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Space sentinels: professionals run radar sites protecting North America from missile attack.

In the 1983 movie, "War Games," a computer whiz-kid inadvertently set in motion a global thermonuclear ther·mo·nu·cle·ar  
adj.
1. Of, relating to, or derived from the fusion of atomic nuclei at high temperatures: thermonuclear reactions.

2.
 war scenario when he hacked into a Department of Defense supercomputer.

To the computer, this "war" was nothing more than a game, and firing a nuclear missile at the Soviet Union was the same as moving a pawn across a chessboard.

In real life, though, the thought of nuclear missiles being fired at the U.S. is anything but entertaining--and it's one the Air Force takes very seriously.

The service hasn't entrusted its missile warning and defense capabilities to the whims of a supercomputer--it enlists the help of several radar sites scattered across the globe and numerous satellites orbiting high above the Earth to protect the nation from just such an attack. While the Cold War may be over, the threat of a missile attack is no less serious today than it was 30 years ago. Because of this, these radars and satellites, and the Airmen who run them, work around the clock as the nation's front lines for missile warning and defense.

"We're here to protect America Protect America, Inc. is a privately held home security equipment and service provider that services all of the United States.

In 1992 Thad Paschall founded Round Rock, TX, based Protect America, Inc.
," said 1st Lt. Bryony bryony: see gourd.  Veater, deputy chief of the Operations Support Flight, 7th Space Warning Squadron, Beale Air Force Base, Calif., "24/7, 365 days a year."

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PAVE PAWS PAVE PAWS Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Weapons System (USAF Phased Array Radar)  FOR PEACE

The heart of the nation's missile warning capabilities, the Pave Phased Array Warning System, or Pave PAWS, has been monitoring the skies surrounding North America since the early 1980s. The system's main purpose is to detect and track both intercontinental and sea-launched ballistic missiles.

It's a job it does well.

"If something's out there, we'll see it," said Lt. Col. Corey Keppler, 7th SWS SWS Slow Wave Sleep
SWS Short Wavelength Spectrometer
SWS Sturge-Weber Syndrome (birthmark)
SWS Stadtwerke Speyer GmbH (Germany)
SWS Social Work Services (US Army) 
 commander. "And that's really what our job is, to detect launches, track them and provide data to the right agencies."

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Beale Air Force Base is one of several Pave PAWS sites that are scattered around the globe. Others are at Clear Air Force Station, Alaska; Cape Cod AFS A distributed file system for large, widely dispersed Unix and Windows networks from Transarc Corporation, now part of IBM. It is noted for its ease of administration and expandability and stems from Carnegie-Mellon's Andrew File System.

AFS - Andrew File System
, Mass.; Cavalier AFS, N.D.; Thule Air Base Thule Air Base, (or Thule Air Base/Pituffik Airport) (IATA: THU, ICAO: BGTL), an unincorporated enclave within Qaanaaq municipality, Greenland, is the United States Air Force's northernmost base ( , Greenland; and Royal Air Force Flyingdales, England.

Together, these stations create the ground-based radar network a crisscrossed pattern of coverage that monitors the areas surrounding North America and the United Kingdom.

Each radar station can "see" 3,000 miles across the Earth's hemisphere and up to 12.000 miles above the Earth. The radar faces are giant, 10-story structures containing thousands of arrays and sensors that are continuously sending and receiving data.

This data is fed into a room full of computers, where it is deciphered and relayed to the radar's command center as easily readable information.

The radars are designed to search their areas of responsibility for missiles or launch plumes, but, calibrated the right way, they can track items much smaller.

"We help track space shuttle launches," Colonel Keppler said. "And the radars are sensitive enough to see something as small as a piece of foam falling off the shuttle during its launch."

Each radar station is also self-sustaining. They have their own power plants, communications systems and security personnel and are nuclear hardened, meaning the radars are designed to survive and maintain operations after a nuclear blast.

"If something like that happened, we would be the eyes and ears of our defense capabilities," Colonel Keppler said.

The Pave PAWS sites were built during the heart of the Cold War, a time when nuclear attack was a thought that weighed heavy on many minds. Even though the Cold War is over, these radars are very important, said officials at Air Force Space Command.

"There are still real threats out there, "said Col. Jay Moody, deputy director of Requirements for Headquarters AFSPC Noun 1. AFSPC - a command of the United States Air Force that is responsible for defending the United States through its space and intercontinental ballistic missile operations
Air Force Space Command
 at Peterson Air Force Base Peterson Air Force Base (Peterson AFB) is a base of the United States Air Force located at Colorado Springs in El Paso County, Colorado, United States. Peterson AFB is home to US Northern Command, NORAD, Air Force Space Command, Army Space Command, the 21st Space Wing (host unit) , Colo. "China has launched missiles at a satellite, and other countries are trying to get their feet into the nuclear arena. It's important we have the capability to know when and where someone tries to attack us."

Which, by design, is exactly what Pave PAWS will do.

ALL SEEING EYES IN THE SKY

Pave PAWS aren't the only sentinels on duty for missile warning and defense. A network of satellites orbit the earth and monitor its atmosphere with unblinking eyes.

These silent sentinels are the AFSPC-operated Defense Support Program satellites--a key part of North America's early warning systems. In their 22,300-mile, geosynchronous orbits, DSP (1) (Digital Signal Processor) A special-purpose CPU used for digital signal processing applications (see definition #2 below). It provides ultra-fast instruction sequences, such as shift and add, and multiply and add, which are commonly used in math-intensive  satellites help protect the United States and its allies by detecting missile launches, space launches and nuclear detonations.

"They are really the workhorses for missile warning," said Lt. Col. Michele Edmondson, commander of the 2nd Space Warning Squadron at Buckley Air Force Base Buckley Air Force Base is a United States Air Force base in Aurora, Colorado, that was established in 1943.

The host wing is the 460th Space Wing, a unit of the Air Force Space Command.
, Colo. "They provide reliable early warning capabilities to our nation and its defense."

The first DSP satellite launched in the early 1970s. Since then, this system has provided uninterrupted space-based missile warning capabilities.

The satellites use an infrared sensor to detect heat from missile and booster plumes against the earth's background. Over the years, though, the technology used by the satellites has undergone several upgrades to keep them current with modern threats.

"Missiles used to be large, easily identifiable objects," Colonel Edmondson said. "But now, they keep getting smaller and smaller and harder to identify."

In 1995, technological advancements were made to the ground processing systems, enhancing the satellite's detection capability of smaller missiles and providing improved warning of attack by short-range missiles against the United States.

A new satellite system, the Space Based Infrared System, or SBIRS SBIRS Space-Based Infrared System
SBIRS Space Based Infra-Red Surveillance
, is also set to be online soon.

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"SBIRS will work alongside and eventually replace DSP," Colonel Moody said. "This system will provide the nation with critical missile defense and warning capabilities well into the 21st century."

SBIRS features a mix of geosynchronous earth orbit satellites, highly elliptical el·lip·tic   or el·lip·ti·cal
adj.
1. Of, relating to, or having the shape of an ellipse.

2. Containing or characterized by ellipsis.

3.
a.
 earth orbit payloads and associated ground hardware and software.

The system will have both improved sensor flexibility and sensitivity, will cover short-wave infrared, and will have expanded mid-wave infrared and see-to-the-ground bands, allowing it to perform a broader set of missions compared to its predecessor, the DSP.

The program is currently in the engineering, manufacturing and development phase, with the first GEO satellite expected to launch in 2010.

THE HUMAN ELEMENT

As effective and consistent as the U.S.'s missile warning and defense satellites and radars are, none of them would work without the Airmen who monitor them on a daily basis.

"It's truly the Airmen who make the whole system work," Colonel Moody said. "It's their dedication and professionalism that ensures these satellites and radars do what they're supposed to, when they're supposed to."

Their human eyes are also needed to aid the electronic ones they are in charge of.

"The satellites and radars only pick up and warn us of items in the earth's atmosphere, so the Airmen are the ones who look at it and say, 'Okay, that's nothing to worry about,' or 'Hey, let's take a look at that,'" Colonel Edmondson said.

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For the Airmen who work with the satellites and radars, it's a job they take seriously and are proud to do.

"When I sit back and think about the fact that I'm contributing to the defense of the country, that makes me feel proud," Lieutenant Veater said. "Sure, it's easy to say all I do is push buttons or talk on the phone, but everything we do helps keep the nation safe. That's a good feeling."

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STORY BY STAFF SGT. MATTHEW BATES * PHOTOS BY LANCE CHEUNG DESIGN BY G. PATRICK HARRIS
COPYRIGHT 2009 U.S. Air Force, Air Force News Agency
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2009 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

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Author:Bates, Matthew
Publication:Airman
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:May 1, 2009
Words:1246
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