]), June at St III (237 ind.[m.sup.- 2]) and September at St IV (279 ind.[m.sup.-2]) (Fig. 2d).


Seasonal abundance (ind.[m.sup-2]) of the predominant macrobenthic species in the four stations has been depicted in Fig. 5. The Shannon Index of diversity dropped from 2.667 at St IV to 1.616 at St I (Table 3). Monthly Shannon diversity at different stations has been given in Fig. 6. The species diversity registered significant negative correlations with dominance (r = -0.970, p<0.05), atmospheric temperature (r = 0.533, p<0.05) and chloride (r = -0.713, p<0.05) while it was positively correlated with evenness (r = 0.818, p<0.05), richness (r = 0.968, p<0.05) and transparency (r = 0.518, p<0.05) (Table 4 & 5). Two-Way ANOVA recorded significant temporal variations in diversity between stations ([F.sub.3.33] = 3.314, p<0.05) as well as between months ([F.sub.11,33] = 2.29, p<0.05). Index of dominance was about four times greater at St I (0.378) than at St IV (0.097) (Table 3). Simpson's dominance values exhibited wider monthly variations (Fig. 6). Species dominance showed significant positive correlation with chloride (r = 0.699, p<0.05) and negative correlation with evenness (r = -0.866, p<0.05), richness (r = -0.908, p<0.05) and dominance (r = -0.970, p<0.05) (Table 4 & 5). F-Value registered significant temporal variations in dominance between stations ([F.sub.3,33] = 2.83 8, p<0.05) but recorded insignificant variations between months.

Evenness Index also showed the same trend as that of diversity i.e. a gradual decline from St IV (0.792) to St I (0.458) (Table 3). Pielou's evenness in different months at all the stations has been tabulated in Fig. 6. Evenness registered significant positive correlations with diversity (r = 0.818, p<0.05), richness (r = 0.666, p<0.05) while negative correlation with dominance (r = -0.866, p<0.05) (Table 4 & 5). Two-Way ANOVA recorded significant temporal variation in evenness between stations ([F.sub.3,33] = 4.675, p<0.05) but exhibited insignificant variation between months. The highest Marglefs value of 3.370 was calculated at St III, followed by St I (3.344), St IV (3.309) and St II (2.74) (Table 3). Richness varies monthly at all the stations which have been clearly depicted in Fig. 6. Species richness showed negative significant correlations with dominance (r = -0.908, p<0.05), atmospheric temperature (r = 0.521, p<0.05), carbonates (r = -0.573, p<0.05) and chloride (r = -0.798, p<0.05) whereas significant positive correlation existed with diversity (r = 0.968, p<0.05), evenness (r = 0.666, p<0.05) and transparency (r = 0.623, p<0.05) (Table 4 & 5).

Two-way ANOVA recorded significant temporal variations in richness between months ([F.sub.11.33] = 2.374, p<0.05) but insignificant variations between stations. Figure 7 depicted the scattergrams with fitted regression lines showing linear relationships between changes in macrobenthic density and physico-chemical parameters of the water.

When comparison between stations was made by using qualitative presenceabsence type, Sorenson's Quotient of similarity (Q/S), St I and IV were found more similar with highest value of 81.25% whereas low similarity (73.68%) was calculated between St II and IV. Based on meristic data i.e. counts of individuals referring quantitative indices, Morisita-Horn Index showed maximum values of similarity between St I and II (MH = 0.943) while minimum similarity was found among St I and IV (MH = 0.31) (Table 6). Among macrobenthic community, molluscan density exhibited significant positive correlation with atmospheric temperature (r = 0.572, p<0.05), water temperature (r = 0.695, p<0.05) and depth (r = 0.704, p<0.05) while significant negative correlations was found with pH (r = -0.610, p<0.05), dissolved oxygen (r = -0.623, p<0.05), bicarbonates (r = -0.826, p<0.05), magnesium (r = - 0.926, p<0.05) and chloride (r = -0.520, p<0.05) (Table 4 & 5). Macrobenthic density registered significant temporal variations between stations ([F.sub.3,9] = 4.685, p<0.05) and insignificant annual variations.





In Gharana Wetland (Reseve), maximum macrobenthic invertebrate density during autumn may be attributed to the richness of organic sediments as a consequence of allochthonous Adj. 1. allochthonous - of rocks, deposits, etc.; found in a place other than where they and their constituents were formed
autochthonous - of rocks, deposits, etc.; found where they and their constituents were formed
 materials entering the wetland from the catchment area catchment area or drainage basin, area drained by a stream or other body of water. The limits of a given catchment area are the heights of land—often called drainage divides, or watersheds—separating it from neighboring drainage  during monsoon (Scott et al, 1928; Srivastava, 1956; Mandal and Moitra, 1975; Vasisht and

Bhandal, 1979)[28,29,30,31]. Bose and Lakra (1994)[32] affirmed that the soft clay soil with decaying leaves and other organic matter in the bottom soil influences the growth and propagation of various benthic animals. They further suggested that the maximum number of most of the species of benthic organisms occurred after monsoon rain, which supports the present observation of having maximum macrobenthic density during post-monsoon period. Spring rise (April) in macrobenthic invertebrate density may be associated with the presence of high organic detritus detritus /de·tri·tus/ (de-tri´tus) particulate matter produced by or remaining after the wearing away or disintegration of a substance or tissue.

n. pl.
 during this period. Decline in the macrobenthic population recorded in May at all the stations may be the effect of reduced transparency and increased turbidity turbidity /tur·bid·i·ty/ (ter-bid´i-te) cloudiness; disturbance of solids (sediment) in a solution, so that it is not clear.tur´bid
The cloudiness or lack of transparency of a solution.
 (Lamptey and Armah, 2008)[33]. Moreover, during Pre-monsoon period, the rate of multiplication of macro invertebrates is also reduced (Bose and Lakra, 1994)[32].

The presence of allochthonous detritus sediments enhanced the abundance of detritivores like Oligochaetes (Manoharan et al, 2006)[34] which confirms the peak of annelid population during September at St I and II due to the ingression in·gress  
1. also in·gres·sion A going in or entering.

2. Right or permission to enter.

3. A means or place of entering.
 of allochthonous material into the wetland from catchment area during monsoon rains. On the other hand, St III and IV which harbored thick growth of macrophytes maintained highest density during April as a consequence of organic detritus (Dutta and Malhotra, 1986)[35] resulting from the accelerated rate of decomposition of macrophytes after post-winter rise in temperature. Temperature has been cited as an important environmental factor to cause rapid macrophytic decomposition (Hynes and Kaushik, 1969; Carpenter and Adams, 1979)[36,37]. Decline in the Tubifex tubifex count which ultimately led to the fall of annelid density may be attributed to their consumption by other bottom dwelling predators as also described by Brinkhurst (1974)[38] and Kumar (1997)[39].

Disposal of domestic sewage from village side at St I enhanced organic detritus leading to the highest density of oligochaetes at this station. Abundance of oligochaetes due to greater load of organic detritus has been well opined by Egglishaw and Mackay (1967)[40], Learner et al (1971)[41] and Hawkes (1979)[42]. Mukherji et al (1998)[4 ] documented that the predominance of oligochaetes could be attributed to the inflow of sewage as well as the availability of food in the form of decaying organic matter. Abundance of oligochaetes particularly Tubificidae (Yildrim, 2004)[44] in the water mainly polluted by domestic sewage has been well suggested by Carr and Hiltunen (1965)[45], Odum (1971)[46], Mastrantuno (1986)[47] and Navas-Pereira and Henrique (1996)[48].

Oligochaetes particularly Tubifex tubifex are considered as the pollution indicator species (Howmiller and Beeton, 1971; Oliver, 1971; Milbrink, 1980; Bazzanti, 1983; Sturmbauer et al, 1999; and Qadri and Yousuf, 2004)[49,50,51,52,53,54] and a mass occurrence of Tubifex tubifex and Limnodrillus hoffmesteri was usually noted with a density of 3,000-8,000 ind.[m.sup.-2] (Kennedy, 1965)[55]. Brinkhurst and Cook (1974)^, Brinkhurst (1975 and 1980)[57,58], McLusky et al (1980)[59], Kazanci (1998)[60], Swayne and Day (2004)[61], Yildiz and Ergonul (2007)[62] and Kucuk (2008)[63] also reported the abundance of Tubificidae (Tubifex tubifex and Limnodrillus hoffmesteri) in organically polluted water. According to Xiong et al (2003)[64], the density of oligochaetes increased significantly with increasing trophic trophic /tro·phic/ (tro´fik) (trof´ik) pertaining to nutrition.

Of, relating to, or characterized by nutrition.
 state. Highest density of Oligochaetes at St I clearly depicted that St I was the most polluted station and had higher trophic state as compared to rest of the three stations. Dominance of dipterans at St I and II was mainly contributed by Chironomus sp. which ultimately led to the peak of arthropods during September. This might be owing to the presence of thick layers of soft organically rich sediments as a result of entry of allochthonous material during monsoon rains which is in line with the findings of David and Ray (1966)[65], Edwards et al (1971)[66] and Reid and Wood (1976)[67].

Greater density of Chironomus sp. at St I may be ascribed to the direct entry of domestic sewage. Silva et al (2009)[68] revealed that the predominance of this genus may be associated with discharges of domestic sewage, which causes the increase of organic matter, thereby making the environment more adequate for these organisms. According to Merritt and Cummins (1996)[69], the range of conditions under which chironomids are found in more extensive than that of any other group of aquatic insects and their wide ecological amplitude is related to the very extensive array of morphological, physiological and behavioral adaptations. Moreover, Loden lo·den  
1. A durable, water-repellent, coarse woolen fabric used chiefly for coats and jackets.

2. A deep olive green.
 (1974)[70] stated that chironomid larvae Larvae, in Roman religion
Larvae: see lemures.
 can be used as biological indicators. The present observation of having highest density of Chironomus sp. at St I indicate that this station is highly polluted.

Maximum input of Order Coleoptera at St III and IV may be attributed to the thick growth of macrophytes at these stations. Sharma (2002)[71] also recorded higher coleopteran co·le·op·ter·an   also co·le·op·ter·on
Any of numerous insects of the order Coleoptera, characterized by forewings modified to form tough protective covers for the membranous hind wings and including the beetles, weevils, and fireflies.
 density associated with thick vegetation. Ephemeropterans recorded their complete absence at St III and IV. Comparatively higher density of ephemeropterans at St I as compared to St II may be due to the enrichment of organic detritus at this station which is in contradiction with the findings of Hynes (1960)[72], Bogoescu and Rogaz (1973)[73], Choudhary (1984)[74], Dudgeon dudg·eon 1  
A sullen, angry, or indignant humor: "Slamming the door in Meg's face, Aunt March drove off in high dudgeon" Louisa May Alcott.
 (1993)[75] and Kumar (1996)[76] who established an inverse relationship between ephemeropterans and organic load. Langford and Bray (1969)[77] opined that Baetis sp. is a pollution indicator species that exists in organically polluted waters, thereby supporting the present observation. Abundance of odonates during monsoon period at St I, III and IV was directly related to the luxuriant luxuriant /lux·u·ri·ant/ (lug-zhoor´e-ant) growing freely or excessively.  macrophytic growth (Cronin et al, 2006)[78]. Macrophytes provide excellent diverse niches for several insect larvae/adult which are adopted for mining into stems and leaves (Mukherji et al, 1998)[43].

Highest molluscan density observed during monsoon period at all the stations may be ascribed to the prolific growth of macrophytes which provided favorable habitat by increasing the available benthic area for molluscan populations (Anderson and Sedell, 1979; Qadri and Yousuf, 2004)[79,54]. Macrophytes provide suitable food and shelter for gastropods (McLachlan, 1975; Soszka, 1975; Maitland, 1978)[80,81,82]. Peak in molluscan density during August at St I and II and September at St IV is in accordance with the results of Malhotra et al, (1996)[83]. Maximum molluscan density in June at St III could be attributed to the effect of higher rate of reproduction at higher temperature (Dutta and Malhotra, 1986)[35]. Malhotra et al (1996)[83] related the availability of maximum molluscs during summer months to two important ecological phenomena: i) The maximum abundance of decomposer settled organic matter and macrophytes on the bottom of the water body and (ii) Increased water temperature activating the process of decomposition of these organic sediments. Higher abundance of molluscs with increased water temperature and decomposed organic matter has been also reported by Bath et al (1999)[84]. Low count of mollusks during winter may be associated with the low water temperature as also described by Dutta and Malhotra (1986)[87], Reece and Richardson (2000)[85], Frisberg et al (2001)[86], Fenoglio et al (2004)[87], Ndaruga et al (2004)[88] and Silviera et al (2006)[89].

Gerritsen et al (1998)[90] stated that as the number and distribution of species (biotic biotic /bi·ot·ic/ (bi-ot´ik)
1. pertaining to life or living matter.

2. pertaining to the biota.

1. Relating to life or living organisms.
 diversity) within the community increases, so does the value of H', which indicates that St IV is more diverse. Moreover, highest Shannon diversity Index value at St IV suggested that this station was able to sustain a richer macrobenthic community as also documented by Albertoni et al (2007)[91]. Macrobenthic communities exhibited dominance in only few months and most of the taxa were observed throughout the year as rare taxa. According to Albertoni et al (2007)[91] presence of rare taxa in most of the period indicate good environmental conditions for their development recognized by lower levels of dominance. Mukhopadhyay et al (2007)[92] documented that although both Shannon measures and Simpson's index consider the proportional abundance of species, H' is more sensitive to rare species and 'C' puts more emphasis on the common species. Therefore, it indicates the occurrence of many rare species at St IV as compared to other sites and least species at St I. Krebs (1994)[93] also opined that index of dominance places relatively little weight on rare species and more weight on common species. Dominance was found inversely related to the diversity of the community which is in consonance con·so·nance  
1. Agreement; harmony; accord.

a. Close correspondence of sounds.

b. The repetition of consonants or of a consonant pattern, especially at the ends of words, as in blank
 with the observations of Simpson (1949)[94] and Green (1993)[95] who suggested the same trend.

Xie et al (1996)[96] and Gong and Xie (2001)[97] established a relationship between diversity of macrobenthic community and trophic status of the water body. They demonstrated that the more eutrophic eu·troph·ic
Relating to, characterized by, or promoting eutrophia.
 the water body, the lower the macrobenthic species diversity. Other studies in Chinese lakes of different trophic status revealed that eutrophication eutrophication (ytrō'fĭkā`shən), aging of a lake by biological enrichment of its water. In a young lake the water is cold and clear, supporting little life.  could result in a remarkable decline in the diversity of macrobenthic taxa which may be explained by the presence of few dominant species, since sensitive organisms are incapable of surviving in extreme conditions (Xiong et al, 2003)[64]. Hence, the results indicated that St I is having higher trophic status.

Highest Marglef's species richness index (which considers both abundance and species number) at St III revealed that this site harbored a good number of macrobenthic taxa. Schafer (1980)[98] established a relationship among habitat conditions, dominance and richness. Extreme habitats (eutrophic waters) are characterized by a limited number of adapted species and their high dominance. On the other hand, the habitats having balanced conditions inhabit biocoenosis richness in terms of the number of species and with uniform distribution of individuals. Further, he concluded that high levels of evenness indicate an environment with heterogeneous conditions regulated by a community which is rich in the number of species and the multiplicity of their mutual relationships. Monthly variations in evenness may be the consequence of extremely heterogeneous conditions in some months and simplified in others thereby leading in a simpler way. Low evenness in St I and II may be accounted for by local disturbance due to anthropogenic pressure. Higher evenness values at St III and IV corresponds to stable environmental conditions. Tlig- Zouari and Maamouri-Mokhtar (2008)[99] observed evenness values ranging from 0.60 to 0.83, lower values at disturbed areas while elevated values at stable habitats.

Mathews (1986)[100] concluded that Morisita Horn Index below 0.50 indicate low similarities in the relative abundance of species, whereas index above 0.75 indicate high similarities, thereby confirming the high similarity between St I and II. Michael (1968)[101], Dutta and Malhotra (1986)[35] and Malhotra et al (1996)[83] recorded a positive correlation between molluscs and temperature. Cheatum (1934)[102] and Sharma (1986)[103] have reported an inverse relationship of molluscs with dissolved oxygen and pH.


The information generated from this study gives us a clear picture depicting the effect of intense anthropogenic pressure over the wetland and its macrobenthic fauna, causing a decline in their abundance as well as their diversity. This piece of work will facilitate to fulfill the great need of framing the diverse conservatory strategies for the reduction of direct and indirect forms of anthropogenic influence over the macrobenthic invertebrate community and their habitat.


Authors thankfully acknowledge IARI IARI Indian Agricultural Research Institute
IARI Industrial Advertising Research Institute
, New Delhi for authentic identification of the macrobenthic invertebrate taxa.


[1] Kivaisi, A. K., 2001, "The potential for constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment and reuse in developing countries," Ecological Engineering, 16, 545560.

[2] Samsunlu, A. L., Akca, C. K., Findik, N. and Tanik, A., 2002, "Significance of wetlands in water qualiy management - past and present situations of Kizilirmak delta, Turkey," Water Science Technology, 46, 145-152.

[3] Cowan, G. I., 1995, "Wetland regions of South Africa," Wetlands of South Africa, G. I. Cowan, ed., Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, Pretoria, 21-31.

[4] Ramsar COP, 8, 2002, "Guidelines for the allocation and management of water for maintaining the ecological functions of wetlands," 8th Conference of Contracting Parties to the Convention on Wetlands, Ramsar Iran 1971, Valencia, Spain.

[5] Menon, M., 2004, "Vanishing wetlands of Kerala, India," Tigerpaper, 31, 1922.

[6] Schrijvers, J., Fermon, H. and Vinex, M., 1996, "Resource competition between macrobenthic epifauna epifauna  

Benthic animals that live on the surface of a substrate, such as rocks, pilings, marine vegetation, or the sea or lake floor itself. Epifauna may attach themselves to such surfaces or range freely over them, as by crawling or swimming.
 and infauna in·fau·na  
Aquatic animals that live in the substrate of a body of water, especially in a soft sea bottom.

[in-2 + fauna.
 in a Kenyan Avicenia marina mangrove mangrove, large tropical evergreen tree, genus Rhizophora, that grows on muddy tidal flats and along protected ocean shorelines. Mangroves are most abundant in tropical Asia, Africa, and the islands of the SW Pacific.  forest," Marine Ecology Progress Series, 136, 123-135.

[7] Lee, S. Y., 1997, "Potential tropic importance of the faecal fae·cal  
adj. Chiefly British
Variant of fecal.

Adj. 1. faecal - of or relating to feces; "fecal matter"
 material of the mangrove sesamine crab Sesarma messa. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 159, 275-284.

[8] Sultan Ali, M. A., Krishnamurthy, K. and Prince Jeyaseelan, M. J., 1983, "Energy flow through the benthic ecosystem of the mangroves with special reference to nematodes," Mahasagar-Bulletin of National Institute of Oceanography, 16, 317-325.

[9] Cook, S. E. K., 1976, "Quest for an index of community structure sensitive to water pollution," Environmental Pollution, 11, 269-288.

[10] Reynoldson, T. B., 1984, "The utility of benthic invertebrates in water quality monitoring," Water Quality Bulletin, 10, 21-28.

[11] Edmondson, W. T. and Winberg G. G., 1971, "A manual on the productivity in Freshwaters," Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, 358.

[12] Ward, H. B. and Whipple, G. C., 1959, "Freshwater Biology," IIED IIED International Institute for Environment and Development (UK)
IIED Intentional Infliction of Emotional Distress (legal) 
, John Wiley and Sons. Inc., New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of

[13] Needham, J. G. and Needham, P. R., 1962, "A Guide to the Study of Freshwater Biology," 5th edition, Holden-Day, Inc., San Francisco.

[14] Macan, T. T., 1964, "A Guide to Freshwater Invertebrate Animals," Lowe and Brydone (Printers) Ltd., London.

[15] Tonapi, G. T., 1980, "Freshwater invertebrates of India (an ecological approach)," IBH IBH Inclusion Body Hepatitis
IBH Initial Beachhead (US Army)
IBH Intermediate Block Home (signal)
IBH Integral Blackman-Harris Function
IBH Iglesia Bautista Horeb
 and Oxford Publication, New Delhi, India.

[16] Adoni, A. D., 1985, "Workbook on Limnology limnology

Subdiscipline of hydrology that concerns the study of fresh waters, specifically lakes and ponds (both natural and manmade), including their biological, physical, and chemical aspects.
," Pratibha Publishers, C-10 Gour Nagar
  • Nagar, Syria
  • Nagar, Jaiveer
  • Jaiveer, Nagar
  • Jaivir, Nagar
  • Nagar, Pakistan
  • Nagar Valley, Pakistan
  • Former State of Nagar in Pakistan
  • Nagar, Bangladesh
, Sagar Sagar (sä`gər), city (1991 pop. 257,119), Madhya Pradesh state, central India. Sagar is a regional market for wheat, cotton, and oilseed. Such industries as sawmilling, oil, and flour milling are important. , India.

[17] Pennak, R. W., 1989, "Invertebrates of the United States, Protozoa to Mollusca," 3rd edition.

[18] Welch, P. S., 1948, "Limnology Methods," Mc Graw Hill Book Company, New York.

[19] A. P. H. A., 1985, "Standard Methods for the examination of waste and waste water," 16th edition, American Public Health Association, Washington, D. C.

[20] I. S. I., 1973, "For sampling and test (Physical and Chemical) for water used in Industry, Indian Standard Institute," Manak Bhawan, 9, New Delhi.

[21] Shannon, C. E. and Weaver W., 1949, "The mathematical theory of communication," University of Illinois Press The University of Illinois Press (UIP), is a major American university press and part of the University of Illinois. Overview
According to the UIP's website:
, Urbana, II.

[22] Stone, J. E. and Pence, D. B., 1978, "Ecology of helminth helminth /hel·minth/ (hel´minth) a parasitic worm.

A worm, especially a parasitic roundworm or tapeworm.

A type of parasitic worm.
 parasitism parasitism: see parasite.

Relationship between two species in which one benefits at the expense of the other. Ectoparasites live on the body surface of the host; endoparasites live in their hosts' organs, tissues, or cells and often rely
 in the bobcat bobcat: see lynx.

Bobtailed, long-legged North American cat (Lynx rufus) found in forests and deserts from southern Canada to southern Mexico. It is a close relative of the lynx and caracal.
 from West Texas," Journal of Parasitology Parasitology

The scientific study of parasites and of parasitism. Parasitism is a subdivision of symbiosis and is defined as an intimate association between an organism (parasite) and another, larger species of organism (host) upon which the parasite is
, 64, 295-302.

[23] Marglef, R., 1968, "Perspectives in ecological theory," University of Chicago Press The University of Chicago Press is the largest university press in the United States. It is operated by the University of Chicago and publishes a wide variety of academic titles, including The Chicago Manual of Style, dozens of academic journals, including , Chicago, II.

[24] Pielou, E. C., 1969, "An introduction to mathematical ecology," John Wiley, New York.

[25] Chattopadhyay, C. and Banerjee T. C., 2007, "Temporal changes in environmental characteristics and diversity of net phytoplankton phytoplankton

Flora of freely floating, often minute organisms that drift with water currents. Like land vegetation, phytoplankton uses carbon dioxide, releases oxygen, and converts minerals to a form animals can use.
 in a freshwater lake" Turkish Journal of Botany, 31, 287-296.

[26] Sorensen, T., 1948, "A method of establishing groups of equal amplitude in plant sociology based on similarity of species content and its application to analyses of the vegetation on Danish commons," Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskab Biologiske Skrifter, 5, 1-34.

[27] Wolda, H., 1983, "Spatial and temporal variations in abundance of tropical animals," The tropical rainforest: Ecology and Management, T. C. Whitmore, A. C. Chadwick and S. L. Sutton eds., Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, U.K., 93-105.

[28] Scott, W. R., Hile, O. and Speith, H. T., 1928, "A quantitative study of bottom fauna of lake Wawasee (Turkey Lake)," Dept. Conserv. St. Indiana, Pub. Div. Fish and Game Indianapolis, 1, 1-26.

[29] Srivastava, V. K., 1956, "Benthic organisms of a freshwater fish tank," Current Science, 250, 158-159.

[30] Mandal, B. K. and Moitra, S. K., 1975, "Studies on the bottom fauna of a freshwater fish pond at Burdwan," Journal of Inland Fisheries Society of India, 43-48.

[31] Vasisht, H. S. and Bhandal, R. S., 1979, Seasonal variation of benthic fauna in north Indian lakes and ponds," Indian Journal of Ecology The Journal of Ecology (not to be confused with another journal called Ecology) is a scientific journal concerning plant ecology. It was first published in 1913, and is the oldest peer-reviewed, international ecological journal. , 6, 33-37.

[32] Bose, S. K. and Lakra, M.P., 1994, "Studies on the macro-zoobenthos of two freshwater ponds of Ranchi," Journal of Freshwater Biology, 6, 135-142.

[33] Lamptey, E. and Armah, A. K., 2008, "Factors affecting macrobenthic fauna in a tropical hypersaline coastal lagoon in Ghana, West Africa," Esturaies Coasts, 31, 1006-1019.

[34] Manoharan, S., Murugesan, V. K. and Palaniswamy, R., 2006, "Numerical abundance of benthic macroinvertebrates in selected reservoirs of Tamil Nadu," Journal of Inland Fisheries Society of India, 38, 54-59.

[35] Dutta, S. P. S. and Malhotra, Y. R., 1986, "Seasonal variations in the macrobenthic fauna of Gadigarh Stream (Miran Sahib sa·hib  
Used formerly as a form of respectful address for a European man in colonial India.

[Hindi s
), Jammu," Indian Journal of Ecology, 13, 138-145.

[36] Hynes, H. B. N. and Kaushik, N. K., 1969, "The relationship between dissolved nutrient salts and protein production in submerged autumnal leaves," Verhandlungen des Internationalen Verein Limnologie, 17, 95-103.

[37] Carpenter, S. R. and Adams, M. S., 1979, "Effects of nutrients and temperature on decomposition of Myriophyllum spicatum L. in a hardwater eutrophic lake," Limnology and Oceanography, 24, 520-528.

[38] Brinkhurst, R. O., 1974, "The distribution of Oligochaeta in Saginaw Bay lake Huron" Limnology and Oceanography, 12, 137-143.

[39] Kumar, A., 1997, "Biomonitoring of pollution by aquatic insect community and microorganisms in freshwater ecosystem," Ecotechnology for pollution control and Environmental Management, R. K. Trivedy and A. Kumar eds., Environment Media, 25.

[40] Egglishaw, H. J. and Mackay, D. W., 1967, "Survey of the bottom fauna of streams in the Scottish Highlands Part III. Seasonal change in the fauna of three streams," Hydrobiologia, 30, 305-334.

[41] Learner, M. A., Williams, R., Harcup, M. and Hughes, B. D., 1971, "A survey of the macrofauna of the river Cyonon, a polluted tributary of the river Taff (South Wales)," Freshwater Biology, 1, 339-367.

[42] Hawkes, H. A., 1979, "Invertebrates as indicator of river water quality" Biological Indicators of Water Quality, A. Jones and L. Erisan eds.

[43] Mukherji, M., Pal, S. and Nandi, N. C., 1998, "The macroinvertebrate diversity of some urban wetlands of Calcutta," Proceedings of the National Seminar on Environmental Biology, A. K. Aditya and F. Halder eds., Daya Publishing House, Delhi, 136-144.

[44] Yildirim, M. Z., 2004, "The gastropods of Lake Egirdir," Turkish Journal of Zoology The Journal of Zoology (not to be confused with a different journal called Zoology) is a scientific journal concerning zoology, the study of animals. It was founded in 1830 by the Zoological Society of London. External links
  • http://www.cambridge.
, 28, 97-102.

[45] Carr, J. F. and Hiltunen, J.K., 1965, "Changes in the bottom fauna of western lake Erie from 1930-1961" Limnology and Oceanordgraphy, 10, 551-569.

[46] Odum, E. P., 1971, "Fundamentals of Ecology," 3r edition, W.B. Saunders and Company Philadelphia.

[47] Mastrantuono, L., 1986, Community structure of the zoobenthos associated with submerged macrophytes in the eutrophic lake Nemi (Central Italy)," Italian Journal of Zoology, 53, 41-47.

[48] Navas-Pereira, D. and Henrique, R. M., 1996, "Aplicacao de indices biologicos numericos na avaliacao de qualidade ambiental," Rev. Brasil. Biol., 56, 441450.

[49] Howmiller, R. D. and Beeton, A. M., 1971, "Biological evaluation of environmental quality of Green Bay, Lake Michigan," Journal of Water Pollution Control Federation, 43, 123-133.

[50] Oliver, D. R., 1971, "Life history of the Chironomidae," Annual Review of Entomology entomology, study of insects, an arthropod class that comprises about 900,000 known species, representing about three fourths of all the classified animal species. , 16, 211-230.

[51] Milbrink, G., 1980, "Oligochaete communities in population biology: the European situation with special reference to lakes in Scandinavia," Aquatic Oligocheta Biology, R. D. Brinkhurst and D. G. Cook eds., Plenum Press, N.Y. and London, 433-455.

[52] Bazzanti, M., 1983, "Composition and diversity of the profundal macrobenthic community in the polluted lake Nemi (Central Italy), 1979-80," Ecological Applications, 4, 211-220.

[53] Sturmbauer, C., Opadiya, G. B., Niederstatter, H., Reidmann, A. and Dallinger, R., 1999, "Mitochondrial DNA reveals cryptic oligochaete species differing in cadmium resistance," Molecular Biology molecular biology, scientific study of the molecular basis of life processes, including cellular respiration, excretion, and reproduction. The term molecular biology was coined in 1938 by Warren Weaver, then director of the natural sciences program at the Rockefeller  and Evolution, 16, 967-974.

[54] Qadri, H. and Yousuf, A. R., 2004, "Ecology of macrozoobenthos in Nigeen lake," Journal of Research and Development, 4, 59-65.

[55] Kennedy, C. R., 1965, "The distribution of habitat of Limnodrillus claparede," Oikos, 16, 26-38.

[56] Brinkhurst, R. O. and Cook, D. G., 1974, "Aquatic earthworms (Annelida: Oligochaeta)," Pollution Ecology of Freshwater Invertebrates, C. W. Hart Jr. and S. L. H. Fuller, eds., New York Academic Press, 143-156.

[57] Brinkhurst, R. O., 1975, "Oligochaeta," Keys to the Water Quality Indicative Organisms of the Southeastern United States, F. K. Parrish, ed., Cincinnati, OH, U.S. Environmental Pollution Agency, Office of Research and Development, Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory, USA, 6985.

[58] Brinkhurst, R. O., 1980, "Pollution Biology: the North American North American

named after North America.

North American blastomycosis
see North American blastomycosis.

North American cattle tick
see boophilusannulatus.
 experience," Aquatic Oligochaete Biology, R. O. Brinkhurst, ed., New York, Plenum Press, 471-475.

[59] McLusky, D. S., Teare, M. and Phizac-Krea, P., 1980, "Effects of domestic and industrial pollution on distribution and abundance of aquatic oligochaetes in the Forth estuary," Helgoland Marine Research, 33, 384-392.

[60] Kazanci, N., 1998, "Distribution of oligochaeta species as bioindicators of organic pollution in Ankara Stream and their use in biomonitoring," Turk Journal of Zoology, 22, 83-87.

[61] Swayne, H. and Day, M., 2004, "Limnodrillus hoffmeisteri (Annelida: Oligochaeta: Tubificidae) in Pop's Cave Wisconsin, USA," Journal of Cave and Karst Karst (kärst), Ital. Carso, Slovenian Kras, limestone plateau, W Slovenia, N of Istria and extending c.50 mi (80 km) SE from the lower Isonzo (Soča) valley between the Bay of Trieste and the Julian Alps.  Studies, 66, 28-31.

[62] Yildiz, S. A. A. and Ergonul, M. B., 2007, "Seasonal fluctuations in the zooplankton zooplankton: see marine biology.

Small floating or weakly swimming animals that drift with water currents and, with phytoplankton, make up the planktonic food supply on which almost all oceanic organisms ultimately depend (see
 composition of a eutrophic lake: Lake Marmara (Manisa, Turkey)," Turk Journal of Zoology, 31, 121-126.

[63] Kucuk, S., 2008, "The effect of organic pollution on benthic macroinvertebrate fauna in the Kirmir Creek in the Sakarya Basin," ADU ADU Automatic Dialing Unit
ADU Array Diagnostic Utility (Compaq)
ADU Automatic Duplexing Unit
ADU Ammonium Diuranate
ADU Analog-to-Digital Unit
ADU Adamson University (Manila, Philippines) 
 Ziraat Fakuetese Dergisi, 5, 5-12.

[64] Xiong, J., Mei, X. and Liu, J., 2003, "Comparative studies on community structure, Biodiversity of plankton and zoobenthos in four lakes of different trophic states in China," Asian Fisheries Science, 16, 361-372.

[65] David, A. and Ray, P., 1966, "Studies on the pollution of river Daha (N. Bihar) by sugar and distillery wastes," Environmental Health, 7, 6-35.

[66] Edwards, R. W., Evans, B. K., Learner, M. A. and Williams, R., 1971, "A biological survey of the river Taff," Journal of Water Pollution Control, 43, 223.

[67] Reid, G. K. and Wood, R. D., 1976, "Ecology of Inland waters Canals, lakes, rivers, water courses, inlets, and bays that are nearest to the shores of a nation and subject to its complete sovereignty.

Inland waters, also known as internal waters, are subject to the total sovereignty of the country as much as if they were an actual part
 and Esturies," D. Norstand Company, New York.

[68] Silva, F. L., Moreira, D. C., Ruiz, S. S. and Bochini, G. L., 2009, "Diversity and abundance of aquatic macroinvertebrates in a lotic lo·tic  
Of, relating to, or living in moving water.

[From Latin l
 environment in Midwestern Sao Paulo State, Brazil," Ambi-Agua, Taubate, 4, 37-44. (doi:10.4136/ambi-agua.72) 41.

[69] Merrit, R. W. and Cummins, K. W., 1996, "Aquatic insects of the North America," Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, Dubuque, 862.

[70] Loden, M. S., 1974, "Predation predation

Form of food getting in which one animal, the predator, eats an animal of another species, the prey, immediately after killing it or, in some cases, while it is still alive. Most predators are generalists; they eat a variety of prey species.
 of Chironomid (Diptera) larvae on Oligocheates," Limnology and Oceanography, 19, 156.

[71] Sharma, S. P., 2002, "Studies on the impact of anthropogenic influences on the ecology of Gharana Wetland, Jammu," Ph.D. Thesis, University of Jammu The University of Jammu was established in 1969 beside the Tawi River. The university offers undergraduate, postgraduate and doctoral programs; it confers honoraray degrees to persons of exceptional calibre. It also affiliates and recognizes colleges. , Jammu.

[72] Hynes, H. B. N., 1960, "Ecology of running waters," Liverpool University Press, Liverpool, 555.

[73] Bogoescu, C. and Rogoz, I., 1973, "Considerations ecologiques sur les larvesd' Ephemeropteras respondices dans quilques sources do basin de la riviere ri·vière  
A necklace of precious stones, generally set in one strand.

[French rivière (de diamants), river (of diamonds), from Old French rivere, from Vulgar Latin
 oltet (in Romanian)," Hydrobiologia (Bucur), 14, 217-224.

[74] Choudhary, S. K., 1984, "Studies on Bio-ecology of aquatic insects of Sind and Lidder stream of Kashmir," Indian Journal of Ecology, 11, 160-165.

[75] Dudgeon, D., 1993, "The influence of riparian riparian adj. referring to the banks of a river or stream. (See: riparian rights)  vegetation on macroinvertebrate community structure and functional organization in six New Guinea streams," Hydrobiologia, 294, 65-85.

[76] Kumar, A., 1996, "Comparative studies on diel variations of abiotic factors in lentic Adj. 1. lentic - of or relating to or living in still waters (as lakes or ponds)
lake - a body of (usually fresh) water surrounded by land

lotic - of or relating to or living in actively moving water
 and lotic freshwater ecosystem of Santhal Parganas (Bihar), India," Journal of Environmental and Pollution, 3, 53-56.

[77] Langford, T. E. and Bray, E. S., 1969, "The distribution of Plecoptera and Ephemeroptera in a lowland region of Britain (Lincolnshire)," Hydrobiologia, 34, 243-271.

[78] Cronin, G., Lewis Jr., W. M. and Schiehser, M. A., 2006, "Influence of freshwater macrophytes on the littoral littoral /lit·to·ral/ (lit´ah-r'l) pertaining to the shore of a large body of water.


pertaining to the shore.
 ecosystem structure and function of a young Colorado reservoir" Aquatic Botany, 85, 37-43.

[79] Anderson, N. H. and Sedell, J. R., 1979, "Detritus processing by macroinvertebrates in stream ecosystems," Annual Review of Entomology, 24, 315-377.

[80] McLachlan, A. J., 1975, "The role of aquatic macrophytes in the recovery of the benthic fauna of a tropical lake after a dry phase," Limnology and Oceanography, 20, 54-63.

[81] Soszka, G. J., 1975, "The invertebrates on submerged macrophytes in three Masurian lakes," Ekologia Polska, 23, 371-391.

[82] Maitland, P. S., 1978, "Biology of freshwater" Blackie black·ie  
n. Offensive
Variant of blacky.
, London.

[83] Malhotra, Y. R., Sharma, K. K. and Thakial, M. R., 1996, "Ecology of macroinvertebrates from a fish pond," Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences, India, 66, 53-59.

[84] Bath, K. S., Kaur, H. and Dhillon, S. S., 1999, "Correlation of Molluscs with Physico-chemical factors at Harike Reservoir (Punjab)," Indian Journal of Environmental Science, 3, 159-163.

[85] Reece, P. F. and Richardson, J. S., 2000, "Benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages of coast and continental streams and large rivers of South Western British Columbia, Canada," Hydrobiologia, 439, 77-89.

[86] Frisberg, N., Milner, A. M., Svendsen, L. M., Lindegaard, C. and Larsen, S. E., 2001, "Macroinvertebrate stream communities along regional and physicochemical gradients in Western Greenland," Freshwater Biology, 46, 17531764.

[87] Fenoglio, S., Bo, T. and Cucco, M., 2004, Small scale macroinvertebrate distribution in a riffle of a Neotropical rainforest stream (Rio Bartola, Nicaragua)," Caribbean Journal of Science, 402, 253-257.

[88] Ndaruga, M. A., Ndurita, G. G., Crichuki, N. N. and Wamicna, W. M., 2004, "Impact of water quality on macroinvertebrate assemblage along a tropical stream in Kenya," African Journal of Ecology, 42, 208-216.

[89] Silviera, M. P., Buss, D. F., Nessimian, J. L. and Baptista, D. F., 2006, "Spatial and temporal distribution of benthic macroinvertebrates in a south eastern Brazilian river," Brazilian Journal of Biology The Journal of Biology is a scientific journal published by BioMed Central. It strieves to publish biological research articles of "exceptional interest". The journal website provides unrestricted access in the style of open access, and the articles are licensed under the Creative , 66, 623-632.

[90] Gerritsen, J., Carlson, R. E., Dycus, D. L., Faulkner, C., Gibson, G. R., Harcum, J. and Marcowitz, S. A., 1998, "Lake and Reservoir Bioassessment and Biocriteria," Technical Guidance Document, US Environmental Protection Agency.

[91] Albertoni, E. F., Prellvitz, L. J. and Palma-Silva, C., 2007, "Macroinvertebrate fauna associated with Pistia stratiotes and Nymphoides indica in subtropical sub·trop·i·cal  
Of, relating to, or being the geographic areas adjacent to the Tropics.


of the region lying between the tropics and temperate lands

 lakes (south Brazil)," Brazilian Journal of Biology, 67, 499-507.

[92] Mukhopadhyay, S. K., Chattopadhyay, B., Goswami, A. R. and Chatterjee, A., 2007, "Spatial variations in zooplankton diversity in waters contaminated with composite effluents," Journal of Limnology, 66, 97-106.

[93] Krebs, C. J., 1994, "Ecology: The Experimental Analysis of Distribution and Abundance," 4th edition, Harper Collins, New York Collins is a town in Erie County, New York, United States. The population was 8,307 at the 2000 census.

The Town of Collins is on the south border of the county and is considered to be one of the "Southtowns" of Erie County.
, 705-706.

[94] Simpson, E. H., 1949, "Measurement of diversity," Nature, 163, 688.

[95] Green, J., 1993, "Diversity and dominance in planktonic plank·ton  
The collection of small or microscopic organisms, including algae and protozoans, that float or drift in great numbers in fresh or salt water, especially at or near the surface, and serve as food for fish and other larger organisms.
 rotifers," Hydrobiologia, 255/256, 345-352.

[96] Xie, P., Zhuge, Y. and Dai, M., 1996, "Impact of eutrophication on biodiversity of plankton community," Acta Hydrobiologica Sinica, 20(suppl.), 30-37.

[97] Gong, Z. and Xie, P., 2001, "Impact of eutrophication on biodiversity of the macrozoobenthos community in a Chinese shallow lake," Journal of Freshwater Ecology, 16(2), 171-178.

[98] Schafer, A., 1980, "Criterios e Metodos para a Avalicao das Aguas superficias --Analise da Diversidade de Biocenoses," Nideco Serie Taim, no. 3. Porto Algre: Ed. Da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul The Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (Portuguese Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, UFRGS in shorthand) is among the largest federal universities of Brazil, where public universities are often among the most qualified institutions. , 24-41.

[99] Tlig-Zouari, S. and Maamouri-Mokhtar, F., 2008, "Macrozoobenthic species composition and distribution in the northern lagoon of Tunis," Transitional Waters Bulletin, 2, 1-15.

[100] Mathews, W. J., 1986, "Fish faunal structure in an Ozark stream: stability, persistence and a catastrophic flood," Copeia, Washington, D.C., 2, 388-397.

[101] Michael, R. G., 1968, Studies on bottom fauna in a tropical freshwater pond," Hydrobiologia, 31, 203-230.

[102] Cheatum, E. P., 1934, "Limnological lim·nol·o·gy  
The scientific study of the life and phenomena of fresh water, especially lakes and ponds.

[Greek limn
 investigation on respiration, annual migratory cycle and other related phenomena in freshwater pulmonate snails," Tansactions of the American Microscopical Society, 53, 348.

[103] Sharma, R. C., 1986, "Effect of physico-chemical factors on benthic fauna of Bhagirathi river, Garhwal Himalayas," Indian Journal of Ecology, 13, 133-137.

K.K. Sharma, *Minakshi Saini and Arti Sharma

Department of Zoology zoology, branch of biology concerned with the study of animal life. From earliest times animals have been vitally important to man; cave art demonstrates the practical and mystical significance animals held for prehistoric man. , University of Jammu, Jammu-180006, J&K, India.,

* Corresponding Author E-mail:
Table 1. Mean and Standard deviation (N = 12) of the physico-chemical
parameters at the stations.

Parameter                    St I                    St II

Air Temp.            30.42 [+ or -] 5.77      30.75 [+ or -] 6.60
  ([degrees]C)             (16-38)                  (15-38)
Water Temp.          25.67 [+ or -] 5.68      26.83 [+ or -] 6.39
  ([degrees]C)             (15-34)                  (14-34)
Depth (cm)           28.74 [+ or -] 15.30     38.46 [+ or -] 22.40
                           (6.5-57)                  (9-85)
Transp. (cm)         14.16 [+ or -] 7.32      19.98 [+ or -] 13.92
                          (1.5-23.5)                (2.2-43)
pH                    8.51 [+ or -] 0.81       8.53 [+ or -] 0.67
                          (6.6-9.5)                (7.2-9.5)
DO (mg/l)             4.24 [+ or -] 2.43       4.07 [+ or -] 1.44
                          (1.6-8.4)                 (2-6.4)
FC[O.sub.2]          12.5 [+ or -] 11.46      12.17 [+ or -] 10.11
  (mg/l)                    (0-40)                   (0-34)
C[O.sub.3.sup.2-]      7 [+ or -] 23.22         6 [+ or -] 19.90
  (mg/l)                    (0-84)                   (0-72)
HC[O.sub.3.sup.-]   777.75 [+ or -] 223.44   773.18 [+ or -] 265.21
  (mg/l)                (457.5-1067.5)           (414.8-1189.5)
[Ca.sup.2+]          36.83 [+ or -] 17.21     37.43 [+ or -] 17.10
  (mg/l)                (16.04-62.56)            (14.44-64.16)
[Mg.sup.2+]          55.08 [+ or -] 23.04     49.17 [+ or -] 17.29
  (mg/l)                (20.90-94.77)            (19.44-71.93)
[Cl.sup.-]          137.22 [+ or -] 154.19   126.75 [+ or -] 140.10
  (mg/l)                (19.96-518.96)            (23.95-495)

Parameter                   St III                   St IV

Air Temp.             29.5 [+ or -] 7.94      27.58 [+ or -] 9.31
  ([degrees]C)             (14-39)                  (14-39)
Water Temp.          25.67 [+ or -] 7.32      24.75 [+ or -] 7.29
  ([degrees]C)             (13-36)                  (13-35)
Depth (cm)           35.84 [+ or -] 19.46     28.48 [+ or -] 14.21
                           (8.3-74)                 (12-61)
Transp. (cm)         27.64 [+ or -] 18.22     20.08 [+ or -] 12.86
                          (2.2-58.5)                (1.9-38)
pH                    8.8 [+ or -] 0.75        9.05 [+ or -] 0.54
                          (6.8-9.6)                (7.4-9.6)
DO (mg/l)             4.73 [+ or -] 1.95       4.51 [+ or -] 1.94
                          (1.6-7.6)                (2.2-7.6)
FC[O.sub.2]           8.83 [+ or -] 9.88       6.5 [+ or -] 8.01
  (mg/l)                    (0-38)                   (0-32)
C[O.sub.3.sup.2-]    35.5 [+ or -] 82.72       48 [+ or -] 108.33
  (mg/l)                   (0-270)                  (0-324)
HC[O.sub.3.sup.-]   692.86 [+ or -] 224.47   685.23 [+ or -] 205.74
  (mg/l)                (433.1-1067.5)           (396.5-988.2)
[Ca.sup.2+]          34.82 [+ or -] 12.99     35.09 [+ or -] 13.62
  (mg/l)                (20.05-56.94)            (21.65-62.56)
[Mg.sup.2+]          45.16 [+ or -] 14.04     43.46 [+ or -] 14.44
  (mg/l)                 (22.36-66.1)            (20.41-64.15)
[Cl.sup.-]          140.89 [+ or -] 159.60   91.15 [+ or -] 112.13
  (mg/l)                (19.96-508.98)           (15.96-383.23)

Table 2: Density of Macrobenthic Invertebrates (ind.m [+ or -] sd) in
the sampling stations. In parentheses is the minimum and maximum value.

Species                         St I                    St II

Tubifex tubifex        136.5 [+ or -] 369.36      84 [+ or -] 241.42
  (Muller)                    (0-1350)                 (0-882)
Branchiura sowerbyi     15.75 [+ or -] 32.06     6.75 [+ or -] 16.07
  (Beddard)                   (0-108)                   (0-54)
Limnodrillus             0.75 [+ or -] 2.49       0.75 [+ or -] 2.49
  hoffmeisteri                 (0-9)                    (0-9)
Helobdella sp.                   --                       --
Hirudinaria                      --               2.25 [+ or -] 5.36
  granulosa                                             (0-18)

Baetis sp. Leach         4.5 [+ or -] 10.71       2.25 [+ or -] 7.46
                               (0-36)                   (0-27)
Perithemes sp. Hagen     2.25 [+ or -] 5.36               --
Enallagma sp.                2.25 5.36                    --
  Charpentier                  (0-18)
Sphaerodema              0.75 [+ or -] 2.49       2.25 [+ or -] 5.36
  annulatum                    (0-9)                    (0-18)
Sphaerodema molestum      6 [+ or -] 9.95         0.75 [+ or -] 2.49
  Duf.                         (0-27)                   (0-9)
Hydrometra greeni                --                       --
Laccotrephes             0.75 [+ or -] 2.49       0.75 [+ or -] 2.49
  maculates                    (0-9)                    (0-9)
Corixa hieroglyphica    12.75 [+ or -] 16.21     12.75 [+ or -] 26.61
  Duf.                         (0-54)                   (0-90)
Plea liturata Fieber     0.75 [+ or -] 2.49               --
Notonecta sp. Linne     6.75 [+ or -] 16.07      1.25 [+ or -] 26.78
                               (0-54)                   (0-90)
Sternolophus rufipes     1.5 [+ or -] 4.97        0.75 [+ or -] 2.49
  Fabricius                    (0-18)                   (0-9)
Regimbartia              0.75 [+ or -] 2.49       4.5 [+ or -] 14.92
  attenuata                    (0-9)                    (0-54)
Dactylosternum           1.5 [+ or -] 4.97        1.5 [+ or -] 4.97
  Wollaston                    (0-18)                   (0-18)
Berosus pulchellus      65.25 [+ or -] 78.21     32.25 [+ or -] 54.68
  Mackleay                    (0-261)                  (0-180)
Hydrovatus               51 [+ or -] 124.02      34.5 [+ or -] 58.54
  acuminatus                  (0-450)                  (0-189)
Hypophorus sp. Sharp     4.5 [+ or -] 8.62         6 [+ or -] 15.30
                               (0-27)                   (0-54)
Laccophilus flexusus     2.25 [+ or -] 7.46      6.75 [+ or -] 13.81
  (Aube)                       (0-27)                   (0-45)
Canthydrus              135 [+ or -] 242.33      25.5 [+ or -] 72.08
  laetabilis                  (0-720)                  (0-261)
Cybister                 0.75 [+ or -] 2.49               --
  tripunctatus                 (0-9)
  asiaticus (Sharp)
Paedrus extraneus        0.75 [+ or -] 2.49       0.75 [+ or -] 2.49
  Wied.                        (0-9)                    (0-9)
Cassida exilis            3 [+ or -] 7.65                 --
  Boheman                      (0-27)
Hygrobia sp.             0.75 [+ or -] 2.49               --
  Latreille                    (0-9)

Chironomus sp.         958.5 [+ or -] 1551.03   229.5 [+ or -] 289.83
  Meigen                      (0-4581)                 (0-1089)
Pentaneura sp.                   --                9 [+ or -] 24.92
  Philippi                                              (0-90)
Tabanus sp. Linnaeus     7.5 [+ or -] 15.95               --
  sens. lat.                   (0-54)
Culicoides sp.           96 [+ or -] 148.58      22.5 [+ or -] 35.34
  Latreille                   (0-495)                  (0-126)
Probezzia sp.           13.5 [+ or -] 33.57               --
  Kieffer                     (0-117)
Chaoborus sp.            1.5 [+ or -] 4.97         3 [+ or -] 9.95
  Lichtenstein                 (0-18)                   (0-36)
Odontomyia sp.           0.75 [+ or -] 2.49               --
  Meigen                       (0-9)
Tubifera sp. Meigen      0.75 [+ or -] 2.49               --
Gyraulus sp.            61.5 [+ or -] 95.38      25.5 [+ or -] 31.78
  Charpentier                 (0-270)                  (0-108)
Heliosoma sp.             6 [+ or -] 13.91         3 [+ or -] 6.71
  Swainson                     (0-45)                   (0-18)
Lymnaea sp. Lamarck      4.5 [+ or -] 10.71               --
Viviparus                        --                       --

Species                        St III                   St IV

Tubifex tubifex         67.5 [+ or -] 98.97      60.75 [+ or -] 84.12
  (Muller)                    (0-288)                  (0-261)
Branchiura sowerbyi       6 [+ or -] 13.91        4.5 [+ or -] 10.72
  (Beddard)                    (0-45)                   (0-36)
Limnodrillus             0.75 [+ or -] 2.49       0.75 [+ or -] 2.49
  hoffmeisteri                 (0-9)                    (0-9)
Helobdella sp.           0.75 [+ or -] 2.49               --
  Blanchard                    (0-9)
Hirudinaria              3.75 [+ or -] 7.76       2.25 [+ or -] 5.36
  granulosa                    (0-27)                   (0-18)

Baetis sp. Leach                 --                       --

Perithemes sp. Hagen     1.5 [+ or -] 3.35                --
Enallagma sp.            4.5 [+ or -] 12.46       4.5 [+ or -] 10.71
  Charpentier                  (0-45)                   (0-36)
Sphaerodema             8.25 [+ or -] 13.97       2.25 [+ or -] 5.36
  annulatum                    (0-45)                   (0-18)
Sphaerodema molestum    6.75 [+ or -] 11.69       4.5 [+ or -] 5.81
  Duf.                         (0-36)                   (0-18)
Hydrometra greeni        1.5 [+ or -] 4.97        2.25 [+ or -] 5.36
  Kirkaldy                     (0-18)                   (0-18)
Laccotrephes             0.75 [+ or -] 2.49       2.25 [+ or -] 5.36
  maculates                    (0-9)                    (0-18)
Corixa hieroglyphica    6.75 [+ or -] 19.83      25.5 [+ or -] 39.20
  Duf.                         (0-72)                  (0-108)
Plea liturata Fieber             --               1.5 [+ or -] 4.97
Notonecta sp. Linne       6 [+ or -] 13.91        18 [+ or -] 24.09
                               (0-45)                   (0-72)
Sternolophus rufipes             --                       --
Regimbartia              3.75 [+ or -] 8.58       0.75 [+ or -] 2.49
  attenuata                    (0-27)                   (0-9)
Dactylosternum                   --               1.5 [+ or -] 4.97
  Wollaston                                             (0-18)
Berosus pulchellus      45.75 [+ or -] 85.26     34.5 [+ or -] 64.36
  Mackleay                    (0-315)                  (0-243)
Hydrovatus               15 [+ or -] 23.33        24 [+ or -] 48.79
  acuminatus                   (0-72)                  (0-153)
Hypophorus sp. Sharp     1.5 [+ or -] 4.97       10.5 [+ or -] 13.16
                               (0-18)                   (0-36)
Laccophilus flexusus     4.5 [+ or -] 8.62       19.5 [+ or -] 28.89
  (Aube)                       (0-27)                  (0-108)
Canthydrus              68.25 [+ or -] 95.07     35.25 [+ or -] 62.08
  laetabilis                  (0-288)                  (0-189)
Cybister                         --                       --
  asiaticus (Sharp)
Paedrus extraneus        0.75 [+ or -] 2.49       2.25 [+ or -] 5.36
  Wied.                        (0-9)                    (0-18)
Cassida exilis                   --               0.75 [+ or -] 2.49
  Boheman                                               (0-9)
Hygrobia sp.                     --                       -

Chironomus sp.           12 [+ or -] 23.62        24 [+ or -] 44.29
  Meigen                       (0-72)                  (0-144)
Pentaneura sp.           2.25 [+ or -] 5.36               --
  Philippi                     (0-18)
Tabanus sp. Linnaeus             --                3 [+ or -] 5.61
  sens. lat.                                            (0-18)
Culicoides sp.          10.5 [+ or -] 15.95      17.25 [+ or -] 26.36
  Latreille                    (0-45)                   (0-81)
Probezzia sp.            1.5 [+ or -] 4.97        2.25 [+ or -] 7.46
  Kieffer                      (0-18)                   (0-27)
Chaoborus sp.                    --               1.5 [+ or -] 4.97
  Lichtenstein                                          (0-18)
Odontomyia sp.           0.75 [+ or -] 2.49               --
  Meigen                       (0-9)
Tubifera sp. Meigen              --                       --

Gyraulus sp.             54 [+ or -] 78.20       75.75 [+ or -] 79.61
  Charpentier                 (0-234)                  (0-261)
Heliosoma sp.            0.75 [+ or -] 2.49               --
  Swainson                     (0-9)
Lymnaea sp. Lamarck      2.25 [+ or -] 5.36        3 [+ or -] 5.61
                               (0-18)                   (0-18)
Viviparus                        --                9 [+ or -] 16.02
  bengalensis                                           (0-54)

Table 3: Diversity Indices of macrobenthic invertebrate community in
the stations.

Diversity Indices     St I    St II   St III   St IV

Shanon-Weaver Index   1.616   2.011   2.421    2.667
Simpson's Index       0.378   0.230   0.131    0.097
Marglef's Index       3.344   2.741   3.249    3.309
Pielou's Index        0.458   0.566   0.727    0.792

Table 4: Correlation coefficient (significant at p<0.05) between
various diversity indices (* marked correlations are significant).

            Dominance   Evenness    Richness

Diversity   -0.970 *     0.818 *     0.968 *
Dominance               -0.866 *    -0.908 *
Evenness                             0.666 *

Table 5: Correlation coefficient (significant at p<0.05) between the
community characteristics  and  physico-chemical  parameters  of
their habitat (* marked correlations are significant).

               Annelida   Arthropoda   Mollusca    Total

Air             0.204       -0.452     0.506 *    -0.296
Water           0.214       -0.147     0.695 *    -0.010
Depth           -0.013      0.085      0.704 *     0.141
Transparency    -0.080      0.255       0.258      0.229
pH              0.021       0.351      -0.610 *    0.248
Dissolved       -0.228      0.138      -0.623 *    0.006
Free Carbon     -0.002      -0.426      0.406     -0.330
Carbonates      0.059       -0.230      -0.370    -0.223
Bicarbonates    0.208       0.110      -0.826 *    0.060
Calcium         -0.304      0.229      -0.577 *    0.072
Magnesium       0.009       0.083      -0.926 *   -0.018
Chloride        -0.096      -0.307     -0.520 *   -0.340

               Diversity   Dominance   Evenness   Richness

Air            -0.533 *      0.480      -0.427    -0.521 *
Water           -0.450       0.383      -0.378     -0.437
Depth            0.303      -0.327      0.063      0.399
Transparency    0.518 *     -0.476      0.174     0.623 *
pH               0.327      -0.216      0.067      0.366
Dissolved        0.164      -0.141      0.324      0.096
Free Carbon     -0.305       0.202      0.020      -0.377
Carbonates      -0.419       0.307      0.022     -0.573 *
Bicarbonates    -0.198       0.191      0.015      -0.302
Calcium          0.115      -0.033      -0.052     0.222
Magnesium       -0.082       0.142      -0.007     -0.151
Chloride       -0.713 *     0.699 *     -0.361    -0.798 *

Table 6. Different similarity indices to compare the community
structure of the stations.

Compared Stations    Sorenson's Quotient   Morisita-Horn Index

St I vs. St II               80%                  0.943
St I vs. St III            79.37%                 0.311
St I vs. St IV             81.25%                 0.310
St II vs. St III           79.25%                 0.438
St II vs. St IV            73.68%                 0.489
St III vs. St IV           80.70%                 0.890

Figure 4: Relative abundance of various orders of arthropoda of four


Coleoptera      19.44%
Odonata          0.36%
Ephemeroptera    0.32%
Diptera         77.69%
Hemiptera        2.19%


Coleoptera       28.03%
Hemiptera         7.04%
Diptera          64.32%
Ephemeroptera     0.61%


Coleoptera       67.94%
Hemiptera         3.35%
Diptera          13.16%
Ephemeroptera    15.55%


Coleoptera       54.54%
Hemiptera         1.82%
Diptera          20.00%
Ephemeroptera    23.64%
COPYRIGHT 2012 Research India Publications
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2012 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

 Reader Opinion




Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:Sharma, K.K.; Saini, Minakshi; Sharma, Arti
Publication:International Journal of Applied Environmental Sciences
Date:May 1, 2012
Previous Article:Response surface optimization for the decolorization of crystal violet dye from aqueous solutions by waste crab shells.
Next Article:Bacteriological and physicochemical analyses of the raw and treated water of a university water treatment plant, Zaria-Nigeria.

Terms of use | Copyright © 2014 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters