Sousa, D. A. (2003). How the Gifted Brain Learns.Sousa, D. A. (2003). How the Gifted Brain Learns. Thousand Oaks Thousand Oaks, residential city (1990 pop. 104,352), Ventura co., S Calif., in a farm area; inc. 1964. Avocados, citrus, vegetables, strawberries, and nursery products are grown. , CA: Corwin Press. (ix + 289 pp., $34.95 pb, ISBN ISBN
International Standard Book Number
ISBN International Standard Book Number
ISBN n abbr (= International Standard Book Number) → ISBN m 0-7619-3829)
In his third text addressing how the brain learns, David Sousa relates the research findings of brain imaging to recent literature and research in gifted education Gifted education is a broad term for special practices, procedures and theories used in the education of children who have been identified as gifted or talented. Programs providing such education are sometimes called Gifted and Talented Education (GATE) or . Sousa established his reputation as a prominent consultant in brain-based learning throughout the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. , educating teachers about how to alter instructional practices to match the learning processes of students based on research from studies in neuroscience neu·ro·sci·ence
Any of the sciences, such as neuroanatomy and neurobiology, that deal with the nervous system.
the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry and pharmacology of the nervous system. . How the Gifted Brain Learns follows a similar format initiated in How the Brain Learns, and duplicated in How the Special Needs Brain Learns. Each of the texts presents information about regions and components of the brain, the function of neurotransmitters Neurotransmitters
Chemicals within the nervous system that transmit information from or between nerve cells.
Mentioned in: Bulimia Nervosa, Impotence, Pain, Withdrawal Syndromes in facilitating learning, and the types of brain imaging technologies used to examine brain functions.
The intended audience for this text is K-12 educators with little or no knowledge of gifted education and limited prior knowledge of brain imaging research. Educators familiar with Souza's previous two texts will find little, if any, new information about brain based learning, as the information provided appears to be similar to that found in these previous texts. While the title suggests that research about the gifted brain and how it learns will be addressed from a neuroimaging standpoint, no research is included regarding neuroimaging technologies and the gifted brain. A general discussion of the brain, its functions, and implications for learning is offered, but the studies included about the brain, for the most part, focus on the learning processes of all students, not the gifted.
Teachers of the gifted who have taken graduate-level coursework coursework
work done by a student and assessed as part of an educational course
Noun 1. coursework - work assigned to and done by a student during a course of study; usually it is evaluated as part of the student's in gifted education toward an advanced degree or certification will certainly recognize the research about the gifted included in this text. Sousa selects research from contributors in the field to discuss issues pertinent to the field, including identification, appropriate curriculum modifications for the gifted, teaching strategies and related issues of underachieving gifted, twice exceptional students, and culturally diverse gifted students. Sousa's discussion of the strategies for teaching or working with gifted students incorporates the best practices in the field, but little discussion of how these practices fit within the context of the recent research in brain imaging is provided, leaving the reader to wonder what new information has been found to relate what is known in teaching the gifted with what is known about how the brain learns.
As with Sousa's other two texts, the author provides helpful application sections at the end of each chapter. These guidelines guidelines,
n.pl a set of standards, criteria, or specifications to be used or followed in the performance of certain tasks. are succinct suc·cinct
adj. suc·cinct·er, suc·cinct·est
1. Characterized by clear, precise expression in few words; concise and terse: a succinct reply; a succinct style.
2. , providing tips to educators about how to address teaching and learning issues. Included within these sections are suggestions for curriculum compacting, grouping, differentiation, teaching for creativity, tiered activity steps, product development, identifying musical talent, strategies for underachieving gifted students, and teaching gifted/learning disabled students. Designed for quick reference for educators, these application sections are one of the strengths of the text.
Three chapters addressing specific areas of giftedness may be the most helpful to educators: Language Talent, Mathematics Talent, and Musical Talent. Relevant neuroimaging research is presented, and a discussion of how these findings relate to teaching and learning is included. In each of these chapters, Sousa explains how the concepts within each content area are processed within the brain, how cognitive development and genetics relate to ability, and how educators may be able to identify students with gifts in these areas. The Language chapter briefly addresses reading and writing strategies that may provide enrichment enrichment Food industry The addition of vitamins or minerals to a food–eg, wheat, which may have been lost during processing. See White flour; Cf Whole grains. for gifted students. Another interesting discussion of the brain functions of computations and estimations is included, with useful synopses of research about these processes in bilingual students. Although no specific discussion of gifted bilingual students is mentioned, the information included may assist educators of these students in designing appropriate instruction and assessments based on how language is used to deliver instruction of mathematic concepts. The Musical Talent chapter provides a rich description of recent findings in brain research and musical aptitude as well as findings about other studies of musical prodigies. A summary of the findings from science on musical ability may also be of great use to music educators in planning for the appropriate instruction of students with musical gifts. An interesting and useful extension of this chapter would be an investigation of how incorporating music into the mathematic and language arts language arts
The subjects, including reading, spelling, and composition, aimed at developing reading and writing skills, usually taught in elementary and secondary school. curriculum might affect performance and achievement in all three areas.
The chapter on Underachieving Gifted provides helpful suggestions for educators about the nature of underachievement as well as strategies for teaching these students. Several strategies, such as supportive, intrinsic, and remedial strategies, are provided, with detailed information about how to apply these tips to teaching the gifted. No research about how the underachieving gifted brain learns or functions was discussed, nor was any other facet facet /fac·et/ (fas´it) a small plane surface on a hard body, as on a bone.
1. A small smooth area on a bone or other firm structure.
2. of the brain in this chapter. Sousa provided a synopsis A summary; a brief statement, less than the whole.
A synopsis is a condensation of something—for example, a synopsis of a trial record. of the literature in the field of gifted education about underachievers, probably for educators unfamiliar with these strategies.
The text concludes with a glossary A term used by Microsoft Word and adopted by other word processors for the list of shorthand, keyboard macros created by a particular user. See glossaries in this publication and The Computer Glossary. of terms, a list of references, a list of resources, and an index. The strongest features of this publication are the application sections following each of the 9 chapters within the text, which allow for quick reference and helpful, ready-to-use tips for the busy educator. The text may be an effective tool for refreshing educators who have not taken courses in gifted education in several years and who would like to read about best practices in a condensed con·dense
v. con·densed, con·dens·ing, con·dens·es
1. To reduce the volume or compass of.
2. To make more concise; abridge or shorten.
a. format alongside interesting findings about how people process information. As research in neuroimaging progresses, perhaps future investigations will consider how the gifted brain differs from other brains in completing language, math, musical, or other tasks in which giftedness has been identified to help educators understand how to provide appropriate challenges to gifted students. Sousa indicates that some of the best practices in the field are sound in addressing the needs of the gifted, but evidence from neuroimaging is not included in this publication.
Reviewed by Elizabeth Shaunessy, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Gibed Education in the Department of Special Education at the University of South Florida
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