Soil organic matter in rainfed cropping systems of the Australian cereal belt(*).
The Australian cereal belt stretches as an arc from north-eastern Australia to south-western Australia (24 [degrees] S-40 [degrees] S and 125 [degrees] E-147 [degrees] E; Fig. 1), with mean annual temperatures from 14 [degrees] C (temperate) to 26 [degrees] C (subtropical sub·trop·i·cal
Of, relating to, or being the geographic areas adjacent to the Tropics.
of the region lying between the tropics and temperate lands
), and annual rainfall ranging from 250 mm to 1500 mm. With high potential evapotranspiration evapotranspiration
Loss of water from the soil both by evaporation from the soil surface and by transpiration from the leaves of the plants growing on it. Factors that affect the rate of evapotranspiration include the amount of solar radiation, atmospheric vapor pressure, , often exceeding 2000 mm annually, most of the cereal belt lies in semi-arid to arid regions.
The predominant soil types are Chromosols, Sodosols, Vertosols, and Kandosols with significant areas of Ferrosols, Kurosols, Podosols, and Dermosols (Isbell 1996), covering approximately 20 Mha of grain cropping and 21.1 Mha of improved pastures (NGGIC NGGIC National Greenhouse Gas Inventory Committee 1999c). According to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. McGarity (1975), Vertosols are mainly found in the southern Queensland and northern New South Wales New South Wales, state (1991 pop. 5,164,549), 309,443 sq mi (801,457 sq km), SE Australia. It is bounded on the E by the Pacific Ocean. Sydney is the capital. The other principal urban centers are Newcastle, Wagga Wagga, Lismore, Wollongong, and Broken Hill. cereal belt, Chromosols and Sodosols in the southern cereal belt, and Kandosols in the western cereal belt (Western Australia Western Australia, state (1991 pop. 1,409,965), 975,920 sq mi (2,527,633 sq km), Australia, comprising the entire western part of the continent. It is bounded on the N, W, and S by the Indian Ocean. Perth is the capital. ).
Major crops include wheat (Triticum aestivum), barley (Hordeum vulgate Vulgate (vŭl`gāt) [Lat. Vulgata editio=common edition], most ancient extant version of the whole Christian Bible. Its name derives from a 13th-century reference to it as the "editio vulgata. ), lupin lupin
leguminous plant; arouses passion. [Plant Folklore: Boland, 9]
See : Aphrodisiacs
traditional symbol of voracity. [Plant Symbolism: Flora Symbolica, 175]
See : Gluttony (Lupinus angustifolius Lupinus angustifolius L. 1753, Sp. Pl:721 – narrow-leafed or blue lupin.
Distribution and common names: Pan-Mediterranean, native and semi-cult.; Australia, naturalized and cult.; elsewhere, cult. ), chickpea chickpea, annual plant (Cicer arietinum) of the family Leguminosae (pulse family), cultivated since antiquity for the somewhat pealike seeds, which are often used as food and forage, principally in India and the Spanish-speaking countries. (Cicer arietinum Cicer arietinum
see chickpea. ), canola (Brassica napus), field pea (Pisum sativum), sorghum sorghum, tall, coarse annual (Sorghum vulgare) of the family Gramineae (grass family), somewhat similar in appearance to corn (but having the grain in a panicle rather than an ear) and used for much the same purposes. (Sorghum bicolor bicolor
a coat color of two colors. In dogs, usually black with tan markings but may be other combinations such as ticking on a white background. In cats, more than two spots of color on the body, either white and one basic color, or white with one tabby color. ), maize (Zea mays), soybean soybean, soya bean, or soy pea, leguminous plant (Glycine max, G. soja, or Soja max) of the family Leguminosae (pulse family), native to tropical and warm temperate regions of Asia, where it has been (Glycine max Glycine max,
n See soy.
see soybean. ), fababean (Viciafaba), and dryland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum Gossypium hirsutum,
n See gossypol. ). The dominant cropping systems in south-western and southern Australia are wheat-lupins, wheat-ley pasture, wheat-chickpea, wheat-canola, barley-field peas-wheat, and a combination of these cropping systems for longer rotations. In the north-east, sorghum forms a significant component of the grain cropping systems, such as sorghum-fallow-wheat. Also, ley LEY. This word is old French, a corruption of loi, and signifies law; for example, Termes de la Ley, Terms of the Law. In another, and an old technical sense, ley signifies an oath, or the oath with compurgators; as, il tend sa ley aiu pleyntiffe. Brit. c. 27. pastures in the rotation are less common in the north-east region North-East Region can be stated when referring to the following:
Soil organic matter (SOM) is the organic fraction of the soil but excludes undecayed plant and animal residues (Soil Science Society of America The Soil Science Society of America (SSSA), is a scientific and professional society of soil scientists, principally in the U.S. but with a large number of non-U.S. members as well. 1997). Its functions in soil are summarised in Fig. 2.
Land clearing and development for cropping often lead to reduced organic matter levels in soil (Russell and Williams 1982; Dalal and Mayer 1986a, 1986b). This is primarily due to changes in temperature, moisture fluxes, and soil aeration aeration /aer·a·tion/ (ar-a´shun)
1. the exchange of carbon dioxide for oxygen by the blood in the lungs.
2. the charging of a liquid with air or gas.
n. ; to exposure of new soil surfaces resulting from aggregate disruption; to reduced input of organic materials and increased export of nutrients; and frequently to increased soil erosion. Large soil carbon losses contribute to increased [CO.sub.2] emissions to the atmosphere (Gifford et al. 1992) and frequently lead to land degradation The causes of land degradation are mainly anthropogenic and agriculture related. The major causes include:
tr. & intr.v. in·ter·re·lat·ed, in·ter·re·lat·ing, in·ter·re·lates
To place in or come into mutual relationship.
The objectives of this review are to summarise current understanding of organic matter in terms of its components and functions in soil and biomass productivity, and soil C sinks and sources for greenhouse gases; to examine management practices that affect SOM levels in Australian cropping soils and management practices that enhance sinks for C in terms of sustainability and greenhouse gases, and soil quality; and to identify areas of future SOM research.
Components of soil organic matter
Temperature and moisture (net effect of rainfall and potential evapotranspiration) are the major determinants of plant biomass production and, along with soil type, determine the SOM content as well as the rate of change of SOM under different land uses. Since the SOM content depends upon the relative rates at which organic materials are added to the soil and lost from it through decomposition, it can mathematically be expressed as follows (Bartholomew and Kirkham 1960):
(1) d SOM/dt = A - k SOM
(2) or [SOM.sub.t] = [SOM.sub.0] exp (-kt) + A/k [1 - exp(-kt)]
where [SOM.sub.0] and [SOM.sub.t] are the SOM contents initially (t = 0), and at a given time, t, respectively; A (mass of SOM per unit area) is the rate at which organic matter is returned to the soil; and k (reciprocal of time) is the rate of loss of SOM. Since SOM is heterogeneous and its various components decompose de·com·pose
v. de·com·posed, de·com·pos·ing, de·com·pos·es
1. To separate into components or basic elements.
2. To cause to rot.
1. at different rates, Eqn 2 is modified to:
(3) [SOM.sub.t] = [SOM.sub.1] exp ([-k.sub.1]t) + [A.sub.1]/[k.sub.1] [1 - exp ([-k.sub.1]t)] + ...
+ [SOM.sub.n] exp ([-k.sub.n]t) + [A.sub.n]/[k.sub.n] [1 -exp ([-k.sub.n]t)]
where [SOM.sub.1] and [SOM.sub.n] refer to different components of organic matter, such as microbial microbial
pertaining to or emanating from a microbe.
the breakdown of organic material, especially feedstuffs, by microbial organisms. biomass and light fraction (active C pool), heavy or clay-size C fraction (passive, inert SOM), and the remaining slow C pool (Jenkinson and Rayner 1977; Dalal and Mayer 1986c, 1986d, 1987a, 1987b; Parton par·ton
Any of the point particles believed to be a constituent of hadrons, now known as quarks. No longer in technical use.
[part(icle) + -on1.] et al. 1987, 1996; Jenkinson et al. 1992) and [k.sub.1] and [k.sub.n] refer to the rate of loss of individual components. SOM dynamic models consider these components as well as the factors affecting these components such as climate, organic matter addition, soil matrix, cultural practices, and some soil degradation processes such as soil erosion (Parton et al. 1996).
(4) When t = 0, Eqn 3 is reduced to [SOM.sub.t] =[ SOM.sub.1] + ... +[SOM.sub.n] =[SOM.sub.0], and at time t = [infinity] [SOM.sub.t] = [A.sub.1]/[k.sub.1] + ... + [A.sub.n]/[k.sub.n] = [SOM.sub.e], which may be simplified to give:
[SOM.sub.e] = A/k
where [SOM.sub.e] is organic matter content at steady state after a long period of consistently similar soil management (Bartholomew and Kirkham 1960) or under native vegetation. The simplified form of Eqns 2 and 3 is:
(5) [SOM.sub.t] = [SOM.sub.e] + ([SOM.sub.o] - [SOM.sub.e]) exp (-kt)
where k is the overall rate of loss (decomposition) of various organic matter components. The turnover period of SOM is then reciprocal of the k value. Organic matter turnover in soil at a steady state can be estimated from Eqn 4, especially in stable natural ecosystems where it can reasonably be assumed that organic matter additions balance organic matter losses. Eqn 5 is used in this review to discern trends in soil C changes with time, since there is limited information available on various components of SOM in the Australian cropping soils.
In Eqn 3 above, it is assumed that various components of soil organic matter decompose at different rates. However, it is difficult to define, identify, fractionate frac·tion·ate
tr.v. frac·tion·at·ed, frac·tion·at·ing, frac·tion·ates
1. To divide or separate into parts; break up: , and assign distinct functions to its various components (Christensen 1992; Baldock and Skjemstad 1999). The operational scheme presented in Fig. 3 is adapted from Baldock and Skjemstad (1999) to fractionate various components of SOM and is summarised below into 3 major categories: active C pool, slow C pool, and passive C pool.
The active C pool is characterised by its rapid rate of turnover in soil, mostly in [is less than] 10 years in mesic mes·ic
Of, characterized by, or adapted to a moderately moist habitat.
Relating or adapted to a moderately moist habitat. subhumid to semi-arid environments. In the operational scheme suggested in Fig. 3, it is described as carbon content of particulate organic matter (POM-C) or macroorganic matter and can be approximated to organic C in the sand-size fraction [is greater than] 20 [micro]m (Dalal and Mayer 1986c) or [is greater than] 53 [micro]m (Cambardella and Elliott 1993). The so-called light fraction SOM of density [is less than] 1.6 Mg/[m.sup.3] (Greenland and Ford 1964) or [is less than] 2 Mg/[m.sup.3] (Dalal and Mayer 1986d) has also been used as an active C pool. Parton et al. (1996) suggested 2-3 times the microbial biomass is equivalent to the active C pool in soil. However, it appears from Table I that the active pool could be 10 times the microbial biomass pool.
The active C pool organic matter consists mostly of plant debris (Turchenek and Oades 1979), and mesofauna and fungal hyphae hy·pha
n. pl. hy·phae
Any of the threadlike filaments forming the mycelium of a fungus.
[New Latin, from Greek huph (Oades and Ladd 1977), and small but significant amounts of microbial biomass and its products in the silt-size and clay-size fractions (Dalai and Mayer 1987b). The amounts of active pool of organic C vary widely in Australian soils (Table 1). In undisturbed soils, POM-C varies from 1% to 85% (Greenland and Ford 1964; Christensen 1992; Gregorich and Janzen 1996), depending on the nature of ecosystem, vegetation, climate, and soil characteristics. Data collated from a limited number of soils show the mean values of 34% for POM-C, 23% for the light-fraction C, and 23% for 10 times the microbial biomass C (Table 1).
Table 1. Amounts of active C pool in 0-0.1 m depth estimated as particulate organic matter (POM >20 [micro]m or >53 gm, light fraction (LF <2 Mg/[m.sup.3] or <1.6 Mg/[m.sup.3]) organic matter, or microbial biomass (MB) in relatively undisturbed soils in the Australian cereal belt Soil POM-C (t/ha) (% total organic C) Waco (Vertosol), Qld 2.7(A) 19.9 Langlands-Logie (Vertosol), Qld 7.2)A) 32.8 Riverview (Kandosol), Qld 5.0(A) 31.9 Namoi (Vertosol), NSW 6.9(D) 51.5 Talbarear (Vertosol), NSW 2.5(D) 35.1 Meadows (Sodosol), SA Glen Osmond (Chromosol), SA Mean values 4.9 34.2 [+ or -] [+ or -] 2.2 11.3 Soil LF-C (t/ha) (% total organic C) Waco (Vertosol), Qld 2.9(B) 20.8 Langlands-Logie (Vertosol), Qld 5.9(B) 26.6 Riverview (Kandosol), Qld 3.8(B) 23.9 Namoi (Vertosol), NSW Talbarear (Vertosol), NSW Meadows (Sodosol), SA 10.1(E) 28.5 Glen Osmond (Chromosol), SA 4.9(E) 17.4 Mean values 5.5 23.40 [+ or -] [+ or -] 2.8 4.5 Soil 10 x MB-C (t/ha) (% total organic C) Waco (Vertosol), Qld 3.8(C) 27.8 Langlands-Logie (Vertosol), Qld 5.0(C) 22.8 Riverview (Kandosol), Qld 2.6(C) 16.8 Namoi (Vertosol), NSW Talbarear (Vertosol), NSW Meadows (Sodosol), SA Glen Osmond (Chromosol), SA Mean values 3.80 22.50 [+ or -] [+ or -] 1.2 5.1 (A) >20 [micro]m, Dalal and Mayer (1986c). (B) <2 Mg/[m.sup.3], Dalai and Mayer (1986d). (C) Dalal and Mayer (1987b). (D) >53 [micro]m, Chan (1997). (E) <1.6 Mg/[m.sup.3], Golchin et al. (1994).
The active (or labile labile /la·bile/ (la´bil)
1. gliding; moving from point to point over the surface; unstable; fluctuating.
2. chemically unstable.
1. ) C pool, estimated from chemical extractions such as KMn[O.sup.4] (Blair et al. 1995), is not considered in this report since the nature of soil C extracted is undefined.
The passive pool is taken as the amount of charcoal (char C) in the soil (Skjemstad et al. 1996), and/or physically protected organic matter, such as in the clay fraction (Parton et al. 1987). Values of char C and the clay-size C for a limited number of undisturbed soils are given in Table 2. Almost 25% of the total C may occur as char C and the clay-size C could be as high as 50%. However, the latter may be an overestimate o·ver·es·ti·mate
tr.v. o·ver·es·ti·mat·ed, o·ver·es·ti·mat·ing, o·ver·es·ti·mates
1. To estimate too highly.
2. To esteem too greatly. since it also contains small amounts of active C such as microbial biomass and lysed microbial cells in undisturbed soils, as demonstrated by clay-size C loss when these soils are cultivated (Dalal and Mayer 1986c). The clay-size C as a proportion of the initial total organic C remaining after 45-70 years of cultivation appears to be about 25%, a figure similar to that of char C, about 22% in these soils (Table 2; Skjemstad et al. 2001).
Table 2. Amounts of passive C pool in 0-0.1 m depth estimated as charcoal organic matter (Char C) or clay fraction (<2 gm) organic C in relatively undisturbed soils in the Australian cereal belt The values in parentheses are the estimated equilibrium values using Eqn 5, after 45-70 years of cultivation Soil Char C (t/ha) (% total organic C) Waco (Vertosol), Qld 5.5(A) 30.2 Langlands-Logie (Vertosol), Qld 4.6(A) 17.0 Riverview (Kandosol), Qld Gumercha (Chromosol), SA 5.2(C) 20.0 Mean values 5.1 [+ or -] 22.4 [+ or -] 0.5 6.9 Soil Clay-size C (t/ha) (% total organic C) Waco (Vertosol), Qld 7.2 (5.4)(B) 52.4 (39.4) Langlands-Logie (Vertosol), Qld 9.1 (4.3)(B) 41.2 (19.5) Riverview (Kandosol), Qld 7.37(B) 47.0 Gumercha (Chromosol), SA 10.9(C) 42.0 Mean values 8.6 [+ or -] 45.7 [+ or -] 1.7 5.2 (4.9) (29.5) (A) Skjemstad et al. (2001); (B) Dalal and Mayer (1986c); (C) Skemstad et al. (1996).
The slow pool is then calculated by subtracting the sum of the active pool and the passive pool from the total organic C in soil. It is estimated to be about 50% of the total organic C in soil. Total organic C contents in various Australian soils are listed by Baldock and Skjemstad (1999) and have been discussed in detail by Spain et al. (1983).
Climate and management effects on soil organic matter
As mentioned earlier, rainfall, temperature, and potential evapotranspiration determine the plant biomass production under adequate nutrition conditions in rainfed agriculture. Therefore, in a steady state, generally plant residue C inputs determine the organic C levels in cultivated soils (Eqn 1).
Dalal and Mayer (1986b) observed that, in the contiguous region (similar rainfall and temperature), initial organic C contents (virgin soils) as well as organic C contents after 20 years of cultivation for cereal cropping were closely correlated with the mean annual precipitation. However, in soil under native vegetation the rate of increase in organic C values for each mm of precipitation was almost twice that in cultivated soils (48 kg C/mm v. 29 kg C/mm) in the top 0.1 m depth. This was primarily due to the lesser amount of organic residues produced and returned to the soil, and/or accelerated rate of organic matter decomposition in cultivated soils. Increased incidence of erosion may also be a contributing factor (Cook et al. 1992). In wider regions, however, the ratio precipitation:potential evapotranspiration determines the plant biomass production (Parton et al. 1987, 1996).
Temperature affects both the rate of SOM decomposition and C inputs from plant biomass. Generally, SOM loss is faster in the tropics tropics, also called tropical zone or torrid zone, all the land and water of the earth situated between the Tropic of Cancer at lat. 23 1-2°N and the Tropic of Capricorn at lat. 23 1-2°S. than in subtropical or temperate regions. Bridge and Bell (1994) observed 59% loss in total organic C (0-0.1 m) from a Ferrosol after more than 50 years of cultivation in semi-arid subtropical Queensland, whereas Cogle et al. (1995) measured a 56% loss in organic C after about 10 years of cropping in subhumid tropical Queensland, thus substantiating the rapid decomposition of organic C in a moist tropical environment (Dalal and Probert 1997). Ladd et al (1981) showed that plant residue decomposed twice as fast in Nigeria (26 [degrees] C) as South Australia South Australia, state (1991 pop. 1,236,623), 380,070 sq mi (984,381 sq km), S central Australia. It is bounded on the S by the Indian Ocean. Kangaroo Island and many smaller islands off the south coast are included in the state. (16 [degrees] C), with a temperature-dependent rate quotient quotient - The number obtained by dividing one number (the "numerator") by another (the "denominator"). If both numbers are rational then the result will also be rational. of close to 2 for every 10 [degrees] C change in temperature, as expected from temperature-dependent biological decomposition.
In a geographically contiguous region, Dalal and Mayer (1987b) found that microbial biomass C increased with increasing mean annual precipitation and decreased with increasing mean annual temperature; similar climate effects are expected on other measures of active C pools in soils.
Short-term seasonal effects on soil organic C, mainly the active C pool, are primarily reflected through the carbon inputs from the growing plant biomass and plant residues (Dalal 1998). For example, Dalal et al. (1994) observed that the soil microbial biomass in a Vertosol was significantly higher immediately after crop harvest than following the 6-month's clean fallow fallow
a pale cream, light fawn, or pale yellow coat color in dogs. period. This effect was further accentuated when the 18-month's fallow was practised.
Cultivation of a soil that previously supported native vegetation or pasture generally leads to a reduced level of soil organic C (Dalal and Mayer 1986b; Loch et al. 1987). The organic matter level of a cultivated soil eventually attains a steady state, where rate of formation of new SOC from organic residues (plant and crop residues, roots and root exudates, organic wastes, manures and green manures) equals rate of SOM decomposition (Eqn 4), provided that soil and crop management practices remain essentially similar over a long period.
Eqns 3-5 have been used to describe SOM dynamics in soils under cultivation (Jenkinson and Rayner 1977; Dalal and Mayer 1986b, 1986c, 1986d, 1986e; Parton et al. 1987, 1996; Jenkinson et al. 1992). The rates of loss and turnover period of SOC in different soils vary considerably. Organic C from Kandosols turns over much faster than from Vertosols in a similar climate (Dalal and Mayer 1986b, 1986c, 1986d). At least part of the effect is due to the clay content, the decomposition being more rapid in a coarse soil than in a fine-textured soil. This is illustrated in the results presented in Table 3 on total soil organic C loss when Vertosols and Kandosols were subjected to long periods of cultivation. The rate of net organic C loss declined exponentially as the clay content in soil increased, irrespective of irrespective of
Without consideration of; regardless of.
preposition despite clay mineralogical composition (k value = 0.05+8.1 exp(-0.11 clay), [r.sup.2] = 0.99). Using spectroscopic spec·tro·scope
An instrument for producing and observing spectra.
spectro·scop techniques, including [sup.13]C nuclear magnetic resonance nuclear magnetic resonance: see magnetic resonance.
nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)
Selective absorption of very high-frequency radio waves by certain atomic nuclei subjected to a strong stationary magnetic field. spectroscopy, Skjemstad et al. (1986) showed that, in some Vertosols (high in mixed clay minerals), the chemical nature of soil organic C remained essentially similar in spite of 60% C lost upon cultivation and cereal cropping. Alkyl alkyl /al·kyl/ (al´k'l) the monovalent radical formed when an aliphatic hydrocarbon loses one hydrogen atom.
n. and O-alkyl groups remained dominant throughout the C loss to 60% (Skjemstad et al. 2001). However, in other Vertosols (high in smectitic clay), Skjemstad and Dalal (1987) observed that besides the association of SOM with clay, SOM stability against decomposition in these soils may be due to increased aromaticity (aryl-C), possibly charcoal (Skjemstad et al. 2001), as well as shorter, more highly branched alkyl chains.
Table 3. Net organic C loss from 0-0.1 m layers of Vertosois and Kandosols subjected to long-term cultivation and cereal cropping in southern Queensland From Dalal and Mayer (1986b) Soil Clay content Initial organic C (%) (t/ha) Waco clay (Vertosol) 72 8.26 Thallon clay (Vertosol) 59 4.41 Langlands-Logie clay (Vertosol) 49 7.76 Cecilvale clay (Vertosol) 40 10.18 Billa Billa loamy clay (Vertosol) 34 8.27 Riverview sandy loam (Kandosol) 18 9.38 Soil Rate of loss, k (1/year) Waco clay (Vertosol) 0.065 Thallon clay (Vertosol) 0.069 Langlands-Logie clay (Vertosol) 0.080 Cecilvale clay (Vertosol) 0.180 Billa Billa loamy clay (Vertosol) 0.259 Riverview sandy loam (Kandosol) 1.224
The changes in soil oranic C with different periods of cultivation (tillage) and cereal cropping in a Haplustert (Vertosol, black earth), a Chromustert (Vertosol, grey cracking clay), and a Paleustalf (Kandosol, red earth) are shown in Fig. 4 (Dalal and Mayer 1986b).
Russell and Williams (1982) summarised the percentage loss of organic C from a number of Australian soils; these varied from 10% to 60% over 10-80 years of cultivation. However, time-series SOM decline measurements were not made. Similar observations have since been made by Standley et al. (1990) and Chan et al. (1997).
In a number of these studies cited above, changes in bulk density with the loss in SOC and, consequently, on depth of sampling were not considered. Hence equivalent-sampling depths may differ from actual sampling depths (Dalal and Mayer 1986b), so these estimates of rates of soil organic C loss should be considered approximate.
Mechanisms for the loss of SOM under tillage
Tillage associated with cropping has often been considered responsible for the decline in soil organic carbon (Hallsworth et al. 1954; Russell and Williams 1982; Dalal and Mayer 1986a; Grace et al. 1995). Mechanical actions of tillage, which result in fracturing, pulverisation, and mixing of soil, can directly and indirectly result in the reduction of SOC concentration (Rovira and Greacen 1957; Roberts and Chan 1990). There is a popular view that disruption of the soil aggregates during tillage leads to exposure of physically protected soil organic C to microbial breakdown and therefore it is the cause of reduction in soil organic C under cropping (Davidson 1986; Chartres et al. 1992). Whereas increases in soil respiration Soil respiration normally refers to the total CO2 efflux at the soil surface.
It comprises a combination of processes:
Table 4. Enhanced organic carbon losses (g C/kg soil) as a result of C respiration due to tillage operations Carbon losses Tillage operations References 0.019 Simulated tillage under Rovira and Greacen laboratory conditions (1957) 0.005-0.037 Simulated tillage under Roberts and Chan laboratory conditions (1990) 0.036-0.16 Disk harrow to 7.6 cm and Reicosky and Lindstrom chisel ploughing to 7.6 cm (1993)
Nevertheless, for the same soil in the field under different tillage practices, the additional loss in soil organic carbon in the top 0.05 m after 2 years of conventional tillage when compared with no-till was 4.8 g C/kg soil (Chan and Mead 1988) or 6 t C/ha (bulk density, 1.25 Mg/[m.sup.3]). According to the simulated tillage experiment (Table 4), this is equivalent to 130-960 tillage operations, depending on the intensity of the soil disturbance. Therefore, the loss due to this mechanism alone cannot account for the observed soil organic C loss as recorded in the field under conventional tillage. Other SOM loss processes such as water erosion and wind erosion wind erosion n → erosión f del viento may also have been involved.
Apart from the direct effects of tillage, the SOM also declines under continuous cropping due to lower annual C inputs under a cropping system than under a grassland grassland
see grazing (2), pasture. or forest ecosystem Forest ecosystem
The entire assemblage of organisms (trees, shrubs, herbs, bacteria, fungi, and animals, including people) together with their environmental substrate (the surrounding air, soil, water, organic debris, and rocks), interacting inside a defined . The content of soil SOM that can be maintained in a given region ultimately depends on the production and input of plant biomass and/or addition of off-site C source such as farmyard manure and organic wastes/materials.
SOC pools in cultivated soils
As mentioned above, a more complete understanding of the dynamics of SOM requires knowledge of different C pools, their amounts, and their rates of turnover (Eqn 3). These C pools include an active pool (sand-size or POM-C), a slow pool, and a passive pool (char C or a proportion of clay-size C).
The experimental values corresponding to the conceptual soil C pools are given in Table 5 for the Langlands-Logie soil series subjected to 45 years of cultivation and cereal cropping. In general, the active C pool decreases the most, and much faster than the slow C pool (total C less sand-size C and clay-size C) and passive C pools, whereas the slow pool is intermediate between the active and passive pools. The significance of these C pools, including microbial biomass, is considered below.
Table 5. Rates of loss of organic C from the whole soil and active, slow, and passive pools in 0-0.1 m layer of the Langlands-Logie soil series (Vertosol) subjected to 45 years of cultivation and cereal cropping Soil C pool Initial C Steady state C [C.sub.o] [C.sub.e] (kg/ha) (kg/ha) Whole soil(A) 22070 7760 Active pool Light fraction, <2 Mgm(3C) 5880 1200 Sand-size fraction, >20 7230 60 [micro]m(B) Slow pool Silt-size fraction, 2-20 5210 1910 [micro]m(B)? Passive pool Clay-size fraction, <2 9110 4300 [micro]m(B) Char C(D) 5600 3300 Soil C pool Percent C los Rate of 100 x ([C.sub. loss o] - [C.sub. (1/year) e])/[C.sub.o] (%) Whole soil(A) 65 0.080 Active pool Light fraction, <2 Mgm(3C) 79 0.194 Sand-size fraction, >20 99 0.109 [micro]m(B) Slow pool Silt-size fraction, 2-20 63 0.078 [micro]m(B)? Passive pool Clay-size fraction, <2 53 0.039 [micro]m(B) Char C(D) 41 -- (A) Dalal and Mayer (1986b). (B) Dalal and Mayer (1986c). (C) Dalal and Mayer (1986d). (D) Skjemstad et al. (2001).
Active C pool
Soil microbial biomass
Microbial biomass C is considered a sensitive indicator of the effects of management practices over relatively short periods compared with total SOC (Powlson et al. 1987; Sparling spar·ling
1. The common European smelt (Osperus eperlanus).
2. A young or immature herring.
[Middle English sperlinge, from Old French esperlinge, 1992; Dalai 1998). For example, in Rutherglen, northern Victoria, soil organic C was 12% higher but microbial biomass was 43% higher after 9 years of no-till and stubble retention than under conventional till and stubble burned on a Chromosol (Haines and Uren 1990). Returns of reduced amounts of organic residues to cultivated soils would rapidly decrease the amount of microbial biomass C. Since microbial biomass is closely related to a suite of biological and biochemical activities in soil (Dalai and Mayer 1987b), the reduced amount of microbial biomass upon cultivation of previously fertile soils leads to soil fertility depletion due to lower labile organic N, P, and S, and to reduced retentive re·ten·tive
1. Having the quality, power, or capacity of retaining.
2. Having the ability or capacity to retain knowledge or information with ease: a retentive memory. capacity (immobilisation n. 1. The act or process of limiting movement or making incapable of movement; as, immobilization of the injured knee was necessary; the storm caused complete immobilization of the rescue team s>.
Noun 1. ) for mineral N in most soils (Dalai 1998). Furthermore, continuous cultivation for cereal cropping, especially monoculture mon·o·cul·ture
1. The cultivation of a single crop on a farm or in a region or country.
2. A single, homogeneous culture without diversity or dissension. , may reduce not only the total amount but also may alter the composition of microbial biomass, which could lead to biological degradation (Pankhurst 1997).
Light fraction, [is less than] 2 Mg/[m.sup.3] and sand-size organic matter (macroorganic matter)
The proportion of light fraction (or sand-size fraction) to total SOM provides an earlier and a sensitive indication of the consequences of different soil management practices than the total SOM (Christensen 1992; Gregorich and Janzen 1996; Chan 1997). Moreover, since crop residues and other organic materials in soil maintain the active C pool, non-return of these materials (e.g. stubble removal and/or burning) deprives soil of its active fraction of organic C (Chan 1997).
The amount and rate of loss of light fraction and sand-size organic C in cultivated soils is very rapid (Table 5). Upon cultivation, [is greater than] 80% of the light fraction SOM can be lost from soil within 45-70 years (Dalal and Mayer 1986d; Skjemstad and Dalal 1987).
Slow pool, silt-size organic C
The rate of SOC loss from the silt-size fraction is much slower than that from the active pool (sand-size and the light fraction) (Table 5). Dalal and Mayer (1986c) observed that the proportional loss of SOC from cultivation for cereal cropping for 20-70 years was similar to that of SOC in the silt-size fraction of 5 Vertosols and 1 Chromosol. Thus, silt-size C remained essentially similar (26-27%) upon cultivation (20-70 years) of virgin soils.
Passive pool, clay-size C and char C
The rate of loss of organic C from the clay size fraction is generally lower than that from the other fractions and the whole soil (Table 5) (Dalal and Mayer 1986b, 1986c, 1986d; Parton et al. 1987, 1996; Christensen 1992), resulting in an increasing proportion of total SOM (often [is greater than] 60%) remaining in the clay fraction after long-term cultivation. Skjemstad et al. (1996) demonstrated that the passive C might indeed mostly occur as char C in many Australian soils. This was substantiated by the large proportion of char C remaining in two Vertosols cultivated for 45-50 years (Skjemstad et al. 2001) (Table 5). Other studies have confirmed the differential loss of organic C from different soil C fractions (Chan 1997). Therefore, the magnitude of loss not only of SOM but also of various fractions varies widely in Australian soils and thus the consequences of SOM loss on soil fertility depletion may vary in their type and magnitude considerably.
Modelling SOM turnover
Most SOM models assume that different components of organic matter differ in their rates of decomposition and turnover periods (Jenkinson and Rayner 1977; Van Veen and Paul 1981; Parton et al. 1987, 1996; Jenkinson et al. 1992), although most of these are only conceptual components, and therefore, currently, not all of the conceptual fractions of SOM have been experimentally verified.
We have attempted to simulate using the `CENTURY' model (Parton et al. 1996) organic C dynamics from the experimentally determined values (given in Table 5) for the Langlands-Logie soil series. The results are presented in Fig. 5.
Dalal and King (1994) found that the magnitudes of decline in total soil organic C and slow component were reasonably close to the experimentally determined values, although the dynamics of the active component of SOM (Dalal and Mayer 1986c, 1986d) were poorly simulated (Dalal and King 1994).
The SOM models were generally developed and validated in temperate regions. Parton et al. (1989) pointed out at least 3 deficient areas of understanding, which could make applicability of these models more appropriate. These include: (1) functional relationships of soil texture Soil texture is a soil property used to describe the relative proportion of different grain sizes of mineral particles in a soil. Particles are grouped according to their size into what are called soil separates (clay, silt, and sand). The soil texture class (eg. , clay mineralogy, and especially Fe and Al on SOM dynamics; (2) clay mineralogy and parent material effects on the formation of `passive' SOM fractions; and (3) low pH and Al toxicity in acidic soils effects on microbial transformations.
Probert et al. (1995) applied the CENTURY model to simulate changes in total N (as a measure of organic C) in a Vertosol used for winter cereal cropping for 20 years. It simulated total N levels satisfactorily for no-till and stubble-retained systems but poorly for conventional-tilled and stubble-burned systems. Obviously, considerable improvements in initialisation Noun 1. initialisation - (computer science) the format of sectors on the surface of a hard disk drive so that the operating system can access them and setting a starting position
initialization, low-level formatting and parameterisation of models are required to simulate organic matter dynamics in the Australian cereal belt.
Also, there is a further need to experimentally verify the various `conceptual' pools of SOM used in these models. Most SOM models assume a `protected' or `recalcitrant' fraction of SOM, which usually correlates with the clay (and silt) fraction, although the nature and magnitude of aggregate-size distribution in soil would be more relevant (Dalai and Mayer 1986b; Elliott 1986) to SOM dynamics than the total clay (and silt) contents, especially in conjunction with the density fractions of SOM. Unfortunately, methods used to fractionate SOM in different aggregate-size and density fractions are poorly described, and thus, comparative evaluation of the importance of aggregate-size and density distribution of SOM on SOM dynamics is made extremely difficult. It is imperative, therefore, to standardise the methods of determining the fractions of SOM based upon soil aggregate size and density and then to ascertain whether aggregate size and density fractions of SOM from long-term cultivated soils are biologically meaningful in SOM turnover in Australian soils.
Moreover, char C may be a dominant passive C pool in the Australian soils (Skjemstad et al. 1996), since fire has been a salient feature of the Australian landscape for thousands of years.
Consequences of soil organic matter loss
Nutrient depletion from cultivated soils
Loss of SOM on cultivation of virgin or pasture lands is also accompanied by the loss of its constituent nutrients, especially if they are not readily retained by the soil, such as N and S. Besides the loss of nutrients associated with loss of SOM, available nutrient depletion can occur by one or more processes of depletion, such as nutrient removal in product and plant residue, soil erosion, burning, leaching, and denitrification de·ni·tri·fy
tr.v. de·ni·tri·fied, de·ni·tri·fy·ing, de·ni·tri·fies
1. To remove nitrogen or nitrogen groups from (a compound).
2. of N (Dalal and Probert 1997).
Loss of nitrogen from cultivated soils
The estimates of the rate of soil total N losses from cultivated Vertosols vary widely. Martin and Cox (1956) measured 0.8% and Hallsworth et al. (1954) 2% annual decrease in soil N from the top 0.15 m layer, whereas Waring and Teakle (1960) estimated that 3% of total N was removed by wheat crops annually. Russell (1981) measured N losses of 5% annually from an initially highly fertile Vertosol cropped to sorghum continuously for 10 years.
The mean annual rates of N loss from the profiles of 5 Vertosols and 1 Kandosol subjected to 20-70 years of cereal cropping were 31.3-67.1 kg/ha.year of N (Dalal and Mayer 1987a), which were in most soils similar to that accounted for in crop removal. Some of the N loss was compensated for by the application of fertiliser N. Similar studies done elsewhere on soils subjected to long periods of cultivation have shown that in most cases, soil N losses were primarily accounted for by N removal by crops (Haas et al. 1957; Williams and Lipsett 1961), especially where no organic manures or fertilisers have been added. However, in soils of initially high fertility, N losses by other factors, such as by deep leaching and possibly by denitrification, especially from applied fertiliser N, do occur (Dalal and Probert 1997).
Potentially mineralisable N
The active C pool loss is more closely related to the depletion of mineralisable nutrients than to the total amounts when a soil under a natural ecosystem is brought under cultivation and cropping (Ayanaba et al. 1976; Dalal and Mayer 1987b, 1990; Chan 1997).
Dalal and Mayer (1986a) found that total N and anaerobic anaerobic /an·aer·o·bic/ (an?ah-ro´bik)
1. lacking molecular oxygen.
2. growing, living, or occurring in the absence of molecular oxygen; pertaining to an anaerobe. mineralisable N declined in a Vertosol (Waco soil) by 35% and 55%, respectively, after a mean cultivation period of 26 years. In a Kandosol (Riverview soil), after a mean cultivation period of only 7 years, total N and anaerobic mineralisable N declined by 28% and 51%, respectively. Thus, the decreases in anaerobic mineralisable N due to cropping exceeded those in total N, microbial biomass N, and even in N mineralisation potentials ([N.sub.o]) (Dalal and Mayer 1987b).
Loss of P from cultivated soils
Since organic P is a constituent of organic matter, the decline in the latter with cultivation also leads to a decline in the soil organic P content (Dalal 1997). Also, crop removal and other P-depleting factors, such as erosion and runoff, would deplete de·plete
1. To use up something, such as a nutrient.
2. To empty something out, as the body of electrolytes. the plant-available P pool in soil.
Chan et al. (1988) measured substantially lower (39-71%) available P, using Bray No. 1 extractant, in a number of Vertosols (north-western New South Wales) cultivated for 8-50 years than in those under permanent pasture. They ascribed the decrease in available P to the increase in soil pH upon cultivation. Standley et al. (1990) also found that the available P (bicarbonate-extractable) in a Chromustert from central Queensland Central Queensland is an ambiguous geographical division of Queensland (a state in Australia) that centers on the eastern coast, around the Tropic of Capricorn. Its major regional center is Rockhampton and the Capricorn Coast and the area extends west to the Central Highlands at decreased from 31 mg P/kg soil initially to [is less than] 20 mg P/kg soil after 7 years of cropping for sorghum, but they found no significant change in soil pH. Dalal(1997) found that the bicarbonate-extractable P during 45 years of cultivation for cereal cropping declined at the rate of 1.2 mg P/kg.year. The bicarbonate-extractable P is derived from both organic P and inorganic P in soil (Dalal and Mayer 1986a; Dalal 1997). In general, reduction in P in soil due to the loss of `labile' P has been closely associated with SOM losses (Tiessen and Stewart 1983). However, the role of SOM in contributing towards and maintaining plant-available P in soils has not been well understood.
Bulk density changes
Increases in bulk density can be brought about by compaction (heavy machinery and tillage) and loss in SOM. Harte (1984) recorded an increase in bulk density (0-0.2 m soil depth) from 1.30 Mg/[m.sup.3] to 1.62 Mg/[m.sup.3] (25% increase) in a loamy Chromosol, from 1.42 Mg/[m.sup.3] to 1.62 Mg/[m.sup.3] (14% increase) in a sandy Chromosol, and from 1.13 to 1.22 Mg/[m.sup.3] (8% increase) in a Ferrosol after 15 years of continuous cultivation and cropping in northern New South Wales, Australia. Harte (1984) also found significant negative correlations between soil organic matter content and bulk density in these soils, and thus substantial increases in bulk density were associated with declines in soil organic matter.
However, changes in SOC levels may not always be associated with changes in bulk density, especially due to changes in tillage practices. For a Chromosol in Wagga Wagga Wagga Wagga (wŏg`ə wŏg`ə), city (1991 pop. 40,875), New South Wales, SE Australia, on the Murrumbidgee River. It is the center of an agricultural district with food-processing and rubber-goods plants and foundries. , Chart et al. (1992) and Chan and Heenan (1993)observed similar bulk density (1.31 Mg/[m.sup.3]) despite a 27% difference in SOC in the 0-0.05 m layer between the conventional tilled and no-till treatments.
The increase in bulk density following the loss in organic matter is much greater in soils where organic matter is prominent in aggregate formation and stabilisation (Chromosols, Kandosols, and Kurosols) than where it is less so (Vertosols, where clay matrix and shrinks--well characteristics predominate, and Ferrosols, where oxides of Fe and Al predominate) (Dalal and Bridge 1996).
Aggregation and SOC are usually closely correlated (Table 6). The striking results from Table 6 are that aggregation in Kandosols and Chromosols (21.5-32.1) is 2-7 times more responsive to the change in SOM than that in Vertosols (4.3-10.5). Dalal et al. (1991) also found that aggregation (silt and clay aggregated) declined 5 times faster in Kandosols than in Vertosols when these soils were cultivated for 20-45 years for cereal cropping, and a rate of loss in soil aggregation was similar to that of loss of SOM from these soils (Dalal and Mayer 1986b). Also, the loss of organic matter and subsequent decrease in aggregate stability occurs at a more rapid rate immediately following the cultivation of virgin or grassland soils (Tisdall and Oades 1980). This is because the POM-C or light fraction C, which is present as transient binding organic matter (polysaccharides, polyuronides, mucilages, microbial debris) and temporary binding organic matter (roots, fungal hyphae), disappears at a much faster rate than the whole SOM (Greenland and Ford 1964; Dalal and Mayer 1986d; Chan 1997). Conversely, aggregates of [is less than] 0.125 mm size decrease as the organic matter increases in soil (Bell et al. 1998). Based on the hierarchical model In a hierarchical data model, data are organized into a tree-like structure. The structure allows repeating information using parent/child relationships: each parent can have many children but each child only has one parent. of soil structure (Tisdall and Oades 1982), the transient and temporary forms of SOM are responsible for the stabilisation of the macro-aggregates ([is greater than] 0.25 mm). This explains why the stability of the macroaggregates is so dependent on soil and agronomic a·gron·o·my
Application of the various soil and plant sciences to soil management and crop production; scientific agriculture.
ag management practices.
Table 6. Linear relationship between aggregation (y = % mean weight diameter in mm) and soil organic C (x = % organic C) Soil order Regression Regression R value constant coefficient [Chromosols(A)] -20.3 21.5 0.96 [Kandosols(B)] -5.8 32.1 0.67 [Vertosols(C)] 72 10.5 0.80 [Vertosols(D)] 70 4.3 0.76 (A) Tisdall and Oades (1980). (B) Chan et al. (1992). (C) Calculated from Chan et al. (1988) for aggregates > 0.05 mm diameter. (D) R. C. Dalal (unpubl. data).
Cook et al. (1992) found that the decrease in SOC was closely related to the decrease in mean weight diameter of water-stable aggregates of a Vertosol under native grass, which decreased from 0.54 to 0.26 mm after 64 years of cultivation. Consequently, the saturated hydraulic conductivity Hydraulic conductivity, symbolically represented as , is a property of vascular plants, soil or rock, that describes the ease with which water can move through pore spaces or fractures. decreased from 14.4 mm/h to only 2.5 mm/h. Connolly et al. (1997) also observed a close relationship between hydraulic conductivity and SOC in the top layer of a number of cultivated soils in southern Queensland.
Cook et al. (1992) found that macroaggregates [is greater than] 0.25 mm in a Vertosol decreased rapidly, from 55% under natural vegetation to 30% after 64 years of conventional cultivation, as did the loss of SOC. Similarly, Chan et al. (1988) found that a Vertosol that under native pasture had 60% macroaggregates [is greater than] 0.5 mm contained only 3% of this size aggregates after 45 years of mechanical cultivation for cereal cropping, apparently due to loss of active C pool (Chan 1997).
The severity of mechanical cultivation (also animal treading, mechanical shearing, and earth works) on aggregate breakdown is felt most in non-swelling clay soils, especially at low soil organic matter content (Dalal and Bridge 1996). In swelling clay soils, such as Vertosols, other aggregate stabilising agents such as clay content and electrolyte electrolyte (ĭlĕk`trəlīt'), electrical conductor in which current is carried by ions rather than by free electrons (as in a metal). concentration, and aggregate dispersing agents such as exchangeable sodium (Dalal 1989; Dalal and Bridge 1996), primarily affect aggregate stability. The role of organic matter in aggregate stability in these soils is ambiguous since it is interrelated with, as well as affecting, other aggregate stabilising agents (Prebble 1987; Dalal 1989).
Cation exchange capacity In soil science, cation exchange capacity (CEC) is the capacity of a soil for ion exchange of positively charged ions between the soil and the soil solution. A positively-charged ion, which has fewer electrons than protons, is known as a cation due to its attraction to cathodes. (CEC (Central Electronic Complex) The set of hardware that defines a mainframe, which includes the CPU(s), memory, channels, controllers and power supplies included in the box. Some CECs, such as IBM's Multiprise 2000 and 3000, include data storage devices as well. )
In many soils, especially with low activity clays, organic matter contributes significantly to the total CEC. Moody et al. (1997) observed that the effective CEC of Ferrosols was significantly correlated with both clay content and total organic C content. Loss of SOM from low activity clay soils, especially Ferrosols and Kandosols, seriously reduced their CEC and increased their zero-point charge ([pH.sub.0]). For example, Gillman (1984) showed that decline of SOC from 4% to 1% resulted in an increase in [pH.sub.0] from 3.9 to 4.2. If the pH of that soil has also declined from pH 6 to pH 5, the loss in organic C from 4% to 1% would greatly reduce (10-40%) its pH-dependent CEC (Moody 1994).
The quantity and quality of organic matter is associated with the activity and abundance of different organisms in soil (Pankhurst 1997). The microbial activity and abundance is affected by (1) reducing the amount and diversity of litter input; (2) decreasing population size, species composition, and diversity of saprophytes and detritivores; and (3) reducing the time interval between litter inputs, and changing the site of decomposition from the soil surface to within the soil. Of these decomposers, bacteria account for almost 70% of organic matter turnover and N cycling in soil since they contain diverse metabolic capabilities and utilise many sources of energy and C in soil (Swift et al. 1980). The soil macrofauna--earthworms, termites, and ants--may account for a further 10-15% in forest and grassland soils but much less in cultivated soils (Curry and Good 1992), presumably pre·sum·a·ble
That can be presumed or taken for granted; reasonable as a supposition: presumable causes of the disaster. due to reduced quantity and quality of SOM in the latter.
Currently, there is only circumstantial evidence circumstantial evidence
In law, evidence that is drawn not from direct observation of a fact at issue but from events or circumstances that surround it. If a witness arrives at a crime scene seconds after hearing a gunshot to find someone standing over a corpse and holding a of direct association between the quantity and quality of organic matter and soil biodiversity This discussion looks at the relationship of the soil to biodiversity, at some aspects of the soil that can be managed in relation to biodiversity, and raises some catchment management considerations. . For example, Yeates and Bird (1994) found that the pasture soil and the native shrub soil contained 30% and 80%, respectively, more nematode nematode
Any of more than 15,000 named and many more unnamed species of worms in the class Nematoda (phylum Aschelminthes). Nematodes include plant and animal parasites and free-living forms found in soil, freshwater, saltwater, and even vinegar taxa than the adjacent cultivated wheat soil. The latter soil contained less SOM than the pasture and the native shrub soils. However, direct tillage and monoculture practices also affect nematode taxa distribution in soil (Gupta and Yeates 1997). There is a need, therefore, to quantify the relationship between soil biodiversity, organic matter quantity and quality, and the processes of organic matter decomposition and accumulation in soil.
Carbon emissions to the atmosphere
Loss of soil organic C in rainfed agricultural soils inevitably leads to predominantly [CO.sub.2] emission to the atmosphere (Gifford et al. 1992). Under anaerobic conditions, losses of soil organic C as [CH.sub.4] and volatile acids also occur (NGGIC 1999a).
Carbon dioxide-equivalent ([CO.sub.2]-e) emission estimates due to land use changes have 3 major components: area of change, age of activity, and rate of change in C per unit area. Each of these components currently has considerable uncertainty (Carter et al. 1998; Dalal and Carter 2000). The age and area of C changes could potentially be mapped at high resolution from LANDSAT satellite imagery Satellite imagery consists of photographs of Earth or other planets made from artificial satellites. History
The first satellite photographs of Earth were made August 14, 1959 by the US satellite Explorer 6. , which dates from the early 1970s. To date, most mapping has been used to determine the current (after 1990) land use or potential use rather than providing spatially explicit time-series data.
At least 20 years of cropping history is needed to quantify the area and timing of land use change so the majority of soil organic C changes can be accounted for (Carter et al. 1998). For many land use changes, delayed release of soil organic C continues at a rate that declines exponentially with time; so a large proportion of emissions occur within a 20-30-year time frame. However, the initial soil organic C amounts and rates of decline are poorly known for most land use changes, especially for the whole soil profile or at least for the top 1 m depth, in most of the Australian cereal belt. This leads to great uncertainty of 75-80% around a potentially large amount of carbon in the national inventory of [CO.sub.2]-e emissions (NGGIC 1999a, 1999b).
Soil organic C decline under cultivation is better estimated with rundown curves established for a number of soil types within one zone of similar climate (Dalal and Mayer 1986b). However, to estimate C losses from all cultivated lands it is necessary to generalise these relationships across climate and clay content and then apply these relationships to areas of cultivation of known age. The lack of suitably detailed soil attribute maps, and cultivation age maps makes this process difficult.
Table 7 summarises the soil organic C loss from the 0-1.2 m depths from 6 soil series, which varied in clay content from 18% to 72%, and period of cereal cropping from 20 to 70 years. Soil C loss varied from 194 to 1015 kg/ha.year. It was inversely related to the clay content of these soils. Heenan et al. (1995) reported a soil C loss of 400 kg/ha.year for a Red Chromosol with 29% clay content, from the 0-0.1 m layer, which would account for [is greater than] 66% from the whole soil profile, according to the soil C loss and clay content relationship derived from Table 7. Unfortunately, there is hardly any information available for the soil C loss from deeper soil depths in cultivated Australian soils.
Table 7. Estimates of soil carbon loss and [CO.sub.2]-equivalent emissions from the whole soil profile (0-1.2 m depth) in the Australian cultivated soils used for cereal cropping R. C. Dalai (unpubl. data). Except for Langlands-Logie, the relationship between the organic C loss rate (y) and clay content (x) was described by the equation: y = -55.4 [+ or -] 40.2 [+ or -] 191.2 [+ or -] 12.7 (100/x), r = 0.98; since the intercept is not significantly different from zero the equation, was reduced to: y = 175.6 [+ or -] 5.9 (100/x) Soil Clay Total organic C in Organic C loss content uncultivated soils (kg/ha.l.2 m.year) (%) (kg/ha. 1.2 m) Waco clay 72 97715 [+ or -] 4144 194 [+ or -] 59 Thallon clay 59 71553 [+ or -] 2425 322 [+ or -] 66 Langlands-Logie 49 104065 [+ or -] 8602 882 [+ or -] 143 Cecilvale 40 94558 [+ or -] 3635 377 [+ or -] 135 Billa Billa 34 80223 [+ or -] 6915 508 [+ or -] 177 Riverview 18 76507 [+ or -] 5746 1015 [+ or -] 229 Soil [CO.sub.2]-e emission (kg/ha.year) Waco clay 711 [+ or -] 216 Thallon clay 1181 [+ or -] 242 Langlands-Logie 3234 [+ or -] 524 Cecilvale 1382 [+ or -] 495 Billa Billa 1863 [+ or -] 649 Riverview 3722 [+ or -] 840
From the soil C loss and clay content relationship given in Table 7, an estimate of [CO.sub.2]-e emissions from the Australian cereal belt can be made. Assuming that the weighted mean clay content (0-0.1 m depth) of 20 Mha of the cropping soils is 24%, comprising 3 Mha of fine-textured soils (45% clay), 12 Mha of medium-textured soils (25% clay), and 5 Mha of coarse-textured soils (15% clay), with an estimated annual soil C loss of 730 [+ or -] 23 kg/ha, then 2.6 [+ or -] 0.08 t [CO.sub.2]-e/ha.year or 52 Mt [CO.sub.2]-e would be emitted annually. Almost half of this loss occurs from the top 0-0.1 m depth (Dalal and Mayer 1986b). This can be compared with a net emission of 496.1 Mt [CO.sub.2]-e in 1997 for all sectors, which comprised 94.2 Mt [CO.sub.2]-e from the agricultural sector and 64.8Mt [CO.sub.2]-e from the forest and grassland conversion (NGGIC 1999a, 1999b). Therefore, more than half of the [CO.sub.2]-e from the agricultural sector is due to soil organic C loss from the Australian cereal belt.
The size of these organic C emissions and their effects on soil organic C might be determined on a statistical basis by detailed sampling of an adequate number of paired sites of known age. To produce maps of emissions, calibrated models that account for plant growth, climate, land management, and effect of soil properties on organic C loss rates would need to be combined with maps describing the temporal and spatial nature of land use change and maps of soil properties (Dalal and Carter 2000).
It may be difficult to separate the results of historic land use change from climate change (changes in temperature and precipitation), and feedback effects from enhanced biomass production from increased [CO.sub.2] concentration in the atmosphere ([CO.sub.2] fertilisation). A combination of measurement and process modelling will be needed to differentiate the effects of these processes.
Organic matter restorative practices
Management practices that lead to improvement in plant biomass production would likely lead to increased C inputs and hence to increased organic matter in soil. Sustaining or enhancing soil productivity depends at least partly on soil and crop management practices that maintain or increase soil organic matter. Management practices such as pasture leys (Hossain et al. 1996), crop rotation and fertilisers (Cogle et al. 1995), no till and crop residue There are two types of agricultural crop residues. Field residues are materials left in an agricultural field or orchard after the crop has been harvested. These residues include stalks and stubble (stems), leaves, and seed pods. retention (Dalal 1989), and manure applications may influence organic matter levels in soil. These management practices include use of improved pasture species in leys in ley-crop rotations, modification of stocking rates in ley pasture grazing, plant residue retention (stubble retention), and reduced tillage (minimum or no-till with controlled traffic practices), soil fertility management (legumes Legumes
A family of plants that bear edible seeds in pods, including beans and peas.
Mentioned in: Cholesterol, High
legumes (l and fertiliser application), sustainable land management practices to reduce land degradation, C input from external sources such as manures, and changes in fire frequency.
In the temperate cereal belt, the beneficial effects of a pasture phase in increasing soil organic carbon level and maintaining soil structure are well documented (e.g. Greenland 1971; Tisdall and Oades 1980; Russell and Williams 1982). Using the data from the permanent rotation experiment at the Waite Institute (established 1926), Russell and Williams (1982) and Grace et al. (1995) demonstrated that soil organic C tended to increase with the increasing frequency of pasture in the wheat-pasture rotation (WP). Whereas the wheat-fallow rotation reduced soil organic C by [is greater than] 60% after 68 years (1925-1993), permanent pasture since 1950 has almost restored the original level (30 t C/ha in 1993 v. 34 t C/ha in 1925 in 0-0.1 m depth, assumed bulk density of 1.25 Mg/[m.sup.3]). Grace et al. (1995) concluded that a 2 wheatcrops: 4 years of pasture phase is required to maintain the long-term steady-state soil organic C level in the Urrbrae loam (Red Chromosol). Additional benefits due to increases in soil organic C were: an overall increase in porosity; a decrease in bulk density; and an increase in aggregate stability (Greenland 1971; Tisdall and Oades 1982; Chan et al. 1992; Tisdall 1996; Bell et al. 1999).
In semi-arid north-eastern Australia, Chan et al. (1997) found that organic C in degraded Vertosols (Typic Chromustert) increased from 6.5 t C/ha to 8 t C/ha (0-0.05 m depth, with assumed bulk density of 1 Mg/[m.sup.3]) after 4 years by restoration of pasture with barrel medic barrel medic
medicagotruncatula. (Medicago truncatula Medicago truncatula (Barrel Medic or Barrel Medick or Barrel Clover) is a small legume native to the Mediterranean region. It is a low-growing clover-like plant 10-60 cm tall with trifoliate leaves, each leaflet rounded, 1-2 cm long, often with a dark ) and Mitchell grass mitchell grass
see astrebla. (Astrebla lappacea).
Increase in organic C concentrations due to the inclusion of legumes in grass pastures is mainly from increased biomass C input due to [N.sub.2] fixed by the legume legume (lĕ`gym, lĭgy , which is subsequently utilised by the associated grass species, with increased C input to the soil (Bruce 1965; Dalal et al. 1995).
The native high N status of soils cleared from Acacia harpophylla Acacia harpophylla, commonly known as the Brigalow , Brigalow Spearwood or Orkor is an endemic tree of Australia. It is found in central and coastal Queensland to northern New South Wales. and other leguminous le·gu·mi·nous
1. Of, belonging to, or characteristic of the family Leguminosae, which includes peas, beans, clover, alfalfa, and other plants.
2. Resembling a legume. native vegetation has been used to establish improved grass pastures (Graham et al. 1981), e.g. buffel grass buffel grass
see cenchrus ciliaris. (Cenchrus cilliaris), Chloris gayana Noun 1. Chloris gayana - perennial grass of South Africa introduced into United States; cultivated as forage grass in dry regions
finger grass - any grass of the genus Chloris; occurs in short grassland especially on waste ground or poor soils , Paspalum Paspalum
a grass genus of the Poaceae family, containing a number of valuable pasture grasses, all of which are capable of causing poisoning by Claviceps paspali which infests their seed heads; includes P. commersonii, P. compressum, P. spp., and Panicum spp. For example, a Vertosol cleared of Acacia harpophylla maintained original organic C concentrations under Panicum maximum for at least 11 years. In fact, there was a general trend for increase in organic C with the period of pasture growth (Skjemstad et al. 1994). However, buffel grass or green panic pasture productivity declines after a certain period when N supply becomes limited due to most of the N being tied up in roots and standing biomass (Robertson et al. 1997). Nitrogen application or inclusion of a legume restores pasture productivity (Graham 1987) and, therefore, may further increase soil organic C concentration.
On a Vertosol, Whitehouse and Littler (1984) observed substantial increases in organic C after 2-4 years of lucerne Lucerne (lsûrn`), Ger. Luzern (ltsĕrn`), canton (1993 pop. + prairie grass pasture; organic C increased from 18 t C/ha to 20.5 t C/ha (assumed bulk density, 1 Mg/[m.sup.3]) after 4 years of pasture growth (0-0.15 m depth). Similarly, Dalal et al. (1995) measured a rate of increase in organic C of 650 kg C/ ha.year in a Vertosol under grass + legume pasture (purple pigeon grass (Bot.) a kind of foxtail grass (Setaria glauca), of some value as fodder. The seeds are eagerly eaten by pigeons and other birds.
- Johnson's Cyc.
See also: Pigeon , Setaria incrassata; Rhodes grass Rhodes grass
chlorisgayana. , Chloris gayana; lucerne, Medicago sativa; and annual medics, M. scutellata and M. truncatula) for 4 years; most of the increases in organic C occurred in the top 0.05 m layer. Skjemstad et al. (1994) reported an increase of 550 kg C/ha.year in a Vertosol under Rhodes grass in a similar environment. Increase in organic C under pasture was attributed to the much higher input of C through the grass root biomass (10 t root dry matter/ha.year) compared with continuous wheat cropping (2 t root dry matter/ha.year); above-ground residue inputs were essentially similar (2.5 t residues/ha.year) (Dalal et al. 1995). Chan (1997) observed similar effects of pasture on organic C concentrations in a Vertosol in northern New South Wales. He also found that almost 70% of the organic C increases could be attributed to the increase in particulate organic C.
Wheat cropping after the pasture phase resulted in organic C decline, but even after 4 years it remained above the organic C concentration in the continuous wheat cropping treatment (Dalal et al. 1995). Also, the decreasing organic C trends during the cropping phase were slower than the relatively faster increase in organic C in soil under the grass + legume phase earlier, presumably due to the increased plant C input from higher crop yields compared with continuous wheat cropping.
Whereas a grass + legume pasture phase had a positive effect on soil organic C, 2-year rotations of lucerne--wheat and medic--wheat after 8 years under conventional tillage had a negligible effect on organic C concentrations (Dalal et al. 1995). The plant C inputs, especially from root biomass, in these treatments were [is less than or equal to] 50% of those from the grass + legume pasture. Therefore, a relatively small amount of C input and the rapid rate of turnover of legume C in these short legume rotations do not increase organic matter in these Vertosols. This is confirmed by Holford (1990) who observed no increase in organic C after 4 years of lucerne pasture on a Vertosol in northern New South Wales.
In a subtropical Ferrosol, Bell et al. (1997) measured similar amounts of organic C in the top 0-0.3 m depth after 4 years of 2 grass pastures (Pennisetum clandestinum The tropical grass species Pennisetum clandestinum is known by several common names, most often kikuyu grass, as it is native to the region of East Africa that is home to the Kĩkũyũ tribe. It is perhaps best known as a noxious weed. and Chloris gayana) and in the adjoining soil under continuous cultivation and cropping, although the bulk density was significantly lower under the grass pastures. However, Cogle et al. (1995) found that 8-10 years of grass pasture established after clearing a tropical Ferrosol from woodland reduced organic C loss from 22 t C/ha under cultivation to 13 t C/ha under grass pasture. Organic C loss was further reduced to only 8 t C/ha when a legume (Stylosanthes hamata) was also grown in the grass pasture for 4 years.
In summary, significant increases in organic C or retarding organic C loss from Australian cereal belt soils can be achieved by crop rotations that include a grass + legume pasture phase. However, the optimal duration for the pasture phase in relation to the cropping phase is less well known for the tropical and subtropical than for the semi-arid areas in the temperate region (Grace et al. 1995).
Cereal-grain legume and other crop rotations
Little information is available on the effect of different crops on long-term soil organic C under continuous cropping and crop rotations on different soils. Dalal et al. (1995) found that the 2-year rotation of chickpea (Cicer arietinum)--wheat after 8 years under conventional tillage had a negligible effect on organic C concentrations. Skjemstad et al. (1994) observed that organic C loss from a fertile Vertosol was faster under black gram (Vigna mungo) than under sorghum cropped for 11 years, a consequence of lower plant C input from the former (0.2 t/ha.year of above-ground dry matter) than from the latter (0.5-0.75 t/ha.year of dry matter), and possibly similar C input from the below-ground plant biomass. Similarly, Grace et al. (1995) reported that a wheat-pea rotation contained less organic C than continuous wheat (16 t C/ha v. 19 t C/ha, assuming a bulk density of 1.25 Mg/[m.sup.3]) in the 0-0.1 m layer after 68 years of cropping.
Heenan et al. (1995) found that a lupin-wheat rotation on a Red Chromosol after 11 years lost a much smaller amount of soil organic C (250 kg C/ha.year) than continuous wheat (400 kg C/ha.year) when both were managed under conventional tillage and stubble burning practice.
Crop rotations involving cereals and crops other than grain legumes such as canola have not been in practice in long-term experiments. Grace et al. (1995) found that a wheat--oats--fallow rotation in the long-term trial at Waite Agricultural Research Institute had soil organic C lower than continuous wheat. It can be assumed that disease-breaking crops such as canola, which may enhance cereal production, could result in higher plant C inputs and hence a likely increase in soil organic C. Unfortunately, no long-term studies exist to validate this assumption.
No-till and crop residue retention
No-till (NT) and crop residue retention reduce the loss of organic matter in soil. For example, Dalal (1989) measured higher organic C contents in a Vertosol under NT and crop residue retention than under conventional till (CT); a positive interaction of tillage practice x crop residue x N fertiliser application was observed after 13 years. These increases in organic C occur in the top 0-0.025 m or 0-0.05 m layers in Vertosols, after 18 years of NT practice (Dalal et al. 1991, 1995). Thus, NT practice enhances SOM stratification even in a Vertosol, although total amounts of SOM may be similar to that in the CT practice.
Similarly, in Ferrosols, NT practice enhanced or reduced the decline in organic C concentrations in the top layers (Table 8). Besides providing C inputs, surface residue cover also reduces raindrop impact and enhances water infiltration, which may increase plant biomass production, and reduce soil erosion loss from the surface with higher organic C content. On the other hand, Fettell and Gill (1995) reported no effect of different tillage practices including NT practice and/or stubble management practice on a Red Chromosol after 14 years of cereal cropping, although fertiliser N application significantly increased soil organic C. This has been confirmed on other soils by Haines and Uren (1990) and Carter and Mele (1992). These results were attributed to the fact that cereal grain yields and hence plant C input, especially below ground, were essentially similar under NT and stubble retention compared with conventional tillage practice.
Table 8. Effect of no-till (NT) for 4-5 years and conventional till (CT) on organic C contents of a tropical Ferrosol Soil depth Organic C (t/ha) (m) CT NT 0-0.05 6.2 9.5(*) 0.05-0.10 5.4 8.1(*) 0.10-0.20 8.5 12.3 (*) Significant difference in organic C between NT and CT.
A collation COLLATION, descents. A term used in the laws of Louisiana. Collation -of goods is the supposed or real return to the mass of the succession, which an heir makes of the property he received in advance of his share or otherwise, in order that such property may be divided, together with the of soil organic C contents from field trials under NT (3-19 years duration) on the coarse-textured soils (Red Chromosols and Kandosols) around the Australian cereal belt revealed that significantly higher soil organic C levels than for conventional tillage were found only in the wetter temperate areas ([is greater than] 500 mm) and the differences were restricted to the top 0.025 m or 0-0.1 m depth (Chan et al. 1998). In Wagga Wagga, New South Wales Wagga Wagga (pronounced wogga wogga; IPA: /ˈwɔɡə ˈwɔɡə/, informally called Wagga) is a city in New South Wales, Australia. , with an annual rainfall of 550 mm, NT combined with stubble retention was required to slow the decline in soil organic C level under continuous cropping on a Red Chromosol (Heenan et al. 1995). The lack of a positive increase in soil organic C due to NT in other drier areas, [is less than] 500 mm rainfall in temperate regions (Fig. 6) and [is less than] 700 mm rainfall in the subtropical regions (Dalal et al. 1995; Bell et al. 1997), was probably a reflection of a number of factors, namely low crop yield (due to low rainfall), partial removal of stubble by grazing, and the high decomposition rate (due to the high temperature). There is evidence suggesting that under continuous cropping in the drier areas, the soil organic C level continues to decline even under NT (Dalal et al. 1995; Chan et al. 1998).
However, Kern and Johnson (1993) estimated that NT would lead to 28% more soil organic C retained than conventional tillage in the soils of the USA (Fig. 6); most of the gains are likely to occur in the cool and moist regions.
Fertilisers and manures
A direct consequence of organic matter decline is the concomitant decreases in nutrient supply from soils, especially that of N (Dalal and Mayer 1986a; Moody 1994). This N loss can be remedied by application of N (and other nutrients) from fertilisers, manures, and other sources.
At Taree, South Australia, soil organic C declined by about 10% over a 10-year period from a Red Chromosol under continuous wheat cropping and with no fertiliser application, whereas N fertiliser application at the rate of 80 kg N/ha was found to prevent such decline (Carter et al. 1993). On the other hand, N fertiliser applied at a rate of 120 kg N/ha did not increase soil organic C under continuous wheat cropping on a Red Chromosol in Wagga Wagga, New South Wales, probably due to enhanced acidification acidification
a technology used by processors to preserve foods by adding acids (such as acetic, citric, phosphoric, propionic and lactic acid) and thereby reduce the risk of growth of harmful bacteria. of the soil (Chan etal 1992).
Dalal (1992) observed that N fertiliser application of 69 kg N/ha.year for 22 years to a Vertosol reduced the soil N loss compared with nil fertiliser application. Even the N rates exceeding the crop requirements could not reverse soil N decline, although the high N rates increased nitrate-N accumulation in the soil profile. For the first 13 years, however, Dalal (1989) observed a positive effect on organic C from the combined NT practice, residue retained, and N application treatment.
Similarly, Russell (1981) and Skjemstad et al. (1994) found that N applications (100 kg N/ha.year) to sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) grown on a fertile Vertosol for 11 years did not arrest soil organic C decline. Even on a fertility-depleted Vertosol, Dalal et al. (1995) found no significant increase in organic C from a 75 kg N/ha.year application for 8 years compared with nil N fertiliser application. This was primarily because C inputs to soil through plant biomass, especially root biomass, were essentially similar in both treatments. Again, the N application resulted in nitrate-N accumulation in the soil profile.
On Ferrosols, Chromosols, and Kandosols, fertiliser application may result in increased organic matter in soil, although Cogle et al. (1995) did not report any differences in organic C concentrations between the fertilised treatments (80 kg N + 23 kg P/ha.year applied to sorghum for 4 years) and the unfertilised Adj. 1. unfertilised - not having been fertilized; "an unfertilized egg"
infertile, sterile, unfertile - incapable of reproducing; "an infertile couple" treatments on a Red Kandosol. Moody (1994) reported 60% decline in organic C in cultivated and cropped Ferrosols compared with the virgin Ferrosols, in spite of the fact that many of the cultivated Ferrosols had been fertilised.
It appears that in the semi-arid environment, C inputs from annual crops are limited by the availability of water (rainfall); thus, insufficient plant biomass is produced to meet C lost from soil even though crop yields are significantly increased with fertiliser applications.
In pastures where legume production is limited by P and S supply (Russell and Williams 1982), application of fertilisers such as superphosphate superphosphate or superphosphate of lime, Ca(H2PO4)2, is a compound produced by treating rock phosphate with sulfuric acid or phosphoric acid, or a mixture of the two. has resulted in increased biomass production and increased soil organic N (Russell 1960; Watson 1969) and, hence, increased organic C in soil. For example, Russell and Williams (1982) estimated an increase of organic N of 50 kg N/ha.year from a mean superphosphate application of 15 kg P/ha.year. With an estimated C :N ratio of 12 for the resultant SOC, an increase of 600 kg C/ha.year is expected. This value is similar to that measured by Dalai et al. (1995), 650 kg C/ha.year, for the legume+grass pasture at Warra, southern Queensland.
Manure applications increase organic C in Vertosols (E. Powell, pers. comm.), Ferrosols (M. Bell, unpubl, data), and other soils, although long-term benefits of manure applications in arable cropping in the Australian soils have not been measured. High-lignin amendments such as farmyard manure, which are more recalcitrant to decomposition than plant residues, usually result in higher soil organic C concentrations (Poulton 1995).
Benefits of increased organic matter in soil
Increased SOM reverses the adverse consequences of organic matter loss from soil. Lal (1998) has provided detailed literature on benefits of SOM for agricultural sustainability, including improved soil structure, nutrient retention, reduced soil erosion, and improved soil fertility. Williams and Lipsett (1961) and Russell and Williams (1982) summarised the Australian research on the benefits of increased SOM on soil properties and agricultural productivity Agricultural productivity is measured as the ratio of agricultural inputs to agricultural outputs. While individual products are usually measured by weight, their varying densities make measuring overall agricultural output difficult. .
However, there is limited information available on the increase in different C pools of SOM and their beneficial effects on soil properties and agricultural sustainability in the Australian cereal belt. Moreover, their effects on soil microbial biodiversity (Pankhurst et al. 1995) and herbicide herbicide (hr`bəsīd'), chemical compound that kills plants or inhibits their normal growth. A herbicide in a particular formulation and application can be described as selective or nonselective. and pesticide retention and their degradation (Briggs 1981; Kookana et al. 1998; Ahmad 1999) in soil are almost unknown.
Greenhouse C sink
Assuming that the rates of [CO.sub.2]-e losses from cultivated soils, calculated from Table 7, can be reversed by using restorative practices, the potential sinks available in these soils would be 1040 Mt [CO.sub.2]-e (52 Mt [CO.sub.2]-e/year from the soil profile over a 20-year period), that is, more than 2 times the current total annual [CO.sub.2]-e emissions from Australia. Therefore, SOM provides an attractive greenhouse C sink option because it is a large sink and provides long-term C storage (AGO 2000). Moreover, increased C sequestration sequestration
In law, a writ authorizing a law-enforcement official to take into custody the property of a defendant in order to enforce a judgment or to preserve the property until a judgment is rendered. in soil, hence increased SOM, also provides associated environmental and production benefits (Lal 1998).
Management practices mentioned above, that is, ley pasture--crop rotation, cereal crop rotation with grain legumes or other disease-break crops such as canola, no-till, stubble retention, and fertiliser management, and organic residues and manure application, may contribute to an increased C sink in soil (Table 9). A combination of the above management practices may provide a synergistic effect Synergistic effect
A violation of value-additivity in that the value of a combination is greater than the sum of the individual values. in increasing C sequestration in soil. For example, Dalal (1989) reported a significant increase in SOM in a Vertosol after 13 years only when no-till practice, stubble retention, and fertiliser N were practised in combination. It is estimated that only 23% of the potential sink of 50 Mt [CO.sub.2]-e/year in the cultivated soils of the Australian cereal belt, about 11.8 Mt [CO.sub.2]-e/year over 20-year period, can be realised with the application of improved agricultural management practices (Table 9). The remaining 77% potential soil carbon sink can be utilised by increasing the cropping intensity, high plant and animal biomass inputs, and if increasing cropping areas are used for growing perennial crops, agroforestry ag·ro·for·est·ry
A system of land use in which harvestable trees or shrubs are grown among or around crops or on pastureland, as a means of preserving or enhancing the productivity of the land. , and forestry crops.
Table 9. Potential greenhouse C sink clue to management practice in the rainfed cultivated Australian cereal belt, excluding methane and nitrous oxide emissions/absorption Management practice Area Plant input (Mha) (t C/ha.year) No-till, stubble retained(A) 2.5 1.6 Improved ley pasture(B) 21 4.2 Sugarcane trash retention(B) 0.4 4.2 Cotton(B) 0.4 1.7 Others (manure application)(C) 0.1 0.5 Total 24.4 Management practice [CO.sub.2] sequestration Mt [CO.sub.2]/year No-till, stubble retained(A) 0.2 Improved ley pasture(B) 10.8 Sugarcane trash retention(B) 0.2 Cotton(B) 0.1 Others (manure application)(C) 0.1 Total 11.4 Management practice Mt [CO.sub.2] per 20-year period No-till, stubble retained(A) 4.0 Improved ley pasture(B) 216 Sugarcane trash retention(B) 4.0 Cotton(B) 2.0 Others (manure application)(C) 2.0 Total 228.0 (A) In regions with annual rainfall >500 mm in temperate areas (Chan et al. 1998) and >700 mm in subtropical and tropical areas (Dalal 1989; Dalal and Carter 2000). (B) Adapted from AGO (2000), NGGI (1999c), and Dalal and Carter (2000). (C) Calculated from AGWISE (1999) assuming annual 4 t/ha manure application.
Current agricultural practices for food and fibre production in the Australian cereal belt have inevitably led to the loss of both the quantity and quality of organic matter from the soils. Land degradation (decline in soil fertility, soil structure, and soil microbial diversity, and increase in soil erosion and salinity and sodicity) at least partly due to organic matter loss is widespread. Contribution to the greenhouse [CO.sub.2]-e emissions from the loss in organic matter from these soils is estimated to be in excess of 50 Mt [CO.sub.2]-e/year. Apparently, the rate of organic C loss is inversely related to the soil's clay content.
Sustainable cropping and land management practices are, therefore, essential for maintaining crop productivity while maintaining or enhancing organic matter in soil (Cogle et al. 1995; Dalal et al. 1995; Bell et al. 1997; Chan et al. 1997), and increasing the soil's C sink to mitigate greenhouse gas greenhouse gas
Any of the atmospheric gases that contribute to the greenhouse effect.
greenhouse gas emissions. Except for the positive effects of grass + legume pastures or fertilised grass pastures in both temperate and subtropical regions, very little information is available about other land and crop management practices to enhance organic matter in soil. For example, the positive effect of no-till and stubble retention practices is apparently limited by the amount of C inputs, which is limited by rainfall, and rarely exceeds SOM losses from decomposition and other soil degradation processes.
Since soil organic C is heterogeneous in nature, the significance and functions of its various components are ambiguous. Therefore no attempt was made to recommend a soil organic C level or its components that will be sufficient to sustain and enhance the biophysical and chemical roles ascribed to organic matter in soil. Some commercial soil testing services and States' analytical laboratories provide a broad classification of low, medium, and high levels of soil organic C (Bruce and Rayment 1982; Peverill et al. 1991; Purdie 1995). It is essential that the relationship between levels of total soil organic C or its components and the most affected soil property(ies) be established and then quantified before the concentrations or amounts of soil organic C and/or its components can be used with confidence for the purpose that its use is intended. Furthermore, there is scant information on the interactions between pesticides and herbicides, soil microbial diversity, soil-borne diseases, and soil organic matter. Thus, the environmental role of organic matter in soil requires intensive investigation.
The challenge for sustainable land management is to balance the needs for the production of food and fibre and other land uses with the necessity to maintain sufficient land cover to minimise the adverse impact of soil degradation processes while maintaining or enhancing the organic C sink in soil to mitigate greenhouse gases emissions. Until recently, both food and fibre production systems involved intensive cultivation, which resulted in lack of plant residue soil cover, often utilising the native soil fertility, which led to declining yields, and mainly using monoculture systems, which again have resulted in decreasing yields and hence lower C inputs to the soil. Studies should be undertaken to quantify the size of the above-ground biomass returned to the soil, the size of the below-ground C including roots and charcoal, and the rates of turnover (C fluxes) of both below-ground and above-ground C pools. Since C components differ in their turnover rates, understanding of the function and nature of these components through improved techniques is required. This approach should also lead to improved simulation of soil organic C dynamics and better prediction of the short-and long-term consequences of land and vegetation management practices and environmental pollutants on SOM management while enhancing soil C sinks in the Australian cereal belt.
We thank Cecelia McDowall and Michelle Perry Michelle Perry (born 1 May 1979 in Granada Hills, California) is an American athlete. At the 2004 Summer Olympics she placed 14th overall in the heptathlon competition. Later, at the 2005 World Championships in Athletics, she was awarded a gold medal in the 100 m hurdles with a for assistance with literature search. We also thank the reviewers and Weijin Wang, Phil Moody, and John Carter John Carter may refer to:
AGO (2000) `Greenhouse sinks and the Kyoto protocol Kyoto Protocol: see global warming. : an issues paper.' 108 pp. (Australian Greenhouse Office: Canberra)
AGWISE (1999) `Organic waste forum. Forum proceedings.' 90 pp. (The University of Southern Queensland USQ has a substantial campus in Hervey Bay (Fraser Coast Campus) to the north of Brisbane, and has recently established a new campus at Springfield in Brisbane's outer suburbs (2006). Another major campus of University of Southern Queensland has been set up in Auckland, New Zealand. : Toowoomba)
Ahmad R (1999) Sorption sorption /sorp·tion/ (sorp´shun) the process or state of being sorbed; absorption or adsorption.
Adsorption or absorption. and release of pesticides in soils: the role of chemical nature of soil organic matter. PhD thesis, University of Adelaide Its main campus is located on the cultural boulevard of North Terrace in the city-centre alongside prominent institutions such as the Art Gallery of South Australia, the South Australian Museum and the State Library of South Australia. , South Australia.
Ayanaba A, Tuckwell SB, Jenkinson DS (1976) The effects of clearing and cropping on the organic reserves and biomass of tropical forest soils. Soil Biology Soil biology is the study of microbial and faunal activity and ecology in soil. These organisms include earthworms, nematodes, protozoa, fungi and bacteria. Soil biology plays a vital role in determining many soil characteristics yet, being a relatively new science, much remains and Biochemistry 8, 519-525.
Baldock JA, Skjemstad JO (1999) Soil organic carbon/soil organic matter. In `Soil analysis: an interpretation manual'. (Eds KI Peverill, LA Sparrow, DJ Reuter) pp. 159-170. (CSIRO Publishing CSIRO PUBLISHING is an Australian-based science and technology publisher. They cover a range of scientific disciplines including agriculture, chemistry, plant and animal sciences, natural history and environmental management. : Melbourne)
Bartholomew WV, Kirkham D (1960) Mathematical descriptions and interpretations of culture induced soil nitrogen changes. Transactions, 7th International Congress of Soil Science, Communications 111, 471-477.
Bell M J, Bridge B J, Harch GR, Orange DN (1997) Physical rehabilitation physical rehabilitation See Physical therapy. of degraded krasnozems using ley pastures. Australian Journal of Soil Research 35, 1093-1113.
Bell MJ, Moody PW, Connolly RD, Bridge BJ (1998) The role of active fractions of soil organic matter in physical and chemical fertility of Ferrosols. Australian Journal of Soil Research 36, 809-819.
Bell MJ, Moody PW, Yo SA, Connolly RD (1999) Using active fractions of soil organic matter as indicators of the sustainability of Ferrosol farming systems. Australian Journal of Soil Research 37, 279-287.
Blair GJ, Lefroy RDB See Oracle Rdb.
1. Rdb - Oracle Rdb
2. rdb - A roll-your-own database, created in the Unix toolkit philosophy. It appears to be written in the awk language, and is very compatible with awk. It uses awk's syntax and can be combined with awk commands. , Lisle lisle
1. A fine, smooth, tightly twisted thread spun from long-stapled cotton.
2. Fabric knitted of this thread, used especially for hosiery and underwear. L (1995) Soil carbon fractions based on their degree of oxidation, and the development of a carbon management index for agricultural systems. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 46, 1459-1466.
Bridge BJ, Bell MJ (1994) Effect of cropping on the physical fertility of Krasnozems. Australian Journal of Soil Research 32, 1253-1273.
Briggs GG (1981) Adsorption adsorption, adhesion of the molecules of liquids, gases, and dissolved substances to the surfaces of solids, as opposed to absorption, in which the molecules actually enter the absorbing medium (see adhesion and cohesion). of pesticides by some Australian soils. Australian Journal of Soil Research 19, 61-68.
Bruce RC (1965) Effect of Centrosema pubescens Benth. on soil fertility in the humid tropics. Queensland Journal of Agriculture and Animal Sciences 22, 221-226.
Bruce RC, Rayment GE (1982) Analytical methods and interpretation used by the Agricultural Chemistry Agricultural chemistry is the science of the causes and effects of biochemical reactions related to plant and animal growth. Branch for soil and land use surveys. Bulletin QB82004. (Queensland Department of Primary Industries: Brisbane)
Cambardella CA, Elliott ET (1993) Methods for physical separation and characterisation of soil organic matter fractions. Geoderma 56, 449-457.
Carter JO, Howden SM, Day KA, Mckeon GM (1998) Soil carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus and biodiversity in relation to climate change. In `Evaluation of the impact of climate change on northern Australian grazing industries'. (Eds GM McKeon, KA Day, WB Hall, SM Howden) pp. 185-280. Final Report, Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation The Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation (RIRDC) is a statutory Corporation formed in July 1990 under the Primary Industries and Energy Research and Development (PIERD) Act 1989. , Department of Natural Resources Many sub-national governments have a Department of Natural Resources or similarly-named organization:
Carter MR, Mele PM (1992) Changes in microbial biomass and structural stability at the surface of a duplex soil under direct drilling and stubble retention in North-Eastern Victoria. Australian Journal of Soil Research 30, 493-503.
Carter MR, Parton WJ, Rowland IC, Schultz JE, Steed GR (1993) Simulation of soil organic carbon and nitrogen changes in cereal and pasture systems of southern Australia. Australian Journal of Soil
Research 31, 1-11.
Chan KY (1997) Consequences of changes in particulate organic carbon in vertisols under pasture and cropping. Soil Science Society of America Journal 61, 1376-1382.
Chan KY, Bellotti WD, Roberts WP (1988) Changes in surface soil properties of Vertisols under dryland cropping in a semi-arid environment. Australian Journal of Soil Research 26, 509-518.
Chan KY, Bowman AM, Friend JJ (1997) Restoration of soil fertility of degraded Vertisol using a pasture including a native grass (Astrebla lappacea). Tropical Grasslands 31, 145-155.
Chan KY, Heenan DP (1993) Surface hydraulic properties of a red earth under continuous cropping with different management practices. Australian Journal of Soil Research 31, 13-24.
Chan KY, Heenan DP, Grabski AS, So HB (1998) Soil organic carbon sequestration and changes in soil quality under conservation tillage on lighter-textured soils in Australia. In `Conservation tillage: can it assist in mitigating the greenhouse gas problem?' (Ed. HB So) (The University of Queensland The University of Queensland (UQ) is the longest-established university in the state of Queensland, Australia, a member of Australia's Group of Eight, and the Sandstone Universities. It is also a founding member of the international Universitas 21 organisation. : St Lucia)
Chan KY, Mead JA (1988) Surface physical properties of a sandy loam soil under different tillage practice. Australian Journal of Soil Research 26, 549-559.
Chan KY, Roberts WP, Heenan DP (1992) Organic carbon and associated soil properties of a red earth after 10 years of rotation under different tillage and stubble practices. Australian Journal of Soil Research 30, 71-83.
Chartres CJ, Helyar KR, Fitzpatrick RW, Williams J (1992) Land degradation as a result of European settlement of Australia and its influences on soil properties. In `Australia's renewable resources: sustainability and global change'. (Eds RM Gifford, MM Barson) pp. 3-33. Bureau of Rural Resources Proceedings No. 14. (AGPS AGPS Assisted Global Positioning System
AGPS Advanced Government Purchasing System
AGPS Advanced Geo Positioning Solutions, Inc
AGPS Advanced Global Positioning System
AGPS Ameron Global Product Support
AGPS Attitude Global Positioning System
AGPS Assisted Gps : Canberra)
Christensen BT (1992) Physical fractionation fractionation /frac·tion·a·tion/ (frak?shun-a´shun)
1. in radiology, division of the total dose of radiation into small doses administered at intervals.
2. of soil and organic matter in primary particle size Particle size, also called grain size, refers to the diameter of individual grains of sediment, or the lithified particles in clastic rocks. The term may also be applied to other granular materials. and density separates. Advances in Soil Science 20, 1-90.
Cogle AL, Littlemore J, Heiner DH (1995) Soil organic matter changes and crop responses to fertilizer under conservation cropping systems in the semi-arid tropics of North Queensland North Queensland is the northern part of the state of Queensland in Australia. Queensland is a massive state, larger than most countries, and the Tropical northern part of it has been historically remote and underdeveloped, resulting in a distinctive regional character and , Australia. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 35, 233-237.
Connolly RD, Freebairn DM, Bridge BJ (1997) Change in infiltration characteristics associated with cultivation history of soils in south-eastern Queensland. Australian Journal of Soil Research 35, 1341-1358.
Cook GD, So HB, Dalal RC (1992) Structural degradation of Vertisols under continuous cultivation. Soil and Tillage Research 22, 47-64.
Curry JR Good JA (1992) Soil faunal degradation and restoration. Advances' in Soil Science 17, 171-216.
Dalal RC (1989) Long-term effects of no-tillage, crop residue and nitrogen application on properties of a Vertisol. Soil Science Society, of America Journal 53, 1511-1515.
Dalal RC (1992) Long-term trends in total nitrogen of a Vertisol subjected to zero-tillage, nitrogen application and stubble retention. Australian Journal of Soil Research 30, 223-231.
Dalal RC (1997) Long-term phosphorus trends in Vertisols under continuous cereal cropping. Australian Journal of Soil Research 35, 327 339.
Dalal RC (1998) Soil microbial biomass--what do the numbers really mean? Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 38, 649-665.
Dalal RC, Bridge BJ (1996) Aggregation and organic carbon storage in sub-humid and semi-arid soils. In `Structure and organic matter storage in agricultural soils'. (Eds MR Carter, BA Stewart) Advances in Soil Science. pp. 263-307. (CRC (Cyclical Redundancy Checking) An error checking technique used to ensure the accuracy of transmitting digital data. The transmitted messages are divided into predetermined lengths which, used as dividends, are divided by a fixed divisor. Press Inc.: New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of )
Dalal RC, Carter JO (2000) Soil organic matter dynamics and carbon sequestration in Australian tropical soils. In `Global climate change and tropical ecosystems'. (Eds R Lal, BA Stewart) pp. 283-314. (CRC Press: Baton Rouge Baton Rouge (băt`ən rzh) [Fr.,=red stick], city (1990 pop. 219,531), state capital and seat of East Baton Rouge parish, SE La. , FL)
Dalal RC, Henderson PA, Glasby JM (1991) Organic matter and microbial biomass in a Vertisol after 20 year of zero-tillage. Soil Biology and Bioehemistry 23, 435-441.
Dalal RC, King AJ (1994) Simulation of soil organic matter trends in Vertisols under continuous cultivation and cereal cropping using the CENTURY model. In `Organic matter in soils, sediments and waters'. p. 46. (International Humic hu·mic
Of, relating to, or derived from humus.
Adj. 1. humic - of or relating to or derived from humus; "humic acid" Substances Society: Adelaide, S. Aust.)
Dalal RC, Mayer RJ (1986a) Long-term trends in fertility of soils under continuous cultivation and cereal cropping in southern Queensland. I. Overall changes in soil properties and trends in winter cereal yields. Australian Journal of Soil Research 24, 265-279.
Dalal RC, Mayer RJ (1986b) Long-term trends in fertility of soils under continuous cultivation and cereal cropping in southern Queensland. II. Total organic carbon and its rate of loss from the soil profile. Australian Journal of Soil Research 24, 281 292.
Dalal RC, Mayer RJ (1986c) Long-term trends in fertility of soils under continuous cultivation and cereal cropping in southern Queensland. III. Distribution and kinetics of soil organic carbon in particle-size fractions. Australian Journal of Soil Research 24, 293-300.
Dalal RC, Mayer RJ (1986d) Long-term trends in fertility of soils under continuous cultivation and cereal cropping in southern Queensland. IV. Loss of organic carbon from different density fractions. Australian Journal of Soil Research 24, 301-309.
Dalal RC, Mayer RJ (1986e) Long-term trends in fertility of soils under continuous cultivation and cereal cropping in southern Queensland. V. Rate of loss of total nitrogen from the soil profile and changes in carbon-nitrogen ratios. Australian Journal of Soil Research 24, 493-504.
Dalal RC, Mayer RJ (1987a) Long-term trends in fertility of soils under continuous cultivation and cereal cropping in southern Queensland. VI. Loss of total N from different particle-size and density fractions. Australian Journal of Soil Research 25, 83-93.
Dalal RC, Mayer RJ (1987b) Long-term trends in fertility of soils under continuous cultivation and cereal cropping in southern Queensland. VII. Dynamics of nitrogen mineralisation potentials and microbial biomass. Australian Journal of Soil Research 25, 461-472.
Dalal RC, Mayer RJ (1990) Long-term trends infertility of soils under continuous cultivation and cereal cropping in southern Queensland. VIII. Available nitrogen indices and their relationships to crop yields and nitrogen uptake. Australian Journal of Soil Research 28, 563-575.
Dalal RC, Probert ME (1997) Soil nutrient depletion. In `Sustainable crop production in the subtropics sub·trop·ics
Noun 1. subtropics - regions adjacent to the tropics
climatic zone - any of the geographical zones loosely divided according to prevailing climate and latitude : an Australian perspective'. (Eds AL Clarke, PB Wylie) pp. 42-63. (Department of Primary Industries: Brisbane, Qld)
Dalal RC, Strong WM, Weston EJ, Cahill MJ, Cooper JE, Lehane KJ, King A J, Gaffney J (1994) Evaluation of forage and grain legumes, no-till and fertilisers to restore fertility degraded soils. Transactions International Society of Soil Science 5a, 62-74.
Dalal RC, Strong WM, Weston EJ, Cooper JE, Lehane KJ, King AJ, Chicken CJ (1995) Sustaining productivity of a Vertisol at Warra, Queensland, with fertilisers, no-till or legumes. 1. Organic matter status. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 35, 903-913.
Davidson S (1986) Cultivation and soil organic matter. Rural Research 131, 13-18.
Elliott ET (1986) Aggregate structure and carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus in native and cultivated soils. Soil Science and Society of America Journal 50, 627-633.
Fettell NA, Gill HS (1995) Long-term effects of tillage, stubble, and nitrogen management on properties of a red-brown earth. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 35, 923-928.
Gifford MR, Cheney NP, Noble JC, Russell JS, Wellington AB, Zammit C (1992) Australian land use, primary production of vegetation and carbon pools in relation to atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. Bureau Rural Resources Proceedings 14, 151-187.
Gillman GP (1984) Nutrient availability in acid soils of the tropics following clearing and cultivation. In `Proceedings of the International Workshop in Soils'. (Eds ET Craswell, RF Isbell) pp. 39-46. (Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research Two key international agricultural research organizations are:
Golchin A, Oades JM, Skjemstad JO, Clarke P (1994) Study of free and occluded particulate organic matter in soils by solid-state 13C CP/MAS NMR spectroscopy Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy most commonly known as NMR spectroscopy is the name given to the technique which exploits the magnetic properties of certain nuclei. This phenomenon and its origins are detailed in a separate section on Nuclear magnetic resonance. and scanning electron microscopy electron microscopy
Technique that allows examination of samples too small to be seen with a light microscope. Electron beams have much smaller wavelengths than visible light and hence higher resolving power. . Australian Journal of Soil Research 32, 285-309.
Grace PR, Oades JM, Keith H, Hancock TW (1995) Trends in wheat yields and soil organic carbon in the permanent rotation trial at the Waite Agricultural Research Institute, South Australia. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 35, 857-864.
Graham TWG TWG Technical Working Group
TWG Thematic Working Group (WHO)
TWG Trans World Group (base metals traders)
TWG Terlato Wine Group
TWG Training Working Group
TWG Transition Working Group (1987) The effect of renovation practices on nitrogen cycling and productivity on rundown of buffel grass pasture. PhD thesis, University of Queensland, St Lucia.
Graham TWG, Webb AA, Waring SA (1981) Soil nitrogen status and pasture productivity after clearing of brigalow (Acacia harpophylla). Australian Journal of Agriculture and Animal Husbandry animal husbandry, aspect of agriculture concerned with the care and breeding of domestic animals such as cattle, goats, sheep, hogs, and horses. Domestication of wild animal species was a crucial achievement in the prehistoric transition of human civilization from 21, 109-118.
Greenland DJ (1971) Changes in the nitrogen status and physical condition of soils under pastures, with special reference to the maintenance of the fertility of Australian soils used for growing wheat. Soils and Fertilizers 34, 237-251.
Greenland DJ, Ford GW (1964) Separation of partially humified hu·mi·fied
Converted into humus.
Adj. 1. humified - converted to humus; "humified soil" organic materials from soils by ultrasonic dispersion. Transactions 8th International Congress of Soil Science 3, 137-148.
Gregorich EG, Janzen HH (1996) Storage of soil carbon in the light fraction and macroorganic matter. In `Structure and organic matter storage in agricultural soils'. (Eds MR Carter, BA Stewart) pp. 167-190. Advances in Soil Science. (Lewis Publishers: New York)
Gupta VVSR, Yeates GW (1997) Soil microfauna microfauna /mi·cro·fau·na/ (-faw´nah) the microscopic animal organisms of a special region.
microscopic animals, e.g. protozoa. as bioindicators of soil health. In `Biological indicators of soil health'. (Eds CE Pankhurst, BM Doube, VVSR Gupta)pp. 201-233. (CAB International CAB International (CABI) is a not-for-profit inter-governmental organization. CABI was established in 1910 and is owned by 45 member countries. It is comprised of three divisions, each undertaking different activities relating to scientific research. : Wallingford)
Haas HJ, Evans CE, Miles EF (1957) Nitrogen and carbon changes in Great Plains soils as influenced by cropping and soil treatments. United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. Department Agriculture Technical Bulletin No. 1164.
Haines PJ, Uren NC (1990) Effects of conservation tillage farming on soil microbial biomass, organic matter and earthworm earthworm, terrestrial, cylindrical segmented worm of the class Oligochaeta. There are 2,200 earthworm species, found all over the world except in arid and arctic regions and ranging in size from 1 in. (2.5 cm) to the 11-ft (330-cm) giant worms of the tropics. population in northeastern Victoria. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 30, 365-371.
Hallsworth EG, Gibbons FR, Lemerle TH (1954) The nutrient status and cultivation practices of soils of the Northwest wheat belt of New South Wales. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 5, 422-447.
Harte AJ (1984). Effect of tillage on the stability of three red soils of the northern wheat belt. Journal of Soil Conservation Service NSW NSW New South Wales
Noun 1. NSW - the agency that provides units to conduct unconventional and counter-guerilla warfare
Naval Special Warfare 40, 94-101.
Heenan DP, McGhie WJ, Thompson F, Chan KY (1995) Decline in soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in relation to tillage, stubble management and rotation. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 35, 877-884.
Holford ICR (Intelligent Character Recognition or Image Character Recognition) The machine recognition of hand-printed characters as well as machine printing that is difficult to recognize. (1990) Effects of 8-year rotations of grain sorghum with lucerne, annual legume, wheat and long fallow on nitrogen and organic carbon on two contrasting soils. Australian Journal of Soil Research 28, 277-291.
Hossain SA, Dalal RC, Waring SA, Strong WM, Weston EJ (1996) Comparison of legume-based cropping systems at Warra, Queensland. I. Soil nitrogen and organic carbon accretion and potentially mineralisable nitrogen. Australian Journal of Soil Research 34, 273-287.
Isbell RF (1996) `The Australian soil classification.' (CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne)
Jenkinson DS, Harkness DD, Vance ED, Adams DE, Harrison AF (1992) Calculating net primary production and annual input of organic matter to soil from the amount and radiocarbon content of soil organic matter. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 24, 295-308.
Jenkinson DS, Rayner JH (1977) The turnover of soil organic matter in some of the Rothamsted classical experiments. Soil Science 123, 298-305.
Kern JS, Johnson MG (1993) Conservation tillage impacts on national soil and atmospheric carbon levels. Soil Science Society of America Journal 57, 200-210.
Kookana RS, Baskaran S, Naidu R (1998) Pesticide fate and behaviour in Australian soils in relation to contamination and management of soil and water: a review. Australian Journal of Soil Research 36, 715-764.
Ladd JN, Oades JM, Amato M (1981) Microbial biomass formed from 14C, 15N-labelled plant material decomposing in soils in the field. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 13, 119-126.
Lal R (1998) `Soil quality and agricultural sustainability.' 378 pp. (Chelsea: Ann Arbour, MI)
Loch RJ, Coughlan KJ, Mulder JC (1987) Effects of frequency of peanut (Arachis h. vpogae L.) cropping on some properties of Krasnozem and Euchrozem soils in the south Burnett The South Burnett is a peanut growing and wine-producing region on the Great Dividing Range, north of the Darling Downs, in Queensland. Towns
Towns located within this region include Kingaroy, Murgon, Wondai, Kilkivan, Goomeri, Proston, Blackbutt, Benarkin, Nanango, area, Queensland. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 27, 585-589.
Martin AE, Cox JE (1956) Nitrogen studies on black soils from Darling Downs Darling Downs, tableland, 27,610 sq mi (71,510 sq km), SE Queensland, Australia, W of the Great Dividing Range. Settled in 1840 by sheep grazers, this grassland region has become an important farming and dairying area; it is in Australia's wheat belt. , Queensland. 1. Seasonal variations in moisture and mineral nitrogen fractions. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 7, 169-183.
McGarity JW (1975) Soils of the Australian wheat-growing Areas. In `Australian field crops. Volume 1: Wheat and other temperate cereals'. (Eds A Lazenby, EM Matheson) pp. 227-255. (Angus and Robertson: Sydney)
Moody PW (1994) Chemical fertility of Krasnozems: a review. Australian Journal of Soil Research 32, 1015-1041.
Moody PW, Yo SA, Aitken RL (1997) Soil organic carbon, permanganate permanganate /per·man·ga·nate/ (per-mang´gah-nat) a salt containing the MnO4- ion.
Any of the salts of permanganic acid, all of which are strong oxidizing agents. fractions, and the chemical properties of acidic soils. Australian Journal of Soil Research 35, 1301-1308.
NGGIC (1999a) National Greenhouse Gas Inventory Greenhouse gas inventories are a type of emission inventory that are developed for a variety of reasons. Scientists use inventories of natural and anthropogenic (human-caused) emissions as tools when developing atmospheric models. 1997. p. 202. National Greenhouse Gas Inventory Committee. (Australian Greenhouse Office, Commonwealth of Australia Commonwealth of Australia: see Australia. : Canberra)
NGGIC (1999b) National Greenhouse Gas Inventory Land Use Change and Forestry Sector 1990-1997. Based on Workbook 4.2 and Supplementary Methodology. p. 136. National Greenhouse Gas Inventory Committee. (Australian Greenhouse Office, Commonwealth of Australia: Canberra)
NGGIC (1999c) National Greenhouse Gas Inventory Analysis of Trends 1990 to 1997 and National Greenhouse Response Strategy Indicators 1990 to 1997. p. 116. National Greenhouse Gas Inventory Committee. (Australian Greenhouse Office, Commonwealth of Australia: Canberra)
Oades JM, Ladd JN (1977) Biochemical properties--metabolism of carbon and nitrogen. In `Soil factors in crop production in semi-arid environments'. (Eds JS Russell, EL Greacen)pp. 127-160. (Queensland University Press: St Lucia, Qld)
Pankhurst CE (1997) Biodiversity of soil organisms as an indicator of soil health. In `Biological indicators of soil health'. (Eds CE Pankhurst, BM Doube, VVSR Gupta) pp. 297-324. (CAB International: Wallingford)
Pankhurst CE, Hawke BG, McDonald H J, Kirkby CA, Buckerfield JC, Michelsen P, O'Brien KA, Gupta VVSR, Doube BM (1995) Evaluation of soil biological properties as potential bioindicators of soil health. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 35, 1015-1028.
Parton WJ, Ojima DS, Schimel DS (1996) Models to evaluate soil organic matter storage and dynamics. In ` Structure and organic matter storage in agricultural soils'. (Eds MR Carter, BA Stewart). Advances in Soil Science. pp. 421-466. (CRC Press Inc: New York)
Parton W, Sanford RL, Sanchez PA, Stewart JWB JWB Jewish Welfare Board (now Jewish Community Centers Association)
JWB John Wilkes Booth
JWB Johnny Walker Black (Whiskey brand)
JWB Jewelbox (C++ class library) (1989) Modelling soil organic matter dynamics in tropical soils. In `Dynamics of soil organic matter in tropical ecosystems'. (Eds DC Coleman, JM Oades, G Uehara) pp. 153-171. NiFFAL Project. (University of Hawaii (body, education) University of Hawaii - A University spread over 10 campuses on 4 islands throughout the state.
See also Aloha, Aloha Net. : Hawaii)
Parton WJ, Schimel DS, Cole CV, Ojima DS (1987) Analysis of factors controlling soil organic matter levels in Great Plains grasslands. Soil Science Society of America Journal 51, 1173-1179.
Peverill KI, Margetts SW, Brown AJ, Greenhill NB, Munro GR (1991) The analytical and interpretative service. (Ag-plus: Melbourne)
Poulton PR (1995) The importance of long-term trials in understanding sustainable farming systems: the Rothamsted experience. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 35, 825-834.
Powlson DS, Brookes PC, Christensen BT (1987) Measurement of soil microbial biomass provides an early indication of changes in total soil organic matter due to straw incorporation. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 19, 159-164.
Prebble RE (1987) Effect of cultivation on aggregate stability, microaggregation and organic carbon of Vertisols. Division of Soils, Divisional Report No. 91. p. 108. (CSIRO CSIRO Commonwealth Scientific & Industrial Research Organization (Australia) : Melbourne)
Probert ME, Keating BA, Thompson JP, Parton WJ (1995) Modelling water, nitrogen, and crop yield for a long-term fallow management experiment. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 35, 941-950.
Purdie BR (1995) `Understanding and interpreting soil chemical and physical data.' (Agriculture Western Australia: Perth)
Reicosky DC, Lindstrom MJ (1993) Fall tillage method: effect on short-term carbon dioxide flux from soil. Agronomy agronomy (əgrŏn`əmē), branch of agriculture dealing with various physical and biological factors—including soil management, tillage, crop rotation, breeding, weed control, and climate—related to crop production. Journal 85, 1237-1243.
Roberts WP, Chan KY (1990) Tillage-induced increases in carbon dioxide loss from soil. Soil & Tillage Research 17, 143-151.
Robertson FA, Myers RJK RJK Rijeka, Croatia (Airport Code)
RJK Rajajääkärikomppania (Finnish) , Saffigna PG (1997) Nitrogen cycling in brigalow clay soils under pasture and cropping. Australian Journal of Soil Research 35, 1323-1339.
Rovira AD, Greacen EL (1957) The effect of aggregate disruption on the activity of microorganisms in the soil. Australian Journal Agricultural Research 8, 659-673.
Russell JS (1960) Soil fertility changes in the long-term experimental plots at Kybolite, South Australia. I. Changes in pH, total nitrogen, organic carbon and bulk density. Australian Journal Agricultural Research 11, 902-926.
Russell JS (1981) Models of long term soil organic nitrogen change. In `Simulation of nitrogen behaviour of soil-plant systems'. (Eds MJ Frissel, JA van Veen) pp. 222-232. (Centre for Agricultural Publishing and Documentation: Wageningen)
Russell JS, Willliams CH (1982) Biogeochemical interactions of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur and phosphorus in Australian agro-ecosystems. In `The cycling of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur and phosphorus in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems'. (Eds LE Galbally, JR Freney) pp. 61-75. (Australian Academy of Science: Canberra)
Skjemstad JO, Catchpoole VR, Le Feuvre RP (1994) Carbon dynamics in Vertisols under several crops as assessed by natural abundance In chemistry, natural abundance (NA) refers to the prevalence of isotopes of a chemical element as naturally found on a planet. The relative atomic mass (a weighted average) of these isotopes is the atomic weight listed for the element in the periodic table. 13C. Australian Journal of Soil Research 32, 311-321.
Skjemstad JO, Clarke P, Taylor JA, Oades JM, McClure SG (1996). The chemistry and nature of protected carbon in soil. Australian Journal of Soil Research 34, 251-271.
Skjemstad JO, Dalal RC (1987) Spectroscopic and chemical differences in organic matter of two Vertisols subjected to long periods of cultivation. Australian Journal of Soil Research 25, 323-335.
Skjemstad JO, Dalal RC, Barron PF (1986) Spectroscopic investigations of cultivation effects on organic matter of Vertisols. Soil Science Society of America Journal 50, 354-359.
Skjemstad JO, Dalal RC, Janik LJ, McGowan JA (2001) Changes in chemical nature of soil organic carbon in Vertisols under cereal cropping in southern Queensland. Australian Journal of Soil Research 39, 343-359.
Soil Science Society of America (1997) `Glossary of soil science terms.' pp. 1-143. (Soil Science Society of America Inc.: Madison, WI)
Spain AV, Isbell RF, Probert ME (1983) Soil organic matter. In `Soils: an Australian viewpoint'. (Ed. CSIRO Australia Division of Soils) pp. 551-564. (CSIRO Australia: Melbourne)
Sparling GP (1992) Ratio of microbial biomass carbon to soil organic carbon as a sensitive indicator of changes in soil organic matter. Australian Journal of Soil Research 30, 195-207.
Standley J, Hunter HM, Thomas GA, Blight GW, Webb AA (1990) Tillage and crop residue management affect Vertisol properties and grain sorghum growth over seven years in the semi-arid subtropics. 2. Changes in soil properties. Soil and Tillage Research 18, 367-388.
Swift MJ, Cook AG, and Perfect TJ (1980) The effects of changing agricultural practice on the biology of a forest soil in the subhumid tropics. 2. Decomposition. In `Tropical ecology and development Part I'. (Ed. JI Furtado) pp. 541-548. (International Society of Tropical Ecology: Kuala Lumpur Kuala Lumpur (kwä`lə lm`pr), city (1990 est. pop. )
Tiessen H, Stewart JWB (1983) Particle size fractions and their use in studies of soil organic matter. II. Cultivation effects on organic matter composition in size fractions. Soil Science Society of America Journal 47, 509-514.
Tisdall JM (1996) Formation of soil aggregates and accumulation of soil organic matter. In `Structure and organic matter storage in agricultural soils'. (Eds MR Carter, BA Stewart) pp. 57-96. Advances in Soil Science. (CRC Press Inc.: New York)
Tisdall JM, Oades JM (1980) The effect of crop rotation on aggregation in a red-brown earth. Australian Journal of Soil Research 18, 423-433.
Tisdall JM, Oades JM (1982) Organic matter and water-stable aggregates in soils. Journal of Soil Science 33, 141-163.
Turchenek LW, Oades JM (1979) Fractionation of organo-mineral complexes by sedimentation and density techniques. Geoderma 21, 311-343.
Van Veen JA, Paul EA (1981) Organic C dynamics in grassland soils. 1. Background information and computer simulation. Canadian ,Journal of Soil Science 61, 185-201.
Waring SA, Teakle LJH LJH Little Jack Horner (children's story) (1960) Fertility investigations on the black earth wheatlands of the Darling Downs, Queensland. III. Mineral nitrogen in the soil and its relation to the wheat crop. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 11, 27-41.
Watson ER (1969) The influence of subterranean clover subterranean clover
trifoliumsubterraneum. pastures on soil fertility. III. The effect of applied phosphorus and sulphur. Australian Journal Agricultural Research 20, 447-456.
Whitehouse M J, Littler JW (1984) Effect of pasture on subsequent wheat crops on a black earth soil of the Darling Downs. II. Organic C, nitrogen and pH changes. Queensland Journal of Agricultural and Animal Sciences 41, 13-20.
Williams CH, Lipsett J (1961) Fertility changes in soils cultivated for wheat in southern New South Wales. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 12, 612-620.
Yeates GW, Bird AF (1994) Some observations on the influence of agricultural practices on the nematode faunae of some South Australian soils. Fundamental and Applied Nematology nem·a·tol·o·gy
The branch of zoology that deals with nematodes.
nema·to·log 17, 133-145.
Manuscript received 5 May 1999, accepted 10 October 2000
(*) This review is one of a series commissioned by the journal's Editorial Advisory Committee.
R.C. Dalal(A) and K. Y. Chan(B)
(A) CRC for Greenhouse Accounting, Department of Natural Resources, Resource Sciences Centre, 80 Meiers Road, Indiooropilly, Qld 4068, Australia; email: Ram.Dala@ dnr.qld.gov.au
(B) Wagga Wagga Agricultural Institute, NSW Agriculture, PMB PMB Private Message Board
PMB Print Measurement Bureau
PMB Performance Measurement Baseline
PMB Private Mail Box (non-USPS)
PMB Plant and Microbial Biology
PMB Private Mailbox
PMB Physics in Medicine and Biology , Wagga Wagga, MSW (MicroSoft Word) See Microsoft Word. 2650, Australia.