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Soviet Foreign Policy: 1918-1945, A Guide to Research and Research Materials.

German Foreign Policy 1918-1945: A Guide to Research and Research Materials, edited by Christoph Kimmich. Wilmington, Delaware, Scholarly Resources, 1991 (revised edition). xii, 264 pp. $40.00 U.S.

French Policy 1918-1945: A Guide to Research and Research Materials, edited by Robert J. Young. Wilmington, Delaware,Scholarly Resources, 1991 (revised edition). xvi, 339 pp. $40.00 U.S.

British Foreign Policy 1918-1945: A Guide to Research and Research Materials, edited by Sidney Aster. Wilmington, Delaware, Scholarly Resources, 1991 (revised edition). xv, 391 pp. $40.00 U.S.

Italian Foreign Policy 1918-1945: A Guide to Research and Research Materials, edited by Alan Cassels. Wilmington, Delaware, Scholarly Resources, 1991 (revised edition). 270 pp. $40.00 U.S.

Soviet Foreign Policy 1918-1945: A Guide to Research and Research Materials, edited by Robert H. Johnston. Wilmington, Delaware, Scholarly Resources, 1991 (revised edition). xi, 236 pp. $40.00 U.S.

International Organizations 1918-1945: A Guide to Research and Research Materials, edited by George W. Baer. Wilmington, Delaware, Scholarly Resources, 1991 (revised edition). xii, 212 pp. $40.00 U.S.

REJOICE!! For those of us who study modern international history, indeed, for those of us who study political history of any sort, the publication of these second editions of the "Guides to Research and Research Materials" is triply significant. First, their appearance shows that the study of foreign policy from the first to the second World Wars of this century is alive and well in North America, Europe, Japan, and the Antipodes. This vitality has been achieved despite unrelenting attacks on the field of international history, let alone the general discipline from which it derives, by Annales advocates, social historians of all descriptions, self-important cultural historians and others of that ilk, and all of the trendy -- and certainly transitory -- types. With some departments of history in supposedly major universities in Europe and North America consciously refusing to hire political historians because their field is held t o be too empirical and not theoretical enough -- I can think of one not a thousand miles away from my study here looking out over the shimmering waters of Lake Ontario -- the appearance of these "Guides" suggests that, like Mark Twain's, the demise of political history is "greatly exaggerated." Second, in a narrow and more important sense, these "Guides" catalogue the tremendous amount of work which has been done, and which continues to be done, to unravel one of the most complex and important periods in modern history: that when there occurred the erosion of Europe's primacy in global affairs in what has become increasingly known as the "thirty years war" of the twentieth century.(1) Finally, and perhaps most significant, these guides show the richness and diversity of the historical debate engendered by the study of war and diplomacy in the period from 1918 to 1945. After all, especially in the modern period, it is not cultures, economic systems, ideological expressions, or societies that pursue foreign policies and, should the circumstances merit, fight wars. It is states that do so, states organized on political lines, their leaders devising policy through political processes, and their purpose the achievement of political ends.

The first editions of these Scholarly Resources "Guides" appeared between 1981 and 1984 under the general editorship of Professor Christoph Kimmich, a specialist in Weimar German foreign policy. He assembled a group of individual expert editors to cover Britain (Sidney Aster), France (Robert Young), Italy (Alan Cassels), and international organizations (George Baer), whilst he compiled that for Germany. Professor Kimmich correctly saw no need to produce one for the United States, since the Society for Historians of American Foreign Relations was then in the midst of producing its own compendium. Indeed, the Guide to American Foreign Relations appeared in 1983 under the general editorship of Richard Dean Burns; this massive undertaking was actually the work of over one hundred United States foreign policy specialists and covered the period from 1700 to the moment of publication.(2) There was no point in Professor Kimmich and his colleagues duplicating an obviously superb annotated bibliography on American foreign policy. However, there were still lacunae in the first editions: no separate volumes for either Bolshevik Russia(3) or Japan, and none for the post-1960s explosion of work relating to economic and financial issues in international history between 1918 and 1945. Happily, these revised editions, in addition to amending archival holdings, other bibliographical compendiums, published documents, and new secondary books and articles produced over the past ten years, now include a separate volume for Russia. Moreover, a "Guide" for European international economic relations -- the American side of economics and finance is treated in Burns' effort which, by the way, is now being up-dated -- will be forthcoming next year. However, Japanese foreign policy as a separate subject (as opposed to the work of Japanese historians which appears in both these and the S.H.A.F.R. guides) still awaits recent treatment. Older published Japanese bibliographies, chiefly that edited by James Morley, are clearly out of date.(4)

The structure of these new guides mirrors that of the original series: with the obvious exception of the volume dealing with international organization, each begins with an introductory essay on both the individual Power's foreign ministry and the general lines of its foreign policy for the period 1918-45, with an appendix of major diplomats; this is followed by a listing of archives, libraries, and research institutes germane to the specific Power or subject; and finally, the bulk of each volume, there is a bibliography of published primary and secondary sources, including documentary and official publications, diaries and memoirs, and books and articles.

Professor Kimmich's effort shows that the examination of German foreign policy from the end of the First World War to 1945 has not abated; indeed, as it and every one of these "Guides" show, the approach of the fiftieth anniversary of the 1939 Polish crisis only accentuated historical enquiry. Although this new edition of German Foreign Policy 1918-1945 clearly went to the publisher before the tumultuous events of November 1989 -- there are still separate sections covering the archives and catalogues et al. for both the Federal and German Democratic republics -- there has been a steady increase over ten years in the availability of primary sources for study, especially archival collections held outside of Germany. This will be of especial help for graduate students and full time academics who require information before embarking on research trips -- in this and the other volumes, except the one for Soviet Russia, the inclusion of the addresses of archives, as well as their opening hours and, where possible, their telephone numbers is particularly useful. For those who simply require information on published materials -- memoirs, books, and articles -- to supplement their research through inter-library loans, this collection is indispensable. In terms of memoirs and diaries, recently published ones tend to be from the war period, for instance, Walter Bargatzky's Hotel Majestic: Ein Deutscher im besetzten Frankreich (1987) and the new expanded version of Ulrich von Hassell's Die Hassell-Tagebucher 1938-1944 (1988). When competing editions of a particular source have appeared, Professor Kimmich repeats the helpful annotations that marked his 1981 "Guide" by indicating to the uninitiated which is the best. In one case, Elke Frolich's edited four volumes, Die Tagebucher von Joseph Goebbels: Samtliche Fragmente (1987), are contrasted with an earlier and unsatisfactory one volume English translation, The Goebbels Diaries, 1939-1941 (1982). And importantly, pre-1981 memoirs and diaries missed in the initial survey have been added, for example, Ernst Roskothen, Gross-Paris, Place de la Concorde, 1941-1944: Ein Wehrmachtsrichter erinnert sich ... (1977).

Of course, the meat of this collection is the bibliography of biographies, monographs and articles; in this and the other "Guides," materials are categorized both topically and chronologically. A quick glance shows that new work has focused on reassessing older ideas and exploring new themes in both the Weimar and Nazi periods: Marshall Lee and Wolfgang Michalka, Deutsche Aussenpolitik, 1917-1933: Kontinuitat oder Bruch? and Wolfgang J. Mommsen and Lothar Kettenacker, The Fascist Challenge and the Policy of Appeasement (1983) are prominent examples. Admittedly, the industry that surrounds Adolph Hitler's every thought, movement, and policy is carefully catalogued, but so, too, is an emerging corpus of work relating to other prominent leaders such as Herman Goring, Franz von Papen, Alfred Rosenberg, Gustav Stresemann, and others. In addition, this "Guide" shows that the examination of second level diplomatists like Ulrich Graf von Brockdorff-Rantzau and Friedrich Werner Graf von Schulenberg is also being worked into the larger picture of German foreign policy. As is the case for memoirs, diaries, and biographies, works missed in Professor Kimmich's first edition are added to the second; Jurgen Hess, "Das ganze Deutschland soll es sein": Demokratischer Nationalismus in der Weimarer Republik am Beispeil der Deutschen Demokratischen Partei (1978) and D. Doering, Deutsche Aussenwirtschaftspolitik, 1933-1935 (1969) are cases in point. However, despite this, there are some minor quibbles. For reasons that are unclear, some sources cited in the 1981 edition -- like C.L. Lundin, "Nazification of Baltic German Minorities: A Contribution to the Study of Diplomacy in 1939," Journal of Central European Affairs, 7 (1947) -- are deleted from this one. And it should be pointed out that, after careful inspection, there are still some interesting omissions. The controversial study by David Abraham, The Collapse of the Weimar Republic: Political Economy and Crisis, issued in a second edition in 1986, is still conspicuous by its absence. Professor Kimmich should have listed it if only to unleash a well-deserved broadside at its empirical base. Nonetheless, this "Guide" to German sources is a superb piece of work.

Robert Young's labours concerning French foreign policy need to be commended for two reasons: first, he has done the hard work involved in expanding his 1981 "Guide"; and, second, his new discussion of the byzantine method by which researchers can gain entrance to French government archives, particularly those of the Ministere des Affaires Etrangeres, is both instructive and informative. With regard to the latter, he points out that the passage of a 1980 law bringing a thirty year rule of sorts into force has been helpful -- although his sympathetic discussion of the impediments which can crop up limiting access to official documents still leaves some distress. Nonetheless, it is encouraging to know, as he says in his "Preface," that "the opportunities for primary research in France are now limitless, particularly if one comes equipped with an appropriately broad definition of 'diplomatic history'." This is doubly so as he reports that a new archive, the Archives Repatriees, has been opened in Nantes to house papers from French consulates and embassies; and he has added to the 1981 "Guide" by listing the private manuscript holdings of the Bibliotheque de l'Institut de France. Hence, keeping in mind the limitations on access that might frustrate researchers, his listing of archives, samples of official files, and available private manuscripts is heartening. Indeed, the new "Guide" shows a significant increase in the availability of personal collections over those listed in the first edition: for instance, the manuscripts of Joseph Caillaux, Paul Cambon, Paul Faure, and Stephen Pichon amongst others.

Not surprisingly, Professor Young has profitably followed Professor Kimmich's course by expanding the bibliography of memoirs, diaries, biographies, monographs, and articles: those published since 1981 have been added, whilst several that appeared before the first "Guide," but were somehow overlooked, are now included. My only concern with this most comprehensive new compendium is that, unlike its German counterpart, the new French Foreign Policy 1918-1945 does not offer critical annotations on any of the listed books and articles. Both old and new work in French foreign policy is replete with controversy. Thus, to help undergraduate and graduate students especially, it might have been helpful for Professor Young to comment on memoirs such as Georges Bonnet's series of apologia, say his Defense de la Paix (1946) or Vingt ans de vie politique, 1918-1938: de Clemenceau a Daladier (1969), Jules Laroche's insightful Au Quai d'Orsay avec Briand et Poincare, 1913-1926 (1957), or the self-serving Paul Reynaud's Au coeur de la melee, 1930-1945 (1951). Important secondary studies, from Jean-Baptiste Duroselle's excellent eighth edition of his Histoire diplomatique de 1919 a nos jours (1981) through Dan Silverman's pro-French Reconstructing Europe after the Great War (1982) to Maurice Vaisse's thought-provoking Securite d'abord: La politique francaise en matiere de desarmement, 9 decembre 1930 - 17 Avril 1934 (1981), need to be treated in the same way; that is, to set them into the context of the on-going debate about the nature, purpose, and motives of French foreign policy in this period. Nonetheless, this caveat aside, Professor Young's volume exists as a crucial source for studying French foreign policy in the twenty-five years after the end of the First World War.

Sidney Aster has gone from strength to strength in his up-dated British Foreign Policy 1918-1945. Of all the research materials available for the Great Powers of the period in question, British ones probably have the greatest breadth and depth and are the easiest to consult. Although no new archives have been established since his first volume appeared in 1984, Professor Aster records the existing array of public and private ones and discusses generally their holdings. The heart of these for the 1918-1945 period is the new Public Record Office at Kew, on the western reaches of London, as well as the British Library, which is presently moving into modern premises near St. Pancras Station just north of Russell Square. His description makes plain what any researcher in the field of modern British foreign policy can confirm, that the holdings at Churchill College, Cambridge (over three hundred sets of private manuscripts) are now indispensable. What Professor Aster has politely refrained from mentioning in his new "Guide," however, is the recent tendency of several British archives outside of the P.R.O., the British Library, and the House of Lords Record Office to charge fees for access. For instance, The Times Archive now charges something like 15 [Pounds] per day, and rumour has it that Churchill College is about to introduce one -- hopefully, it will not be as steep. Moveover, in an increasing number of instances, if they own the copyright to materials in their charge, some archives are now levying a fee to quote from them. At Churchill, for instance, which I can vouch for out of personal experience in 1988, the fee for quoting from the papers of Lord Hankey was "$160 per 1000 words for quotations from the collection ($60 minimum charge for under 1000 words)." When subsequent editions of these "Guides" are produced, the value of the British one will be enhanced by including an up-to-date price list.

For published materials, Professor Aster's "Guide" shows the tremendous amount of work being done to unravel the foreign policy intricacies of the only global Power in the interwar period -- and he has offered helpful annotations when he thinks them important. Judging from the citations, although work on the 1930s and "appeasement" still holds a fascination, the bulk of most new work has shifted to both the 1920s and the war period of 1939-1945. New memoirs, diaries, and the like -- for instance, John Barnes and David Nicholson's second volume of the Leopold Amery diaries, 1929-1945 (1988), Sir John Balfour's Not Too Correct an Aureole (1983), and Ben Pimlott's The Second World War Diary of Hugh Dalton, 1940-1945 (1986) -- have expanded an already abundant body of source materials. With an array of fresh biographies like David Dilks's Neville Chamberlain, Vol. I (1984), Keith Grieves's Sir Eric Geddes (1990), or Ruddock Mackay's Balfour: Intellectual Statesmen (1985), let alone the little enterprises being built around Winston Churchill and Anthony Eden, international historians have abundant grist for their mills.

In terms of monographs and articles, although devotees of the "guilty men" thesis still labour away -- Williamson Murray, The Change in the European Balance of Power, 1938-1939: The Path to Ruin (1984) is notable -- more profitable studies (more profitable because they ask new questions and explore new ground) seem to be making headway. In this respect, John Ferris's Men, Money, and Diplomacy: The Evolution of British Strategic Policy, 1919-1926 (1989), Lorne Jaffe's The Decision to Disarm Germany: British Policy towards Postwar German Disarmament, 1914-1919 (1985), and Anne Orde's British Policy and European Reconstruction after the First World War (London, 1990) highlight the diverse work being done on the 1920s. E.M. Andrews, The Writing on the Wall: The British Commonwealth and Aggression in the East, 1931-1935 (1987), Douglas Little, Malevolent Neutrality: The United States, Great Britain, and the Origins of the Spanish Civil War (1985), and Anita Prazmowska, Britain, Poland and the Eastern Front, 1939 (1987) do the same for the 1930s. And Owen Chadwick's Britain and the Vatican during the Second World War (1986), Milan Deroc, British Special Operations Explored: Yugoslavia in Turmoil, 1941-1943, and the British Response (1988), and Warren Tute, The Reluctant Enemies: The Story of the Last War between Britain and France, 1940-1942 (1990) are representative of more penetrating assessments of wartime issues. In consulting Professor Aster's compendium, one is struck immediately by the old adage that in historical study, there are always more questions than answers.

Although it has been unkindly, but accurately, observed that Italy was "the least of the Great Poers," Professor Cassels's revised "Guide" demonstrates that the study of Italian foreign policy from the end of the First World War to the end of the Second retains sizable interest for international historians inside and outside of Italy. Judging from the contents of both the first and second editions, much of this stems from a continuing critical fascination with the fascist regime of Benito Mussolini; and, of course, Mussolini held power for most of the period covered, from October 1922 to July 1943. Although as Professor Cassels shows, access to Italian archives hovers somewhere between that in France and Britain -- not as byzantine as those in France but somewhat more restrictive than those in Britain -- the result over the past decade has been increased study of the foreign policy of the fascist period and its immediate diplomatic antecedents; the two years between Mussolini's ouster to the end of the war appear to be less fully examined.

Not surprisingly, the kind of effort that marks the second editions produced by Professors Kimmich, Young, and Aster has been emulated here: the introductory essay has been updated, the discussion of archival holdings emended, and, in the bibliography, older books and articles left out of the first edition have been added and those produced since 1981 included. It would belabour the point to go beyond these general comments, since any specific references introduced here would only repeat to a large degree what I have said above. The only point I will make is that except for more analytical biographies like A. Brissaud's three volume Mussolini (1983) and Denis Mack Smith's Mussolini (1982), plus some new work on Ethiopia -- for instance, L. Goglia, "La propaganda italiana a sostegno della guerra contro l'Etiopia svolta in Gran Bretagna nel 1935-1936," Storia contemporanea, 15 (1984), and Anthony Mockler, Haile Selassie's War (1984) -- the focus of much of the new materials is on European and Mediterranean questions. This has meant a refinement of earlier endeavours. Thus, G. Buccianti's Verso gli accordi Mussolini-Laval: il riavvicinamento italo-francese fra il 1931 e il 1934 (1984), D. Cecchi, Non bruciare i ponti con Roma. Le relazioni fra l'Italia, la Gran Bretagna e la Francia dall'accordi di Monaco allo scoppio della Seconda guerra mondiale (1986), and M. Knox's Mussolini Unleashed, 1939-1941. Politics and Strategy in Fascist Italy's Last War (1982) are representative of this sort of work. This is not to downplay Professor Cassels's contribution. Either by itself or in tandem with the other "Guides," the worthwhile Italian Foreign Policy 1918-1945 will be essential to unravelling the twisted course of international history between 1918 to 1945.

As I said above, Professor Johnston's "Guide" to Soviet Foreign Policy is a welcome addition. It not only updates Hammond's Soviet Foreign Relations and World Communism and Kant's Soviet and East European Foreign Policy, it provides important information about the availability of post-1985 Soviet Russian archives. I do not read Russian; however, from what I can see judging by the English, French, and German entries (Italian historians seem not to have written much), and comparing them with Hammond and Kant, Soviet foreign policy is now more easily understood as the mythologies and ideological baggage that once distinguished its historiography are being sheared away by increasing access to previously unavailable documentation -- narrow empiricism! Still, in his discussion of Soviet Russian archives, Professor Johnston realistically points out that an August 1990 statement by the Council of Ministers promising a thirty year rule for access will not necessarily bring us the motherlode quickly: "The Soviet bureaucracy moves very slowly, and it may safely be presumed that there are functionaries who do not view the government's decision with any enthusiasm." But balancing this is the fact that archives outside of Russia, in Germany, Britain, France, and the United States (but none listed for Italy), hold substantial materials. By using a range of libraries and research institutions in several countries, other bibliographical aids, and a wealth of published materials, the opportunity to do insightful work on the foreign policy of this enigmatic Great Power for the period in question is now greater than ever.

And as Professor Johnston's annotated bibliography shows, such insightful work is now underway. Of course, memoir material continues to issue forth, for example, Valentin Berezhkov's History in the Making. Memoirs of World War II Diplomacy (1983), Claude de Boisanger's Moscou en 1925: L'URSS entre Lenine et Staline (1981), and George Baer's edited A Question of Trust: The Origins of U.S.-Soviet Diplomatic Relations. The Memoirs of Loy W. Henderson (1986). These and biographical studies are adding to our understanding of the importance of personality and policy in the making and execution of Russian foreign policy between 1918 and 1945. In terms of biography, pride of place obviously goes to Joseph Stalin, with books like Robert McNeal's Stalin: Man and Ruler and Adam Ulam's Stalin. The Man and His Era (1989) leading the way. However, studies of other leading diplomatists, like Pierre Broue's Trotsky (1988), Stephen Cohen's Bukharin and the Bolschevik Revolution. A Political Biography, 1988-1938 (1980), and Timothy O'Connor's Diplomacy of Revolution. G.V. Chicherin and Soviet Foreign Affairs, 1918-1930 (1988), are expanding our knowledge of the domestic dynamic behind Bolshevik diplomacy, its purpose, and its successes and failures.

Professor Johnston's list of secondary studies shows in stark detail the questions which have been addressed in the 1980s over those before the death of Leonid Brezhnev. There are several recent collections of articles by scholars: E.P. Hoffmann and F.J. Fleron's second edition of The Conduct of Soviet Foreign Policy (1980), B. Meissner's Aussenpolitik und Volkerrecht der Sowjetunion: Ausgewahlte Beitrage (1987), and G. Neidhart's Der Westen und die Sowjetunion. Einstellung und Politik gegenuber der UdSSR in Europa und in den USA seit 1917 (1983) are indicative. Beyond this there are increasing numbers of single author works addressing contentious subjects: for example, M. Carley, Revolution and Intervention: The French Government and the Russian Civil War, 1917-1919 (1983), W. Leonhard, Der Schock des Hitler-Stalin-Paktes. Errinerungen aus der Sowjetunion, Westeuropa und USA (1986), and Geoffrey Roberts, The Unholy Alliance: Stalin's Pact with Hitler (1989). None of this is to say that there appears to be any unanimity of opinion amongst historians. How can there be with such an important state as Bolshevik Russia? Thus, competing views abound, particularly amongst Russian historians. Valentin Berezhkov in his "Stalin's Error of Judgement," International Affairs (September 1989) takes a critical view of the great leader, whilst V. Sipols in Soviet Peace Policy, 1917-1939 (1988) parrots pre-Gorbachev arguments. Given the limitations that abound concerning primary materials for studying Soviet Russian foreign policy and the possibility that an oppressive -- and ipso facto secretive -- regime might re-emerge in Russia at any moment, Professor Johnston's helpful "Guide" shows the beginnings of more insightful historical investigation Soviet Russian diplomacy between 1918 and 1945. Hopefully, it will be the first, and not the last, step on a road to a more rounded historiography of this crucial subject.

In his International Organizations 1918-1945, George Baer outlines the contents of archives and charts the historiography relating to the League of Nations, the origins of the United Nations and its myriad sub-bodies like the World Health Organization, as well as the World Court and the International Labour Organization. Also covered are governmental and non-governmental organizations like the Universal Postal Union, the British Commonwealth, and peace associations. But it is the League of Nations and its ancillary structures that are the focus of this "Guide." In this respect, Professor Baer's is the most disappointing of the second editions. I hasten to add that this is not attributable to Professor Baer, who has done an admirable job in updating information concerning archival holdings, annotating his offerings,(5) and organizing the material in a way that allows for quick and easy reference. Rather, in contrast to the outpouring of secondary studies concerning national foreign policies, there has been a paucity of work on international organization for the 1918 to 1945 period. Although there have been a few recent specialist studies concerning the League, for instance Isaak Dore, The International Mandate System and Namibia (1985), R. Haigh et al., Soviet Foreign Policy, the League of Nations and Europe, 1917-1939 (1986), and Erna Plachte, Als Zeichnerin beim Volkerbund, 1934 bis 1939 (1987), the amount of new work over the past decade concerning this important element of post-Great War international history has been minimal. Excepting some reprints of older studies, a handful of monographs and articles that missed the first edition of this "Guide," and general works that touch the three periods of the Paris Peace Conference, the 1920s and 1930s, and 1939-45, I count fewer than twenty new pieces concerning the League.(6) In a few cases, for instance those works dealing with "Social and Humanitarian Activities," published work of any sort seems to have subsided by the mid-1960s.

The reason for this state of affairs is probably that the League's jaded history and its supposed inability to prevent the outbreak of war in 1939 have meant a general reluctance by most international historians to devote their careers to the study of this ill-starred body. As Professor Baer correctly observes, however, this failure was less the fault of the League than of its members. The same attitude as that towards the League is probably felt toward other international bodies of questionable merit, like the Commonwealth, the Comintern, and the Inter-Parliamentary Union. It also might derive from unspoken assumptions of international historians that the key to understanding international politics of any sort comes from appreciating how the Great Powers arrived at foreign policy, how the Powers then interacted, and why war and peace -- war and peace involving Powers not organizations -- occurred as they did. In Canada, part of the problem has derived from political science international relations experts dominating bodies that disburse research funds for international studies of any sort. The late and unlamented Canadian Institute for International Peace and Security embodied such blinkered attitudes -- an attitude which hopefully sped up its demise. Thus, whilst Professor Baer's "Guide" to International Organizations 1918-1945 will be an essential aid for all of us in the field, it shows that the historical study of international organizations, with a plethora of archives available since older books and articles appeared, as well as the base provided by that secondary work, needs to be undertaken anew.

The aggregate importance of the editions of these "Guides" cannot be overstated. In compiling them, Professor Kimmich and his colleagues show that the study of the international history between 1918 and 1945 is thriving in the English-speaking world, continental Europe, and Japan. Beyond this, the "Guides" profile the substantial amount of historical study which has been done, and which continues to be done, to dissect the "thirty years war" of this century. Perhaps, most important, beyond their utilitarian functions, they give simple and eloquent testimony to the richness and diversity of the historical debate engendered by the study of war and diplomacy in the period from 1918 to 1945. Individually, each volume can provide international historians with quick and easy information to assist in arranging research trips, to avoid needless delays and irritations when away, and, through inter-library loans, access to the most recent work in their particular fields. Collectively, they constitute a powerful weapon in the arsenal of research for international historians. Admittedly, there is some duplication of information and sources in each volume. There are also some weaknesses in all of them -- but as I have shown, these are relatively minor. But whether one has just one of them, a few, or all, they will be indispensable in our work until the next editions are issued. My advice here, simply, is to buy them -- or have your libraries do so -- and use them.

(1)For instance, see W.R. Keylor, The Twentieth Century World. An International History (New York, Oxford, 1984), 43-258.

(2)Richard Dean Burns, Guide of American Foreign Relations since 1700 (Santa Barbara, CA and Oxford, 1983). A recent poll of S.H.A.F.R. members responded favourably for a revised edition of this Guide.

(3)I discount almost completely the poorly organized Roger E. Kant, ed., Soviet and East European Foreign Policy: A Bibliography of English- and Russian Language Publications, 1967-1971 (Santa Barbara, CA, 1974) which was supposed to update the vastly superior Thomas T. Hammond, ed., Soviet Foreign Relations and World Communism: A Selected, Annotated Bibliography of 7,000 Books in Thirty Languages (Princeton, 1965).

(4)James W. Morley, ed., Japan's Foreign Policy, 1968-1941: A Research Guide (New York, 1974).

(5)Although with respect to his annotations, there are some curiosities. For instance, he twice cites Joseph Avenol, "The Future of the League of Nations," International Affairs, 13 (1934), 143-58. Of the first, he notes: "The minimalist position of the pessimistic Secretary-General" (p. 66). Of the second, in which he gives the wrong volume number, he observes: "Important revisionist statement, prudent, cautious. Argues still that disarmament is central issue for League" (p. 122).

(6)Here I count a single entry the United Nations Library, Geneva and the Graduate Institute of International Studies, Geneva, The League of Nations in Retrospect. La Societe des Nations: retrospective (Berlin, 1983). Professor Baer has cited separately each of the more than twenty contributions to this valuable collection.
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Author:McKercher, B.J.C.
Publication:Canadian Journal of History
Article Type:Book Review
Date:Dec 1, 1992
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