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Spatial world of (Alfred) Hitchcock's films: the point-of-view shot, the camera and `intrarealism'.

If the spatial dimension of film is an essential component of point of view in cinema, then this is particularly so in the case of Hitchcock's films, a fundamental preoccupation of which is the exploration and manipulation of the possibilities and plasticity of narrative space. As I hope to demonstrate by an analysis of The Paradine Case (1947) later on, the global spatial system of a Hitchcock film--how it organizes, segments and presents its narrative world--is crucial in helping to shape our overall attitudinal outlook upon that world. At the other extreme, how a Hitchcock film utilizes the innermost in·ner·most  
1. Situated or occurring farthest within: the innermost chamber.

2. Most intimate: one's innermost feelings.

 detail of its fictional universe It is difficult to determine what actually constitutes a "fictional universe." Sir Thomas More's Utopia is one of the earliest examples of a cohesive imaginary world with its own rules and functional concepts, but it comprises only one small island. Some, like Robert E.  can be equally vital in determining the various ways in which we relate to its narrative subject matter (as my section on objects will also endeavour to show).

Generally, though, such spatial features have tended to be obscured in favour of the more well-trodden territory of the point-of-view shot. This orientation of a highly complex theoretical concept around a single camera technique is indicative of the central weighting traditionally attached to character perspective in point of view and its perceived role in effecting spectator involvement in classical narrative cinema more generally (the latter nowhere more so than in Hitchcock's films where POV POV
point of view
 shooting is often cited as a key strategy for implicating im·pli·cate  
tr.v. im·pli·cat·ed, im·pli·cat·ing, im·pli·cates
1. To involve or connect intimately or incriminatingly: evidence that implicates others in the plot.

 the spectator in a single character's viewpoint). Yet despite the substantial, somewhat disproportionate critical emphasis placed upon POV shooting, this technique has often suffered from a degree of over-simplification when enlisted in support of various theoretical approaches, its popularity generally stemming from the underlying assumption that, in enabling the spectator to occupy a character's literal viewpoint, it also provides access to that character's subjectivity.

The POV shot's perceived ability to build the spectator into a character's experience was accordingly construed by structuralist and semiotic semiotic /se·mi·ot·ic/ (se?me-ot´ik)
1. pertaining to signs or symptoms.

2. pathognomonic.
 film theorists as evidence of the way in which mainstream narrative cinema functions hegemonically to inscribe in·scribe  
tr.v. in·scribed, in·scrib·ing, in·scribes
a. To write, print, carve, or engrave (words or letters) on or in a surface.

b. To mark or engrave (a surface) with words or letters.
 the spectator into a fixed, dominant ideological position. According to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.

2. In keeping with: according to instructions.

 suture suture /su·ture/ (soo´cher)
1. sutura.

2. a stitch or series of stitches made to secure apposition of the edges of a surgical or traumatic wound.

3. to apply such stitches.

 theory, for example, this strategy of assigning ownership of the camera's field of view to a character within the fiction was a key device for distracting the spectator from an awareness that such a view is, in fact, controlled and authored by a presence outside of the frame (`the absent one'). The POV shot's function was, then, to `suture' its audience into an illusory sense of oneness with the film world, thereby effacing the very operations and mechanisms by which such effects were achieved (see, for example, Daniel Dayan, `The Tutor-Code of Classical Cinema', in Bill Nichols, ed., Movies and Methods: Vol. 1, University of California Press "UC Press" redirects here, but this is also an abbreviation for University of Chicago Press

University of California Press, also known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
, London, 1976, pp.438-51). As William Rothman proceeded to point out in `Against "The System of Suture"' (again in Nichols, ed., 1976, pp.451-59), such an approach took no account of the viewer's ability to read the POV shot quite knowingly as a convention (as opposed to being duped into naively accepting the character as the fallacious author of the shot). The possibility that the dominant ideology The dominant ideology, in Marxist or marxian theory, is the set of common values and beliefs shared by most people in a given society, framing how the majority think about a range of topics, The dominant ideology is understood by Marxism to reflect, or serve, the interests of the  may, in any case, be subject to critique by the film and/or resistance by the spectator was also ignored, as was the issue of how the POV shot functions within its overall filmic film·ic  
Of, relating to, or characteristic of movies; cinematic.

filmi·cal·ly adv.

The tenuousness of suture theory's basic premise is evident when one considers a sequence such as that in Notorious where Alicia snoops SNOOPS - Craske, 1988. An extension of SCOOPS with meta-objects that can redirect messages to other objects. "SNOOPS: An Object-Oriented language Enhancement Supporting Dynamic Program Reeconfiguration", N. Craske, SIGPLAN Notices 26(10): 53-62 (Oct 1991).  outside of her bedroom door in an attempt to overhear o·ver·hear  
v. o·ver·heard , o·ver·hear·ing, o·ver·hears
To hear (speech or someone speaking) without the speaker's awareness or intent.

 Alex's altercation with his mother as he tries to obtain the household keys from her. Having employed a conventional POV sequence, whereby the camera cuts repeatedly from a shot of Alicia listening intently to a view of Madame Sebastian's closed door, Hitchcock then confounds this logic on the third such occasion. Hence, Alex is shown emerging from his mother's room from what still appears to be Alicia's point of view (thereby creating a momentary jab of anxiety at the prospect of him discovering her spying), only for it to be revealed that the shot is no longer a POV shot, Alicia having stolen away in the meantime Adv. 1. in the meantime - during the intervening time; "meanwhile I will not think about the problem"; "meantime he was attentive to his other interests"; "in the meantime the police were notified"
meantime, meanwhile
. In Point of View in the Cinema: A Theory of Narration and Subjectivity in Classical Film (Mouton mouton

lamb pelt made to resemble seal or beaver.
 Publishers, Amsterdam, 1984), Edward Branigan also discusses how this sequence subverts our conventional expectations about the POV structure. Yet his own interpretation of its significance (considering it as designed to convey `a deeper understanding of Alicia's character and intentions--the state of her awareness', p.109) does tend to overlook some of its more radical implications. For what the sequence enacts, in effect, is a reversal of the suturing su·ture  
a. The process of joining two surfaces or edges together along a line by or as if by sewing.

b. The material, such as thread, gut, or wire, that is used in this procedure.

 process, one whereby the previous assignment of a particular field of view to a character is subsequently prised apart, enabling the character herself to attain a rather surprising independence from the camera.

Laura Mulvey's highly influential theory that the point of view or look constructed for the spectator by mainstream cinema is male (irrespective of irrespective of
Without consideration of; regardless of.

irrespective of
preposition despite 
 the actual gender of real audience members) constituted a particular feminist development of such approaches and one that inevitably invested subjective camera techniques with a newfound new·found  
Recently discovered: a newfound pastime.

Adj. 1. newfound - newly discovered; "his newfound aggressiveness"; "Hudson pointed his ship down the coast of the newfound sea"
 significance (see `Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema', in Bill Nichols, ed., Movies and Methods: Vol II, University of California Press, London, 1985). The monolithic, non-contextualized nature of Mulvey's psychoanalytic theory Psychoanalytic theory is a general term for approaches to psychoanalysis which attempt to provide a conceptual framework more-or-less independent of clinical practice rather than based on empirical analysis of clinical cases.  of mainstream cinema as patriarchal has, of course, been subject to much challenge and debate from various theoretical and critical quarters. Concentrating upon the text itself, Robin Wood argues that: `The construction of identification within a film is a delicate and complex matter that can never be reduced simply to the mechanics of "the look" (the look of characters, of spectator, of the camera)' (Hitchcock's Films Revisited, Faber and Faber Faber and Faber, often abbreviated to Faber, is an independent publishing house in the UK, notable in particular for publishing a great deal of poetry and for its former editor T. S. Eliot. , London, 1991, p.305). While acknowledging its role, Wood considers the male gaze to be only one of several factors involved in the construction of identification and demonstrates convincingly how, in Notorious (1946), it is the only one which privileges the male characters, all of the others favouring the Ingrid Bergman character instead. It is possible, I think, to go even further and argue that, in Hitchcock's films (which Mulvey uses in support of her theory), the male gaze itself is often shown to be inherently unstable as well as unconvincing un·con·vinc·ing  
Not convincing: gave an unconvincing excuse.

 as an identification device.

Such tendencies can be found as early as in the silent film Champagne (1928). There, the inability of the male gaze to control the female image is illustrated quite explicitly during the scene where the Betty Balfour character visits her fiance in his cabin as he lies in bed with sea-sickness. The subjective image of her that ensues from his point of view shows three versions of her head: two swaying from side to side in opposite directions, the middle one lunging towards him. In doing so, it conveys in very vivid terms this male character's sense of the threatening, uncontainable nature of her active sexuality (a clear demonstration of which had already been provided by her earlier gesture of flying out over the Atlantic in her aeroplane to meet up with him on board ship). Another emphatic instance of this occurs in Rich and Strange (1932) when the male protagonist, Fred, is shown unable to hold his wife's image steady within the frame of his camera viewfinder The preview window on a camera that is used to frame, focus and take the picture. On analog cameras, the viewfinder is an eye-sized window that must be pressed against the face. Point-and-shoot digital cameras use small LCD screens that are viewed several inches from the eyes.  as he tries to take a photograph of her on the deck of a moving ship. Far from simply encouraging identification with the male protagonist's possession of the female via the active, controlling power of his gaze, the sequence invites us instead to witness a quite radical destabilisation Noun 1. destabilisation - the action of destabilizing; making something less stable (especially of a government or country or economy)
 of such control (and one which coincides with Fred being confronted by a rather more glamorous, eroticized view of his wife than he had hitherto been used to). If anything, the directly subjective nature of this particular POV sequence serves to distance us from Fred for, in showing his perspective through the camera viewfinder, it inevitably draws attention to the role of the film's own camera in mediating the spectator's view. In doing so, it renders visible the two `looks' that, Mulvey argues, the conventions of narrative cinema usually seek to efface and subordinate to those of the characters: `the conscious aim being always to eliminate intrusive camera presence and prevent a distancing awareness in the audience' (Mulvey, in Nichols, ed., 1985, p.314).

Rather than simply constituting a momentary loss of control, this sequence is quite typical, in fact, of the film's overall strategy of remorselessly disempowering the male protagonist of his privileged status within the narrative. This process of destabilisation is initiated right at the beginning of the film when, during his journey home on the London underground The London Underground is an underground railway system - also known as a rapid transit system - that serves a large part of Greater London, United Kingdom and some neighbouring areas. It is the world's oldest underground system, and is one of the longest in terms of route length. , Fred loses his balance on more than one occasion, such disorientation disorientation /dis·or·i·en·ta·tion/ (-or?e-en-ta´shun) the loss of proper bearings, or a state of mental confusion as to time, place, or identity.  at one point causing him to grab at a woman's hat for support. After he is shown watching this female passenger fixing the feather dislodged by him back onto her hat, another POV sequence occurs where subjective alignment with the male gaze again serves to expose masculine insecurities rather than convey any sense of being in control. This takes the form of Fred looking first above the woman's head at a poster advertising `CLOTHE YOUR WIFE at GARRIDGES', then left to another inviting its readers to `Dine tonight at the MAJESTIC', and finally down to a male passenger eating a large, rather unappetising sandwich. Fred's subsequent show of distaste for this more mundane food consequently provides a very visceral visceral /vis·cer·al/ (vis´er-al) pertaining to a viscus.

Relating to, situated in, or affecting the viscera.


pertaining to a viscus.
 expression of his sense of dissatisfaction and inadequacy in the role of breadwinner bread·win·ner  
One whose earnings are the primary source of support for one's dependents.

bread·winning n.
 and provider for his wife. The sea-sickness sequence develops these tendencies much further. On this occasion, his more severe form of nausea prompts him to throw away his `phallic' cigar and then retreat (like his counterpart in Champagne) to the womb-like space of his cabin room, where he lapses into a totally passive state while his wife pursues an affair with one of her fellow passengers, Commander Gordon. Fred's failure to photograph Emily and thereby render her the object of his desire can also be contrasted with her ability to make an active inscription of her own desire via the same medium when, during a later scene, she sketches an image of herself onto a photograph showing Gordon sitting outside his home. Fred's recovery from sea-sickness is also swiftly undermined when, during his first reappearance Re`ap`pear´ance   

n. 1. A second or new appearance; the act or state of appearing again.

Noun 1. reappearance - the event of something appearing again; "the reappearance of Halley's comet"
 on deck, he is yet again deprived of his `gaze' on being hit in the eye by a quoit thrown during one of the ship's games by a woman calling herself the `Princess'. Such literal blinding is quite clearly a symbolic one, too, and has the effect of discouraging any real identification with a character so oblivious both to his own faults and to his manipulation by this female. Such recurring losses of control over the male gaze consequently become symptoms of an unstable masculinity overall. This process culminates in the more total dismantling that occurs during the shipwreck shipwreck, complete or partial destruction of a vessel as a result of collision, fire, grounding, storm, explosion, or other mishap. In the ancient world sea travel was hazardous, but in modern times the number of shipwrecks due to nonhostile causes has steadily  on the return journey home when Fred regresses to a state of child-like dependency upon Emily who (in a vindication VINDICATION, civil law. The claim made to property by the owner of it. 1 Bell's Com. 281, 5th ed. See Revendication.  of Gordon's earlier criticism of Fred as `a great baby masquerading 1. (networking) masquerading - "NAT" (Linux kernel name).
2. (messaging) masquerading - Hiding the names of internal e-mail client and gateway machines from the outside world by rewriting the "From" address and other headers as the message leaves the
 as a big, strong man') cradles her husband reassuringly in her arms.

It could be argued that both films' placement at a very early stage in cinema history is a crucial factor in enabling such subversive destabilisations of the male gaze to slip through `uncensored' before the patriarchal mould of cinema had been fully cast. Yet these visual motifs concerning loss of balance, impaired vision and dizziness find their ultimate expression at a much later stage during the mature American period via the famous zoom in/track-out shot used to convey Scottie's condition in Vertigo (1958)--the most extreme, central instance of subjective male point of view in that film that Mulvey's own account rather significantly ignores. Unlike Mulvey, Wood acknowledges the importance of this device, considering it one of the main techniques used to enforce an uncharacteristically un·char·ac·ter·is·tic  
Unusual or atypical: an uncharacteristic display of anger.

 abrupt audience identification with the male protagonist at the beginning of the film (Wood, p.380). Yet precisely what we are being forced to identify with, first and foremost, is a sense of the male viewpoint or gaze as something fraught with tension and out of control, the impact and memory of which must surely qualify the standard reading of the film as one wherein the spectator is tricked into an apparently `normal' identification with the male protagonist (as the possessor of the active, investigative look), only to discover the problematic nature of this two-thirds of the way through. In this particular context, I would tend to agree with Tania
  • Haydée Tamara Bunke Bider, communist revolutionary
  • Tania (queen)
  • Tania was an alias of Patricia Hearst
  • Tania Borealis and Tania Australis, stars in the constellation Ursa Major
  • Tania Emery, actress
  • Tania Lacy, comedian
  • Tania Libertad, singer
 Modleski who argues that identification with the male gaze is problematized well before Judy's flashback flash·back
1. An unexpected recurrence of the effects of a hallucinogenic drug long after its original use.

2. A recurring, intensely vivid mental image of a past traumatic experience.
 (The Women Who Knew Too Much: Hitchcock and Feminist Film Theory, Routledge, London, 1988, p.87). Yet while, for Modleski, the vertigo shot `so viscerally conveys Scottie's feeling of ambivalence [`between a hypnotic hypnotic /hyp·not·ic/ (hip-not´ik)
1. inducing sleep.

2. an agent that induces sleep.

3. pertaining to or of the nature of hypnosis or hypnotism.
 and masochistic mas·och·ism  
1. The deriving of sexual gratification, or the tendency to derive sexual gratification, from being physically or emotionally abused.

 fascination with the woman's desire and a sadistic sa·dism  
1. The deriving of sexual gratification or the tendency to derive sexual gratification from inflicting pain or emotional abuse on others.

2. The deriving of pleasure, or the tendency to derive pleasure, from cruelty.
 attempt to gain control over her, to possess her'] whenever he confronts the depths' (p.99), its role for the viewer would seem to be doubly ambivalent--encouraging, as it were, an ambivalence about Scottie's own ambivalent state of mind. The contrary spatial pull of the shot thus enacts the way in which our more conventional impulse to identify with the male protagonist is countered by an equally strong urge to draw back from too intense an involvement.

That such highly subjective techniques serve in all three films to problematize Prob´lem`a`tize

v. t. 1. To propose problems.
 as much as encourage identification with the male gaze suggests a complexity to the POV shot that is rarely acknowledged. While Robin Wood is one of the few to question the common assumption that this device guarantees identification--arguing instead that: `In general, Hitchcock uses POV editing to clinch an identification that has already been solidly built' (Wood, p.308)--he does so in a way that tends to define it rather negatively, the implication being that if it doesn't necessarily produce identification then it doesn't do much else either. Daniel Sallitt takes a rather different approach to the POV shot, arguing that this tendency to define its role in relation to identification and character subjectivity is itself a misguided one(1) that overlooks its more important effect of installing the spectator directly into a film's narrative world:

Far from being a device to inflict the character's psychology on us, the point-of-view shot is somehow impersonal and remote from the character whose point of view is being used, as if our direct experience of a viewpoint would always outweigh our intellectualized inference of what the shot would make the character feel.... The point-of-view shot is a means of putting the spectator in some relation, not to the character, but to the film universe (Daniel Sallitt, `Point of View and "Intrarealism" in Hitchcock', Wide Angle 4, No.1, p.41).

In de-emphasising the importance of POV shooting as an identification device (pointing instead to `the realm of narrative structure and acting rather than in the realm of camera viewpoint for solutions to questions of sympathy and endorsement') and stressing its indicativeness of `a broader interest in a visual exploration of the film universe' in Hitchcock's cinema (pp.41-2), Sallitt advocates a notion of direct spectator involvement not necessarily dependent upon characters. In doing so, he challenges the oversimplified o·ver·sim·pli·fy  
v. o·ver·sim·pli·fied, o·ver·sim·pli·fy·ing, o·ver·sim·pli·fies
To simplify to the point of causing misrepresentation, misconception, or error.

 assumption (one often made about supposedly single viewpoint films like Rear Window (1954) and Vertigo) `that Hitchcock's films are in some way dedicated to a notion of psychological subjectivity, that the films examine reality from an individual's viewpoint which we are compelled to share' (p.39). Instead, the POV shot is seen as a means by which `to evoke ... the sense of a pair of eyes within the film universe, in some ways subject to the laws of the film universe as opposed to the laws of the film' (p.42). Sallitt coins the term "intrarealistic" to describe this effect and cites the use of extreme physical proximity of characters to the camera and the camera track-in device as two other key strategies used to create it. In emphasising a more phenomenological aspect of the spectator's viewing experience, Sallitt's approach avoids the opposite extremes of auteurist and structuralist theorising on the role of the camera. On the one hand, he counter-balances Rothman's view of the camera as a potent instrument by which the filmmaker manifests `his godlike god·like  
Resembling or of the nature of a god or God; divine.

 power over the world of the film, a world over which he presides' (see Hitchcock--The Murderous Gaze, Harvard University Press The Harvard University Press is a publishing house, a division of Harvard University, that is highly respected in academic publishing. It was established on January 13, 1913. In 2005, it published 220 new titles. , London, 1982, p.7) by emphasising its role as a function of the spectator's vision. Yet on the other hand, Sallitt doesn't proceed as far in the other direction as Branigan who, uneasy with such tendencies to anthropomorphize an·thro·po·mor·phize  
v. an·thro·po·mor·phized, an·thro·po·mor·phiz·ing, an·thro·po·mor·phiz·es
To ascribe human characteristics to.

 the camera, seeks to redefine it in such abstract, impersonal terms as `a reading hypothesis' and `a label applied by the reader to certain transformations of space' (Branigan, pp.53-4).

Certainly, it is possible to find several other examples, in addition to Sallitt's own, that demonstrate his theory. During the party sequence in Notorious, for example, the consistent exchange of looks between the three main characters (involving Alicia looking out for Devlin's arrival, Alex watching them together, and Devlin and Alicia both looking to see if he is watching them) illustrates `the frequency with which Hitchcock switches the visual point of view from character to character within a sequence' (Sallitt, p.39) without jolting the spectator. Similarly, the repeated shot showing the champagne bottles gradually becoming depleted de·plete  
tr.v. de·plet·ed, de·plet·ing, de·pletes
To decrease the fullness of; use up or empty out.

[Latin d
 but from different characters' points of view (consisting first of Alicia's, then Devlin's and finally Joseph's) provides both a variation upon this technique and an instance of what Sallitt regards as `the large number of point-of-view shots in which there is no importance attached to a character's psychology, or even in which there is no particular character corresponding to the point of view' (p.41). The significance of a shot like this lies, instead, in its cumulative effect for the viewer alone, with its suspense charge in fact increasing as the owner of the POV shot decreases in identificatory importance.

The most obvious challenge to Sallitt's theory is that it makes no distinction between objective POV shots such as these (to which his comments apply very convincingly) and the kind of highly subjective, expressionistic ex·pres·sion·ism  
A movement in the arts during the early part of the 20th century that emphasized subjective expression of the artist's inner experiences.

 instances of it to be found in films like Notorious and which Robin Wood, in his discussion of the sequence where Alicia discovers that she is being poisoned, sees as the culminating devices used to signal the moment in the film when `our identification with Alicia, and with her experience of oppression, exploitation, and victimization victimization Social medicine The abuse of the disenfranchised–eg, those underage, elderly, ♀, mentally retarded, illegal aliens, or other, by coercing them into illegal activities–eg, drug trade, pornography, prostitution. , becomes complete' (Wood, p.309). The potentially very different effects that can be produced by these two types of POV shot are exploited quite clearly during the scene in Rich and Strange where the Hill couple receive a letter notifying them of their sudden acquisition of money. Whereas Fred's reading of the letter is conveyed via an objective view of its overall contents, Emily's is registered much more intensely and subjectively via an extreme close-up as she scans the words: `Money to experience all the life you want by travelling'. If the POV shot's function is to act solely as `a means of putting the spectator in some relation, not to the character, but to the film universe' (Sallitt, p.41) then, presumably pre·sum·a·ble  
That can be presumed or taken for granted; reasonable as a supposition: presumable causes of the disaster.
, there would be no need to present the same letter in such contrasting ways, the effect of which (unlike the aforementioned shot of the champagne bottles in Notorious) seems designed precisely to signal the very different ways in which we are being invited to relate to each of these characters. Sallitt's view (quoted earlier) that `the point-of-view shot is somehow rather impersonal and remote from the character whose point of view is being used' proves quite inappropriate as an explanation of its role in the second of this pair, the whole purpose of which, in focusing only upon its most important message (to the extent that an artistic licence For the free software license, see .

Artistic license or licence (also known as dramatic license, poetic license, narrative license, licentia poetica, or simply license
 is taken by presenting on one continuous line what originally appeared on two separate lines of the page), is to reveal the impact of the letter upon Emily (rather than Fred, to whom the letter is ostensibly os·ten·si·ble  
Represented or appearing as such; ostensive: His ostensible purpose was charity, but his real goal was popularity.
 addressed). Sallitt's one concession that: `If we know anything about a character's psychology during a point-of-view shot, it consists of stored knowledge from previous scenes or shots rather than information gained from the shot itself' (p.39) is also at odds with the way that this particular instance of it serves to contest our previous view of Emily as outwardly out·ward·ly  
1. On the outside or exterior; externally.

2. Toward the outside.

3. In regard to outward condition, conduct, or manifestation: outwardly a perfect gentleman.
 contented in her domestic role by suddenly opening up a much deeper, subjective level of otherwise unacknowledged fantasy and desire on her part.

Yet the ability of this particular POV shot to encourage audience involvement with Emily's emotional state has to be offset against the rather different impact of the previously discussed seasickness seasickness: see motion sickness.  sequence from Fred's point of view. The fact that two equally subjective instances of this technique should encourage such contrasting responses highlights the POV shot's resistance to any easy definition or classification. Based upon these two examples, it might be reasonable to conclude that our reactions are influenced by the very different kinds of emotions involved in each case: consisting of positive feelings of aspiration, fulfilment and success on the one hand, where identification occurs, and the more negative, debilitating de·bil·i·tat·ing
Causing a loss of strength or energy.

Weakening, or reducing the strength of.

Mentioned in: Stress Reduction
 feelings associated with nausea on the other, where it does not. Yet, clearly, this cannot be applied as a universal rule for in Notorious it is precisely the latter with which we are being encouraged to identify in Alicia's case (and in even more severe form). What such comparisons suggest is the need to distinguish, unlike Sallitt, between the subjective POV shot's fairly standard ability (by definition) to provide insight into a character's psychological state and the more variable uses to which such insights can be put by the films themselves. An awareness of this distinction is crucial when evaluating the ideological viewpoint of the films. The flexibility with which they are able to use the same technique to produce a rather pleasurable, comic destabilisation of the male gaze in Rich and Strange and an intense state of identification with woman's experience of `oppression, exploitation and victimization' in Notorious (Wood, p.309) is, in particular, a strong indication and source of their feminist orientation and appeal. In both cases, the oppressiveness of patriarchy patriarchy: see matriarchy.  from both gender points of view is conveyed, appropriately, via ruptures in the processes of seeing.

If Sallitt's approach doesn't distinguish the subjective instances of POV shooting from the more objective, neutral ones he refers to, then it also ignores a characteristic fluidity between these states in Hitchcock's films. An example of this again occurs in Rich and Strange, this time involving Emily alone at the hotel in Singapore. Having forgone the opportunity to go off with Commander Gordon, only to then see Fred desert her for the Princess, a close-up of her face is followed by a cut to a brief shot of a palm-tree lined beach with waves rolling up onto the shore. The ostensible Apparent; visible; exhibited.

Ostensible authority is power that a principal, either by design or through the absence of ordinary care, permits others to believe his or her agent possesses.
 inference to be drawn from this shot--namely, that it provides a literal rendition of Emily's view out of one of the hotel windows--is complicated by the fact that it is never really placed: we are given no other shots of this window, while all the others in the room reveal shutters and street scenes which would obstruct ob·struct
To block or close a body passage so as to hinder or interrupt a flow.

ob·structive adj.
 such a view. The shot's lack of concrete context thus renders it amenable to a more subjective reading that is inseparable from our understanding of Emily's character. For what it arguably ar·gu·a·ble  
1. Open to argument: an arguable question, still unresolved.

2. That can be argued plausibly; defensible in argument: three arguable points of law.
 represents is her imagined viewpoint as the figure of herself, sitting outside Gordon's home, that she had earlier sketched into her lover's photograph (with the two silhouetted bars in the foreground of the POV shot poignantly expressing her awareness of the unobtainability of this desire). In contrast to Sallitt's assertion that `our direct experience of a viewpoint would always outweigh our intellectualized inference of what the shot would make the character feel' (Sallitt, p.41), this ability of a single POV shot to operate simultaneously on more than one level suggests instead that the production of meaning and process of interpretation may often derive more accurately from an interplay between direct and character forms of involvement.

Such fluidity even extends to a frequent interchangeability between POV and non-POV shots, as during the sequence discussed earlier where the camera's adoption of Alicia's POV as she snoops outside her room in Notorious suddenly switches, without warning, to a neutral camera viewpoint. Another frequent manipulation of the conventional POV structure in Hitchcock's films consists of a shot of a character looking at something off-screen followed directly by an otherwise objective view of what the character is wanting or intending to see but is not in a physical position to be able to see at that particular moment. During the same sequence in Notorious, for example, a shot of Alicia looking straight ahead, on hearing from Joseph that Alex is in the study, is followed by a cut to one of the hallway and study room door downstairs, the effect of which is to anticipate her own intended destination. Similarly, during The Man Who Knew Too Much (1956), a close-up of Jo staring at Ambrose Chapel is followed by a cut to a camera viewpoint from inside the building (with Jo still outside) where one of the kidnappers, Mrs Drayton, is shown. This use of the character's look as a prelude to or trigger for a view beyond her perceptual range supports, up to a point, Sallitt's own claim that the real function of a POV shot is to act as a device for installing us directly within the film universe. But far from demonstrating the dispensability dis·pens·a·ble  
1. Not essential; unimportant: dispensable items of personal property.

 of the character's viewpoint, such fluid transitions between POV and non-POV structures of seeing depend for their effect, in the first example, upon the disconcerting dis·con·cert  
tr.v. dis·con·cert·ed, dis·con·cert·ing, dis·con·certs
1. To upset the self-possession of; ruffle. See Synonyms at embarrass.

 realization that our usual ties with the protagonist's consciousness have been broken and her subjectivity removed from the shot and, in the last two examples, upon the possibility of reading the non-POV shot as a projection or product of the character's own inner thoughts and imaginings imaginings
Noun, pl

speculative thoughts about what might be the case or what might happen; fantasies: lurid imaginings 
. The overall effect of such shots, then, is to create the rather ambivalent sense of having access to a viewpoint simultaneously beyond a character's actual perceptual reach, and yet deep within her subjectivity.(2)

Sallitt's approach also tends to downplay down·play  
tr.v. down·played, down·play·ing, down·plays
To minimize the significance of; play down: downplayed the bad news.

Verb 1.
 the extent to which a POV shot often depends greatly for its effect upon whose (rather than just what) viewpoint is being shown. During the party sequence in Notorious, for example, the POV shots showing Alicia and Devlin together derive much of their emotional coloration col·or·a·tion  
1. Arrangement of colors.

2. The sum of the beliefs or principles of a person, group, or institution.
 and suspense charge from our awareness that it is Alex who is watching them jealously and suspiciously--rather than, say, a more casual, neutral party guest. The significance of this is also highlighted equally well when such a view is withheld altogether, as during the earlier scene at the races At The Races is a British television channel, originally co-founded with Channel 4, but now owned by a partnership between British Sky Broadcasting, Arena Leisure PLC and 28 (out of the 59) UK racecourses.  when Alex's surprise disclosure to Alicia that he has been watching her with Devlin all the time through his fieldglasses immediately infuses the situation with a heightened sense of danger. Both instances involving Alex also demonstrate, in opposite ways, the importance of considering POV shooting within its wider spatial and epistemic ep·i·ste·mic  
Of, relating to, or involving knowledge; cognitive.

[From Greek epistm
 framework. Our discovery that such a vital character perspective upon the couple's meeting has been withheld in fact produces a more extreme version of the kind of restricted viewpoint fundamental to Sallitt's notion of intrarealism. However, the essence of the restricted viewpoint derives in this case not from the POV shot itself but from the withholding of it in favour of an independent camera view that seems (erroneously, in retrospect) to privilege us. In evoking the sense of a wider world existing continuously with but beyond the view framed by the camera, this particular sequence seeks to undermine the security of our viewing position by disillusioning dis·il·lu·sion  
tr.v. dis·il·lu·sioned, dis·il·lu·sion·ing, dis·il·lu·sions
To free or deprive of illusion.

1. The act of disenchanting.

2. The condition or fact of being disenchanted.
 us of any assumptions about being guaranteed an ideal vantage point upon the narrative world. What it implies, instead, is a world beyond the frame that is not fixed and static or extraneous ex·tra·ne·ous  
1. Not constituting a vital element or part.

2. Inessential or unrelated to the topic or matter at hand; irrelevant. See Synonyms at irrelevant.

 to the main events occurring on screen but constantly changing and harbouring other potentially significant points of view, other `pairs of eyes' (to use Sallitt's phrase), to which we are refused access. The insecurity produced in turn fuels the suspense of the main party sequence by anticipating Alex's eventual discovery of Alicia's double betrayal. At the beginning of the party, though, much of the suspense derives, conversely, from the film's strategy of now foregrounding the restricted nature of Alex's viewpoint compared to the more privileged one given to us. Thus, his initial view of Alicia and Devlin greeting each other acts as a trigger for a series of progressively closer, much more revealing views of the couple (still taken from his eye-line but beyond his perceptual reach): from a medium shot as they initially greet each other, to a close-up of their hand-shake, to an extreme close-up showing the transfer of the key. A variation on this occurs during Devlin's exploration of the wine cellar, when the shots of the wine stock list from his point of view are repeatedly interspersed with non-POV shots showing a wine bottle about to fall from the shelf. The POV shots to be found within such highly typical suspense sequences as these consequently form only part of a much wider, composite point of view that Sallitt's notion of restricted viewpoint ignores.

Sallitt's second intrarrealistic strategy--`The use of physical proximity to the camera as expressive of the concept of proximity within the film universe' (p.42)--constitutes a specific, local manifestation of more general tendencies in Hitchcock's work, consisting of either a progressive closing in of the overall spatial world (as in Notorious, which becomes increasingly associated with the confines of the Sebastians' house) or a use of restricted sets from the very beginning. As the most extreme version of the latter, Lifeboat (1943) necessarily involves a sustained deployment of Sallitt's second intrarealistic device, in the sense that the cramped conditions of a single boat force the characters into an unusual degree of proximity to the camera. Consistent with Sallitt's overall view, such proximity does not seem to encourage a more intense form of identification with the characters. Indeed, the film is rather strangely below par in this area, with the only real strand of identification deriving from Tallulah Bankhead's performance in the main role (rather than as a result of camera proximity or any especial es·pe·cial  
1. Of special importance or significance; exceptional: an occasion of especial joy.

 privileging of her point of view). Yet this lack of involvement can also be attributed to the way that such spatial confinement is itself offset by the correspondingly high degree of editing, fluctuating character compositions and camera mobility which such conditions seem to induce.

The various spatial segmentations produced by such techniques consequently invite a more distanced, critical perspective upon the various social structures and tensions operating among the characters on the boat. Thus, after showing the two upper class characters, Connie and Rittenhouse, absorbed in conversation during their reunion after the shipwreck, the camera then pulls back to show an alternative community of working class crew members (consisting mainly of the nurse and engine room workers) as they gather around the injured Gus. The camera's framing of Connie, the nurse and Mrs Higley together the next morning suggests the partial breaking down of such class divisions through the formation of an alternative female community (as also symbolised by Connie's gesture of giving her fur coat to Mrs Higley). This is followed, however, by a suggestion of racial tension and division when, during the crew's debate over the boat's course, Joe is segregated from the white members of the crew via the editing: his spatial isolation consequently acts as a corollary for his social marginalisation Noun 1. marginalisation - the social process of becoming or being made marginal (especially as a group within the larger society); "the marginalization of the underclass"; "the marginalization of literature"
 as a black person (a situation that is actually voiced by Joe himself when he asks: `Do I get the vote, too?'). In positioning Joe along with the German U-boat captain at the other end of the boat at one point, the film invites an even stronger ironic critique of the other white characters by undercutting their display of repugnance re·pug·nance  
1. Extreme dislike or aversion.

2. Logic The relationship of contradictory terms; inconsistency.

Noun 1.
 at the Nazi (and the fascist ideology he represents) with a visual suggestion of their own rather more subtle marginalisation of the boat's one representative of racial otherness oth·er·ness  
The quality or condition of being other or different, especially if exotic or strange: "We're going to see in Europe ...
. So, rather than providing the ultimate vindication of Sallitt's notion of the camera as `in some way subject to the laws of the film universe as would be the viewpoint of a presence in that universe' (p.34), Lifeboat demonstrates the camera's ability to overcome even the most extreme physical constraints. The most emphatic assertion of its prerogative to break `the laws of the film universe' occurs two-thirds of the way through the film when it suddenly cuts to an underwater view of a fish being drawn to the crew's fishing bait. Within the overall context of Hitchcock's work, moreover, this tendency towards using restricted sets has to be offset against an equally strong interest in covering a very broad geographical sweep using the picaresque pic·a·resque  
1. Of or involving clever rogues or adventurers.

2. Of or relating to a genre of usually satiric prose fiction originating in Spain and depicting in realistic, often humorous detail the adventures of a roguish
 narrative structure (the most extreme example of which is North By Northwest).parSallitt's emphasis upon the camera track-in `from a long shot characterized by a sense of the normal or everyday to a closeup of some object or event which yields to us by inference some larger conclusion or piece of information' (p.43), pinpoints one of the key means by which we are often drawn right into the innermost, private realms of a Hitchcock narrative world. Indeed, it is a technique that provides a spatial correlative Having a reciprocal relationship in that the existence of one relationship normally implies the existence of the other.

Mother and child, and duty and claim, are correlative terms.
 for Wood's own notion of the continuum between the normal and the abnormal. Sallitt sees this visual motif as further conclusive proof of the camera's restricted viewpoint: of the fact that `the law of the film universe to which the camera is subject is that it sees only a certain amount of what happens and has to reconstruct meaning from a limited perceptual capacity' (p.43). Yet it is difficult to see how such an explanation can account adequately for the long travelling crane shots in to the drummer's twitching twitching,
n an irregular spasm of a minor extent.

twitching, Trousseau's, a twitching of the face that the patient can exhibit at will and occurs obsessively to relieve tension.
 face at the end of Young and Innocent (1937) or to the key in Alicia's hand at the beginning of the party in Notorious (as variations upon the track-in device which Sallitt surprisingly ignores). In both cases, the effect, instead, is one of being privileged with crucial information beyond the other characters' reach and by a perceptual entity able to overcome the limitations of viewpoint inherent in Sallitt's anthropomorphic Having the characteristics of a human being. For example, an anthropomorphic robot has a head, arms and legs.  definition of the camera. Indeed, if such strategies do serve to convey the sense of `a pair of eyes within the film universe', then the crane shot's version of this is (as suggested by its very name) more characteristic of the hawk-like precision of a bird than anything attributable to ordinary human perception.

Sallitt's argument that such a device arises from a need to reveal information previously withheld from us also fails to cater for the Notorious example. In that case (unlike the equivalent scenario cited by Sallitt involving Marion Crane's theft of the money in Psycho Psycho

Hitchcock’s classic horror film. [Am. Cinema: NCE, 1249]

See : Horror
) we are witness throughout to Alicia's stealing of the key from Alex's ring, so that the subsequent track-in to it in her hand serves instead to reaffirm and enhance an already established sense of being privileged with crucial information. The camera's ability to seek out the film world's most hidden secrets via such elaborate movements also means that it is difficult to avoid the notion of some kind of sensibility or agency at work, guiding and controlling this perception in a way that can transcend the laws of the film universe to which the characters are subject. Furthermore, for those instances where the camera seeks out proximity with an aspect of its narrative world, there are also equivalent moments when it pulls back and invites the spectator to observe it from an unusual degree of distance (one thinks, especially, of the abrupt cuts to high-level views of Thornhill escaping from the United Nations building in North By Northwest, of Keane leaving the courtroom near the end of The Paradine Case, and of the attack on Bodega Bay For the census-designated place, see .
Bodega Bay is a small shallow, sand-choked inlet of the Pacific Ocean on the coast of northern California in the United States. It is approximately 5 miles (8 km) across and is located approximately 40 miles (64 km) northwest of San
 in The Birds). Sallitt's approach is also in danger of equating spatial proximity or restriction of field with epistemic inferiority of viewpoint whereas, in fact, it is the high level views in Hitchcock which often withhold rather than reveal (as, for example, during Norman Bates's removal of his mother from her bedroom to the fruit cellar), while a narrowing of visual perspective onto a tiny piece of data can, conversely, expand our overall position of knowledge considerably.

Sallitt's approach, then, is extremely insightful and provocative but somewhat incomplete. In its stress upon the camera's ability to offer us very direct forms of perception and inhabitance In`hab´it`ance

n. 1. The act of inhabiting, or the state of being inhabited; the condition of an inhabitant; residence; occupancy.
Ruins yet resting in the wild moors testify a former inhabitance.
- Carew.
 of the narrative worlds it bears affinity with some of my own work on objects in Hitchcock's films (more on which later). Yet the restricted viewpoint that it construes to be the product of such independence inevitably only caters for one side of the overall spatial perspective in Hitchcock's films, the full articulation of which consists of a more complex, ongoing dialectic between distance and proximity, expansion and contraction, detachment as well as involvement. Such an ambivalent, contrary pull finds its ultimate expression via the combined track in/zoom out shot used in Vertigo.parSpatial dialecticsparThis sense of being pulled in two different directions often manifests itself at a structural level in Hitchcock's films. In Psycho, Norman's oscillation Oscillation

Any effect that varies in a back-and-forth or reciprocating manner. Examples of oscillation include the variations of pressure in a sound wave and the fluctuations in a mathematical function whose value repeatedly alternates above and below some
 between normal and psychopathic psy·cho·path·ic
1. Of, relating to, or characterized by psychopathy.

2. Relating to or affected with an antisocial personality disorder that is usually characterized by aggressive, perverted, criminal, or amoral behavior.
 behaviour is reflected in his toing and froing between the Bates Bates   , Katherine Lee 1859-1929.

American educator and writer best known for her poem "America the Beautiful," written in 1893 and revised in 1904 and 1911.
 motel and the old house, with such divisions becoming increasingly prone to collapse. For the audience, too, such spatial tension forms the structural basis for the overall suspense in the sense that these two buildings serve as sites, respectively, for what is shown and known (at least partly) and what is withheld and feared. In Lifeboat, another form of spatial tension manifests itself in the characters' various disputes over the boat's course and the frequent changes in direction that arise as a result. The potential spatial dimensions or coordinates of this film world are highlighted by the points of the ship's compass, the possession of which object enables its holder to exert control over both the boat's and the narrative's overall direction. The text's own rhetorical stress upon the compass via the frequent close-ups of it in the German's hand also makes it a prized object in cinematic terms too. Indeed, if the compass functions as a kind of visual pun A visual pun is a pun involving an image or images (in addition to or instead of language).

Visual puns in which the image is at odds with the inscription are common in Dutch gable stones as well as in cartoons such as Lost Consonants or The Far Side.
 upon the notion of filmic direction, then in granting secret control over it to the Nazi captain (a privilege which he exploits by using it to manipulate the boat's course towards German territory), the film seems to offer an implicit warning about the potential abuse of its own cinematic powers. The other characters' subsequent discovery and theft of the compass appear to provoke, in turn, a retaliatory re·tal·i·ate  
v. re·tal·i·at·ed, re·tal·i·at·ing, re·tal·i·ates

To return like for like, especially evil for evil.
To pay back (an injury) in kind.
 authorial storm which intervenes to reinstate To restore to a condition that has terminated or been lost; to reestablish.

To reinstate a case, for example, means to restore it to the same position it had before dismissal.
 the German as the (now quite explicit) figure of control within the narrative. This metafilmic element also helps to explain the rather oddly unresolved nature of the film's ending, as the crew's eventual murder of him deprives them of both the literal and symbolic `direction' needed to bring the narrative to a conclusion.

This correlation between spatial and cinematic direction is also foregrounded at the beginning of I Confess (1952) via the sequence of four shots of the Quebec street signs showing "DIRECTION" arrows pointing right of frame towards the site of a murder. The effect is to establish right from the outset a strong sense of our point of view being directed towards the important events within the narrative world. Yet, as in Lifeboat, this is complicated by an acknowledgement of competing tensions: here, it occurs in the form of Hitchcock's own cameo cameo (kăm`ēō), small relief carving, usually on striated precious or semiprecious stones or on shell. The design, often a portrait head, is commonly cut in the light-colored vein, and the dark one is left as the background.  appearance immediately beforehand, when he is shown walking away in the opposite direction from where the arrows are pointing. In this case, though, the spatial tension seems to allude to allude to
verb refer to, suggest, mention, speak of, imply, intimate, hint at, remark on, insinuate, touch upon see see, elude
 a tussle not between the characters but between the filmmaker and text itself, with the latter appearing intent upon asserting and exposing what the former attempts to deny by walking away from the scene of the crime (for an interesting analysis of this film, see Deborah Thomas' `Confession As Betrayal: Hitchcock's I Confess As Enigmatic Text', in CineAction, no.40).

Hitchcock's cameo appearance in The Paradine Case again shows him walking away from the narrative action when, having thanked someone for advice, he leaves the train station in Cumberland in the opposite direction to that taken by the male protagonist. Here, though, the direction and location of the filmmaker's cameo appearance are consistent with the overall way that the key events impinging upon the narrative (the murder itself, the affair and Latour's suicide) all take place outside the main courtroom arena. Despite its extensive use of such confined settings as the courtroom and prison, then, The Paradine Case is not a closed film to the same extent as, say, Rear Window or Psycho. Whereas the key events in these two films, although often withheld from us, take place within its clearly demarcated spatial boundaries (including Norman's murder of Mrs. Bates in the narrative's past tense past tense
A verb tense used to express an action or a condition that occurred in or during the past. For example, in While she was sewing, he read aloud, was sewing and read are in the past tense.

Noun 1.
), in The Paradine Case there is a rather uncharacteristic un·char·ac·ter·is·tic  
Unusual or atypical: an uncharacteristic display of anger.

 sense instead of the spatial (and generic) frame being out of alignment with an alternative narrative elsewhere. Such misalignment mis·a·ligned  
Incorrectly aligned.

misa·lignment n.
 can, in turn, be seen as symptomatic of the film's dislike of and frustration with the ideologically (not just spatially) circumscribed circumscribed /cir·cum·scribed/ (serk´um-skribd) bounded or limited; confined to a limited space.

Bounded by a line; limited or confined.
 structure of the legal world of the court. This attitude finds voice in Sir Simon's admission to Mrs. Paradine, during their first meeting at the jail, that: `The fact is, I'm not very keen on this place', and in his subsequent promise that: `We'll get out of it ... as soon as possible, as soon as possible.' The court's repressive function is demonstrated both by its punishment of those women, like Mrs Paradine, suspected of transgressing its laws and by its exclusion and marginalisation of more conventional women from its arena. As the court's main representative, it is Lord Horfield who both sentences Mrs. Paradine to death and refuses to allow his own wife, Sophie, to attend the court (on the grounds that her coughing distracts him). The film's negative attitude towards the legal system finds a more constructive outlet via its strategy of establishing a spatial dialectic between the `masculine' domain of the court and the `feminine' world of domesticity Domesticity
See also Wifeliness.

Crocker, Betty

leading brand of baking products; byword for one expert in homemaking skills. [Trademarks: Crowley Trade, 56]

Dick Van Dyke Show, The
. The resulting interactions and interrelationships produced enable us to critically interrogate (1) To search, sum or count records in a file. See query.

(2) To test the condition or status of a terminal or computer system.
 and assess, rather than merely accept, the ideological systems, values and laws enacted within its narrative world.

In the first place, the film seeks to undermine the ostensible oppositions between these two spatial spheres by using various editing and visual strategies to present the home as an extension of the legal system's oppressive patriarchal structure. The juxtaposition of scenes at the Keane home with those at the prison, for example, invite us to draw parallels rather than simply contrasts between them. This is developed through the extensive use of imprisonment Imprisonment
See also Isolation.

Alcatraz Island

former federal maximum security penitentiary, near San Francisco; “escapeproof.” [Am. Hist.: Flexner, 218]

Altmark, the

German prison ship in World War II. [Br. Hist.
 motifs within the mise-en-scene of the Keane home: most notably, the prominent bedroom ceiling that seems to bear down upon the couple during their first encounter, the prison-like bars of a door window that are used to frame Gay's reaction to her husband's vehement defence of Mrs. Paradine against Sir Simon's insinuations, and the shadows cast by the staircase railings during Keane's return home from court. Such visual strategies serve, specifically, to undermine Keane's own insistence, when trying to dissuade TO DISSUADE, crim. law. To induce a person not to do an act.
     2. To dissuade a witness from giving evidence against a person indicted, is an indictable offence at common law. Hawk. B. 1, c. 2 1, s. 1 5.
 Gay from travelling with him to Cumberland, that: `This is the place for you--warm, cosy, protected'. Keane's patronising attitude towards his wife in turn implicates him with Horfield's more openly misogynistic mi·sog·y·nis·tic   also mi·sog·y·nous
Of or characterized by a hatred of women.

Adj. 1. misogynistic - hating women in particular

ill-natured - having an irritable and unpleasant disposition
 containment of Sophie. The extent to which the women within the film are united by their shared experience under patriarchy is highlighted visually during a montage montage (mŏntäzh`, Fr. môNtäzh`), the art and technique of motion-picture editing in which contrasting shots or sequences are used to effect emotional or intellectual responses.  sequence mid-way through the trial when a shot of Sophie sitting at home staring fearfully and somewhat resentfully at Horfield is followed by one of Mrs. Paradine lying in her prison bed (her lack of make-up providing a quite different, deconstructed view of her), and finally by one of Gay in similar repose as she pretends to be asleep while Keane looks in on her (it is, presumably, Judy's unmarried status that grants her exemption from this sequence).

Having exposed the oppressiveness of such structures, though, the film then proceeds to actively manipulate and subvert them. One way it does so is by allowing the domestic sphere to intrude intrude,
v to move a tooth apically.
 into the courtroom. Hence, the female characters' unauthorized presence there constitutes an act of defiance that the film supports even further by countering their marginalised position in the gallery with repeated shots foregrounding their reactions to proceedings (Judy's interpretation of events for both Gay's and our benefit even endowing her with the status of spectator-in-the-text). The female characters' unauthorized presence within the court is matched by the recurring intrusion of `feminine' elements of melodramatic mel·o·dra·mat·ic  
1. Having the excitement and emotional appeal of melodrama: "a melodramatic account of two perilous days spent among the planters" Frank O. Gatell.
 excess within this `rational' sphere. The key difference in this case lies in the film's consistent association of such elements with the male characters, as if suggesting the court's only partial success in containing their repressed re·pressed
Being subjected to or characterized by repression.
 `feminine' sides. Thus, it is Keane's `tendency to over-charge [himself] with emotion' that is presented as the precise source of Horfield's resentment towards him during their dinner party exchange, a trait which in turn provokes Latour's own hysterical outburst at the witness box and Horfield's subsequent warning reminder to Keane that `this is not the first time that you have been responsible for an over-emotional atmosphere in court.'

The film's most subversive strategy is to use the domestic sphere to invert in·vert
1. To turn inside out or upside down.

2. To reverse the position, order, or condition of.

3. To subject to inversion.

Something inverted.
 the gender power structures and roles within the court. The entire plot originates from Mrs. Paradine's murder within the home of her husband, whose already castrated cas·trate  
tr.v. cas·trat·ed, cas·trat·ing, cas·trates
1. To remove the testicles of (a male); geld or emasculate.

2. To remove the ovaries of (a female); spay.

 status was symbolized by his blindness and dependency upon her to act as `his eyes'. During the Keane couple's first encounter at their home, furthermore, Gay is shown temporarily `blinding' Keane with a towel whilst vigorously drying his hair, the effect of which is to undercut her rather excessive, overblown o·ver·blown  
Past participle of overblow.

a. Done to excess; overdone: overblown decorations.

 praise of him by suggesting an unconscious wish to disempower dis·em·pow·er  
tr.v. dis·em·pow·ered, dis·em·pow·er·ing, dis·em·pow·ers
To deprive of power or influence.

 her husband too (that Mrs. Paradine represents Gay's repressed, transgressive trans·gres·sive  
1. Exceeding a limit or boundary, especially of social acceptability.

2. Of or relating to a genre of fiction, filmmaking, or art characterized by graphic depictions of behavior that violates socially
 side is further suggested via the zoom-in from the latter's point of view to her `adversary' in the witness box during a later scene). On returning home from Horfield's dinner party, moreover, it is Gay who assumes the active role of `prosecutor' by interrogating her husband's motives for wanting to switch their honeymoon venue to Italy (the country of Mrs. Paradine's birth). Her mockery of him for being `so transparent--and for such a devious kind of barrister barrister: see attorney.

One of two types of practicing lawyers in Britain (the other is the solicitor). Barristers engage in advocacy (trial work), and only they may argue cases before a high court.
 too' in turn prompts Keane to remark: `Come on, tell the jury what's on your mind What's On Your Mind
Austin Access, Channel 10

This public access show, produced by Sue Cole, aires every Saturday from 5:30-7:00. Many topics are discussed, which mostly are political issues.
.' After finally confronting Keane about his infatuation with Mrs. Paradine on a later occasion, Gay reflects with some surprise upon her own newly discovered powers of rhetoric: `There, I've made my speech. What a speech. That's what comes of being married to a lawyer.' At Sir Simon's home, too, it is his daughter Judy who displays a similar legal disposition (while her dark, upswept hair, long black dresses and piano playing piano playing Neurology A fanciful descriptor for finger movements linked to the loss of position sensation, in which the Pt seeks to discover finger position in space by periodic movement; PP occurs in Dejerine-Sottas syndrome; PP also refers to intermittent  also link her to Mrs. Paradine). Thus, she speculates (quite accurately) upon Keane's possible motives for wanting to visit Hindley Hall (prompting her father to wonder where she acquired `this decidedly unfeminine interest in things'), while her questioning of Sir Simon provokes him to respond tetchily tetch·y also tech·y  
adj. tetch·i·er, tetch·i·est
Peevish; testy: "As a critic gets older, he or she usually grows more tetchy and limited in responses" James Wolcott.
: `I'll not be made a hostile witness A witness at a trial who is so adverse to the party that called him or her that he or she can be cross-examined as though called to testify by the opposing party.

The Federal Rules of Evidence provide that witnesses who are hostile, or adverse, can be interrogated through
 by my own flesh and blood.'

But it is the Horfield home which the film uses as the location for its strongest critique. During the dinner party, for example, the film exploits Horfield's own action of banishing The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter.
Please help [ improve the introduction] to meet Wikipedia's layout standards. You can discuss the issue on the talk page.
 his wife and female guests from the room so as to give space and voice to Sophie's own concerns about her husband. Her fearful, uncompleted admission to Gay that she dreads dreads  
pl.n. Informal
 it when Horfield has to take a murder trial (as `He comes home looking so ...') gestures towards the possibility that the judge may even vent his frustrations upon his wife in the form of physical violence. The chilling depiction of Horfield at home in the penultimate pe·nul·ti·mate  
1. Next to last.

2. Linguistics Of or relating to the penult of a word: penultimate stress.

The next to the last.
 scene (where he is shown cracking walnuts after dinner and remarking upon how their convolutions `resemble those of the human brain', before visibly frightening Sophie with his dispassionate dis·pas·sion·ate  
Devoid of or unaffected by passion, emotion, or bias. See Synonyms at fair1.

 announcement that he has already sentenced Mrs. Paradine to death) suggests that the reverse of this may also apply: namely, that the courtroom may provide an indirect outlet for his resentment towards his wife. The result, then, is a quite damning critique of patriarchal law, the enactment of which appears, on the one hand, to bring out implied criminal tendencies in its key representative and, on the other, to provide an indirect outlet for his misogyny misogyny /mi·sog·y·ny/ (mi-soj´i-ne) hatred of women.

Hatred of women.

 in the form of a legalized killing of women. The female characters' tendency within the home to assume the role of interrogator in·ter·ro·gate  
tr.v. in·ter·ro·gat·ed, in·ter·ro·gat·ing, in·ter·ro·gates
1. To examine by questioning formally or officially. See Synonyms at ask.

 cum prosecutor towards their male authority figures can, thus, be seen as consistent with the film's overall strategy of using the domestic space to invert the legal and gender status quo [Latin, The existing state of things at any given date.] Status quo ante bellum means the state of things before the war. The status quo to be preserved by a preliminary injunction is the last actual, peaceable, uncontested status which preceded the pending controversy.  within the narrative by placing patriarchy itself and the enactors of its laws `on trial'. The foregrounding of the court-room door during the opening and closing title sequences symbolically encloses the film's entire narrative world within a superior judicial framework, during the process of which the spectator (as its implied jury) is invited to interpret, evaluate and make critical judgements upon its governing institutions and structures of power.

ObjectsparThe earlier discussion of the compass in Lifeboat also served to highlight the crucial role played by objects in Hitchcock's films. The fact that this important visual feature has received little in-depth critical attention may be due partly to the director's own fondness for stressing the role of the "MacGuffin", as that object (or goal) of vital importance to the characters but of little interest to either himself or the audience (except as a device to get the plot going). Hitchcock's emphasis upon the McGuffin may, in a sense, be the greater red herring Red Herring

A preliminary registration statement that must be filed with the SEC describing a new issue of stock (IPO) and the prospects of the issuing company.

, given the way that it diverts attention away from a very real textual dependency upon objects as a means for establishing and controlling our point of view. So while in Notorious it is the uranium ore which is supposedly the ultimate target of the characters' interest, it is the intermediary objects used to obtain and hide it that become the film's real source of interest (the means thereby becoming an end in themselves). That such an interest cannot be explained simply in terms of more general generic conventions pertaining per·tain  
intr.v. per·tained, per·tain·ing, per·tains
1. To have reference; relate: evidence that pertains to the accident.

 to the thriller and film noir film noir

(French; “dark film”)

Film genre that offers dark or fatalistic interpretations of reality. The term is applied to U.S. films of the late 1940s and early '50s that often portrayed a seamy or criminal underworld and cynical characters.
 is evident when one compares other films in the same field. In The Maltese Falcon (Huston, 1941), for example, the characters' obsession with the statue drives the plot forward but is not given the same rhetorical weighting by the text itself as that ascribed to the compass in Lifeboat. Even Lang, whose thematic affinities with Hitchcock extend to a comparable recognition of the filmic usefulness of objects--particularly in highlighting the processes and limitations of perception and the attendant deceptiveness and malleability malleability, property of a metal describing the ease with which it can be hammered, forged, pressed, or rolled into thin sheets. Metals vary in this respect; pure gold is the most malleable. Silver, copper, aluminum, lead, tin, zinc, and iron are also very malleable.  of the surface narrative worlds--differs markedly in the nature and extent of the role that he assigns to objects. Hence, while a cigarette lighter serves strikingly similar plot functions in both Beyond A Reasonable Doubt (1956) and Strangers On A Train (1951) (namely to incriminate To charge with a crime; to expose to an accusation or a charge of crime; to involve oneself or another in a criminal prosecution or the danger thereof; as in the rule that a witness is not bound to give testimony that would tend to incriminate him or her.  the male protagonist in the murder of his wife by being planted at the scene of the crime and, in doing so, highlight the unreliability of circumstantial evidence circumstantial evidence

In law, evidence that is drawn not from direct observation of a fact at issue but from events or circumstances that surround it. If a witness arrives at a crime scene seconds after hearing a gunshot to find someone standing over a corpse and holding a
), in the Hitchcock film it fulfils a more complex narrational role. This culminates in the memorable sequence where Bruno drops the lighter down a drain on his way back to the murder site: in drawing us into his frantic attempts to retrieve this lost object, the film in turn implicates us in the villain's ultimate goal of using it to incriminate Guy.

The fact that many of the following examples of objects in Hitchcock's films were initially recalled from memory is testimony to their centrality in shaping our visual perspective upon the narrative worlds: both during the viewing process and afterwards when, given the way that memory often tends to work in relation to films (as with the world outside) according to images and detail rather than linearity, such objects seem to assume even greater weight. Certain recurring patterns also tend to emerge. In the first place, objects often fall into recognisable types: keys; rings and other jewellery; food; bottles and glasses; cameras; spectacles; bodies; newspapers; knives and other sharp instruments. In addition, such objects frequently participate in wider narrative processes of substitution and replacement. In Lifeboat, for example, the rhetorical emphasis shifts from the compass to the water bottle while in Notorious it moves from the key and wine bottle(s) to the coffee cup. While both films display an overall narrative dependency upon objects, moreover, it is one particular object that tends to assume privileged status at any given time. So, whereas the characters in Lifeboat strive unsuccessfully to hang on to their various possessions, they lack access, in turn, to the two objects (the compass and water bottle) most necessary for their survival. In view of its particularly important role as a visual pun on filmic direction, the compass in fact qualifies as the overall `meta' object in Hitchcock's films, typifying the way in which objects can serve to shape and alter the course of a narrative, the characters' destinies and our own relationship to a film world. In the latter respect, the compass functions primarily to regulate the epistemic flow between ourselves and the characters, acting as a device for privileging us with crucial narrative information that the American crew members lack while simultaneously placing us in an uncomfortable alliance with the villain.

During the party sequence in Notorious, our shifting alignment with the three main characters (not to mention the changing balance of power between them) are managed through a corresponding transfer in ownership of the wine cellar key: from Alicia during the first stage of the party, to Devlin during his search of the wine cellar, and, finally, to Alex from the point where he discovers that the key is missing to his discovery of its return. While it would be over-simplistic to state that the key effects a transfer in identification from Alicia to Alex by the end of the sequence (as Alex's discovery of its theft clearly serves in one important respect to heighten our anxiety for Alicia), nevertheless, in privileging us with knowledge of his investigations the film distances us epistemically from her while also allowing a substantial sympathy to develop for Alex as we witness his sense of betrayal and impending im·pend  
intr.v. im·pend·ed, im·pend·ing, im·pends
1. To be about to occur: Her retirement is impending.

 danger. A more clear-cut case occurs in Rope (1948) where Rupert's discovery of the murdered man's hat in Brandon's and Philip's apartment acts as the main fulcrum fulcrum: see lever.  or turning-point for what Victor Perkins refers to as the `transference TRANSFERENCE, Scotch law. The name of an action by which a suit, which was pending at the time the parties died, is transferred from the deceased to his representatives, in the same condition in which it stood formerly.  of identification' that takes place from the two murderers to the investigating professor (see Perkins, Film As Film: Understanding and Judging Movies, Penguin Books, London, 1991, p.143). Similarly, in Shadow of a Doubt (1943) the newspaper article about the `Merry Widow merry widow
A short strapless corset with half cups for the breasts and long garters.

[Originally a trademark.]
 Murderer' functions so as to involve us first with Uncle Charlie's attempts to conceal his secret from his sister's family (through the film's strategy of letting us in on the motive behind his elaborate paper folding paper folding
 Japanese origami

Art of folding objects out of paper without cutting, pasting, or decorating. Its early history is unknown, but it seems to have developed from the older art of folding cloth.
 trick) and then with Charlie as we share her discovery of its contents during the scene in the library. Alicia's discovery of the significance of the coffee cup at a later point in Notorious also serves to bring her back into a much closer relationship with the audience, triggering, as it does, the ensuing en·sue  
intr.v. en·sued, en·su·ing, en·sues
1. To follow as a consequence or result. See Synonyms at follow.

2. To take place subsequently.
 series of highly subjective shots from her point of view.

Sallitt's own view that objects are symptomatic of an overall restricted viewpoint in Hitchcock's films does, despite its validity in certain cases, require substantial qualification. For, in many of the examples cited earlier, objects act both as an important source of privileged information for us, the audience (during which time they usually assume their greatest rhetorical weighting), and as a means whereby characters often discover what we already know (at which point such objects usually recede re·cede 1  
intr.v. re·ced·ed, re·ced·ing, re·cedes
1. To move back or away from a limit, point, or mark: waited for the floodwaters to recede.

 from view). Further comparison between Hitchcock and Lang is helpful here for it highlights the way in which objects in the former generally tend to clarify, expand and reveal whereas in the latter they disorientate disorientate or disorient

[-tating, -tated] or -enting, -ented to cause (someone) to lose his or her bearings

disorientation n
, constrict con·strict
To make smaller or narrower, especially by binding or squeezing.
 and ambiguate: contrast, for example, the use of the hat in Rope with its equivalent in You Only Live Once (1937), and the newspaper in Shadow Of A Doubt with its counterparts in both the same Lang film and Beyond A Reasonable Doubt. Even in the crofters' scene in The 39 Steps, where a newspaper article incriminates an innocent rather than guilty man, the film's emphasis is less upon the unreliability of the article itself (as might be expected if it were a Lang film) than upon its narrational role in drawing us into Hannay's attempts to both see and conceal the article from the couple. One significant area where Hitchcock and Lang do converge in their use of objects is when privileging us with clues to a character's hidden motives. Thus, the dropping or planting of the male protagonist's cigarette lighter (a present from his fiancc[e'] e) at the murder scene in Strangers On A Train (1951) and Beyond A Reasonable Doubt can be variously construed in both cases as a symbolic acknowledgement of his unconscious desire to be rid of his wife or would-be-wife. A gender reversal of this occurs in Rear Window where Lisa's flaunting of the ring in Thorwald's apartment signifies, in directing the murderer's gaze across the courtyard, her unconscious desire to expose and endanger Jeffries in revenge for his refusal to marry her. In Rope, this psychoanalytic dimension to objects is even voiced quite self-consciously by Rupert when he refers to the cigarette case that he pretends to have left behind as a pretext for regaining entry into the apartment: `I suppose a psychoanalyst would say that I didn't really forget it at all. I unconsciously left it because I wanted to come back'.

Brandon's earlier `oversight' in leaving David Kentley's initialled hat in the closet for Rupert to discover similarly suggests his own unconscious wish to have the murder acknowledged, while in Vertigo Judy's `mistake' in wearing Madeleine's necklace also implies an analogous desire on her part to bring the whole plot out into the open. The real relevance of Sallitt's notion of intrarealism with regard to objects would therefore seem to lie less in its concern with restricted viewpoint and much more in its emphasis upon direct involvement, as objects provide one very clear instance of how Hitchcock's films allow us access to their narrative worlds in ways that are not necessarily character dependent. Even where objects serve to make us worry for characters or, as in the above examples, provide insight into their hidden motives, the fact that such effects are being achieved via these indirect, inanimate inanimate /in·an·i·mate/ (-an´im-it)
1. without life.

2. lacking in animation.

 means is in itself indicative of a less than complete involvement with the characters themselves. So, while in Notorious the camera's strategy of foregrounding the coffee cup's dangerous nature serves to create much audience anxiety for Alicia, it also inevitably produces an epistemic and spatial barrier to full identification, with its physical dominance in the foreground of one repeated shot just prior to her discovery that she is being poisoned even threatening to displace her as the centre of perspective in the frame. Similarly, during the sequence in Suspicion (1941) when Johnnie carries the glass of milk up to Lina, it is the object which becomes our central point of visual orientation and narrative interest. Most radically of all, the money in Psycho not only triggers and mediates the more intense phase of our involvement with Marion (from the shot of it lying on the bed onwards) but also eventually fills the vacuum created by her sudden murder, before then going on to assist in the transfer of our identification to Norman (through a desire, strongly encouraged by the camera's foregrounding strategies, to have him notice it lying on the bedside cabinet).

Whether acquiring a prominence disproportionate to their actual size (as with the coffee cup in Notorious), a somewhat incandescent in·can·des·cent  
1. Emitting visible light as a result of being heated.

2. Shining brilliantly; very bright. See Synonyms at bright.

 quality (as in the case of the glass of milk in Suspicion), or acting as the justification for a progressive narrowing of camera viewpoint, there is a pronounced tendency, then, for certain objects to assume a particular force of attraction amidst the general spatial field of view in Hitchcock's films. It is a tendency that invites comparison with what Roland Barthes Roland Barthes (November 12, 1915 – March 25, 1980) (pronounced [ʀɔlɑ̃ baʀt]) was a French literary critic, literary and social theorist, philosopher, and semiologist.  refers to as the duality Duality (physics)

The state of having two natures, which is often applied in physics. The classic example is wave-particle duality. The elementary constituents of nature—electrons, quarks, photons, gravitons, and so on—behave in some respects
 that co-exists in photographs between the `studium' (`that very wide field of unconcerned desire, of varied interest, of inconsequential in·con·se·quen·tial  
1. Lacking importance.

2. Not following from premises or evidence; illogical.

A triviality.
 taste: I like/I don't like') and the `punctum', as the detail that, if and when it emerges, has the power to attract and jolt the spectator, thereby transforming and illuminating the way that a photograph is viewed:

The second element will break (or punctuate punc·tu·ate  
v. punc·tu·at·ed, punc·tu·at·ing, punc·tu·ates
1. To provide (a text) with punctuation marks.

) the studium.... A Latin word exists to designate this wound, this prick, this mark made by a pointed instrument: the word suits me all the better in that it also refers to the notion of punctuation, and because the photographs I am speaking of are in effect punctuated, sometimes even speckled speck·led  
1. Dotted or covered with speckles, especially flecked with small spots of contrasting color.

2. Of a mixed character; motley.

Adj. 1.
 with these sensitive points; precisely, these marks, these wounds are so many points. This second element which will disturb the studium I shall therefore call puncture; for punctum punctum /punc·tum/ (pungk´tum) pl. punc´ta   [L.] a point or small spot.

punctum cae´cum  blind spot.

punctum lacrima´le  lacrimal point.
 is also: sting, speck, cut, little hole--and also a cast of the dice. A photograph's punctum is that accident which pricks me (but also bruises me, is poignant to me) (Barthes, Camera Lucida: Reflections on Photography, Vintage, London, 1993, pp.26-7).

Many sequences in Hitchcock's films do appear, in fact, to operate precisely on the basis of a tension between the studium and the punctum: between the general and the specific, the far and the near, the public and the private. As such, Barthes' term is helpful `point of view'. For our access to a more privileged viewpoint in Hitchcock's films often depends upon an ability to transcend the studium by finding the punctum (as that object or other point of detail which, on being discovered, results in a moment of revelation or clarification).

In certain respects, though, Barthes' notion of the punctum as accidental, disruptive, able to by-pass intellectual analysis and culturally acquired modes of thinking would appear very much at odds with the sense one gains in Hitchcock's films of objects being employed quite purposefully as ways of guiding us towards a deeper understanding of the narrative worlds. Barthes himself, in his brief comparison between still photographs and cinema, regards the punctum as not only impossible in the latter (due to the moving images not allowing sufficient time for it to emerge) but also unnecessary. The punctum's metonymic me·ton·y·my  
n. pl. me·ton·y·mies
A figure of speech in which one word or phrase is substituted for another with which it is closely associated, as in the use of Washington for the United States government or of
 `power of expansion' (Barthes, p.45) is essentially a means whereby the photograph (with its limitations of stasis stasis /sta·sis/ (sta´sis)
1. a stoppage or diminution of flow, as of blood or other body fluid.

2. a state of equilibrium among opposing forces.
 and fixity fix·i·ty  
n. pl. fix·i·ties
1. The quality or condition of being fixed.

2. Something fixed or immovable.
) is able to both evoke and compensate for that sense of an unseen, wider field operating beyond the frame that is already inherent in movies. Indeed, in strictly spatial terms, objects in Hitchcock's films often perform an inverse role to the photographic punctum by providing us with a point of stability, a concrete anchorage or hold upon these narrative worlds, as an antidote both to the film medium's ceaseless flow of images and those more severe uncertainties and disruptions specific to the Hitchcock thriller. Thus, after the shower murder in Psycho, it is the money wrapped up in newspaper which becomes the only concrete rung and remnant from the earlier narrative that we have to cling onto. The spatial stability offered by objects can also extend across scenes and characters, often acting as a foundation block for the film's overall architecture. As alluded to earlier, the wine cellar key in Notorious acts as a continuity device throughout the main party sequence, with Alicia's theft of the key prior to the party even being mirrored later on by Alex's discovery of its absence and subsequent return. In addition to the key, the broken wine bottle also links together Devlin's and Alex's explorations of the wine cellar as they both attempt to discover what each of them has tried to conceal. Objects can even provide structuring links across films--as in the case of the hangover cure brought to Alicia by Devlin, the effect of which seems designed quite clearly to recall the glass of milk that the Cary Grant Noun 1. Cary Grant - United States actor (born in England) who was the elegant leading man in many films (1904-1986)
 character carries up to Lina in Suspicion.

Yet despite their more stabilising function, objects also consistently demonstrate the validity of a cinematic equivalent of the Barthesian punctum. A closer spatial correlative for the latter can be found in The Lady Vanishes (1938) where the appearance of the word `FROY' on the train window is not highlighted via the more characteristic camera track-in device but remains in the background of a long static shot as Gilbert and Iris sit down to tea in the dining carriage: the effect of such a strategy is to place the onus upon us to seek out the significant data for ourselves. The fleeting appearance of the Harriman's Herbal tea packet label later on, as it sticks momentarily onto the train window during the throwing out of the rubbish, also provides an exemplary instance of where Hitchcock's films exploit the temporality tem·po·ral·i·ty  
n. pl. tem·po·ral·i·ties
1. The condition of being temporal or bounded in time.

2. temporalities Temporal possessions, especially of the Church or clergy.

Noun 1.
 of the cinema medium--the very fact that things cannot be pinned down as in a still photograph--by investing one of its key objects with the punctum's quality of transience (rather than stability). In doing so, the incident displays what Leo Leo, in astronomy
Leo [Lat.,=the lion], northern constellation lying S of Ursa Major and on the ecliptic (apparent path of the sun through the heavens) between Cancer and Virgo; it is one of the constellations of the zodiac.
 Braudy refers to as `the centrifugal force centrifugal force

Fictitious force, peculiar to circular motion, that is equal but opposite to the centripetal force that keeps a particle on a circular path (see centripetal acceleration).
 of objects, their escapability' which `may at any moment vanish or extend themselves into the life beyond the frame' (Braudy, The World In A Frame: What We See In Films, University of Chicago Press The University of Chicago Press is the largest university press in the United States. It is operated by the University of Chicago and publishes a wide variety of academic titles, including The Chicago Manual of Style, dozens of academic journals, including , London, 1984, pp.76-7).

Hitchcock's films also push Barthes' main notion of the punctum as a `wound', a `mark made by a pointed instrument', to its most intense extreme via their foregrounding of knives and other weapons of assault: most traumatically of all, of course, with each stab of the knife during the shower murder in Psycho. Here, though, the punctum object's wounding power is conveyed as much aurally au·ral 1  
Of, relating to, or perceived by the ear.

[From Latin auris, ear; see ous- in Indo-European roots.
 as visually via the punctuating of the soundtrack with the bird-like shrieks of the violins. The possibility of an aural aural /au·ral/ (aw´r'l)
1. auditory (1).

2. pertaining to an aura.

au·ral 1
Relating to or perceived by the ear.
 punctum was explored as early as Blackmail (1929) when Alice's traumatized state after stabbing her would-be rapist to death using a breadknife is conveyed at the breakfast table the next morning (via an expressionistic distortion and disturbance of the soundtrack. There, the aural studium or general field of sounds (consisting of a neighbour's gossip about the murder) is gradually eliminated whilst the word "knife" becomes louder and increasingly insistent.

For Barthes, another feature of the photographic punctum is its ability to evoke the pathos of what he refers to as the `noeme' or `that-has-been' (p.96), a sense evoked for him personally by the discovery of a photograph of his own dead mother. Although Barthes dismisses the possibility of such a punctum in cinema, it finds its counterpart in the objects which Lila encounters during her search through the Bates house in Psycho, the emotional poignancy of which lie in their ability to evoke both Norman's emotionally arrested state and, on subsequent viewings, Mrs. Bates' own past, foreshortened life. The parallel between Lila's attempt to gain a sense of Mrs. Bates via her remaining possessions and Barthes' own search through old photographs in an effort to rediscover Re`dis`cov´er   

v. t. 1. To discover again.

Verb 1. rediscover - discover again; "I rediscovered the books that I enjoyed as a child"
 the essence of his dead mother is, in fact, quite striking. In both cases, the clues to the mother's real identity are to be found in objects that resist mediation through the son's male discourse (in Barthes' case, by preceding his existence and remembrance of her).

This notion of objects representing `keys' to a character's lost identity even assumes literal form elsewhere. But in such cases, the inability to find an all-important key (as when Charlie discovers that the ignition key Noun 1. ignition key - a key that operates the ignition switch of an automotive engine
key - metal device shaped in such a way that when it is inserted into the appropriate lock the lock's mechanism can be rotated

ignition key n
 is missing during the second garage scene in Shadow of a Doubt), or loss of such a possession (as in Alex's case in Notorious), or even voluntary disposal of it (as when Marnie throws her locker key down a drain near the beginning of that film) tend to allude instead to the characters' own inaccess to or denial of their repressed selves. In Psycho, Norman's gesture of handing the cabin key to Marion at the very moment when she tries to fake her name in the motel register book points to his ability to force her to confront aspects of herself that she attempts to deny (as indicated later by her decision to return to Phoenix with the stolen money after her encounter with him in the parlour) but any positive potential implied by this is subsequently nullified nul·li·fy  
tr.v. nul·li·fied, nul·li·fy·ing, nul·li·fies
1. To make null; invalidate.

2. To counteract the force or effectiveness of.
, of course, by the key's role in leading Marion to a most final obliteration A destruction; an eradication of written words.

Obliteration is a method of revoking a Will or a clause therein. Lines drawn through the signatures of witnesses to a will constitute an obliteration of the will even if the names are still decipherable.
 of her identity. Barthes' compensation for his dead mother (as a `lost object' in the psychoanalytic sense of the term) via an intermediary, substitute object also finds a monstrous analogy in Norman's attempt to hold onto his mother by preserving her corpse (rather than just her possessions). A rather more positive version of this strategy can be found in Marnie (1964) where the female protagonist's attachment to her horse Forio (as a living, responsive animal quite different from the inanimate objects Inanimate Objects


the study of inanimate things.


the assignment to inanimate objects, forces, and plants of personalities and wills, but not souls. — animatistic, adj.
 mentioned earlier) compensates for her emotionally thwarted relationship with her mother (who in turn uses the girl Jessie as a substitute for her own daughter). Indeed, Forio's accidental death near the end of the film provides one of the most traumatic, complex workings through of a character's over-attachment to a substitute love object. What it performs, in fact, is a rather ambivalent, conflated re-enactment of the previously repressed incident in Marnie's childhood, one that involved both the laming of her mother and Marnie's own killing of the sailor. Moreover, in view of the parallel implied here between Forio and Bernice (a link strengthened elsewhere by the mother's own evasive e·va·sive  
1. Inclined or intended to evade: took evasive action.

2. Intentionally vague or ambiguous; equivocal: an evasive statement.
 references to her `bad accident'), Marnie's shooting of the horse becomes not only a reenactment re·en·act also re-en·act  
tr.v. re·en·act·ed, re·en·act·ing, re·en·acts
1. To enact again: reenact a law.

 of the past but also a symbolic `killing off' of the maternal figure in the present in order to replace her with Mark as the new, now romantic object of attachment.

Crucially, too, it is objects which often become the focal points focal point
See focus.
 of the suspense in Hitchcock's work, their capacity for yielding privileged information often serving to generate or heighten, rather than ease, audience anxieties. During the party scene in Notorious, the suspense is structured both globally upon the overall enigma surrounding the mysterious contents of the wine bottle(s) and Alex's possible discovery of the stolen key and locally upon the following series of specific questions relating to relating to relate prepconcernant

relating to relate prepbezüglich +gen, mit Bezug auf +acc 
 these objects:

* Will Alex appear in time to see Alicia stealing the key from his chain? (No)

* Will Alex discover the key in her hand? (No)

* Will the supply of champagne bottles run out? (Yes, after the third shot of it from Joseph's POV)

* Will Devlin see the bottle in time to catch it before it falls from the wine cellar shelf? (No)

* Will Alex discover the missing key on his way to the wine cellar and, consequently, the real meaning of Alicia and Devlin's kiss on the porch? (Yes)

* Will Alex discover the odd wine bottle bearing the wrong vintage year vintage year
1. The year in which a vintage wine is produced.

2. A year of outstanding achievement or success.

vintage year n it's been a vintage year for plays →
 and the broken original hidden under the shelves? (Yes)

* Will Alex discover the return of the wine cellar key (and thereby obtain concrete proof of his wife's betrayal)? (Yes)

Alex's discovery of the theft and subsequent return of the wine cellar key marks both the conclusion of this suspense situation and the beginning of another based upon his poisoning of Alicia: the question `Will Alex find out?' is therefore replaced by `Will Alicia find out?' and is accompanied by the emergence of the coffee cup as the new object of interest and anxiety. In ways analogous to, but more coherent than, Freudian dream-work, therefore, such objects become sites of condensation, charged with suspense and multiple meanings which are projected onto them to such an extent that they `gather significance the way snowballs grow when they roll down hills, by the repetition, accumulation, and mere persistence in our eyes' (Braudy, p.37). Wine bottles and coffee cups thus act not only as literal receptacles for hidden, potentially dangerous secrets and substances but also as symbolic containers for our own suspense-related anxieties. The glass of milk which Johnnie carries up to Lina in Suspicion is another such example, except that the object here displays a Barthesian resistance to analysis by refusing to yield up its meaning. Yet while the uncertainty over whether or not this glass of milk contains poison does complicate the clarificatory role more typically performed by objects in Hitchcock's films, it is an ambiguity that nevertheless remains distinct from the kind associated with their counterpart in Lang's films. For whereas a Langian object tends to reinforce the arbitrariness of the meanings projected onto it, the punctum object in Hitchcock is invariably in·var·i·a·ble  
Not changing or subject to change; constant.

 charged with significance: any variability instead lies in the extent to which its secrets are revealed. The closest approximation to a Langian use of an object in Hitchcock's work occurs in Secret Agent (1936), where the British characters murder an innocent man almost solely on the tenuous basis of a single button found in another murdered man's hand and which they wrongly attribute to the German character Caypor. Yet even here it is the characters who invest the object with significance rather than the film itself, which does not endow en·dow  
tr.v. en·dowed, en·dow·ing, en·dows
1. To provide with property, income, or a source of income.

 it with the kind of visual weighting characteristically given to objects elsewhere. Not, that is, until the characters discover their mistake, whereupon the film provides a subjective, hallucinatory hal·lu·ci·na·to·ry
1. Of or characterized by hallucination.

2. Inducing or causing hallucination.
 image of a montage of buttons from Elsa's point of view, the effect of which is to emphasize the commonality com·mon·al·i·ty  
n. pl. com·mon·al·i·ties
a. The possession, along with another or others, of a certain attribute or set of attributes: a political movement's commonality of purpose.
 of this object instead.

By virtue of their multi-functionality, then, objects offer us an extremely tangible, highly condensed con·dense  
v. con·densed, con·dens·ing, con·dens·es
1. To reduce the volume or compass of.

2. To make more concise; abridge or shorten.

3. Physics
 illustration of the overall complexity of point of view in Hitchcock's films. Indeed, the sense of ambivalence that we tend to associate with watching a Hitchcock film is traceable in no small part to the punctum object's paradoxical role: to the fact that, in films such as Sabotage (1936), Suspicion and Notorious, it is the most visually threatening, suspense-laden objects (in the form of the bomb package, the glass of milk and the coffee cup) which serve, simultaneously and contradictorily, as the very means by which we are able to retain a spatial and epistemic hold upon the narrative world.

(1) For another analysis that questions the assumed relationship between the POV shot and identification, see Murray Smith There are several people named Murray Smith.
  • For the Albertan MLA, see Murray Smith (Albertan politician).
  • For the former MP see Murray Smith (Canadian politician)
, Engaging Characters: Fiction, Emotion and the Cinema (Oxford University Press, 1995), pp.156-65.

(2) Charles Barr uses the term `hypnagogia' to describe what he identifies as a recurring `hesitation between subjective and objective' in Hitchcock's British period. See Barr, `Hitchcock's British Films Revisited', in Andrew Higson, ed., Dissolving Views: Key Writings on British Cinema, Cassell, London, 1996, p.14).
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Date:Jan 1, 1999
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