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Six sigma practices in the banking sector in Qatar.

Introduction

Since its introduction in the quality management world as a powerful quality management tool, six sigma Not to be confused with Sigma 6.
Six Sigma is a set of practices originally developed by Motorola to systematically improve processes by eliminating defects.[1] A defect is defined as nonconformity of a product or service to its specifications.
 has gained an increasing interest among many different manufacturing organizations where the benefits and improvements from its usage have been proven. However, implementation of six sigma in the service sector is still not as popular (Anthony, 2006). Implementing six sigma in the banking industry in particular is even a newer concept in the world in general not to mention in the Arab countries, specifically.

An extensive review of the literature has revealed a lack of research in six sigma implementation in the service sector in general and in the banking sector in particular.

There is hardly any research at all on six sigma implementation in the banking sector in the rapidly industrializing Middle Eastern country, i.e., the State of Qatar Qatar or Katar (both: kŭ`tər, gŭ–, kətär`), officially State of Qatar, independent emirate (2005 est. pop. 863,000), c. , specifically in terms of the process of six sigma implementation, its benefits, and its critical success factors. Accordingly, this research aims at filling part of the above mentioned gaps by investigating the implementation of six sigma in the banking sector in Qatar. More importantly, the current study will conclude with some managerial implications that will help managers and policy makers in the banking sector of Qatar to implement six sigma effectively and efficiently.

Literature Review

Six Sigma was envisioned to be a quality improvement program that reduces process variation to the point where there are only 3.4 unacceptable defects per million process applications through the use of DMAIC DMAIC Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control
DMAIC Design, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control (5 stages of Six Sigma Quality Improvement and Assurance) 
 and DMADV DMADV Define, Measure, Analyze, Design, Validate  improvement strategies coupled with the deployment of a structured set of quality tools (Kumar Kumar (from Sanskrit meaning prince or an (unmarried) youth) is an Indian title, given name or family name. As a title it can mean son of a Rājā, prince, or heir apparent and enters in princely compound titles.  et al., 2008).

More importantly, Six Sigma as a powerful management strategy has evolved from being exclusively about the original goal of a target of less than four failures or defects or errors per million opportunities, to encompass a broad range of approaches for incorporating quality into products and services from the early design and development stages and throughout their life times" (Harry and Schroeder Schroeder

his only wish is to play Beethoven’s music on his piano. [Comics: “Peanuts” in Horn, 542–543]

See : Music


Schroeder

compulsively plays the works of Beethoven on his toy piano.
, 2000, Hensley Hensley may refer to:

People with the surname Hensley:
  • Hensley (surname)
In places:
  • Hensley, Arkansas
 & Dobie, 2005, and Cheng, 2008).

As pointed out by authors such as Bank (2000), Banuelas & Antony Antony or Marc Antony, Lat. Marcus Antonius, c.83 B.C.–30 B.C., Roman politican and soldier. He was of a distinguished family; his mother was a relative of Julius Caesar.  (2002), Antony et al. (2007), Taner et al. (2007) and Antony (2008), there are a few expected benefits from implementing six sigma in the banking sector such as: reduce customers' complaints, reduce internal call backs, reduce flaws in all customer facing processes, significant reduction in the number of returned renewal credit cards, identifying and eliminating defects and mistakes in business processes, reduction in administration cost, and reduction in costs associated with order corrections.

In the same line, Anthony (2006) listed some of the benefits obtained by the financial institutions as a result of Six Sigma implementation such as such as those obtained by Citibank CITIBANK First National City Bank  Group and J P Morgan Morgan, American family of financiers and philanthropists.

Junius Spencer Morgan, 1813–90, b. West Springfield, Mass., prospered at investment banking.
 Chase (Global Investment Banking). These are: reduced internal call backs by 80 per cent, external call backs by 85 per cent and credit processing time by 50 per cent, reduced the cycle time from customers placing an order to service delivery and the credit decision cycle by 67 per cent (i.e. from three days to one day), reduced statement processing cycle time from 28 to 15 days and increased customer satisfaction and improved efficiency and cycle times by over 30 per cent.

Accordingly, Dinell (2003) indicated that Bank of America
See also:  and


Bank of America (NYSE: BAC TYO: 8648 ) is the largest commercial bank in the United States in terms of deposits, and the largest company of its kind in the world.
, Citibank and Chase Manhattan Manhattan, indigenous people of North America
Manhattan (mănhăt`ən), indigenous people of North America of the Algonquian-Wakashan linguistic stock (see Native American languages).
 have extensive in-house six sigma training and implementation programs. In the same line, Tracy Tracy, city (1990 pop. 33,558), San Joaquin co., central Calif., in the San Joaquin valley; inc. 1910. It is a railroad junction in a cattle and dairying region.  (2003) indicated that Six Sigma is a well -established approach that seeks to help bankers at Bank of America to identify invisible-problems and errors within the bank so that they can identify the gaps the bank has.

More importantly, Chakrabarty and Tan TAN

See tax anticipation note (TAN).
 (2007) have investigated lots of articles concerning six sigma in services and filtered their results on 40 articles on the same topic. They strongly believed that six sigma is a recent improvement initiative that is felt to be difficult to implement in services because services' processes cannot be amended a·mend  
v. a·mend·ed, a·mend·ing, a·mends

v.tr.
1. To change for the better; improve: amended the earlier proposal so as to make it more comprehensive.

2.
 easily. Moreover, they highlighted the emphasis on Critical Success Factors of Six Sigma implementation in both manufacturing as well as in services sectors such as: top management commitment, education and training, cultural change, customer focus, clear performance metrics Performance metrics are measures of an organizations activities and performance. Performance metrics should support a range of stakeholder needs from customers, shareholders to employees [1]. , attaching the success of financial benefits, and organized understanding of work process.

In contrast, Hensley and Dobie (2005) addressed in their study on "Assessing readiness for six sigma in service setting" the following difficulties in using six sigma in services: difficulties in gathering data, difficulties in measuring customer satisfaction, and difficulties in quantifying and measuring data of sub processes. Other difficulties include: data collection is not automated au·to·mate  
v. au·to·mat·ed, au·to·mat·ing, au·to·mates

v.tr.
1. To convert to automatic operation: automate a factory.

2.
 like in manufacturing, cultural change, organizational infrastructure, linking six sigma to business strategy and linking six sigma to customer. Those difficulties are in line with the limitations expressed by Coronado Coronado (kŏr'ənä`dō), city (1990 pop. 26,540), San Diego co., S Calif., on a peninsula on the west side of San Diego Bay; inc. 1890. It is a well-known beach resort.  and Antony (2002), Rajamanoharan and Collier (2006), and Chakrabarty and Tan (2007).

From the literature review, we noticed that six sigma can be implemented effectively and efficiently through two key methodologies, i.e., DMAIC and DMADV, both of which were inspired by Deming's (Cheng, 2008).

DMAIC is used to improve an existing business process and it consists of the following five steps i.e., Define-Measure-Analyze-Improve-Control, while DMADV is used to create new product or process designs and it consists of the following five steps i.e., Define-Measure- Analyze-Design-Verify. In the same vein, researchers such as Anthony (2006), Ladani et al. (2006), Antony et al. (2007), Chakrabarty & Tan (2007), and Antony (2008) are in favor of upon the side of; favorable to; for the advantage of.

See also: favor
 applying the DMAIC methodology as the best way to implement Six Sigma in both manufacturing and service sectors, and this includes the five phases as shown Figure 1.

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

Research Methodology

Research Objectives

The purpose of this paper is to examine the implementation of Six Sigma in the banking sector in Qatar. Specifically, this paper attempts to:

* Identify the expected benefits of Six Sigma implementation in the banking sector in Qatar.

* Identify the critical success factors of Six Sigma implementation in the banking sector in Qatar.

Importance of the Study

The contribution of this study is three-fold. First, the findings of this study contribute to operations management Operations management is an area of business that is concerned with the production of goods and services, and involves the responsibility of ensuring that business operations are efficient and effective.  literature in general and to Six Sigma literature in particular. This may provide the opportunity for other researchers to execute more research in the field of the Six Sigma implementation.

Second, this study contributes to what is a very limited amount of empirical studies Empirical studies in social sciences are when the research ends are based on evidence and not just theory. This is done to comply with the scientific method that asserts the objective discovery of knowledge based on verifiable facts of evidence.  on Six Sigma implementation in developing nations in general and in Qatar in particular. Third, a very significant contribution of this study is providing a fully developed Six Sigma road map which can be used as a template (1) A pre-designed document or data file formatted for common purposes such as a fax, invoice or business letter. If the document contains an automated process, such as a word processing macro or spreadsheet formula, then the programming is already written and embedded in the  for local and foreign banks in the Qatari banking sector since it provides an insight into the critical factors influencing a successful Six Sigma implementation in the bank.

Hypotheses

In order to shed some lights on six sigma implementation in the banking industry in Qatar, four hypotheses have been developed to be tested. H1. There is no significant difference among different levels of management in the Qatari banking sector concerning the expected benefits of six sigma implementation. H2. There is no significant difference among different levels of management in the Qatari banking sector concerning the critical success factors of Six Sigma implementation.

Sample

The mail survey questionnaire was sent to approximately 150 managers at different managerial levels (first line, middle and top management) in different departments of the banks such as Customer Service, Support Department, Personal Banking, Corporate and Investment. The questionnaire focused on 4 major areas: demographics The attributes of people in a particular geographic area. Used for marketing purposes, population, ethnic origins, religion, spoken language, income and age range are examples of demographic data.  of respondents In the context of marketing research, a representative sample drawn from a larger population of people from whom information is collected and used to develop or confirm marketing strategy. , data on the bank, the expected benefits of Six Sigma implementation and the critical success factors of six sigma implementation. Usable USable is a special idea contest to transfer US American ideas into practice in Germany. USable is initiated by the German Körber-Stiftung (foundation Körber). It is doted with 150,000 Euro and awarded every two years.  responses of 73 were obtained resulting in a response rate of 48.7 percent. This rate was found to be better than a similar study by Antony, et al. (2007) where they obtained a response rate of 12.5%.

The Construction of the Questionnaire

Since the research is dealing with a service industry, we felt that a questionnaire would be the best way to measure banks' professionals' thoughts and feedback on Six Sigma implementation. The mail survey questionnaire was constructed and modified based on a number of successful studies previously conducted in related fields of study, i.e. Al-Marri et al. (2007), Antony (2006; 2007; 2008), Antony et al. (2007), and Pinto pinto

Spotted horse, also called paint, piebald, skewbald, and other terms to describe variations in colour and markings. The American Indian ponies of the western U.S. were often pintos. Most pure-breed associations refuse to register horses with pinto colouring.
 et al. (2008). The modifications made to these studies were determined by the researcher's own knowledge of conditions of the Qatari banking sector and the theoretical issues discussed previously.

The questionnaire distributed contained 11 questions in three different categories as follows (see Appendix 1):

(1) Questions 1-4-data on profile of the respondents,

(2) Questions 5-9-data on the bank,

(3) Question 10-data on the expected benefits of Six Sigma implementation, and,

(4) Question 11-data on the critical success factors of Six Sigma implementation.

Statistical Analysis

The Kruskal Kruskal can refer to any one of three brothers:
  • William Kruskal (1919—2005), American mathematician and statistician
  • Martin Kruskal (1925—2006), American mathematician and physicist
  • Joseph Kruskal (born 1928), American mathematician and computer scientist.
 Wallis Wallis can stand for:
  • One of a number of places:
*The German name for the Valais canton of Switzerland
*Wallis Island, an island in the French territory Wallis and Futuna
*Wallis, Texas
 (K-W) and One Way Analysis of Variance The discrepancy between what a party to a lawsuit alleges will be proved in pleadings and what the party actually proves at trial.

In Zoning law, an official permit to use property in a manner that departs from the way in which other property in the same locality
 (ANOVA anova

see analysis of variance.

ANOVA Analysis of variance, see there
) were employed to find out if significant differences exist among different levels of management in the Qatari banking sector concerning the expected benefits of six sigma implementation and the critical success factors of implementation of Six Sigma.

Reliability of the questionnaire

Cronbach's alpha Cronbach's (alpha) has an important use as a measure of the reliability of a psychometric instrument. It was first named as alpha by Cronbach (1951), as he had intended to continue with further instruments.  scores were computed for each construct (expected benefits and the critical success factors of Six Sigma implementation) to measure the internal consistency In statistics and research, internal consistency is a measure based on the correlations between different items on the same test (or the same subscale on a larger test). It measures whether several items that propose to measure the same general construct produce similar scores.  and to indicate how different items can reliably measure the construct. Kline (1998) pointed out that a reliability coefficient coefficient /co·ef·fi·cient/ (ko?ah-fish´int)
1. an expression of the change or effect produced by variation in certain factors, or of the ratio between two different quantities.

2.
 of around 0.90 can be considered 'excellent', values of around 0.80 as 'very good,' and values of around 0.70 as 'adequate', depending on the questions. In this research, all scales have reliability coefficients ranging from very good to excellent where their values were 0.97 and 0.92 as shown in Table I below.

Data Analysis

Profile of the respondents

Table II shows that the majority of the respondents are in the age range of (30 -40) and it makes sense since we are talking about a majority of respondents in the middle management role (63 %) which is a role that needs a college degree usually, in addition to a built up experience either in the same bank or in banking in general which is gained over time and is unlikely to be gained before one reaches thirty. Male response percentage was higher than female, probably because males felt more comfortable about the subject itself.

The only surprising observation in the sample is the fact that 50.7% have spent less than 5 years in their existing banks. This could be due to the high level of competition and the high rate of turnover in the banking industry in Qatar five years or less in their banks but not necessarily in the banking sector in general. Another explanation could be the relatively quicker progress of banking careers compared to other careers.

The respondents were asked to provide some important information on their banks which provided a lot of information about the Qatari banking sector and quality control. Table III below indicates that majority of the respondents (60) believe that their banks have not planned for six sigma and even more (69) believe that their banks have not implemented six sigma as yet. This is consistent with the introduction of banks in Qatar which states that none of the banks has implemented six sigma and only few (2 banks) have planned for quality.

The higher response rate came from multinational banks (75.3%) where they show a better understanding and a higher interest in the concept than local banks. 64.4% of the sample were from banks that have between 500 and 1000 employees indicating that they are well established organizations.

Hypotheses Testing

Hypothesis one

We partially accept the hypothesis that there is no significant difference among different levels of management in the Qatari banking sector concerning the expected benefits of six sigma implementation.

The results of ANOVA analysis in Table VI partially support our hypothesis. There is a consensus among the different managerial levels in Qatari banks in relation to their expectation of six sigma implementation benefits. Out of 17 benefits, only 4 vary among different managerial levels.

Most of the sample are made up of middle management staff ( 63%) and first line managers (17% ). Both levels, though different, are exposed to a similar company philosophy. They are similarly but not equally involved in a company strategy and vision. Surprisingly, reduction of correction cost, returned credit cards and customer waiting time are in general what most of the studies have identified as the benefits resulted from six sigma implementation in services. This highlights one more time that this belief is a result of lack of understanding of six sigma implementation and its results on the bank business.

Hypothesis two

We partially accept the hypothesis that there is no significant difference among different levels of management in the Qatari banking sector concerning the critical success factors of Six Sigma Implementation as there is consistency with only 6 out of the 30 variables. Those variables are mainly related to management role and quality management role in quality implementation. Further studies are actually needed to identify who has a better understanding of the critical success factors.

Our own belief is that high level management is the level at which managers put more weigh on weigh on
Verb

to be oppressive or burdensome to: the expectations that weigh so heavily on diplomats' wives

Verb 1.
 tools and techniques and the emphasis becomes less as we go down the managerial levels.

Conclusion and Managerial Implications

Analysis of the data and testing of the hypotheses provide some interesting results about six sigma benefits and critical success factors as expressed in the banking sector in Qatar. The study demonstrates that there is no a big difference in understanding six sigma benefits and critical success factors as perceived and expressed by different levels of managers in the Qatari banking sector.

The results have emphasized the assumption that six sigma implementation requires complicated statistical tools that are difficult to apply in service sector. An interesting belief amongst bankers that their banks have taken some steps in the direction of six sigma implementation have been revealed by the study.

The study confirms that majority of the banks do not have a specific department for quality control. At the same time, employees believe that quality is the responsibility of all staff.

One of the most desired benefits expected from implementing six sigma is the consistency in Service Level Agreements as well as increasing customer satisfaction levels. When studying successful factors, top management support and measurement and feedback have topped the list while improvement tools and techniques have been identified as the least favorable fa·vor·a·ble  
adj.
1. Advantageous; helpful: favorable winds.

2. Encouraging; propitious: a favorable diagnosis.

3.
 factor.

More importantly, in order to gain from the benefits six sigma can provide, banks should start by educating staff about six sigma and its benefits, get familiar with the tools and techniques, take an ownership of the initiative, educate and train staff and keep monitoring and improving through proper feedback.

Finally, this study provides a fully developed Six Sigma and strategy map for banks, which can be used as a template for other banks in the Qatari banking industry sector since it provides an insight into the critical factors influencing a successful Six Sigma implementation (See Figure 2. in Appendix 1).

Limitations and Future Research The study has touched on the current stage of six sigma implementation in the banking sector in Qatar. Though the data showed a very low degree of six sigma implementation, more research is needed to exactly specify the degree of quality control tools application in general and six sigma in particular.

The study has revealed some of the most important benefits perceived by bankers as a result of using six sigma. Further studies are needed to identify reasons behind low scores of important benefits like cost reductions whether it is the lack of knowledge of six sigma or the lack of experience. Other studies can help in shedding more light on how much knowledge of six sigma is there especially among people who have the power to implement six sigma within their organizations and followed by a study on how much this knowledge or lack of it is actually affecting attitudes towards six sigma implementation.

Appendix 1

[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]
Appendix 2. Questionnaire on Six Sigma Implementation

1--BACKGROUND INFORMATION

About You

1. Age Category

[] Under 30 yrs
[] 30-40 yrs
[] 41-50 yrs
[] 51-60 yrs
[] More than 60 yrs

2. Gender: [] Male [] Female

3. What is your role in the Bank?

[] Top management I
[] Middle management
[] First line management

4. How long have you been working in your Bank?

[] Under 5 yrs ago
[] 5-10 yrs ago
[] More than 10 yrs ago

About your Bank

5. Has your Bank planned for six sigma system?.

[] Yes
[] No

6. Has your Bank implemented six sigma system?.

[] Yes
[] No

7. Your Bank nationality.

[] Qatari
[] Multinational
[] Other

8. Number of employees

[] Less than 20
[] 20-50
[] 51-100
[] 101-500
[] 501-1000
[] More than 1000

9. Years of Establishment

[] Less than 5 yrs
[] 5-10yrs
[] 11-15 yrs
[] 16-20yrs
[] More than 20 yrs

2. Sig Sigma Benefits

10. The following statements relate to your perceptions of Sig Sigma
benefits. Please indicate the box that you feel is the most appropriate
to each statement (1= Strongly Disagree; 2 = Disagree; 3=Neutral;
4=Agree; S=Strongly Agree).

Six Sigma system offers the benefit of:

1. Six sigma reduces transaction cost           1    2    3    4    5

2. Six sigma reduces administration cost        1    2    3    4    5

3. Six sigma reduces costs associated order     1    2    3    4    5
corrections.

4. Implementing six sigma helps in reducing     1    2    3    4    5
retuned renewed credit cards.

5. Six sigma focuses on solving the problem     1    2    3    4    5
not preventing it.

6. Six sigma implementation improves the        1    2    3    4    5
decision making process.

7. Six sigma is a tool to improve internal      1    2    3    4    5
business processes.

8. Six sigma aims at reducing mistakes in       1    2    3    4    5
general.

9. Six sigma is basically a prevention tool     1    2    3    4    5

10. Implementation of six sigma provides        1    2    3    4    5
consistency in Service Level Agreements
(SLAB).

11. Six sigma reduces customers' complaints.    1    2    3    4    5

12. Implementing six sigma reduces customer     1    2    3    4    5
waiting time.

13. It improves timing of answering             1    2    3    4    5
customers' calls.

14. Six sigma in banking speeds service         1    2    3    4    5
delivery to customers.

15. Six sigma will result in a higher           1    2    3    4    5
customer satisfaction rate.

16. Implementing six sigma in the bank will     1    2    3    4    5
affect bank's image positively as a quality
organization that seeks continuous
improvement.

17. Implementing six sigma will result in       1    2    3    4    5
higher expectations of customers that are
difficult to meet.


3- Six Sigma Success Factors

11. The following statements relate to your perceptions of factors influencing the success of Six Sigma implementation. Please indicate the box that you feel is the most appropriate to each statement (1=Not important at all; 2 = Not important; 3=Moderate; 4=Important; 5=Very important).
The success of an Six Sigma implementation depends on:

FACTORS                                               Importance

F1. Management Support and commitment

1. Management supporting implementation of
six sigma.                                       1    2    3    4    5

2. Management builds a control quality
culture.                                         1    2    3    4    5

3. The task of quality control is assigned
to a particular department.                      1    2    3    4    5

4. Business Heads promote quality control
implementation.                                  1    2    3    4    5

5. Management are concerned about the
quality of service provided to customers         1    2    3    4    5

6. Quality control and continuous
improvement are clear objectives in
management strategy.                             1    2    3    4    5

F2. Measurement and feedback

1. Customer satisfaction levels are
measured and monitored.                          1    2    3    4    5

2. A system to feedback customer concerns
is established.                                  1    2    3    4    5

3. Internal measures (such as quality
costs, no. of rejects) collected to monitor
quality improvement.                             1    2    3    4    5

4. Employees views are listened to and
acted upon.                                      1    2    3    4    5

5. Critical processes are identified for
improvement.                                     1    2    3    4    5

F3. Improvement tools and techniques

1. Statistical techniques used in design
processes.                                       1    2    3    4    5

2. Statistical techniques used in
production processes.                            1    2    3    4    5

3. Training on tools and techniques provided.    1    2    3    4    5

4. Non-production related functions such as
marketing and sales use quality tools for
improvement activities.                          1    2    3    4    5

5. Appropriate techniques are implemented
when necessary.                                  1    2    3    4    5

F4. Systems and processes

1. Systems and procedures for quality
assurance are implemented.                       1    2    3    4    5

2. Information and data collection system
established to monitor improvement
activities.                                      1    2    3    4    5

3. Relevant training system in place.            1    2    3    4    5

4. Key business processes identified,
improved and monitored.                          1    2    3    4    5

5. Key business processes focused on
meeting the needs of customers.                  1    2    3    4    5

F5. Resources

1. Sufficient financial resources provided
to support improvement activities.               1    2    3    4    5

2. Human resource availability considered
in improvement activities.                       1    2    3    4    5

3. Investment decisions based on sound
resources consideration.                         1    2    3    4    5

4. Technical resources (e.g. software,           1    2    3    4    5
equipment) are provided.

F6. Education and training

1. Employees are trained in job-specific
skills.                                          1    2    3    4    5

2. Employees are trained in
quality-specific tools and techniques.           1    2    3    4    5

3. Employees are trained on total quality
concepts.                                        1    2    3    4    5

4. Training time is provided for employees.      1    2    3    4    5

5. Regular training is provided by quality
management team.                                 1    2    3    4    5

Any additional comments:


Received 17 January January: see month.  2009

Reviewed 16 February February: see month.  2009

Accepted 8 March 2009

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Dinell, D. (2003), "Banking goes Six Sigma", Wichita Wichita, indigenous people of North America
Wichita (wĭch`ĭtô), Native North Americans whose language belongs to the Caddoan branch of the Hokan-Siouan linguistic stock (see Native American languages).
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Kline, R. (1998), Principles and practice of structural equation modeling Structural equation modeling (SEM) is a statistical technique for testing and estimating causal relationships using a combination of statistical data and qualitative causal assumptions. , Guilford Guilford (gĭl`fərd), town (1990 pop. 19,848), New Haven co., S Conn., on Long Island Sound; founded 1639. Fishing, agriculture, and tourism are economically important. Guilford lies in an area that includes several summer shore communities.  Press, New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of
, USA.

Kumar, M., Antony, J., Madu A madu (maru, singuata) is an Indian parrying and thrusting weapon. It consists of a pair of antelope horns fastened behind a small plate consisting of stretched leather, iron, or steel with the tips of the horns pointing in opposite directions. , C., Montgomery Montgomery, city, United States
Montgomery, city (1990 pop. 187,106), state capital and seat of Montgomery co., E central Ala., near the head of navigation on the Alabama River just below the confluence of the Coosa and Tallapoosa rivers, and in the rich
, D. and Park, S. (2008), "Common mythes of Six Sigma demystified", International Journal of Quality & Reliability management, Vol. 25 No. 8, pp. 878-895.

Ladani, L., Das See direct attached storage and FDDI.

DAS - Digital Analog Simulator.

Represents analog computer design.
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Rajamanoharan, I. and Collier, P. (2006), "Six Sigma implementation, organizational change and the impact on performance measured systems", International Journal of Six Sigma and Competitive Advantage, Vol. 2 No. 1, pp. 48-68.

Taner, M., Sezen, B. and Antony, J. (2007), "An overview of Six Sigma applications in healthcare industry", International Journal of health Care Quality Assurance, Vol. 25 No. 3, pp. 276-291.

Tracy, L. (2003), "Bankers steal page from industry to boost quality", Charlotte Business Journal, December 19.

Corresponding author

Salaheldin Ismail Salaheldin can be contacted at: salahialy@qu.edu.qa

Salaheldin Ismail Salaheldin

Management & Marketing Department, College of Business & Economics,

Qatar University, Qatar, and

Iman Shafee Abdelwahab

Personal Banking Services, HSBC HSBC Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation
HSBC Humane Society of Broward County (Florida)
HSBC Humane Society of Bay County (Bay County, Michigan) 
, Financial Tower Branch, Qatar
Table 1. Measures of constructs' reliability and convergent
validity

                                Number of    [alpha]
Constructs                        Items

Expected benefits (a)              17         0.97
Critical success factors (b)       30         0.92

(a) Expected benefits

(b) Critical Success Factors e

[alpha] = Cronbach alpha

Table 2. Demographics of respondents of the survey

                          Number of      Percent of
                         respondents    respondents

Age

Less than 30 years            19            26
30-40                         39            53.4
41-50                         11            15.1
51-60                          4             5.5
More than 60 years             0             0

Gender

Male                          42            57.5
Female                        31            42.5

Role
Top management                13            17.8
Middle management             46            63
First line management         14            19.2

Working Experience

Less than 5 years             37            50.7
5-10                          19            26
More than 10 years            17            23.3

Table 3. Demographics of banks of the survey

                                          Number of      Percent of
                                         respondents    respondents

Planning for Six Sigma implementation

Yes                                           13            17.8
No                                            60            82.2

Implementing Six Sigma

Yes                                            4             5.5
No                                            69            94.5

Nationality

Qatari                                        18            24.7
Multinational                                 55            75.3
Other                                          0             0

Number of employees

Less than 20                                   0             0
20-50                                          0             0
51-100                                         1             1.4
101-500                                       10            13.7
501-1000                                      47            64.4
More than 1000                                15            20.5

Years of establishment

Less than 5 years                              1             1.4
5-10                                           0             0
11-15                                          0             0
16-20                                          0             0
More than 20 years                            72            98.6

Table 4. Significant levels (P values) for the differences among
different managerial levels in the Qatari banking sector concerning
the expected benefits of Six Sigma implementation

Benefit                                       ANOVA *    K-W *

1. Six sigma reduces transaction cost           .361     .385

2. Six sigma reduces administration cost        .301     .412

3. Six sigma reduces costs associated
order corrections.                              .050     .050

4. Implementing six sigma helps in
reducing retuned renewed credit cards.          .042     .048

5. Six sigma focuses on solving the
problem not preventing it.                      .889     .932

6. Six sigma implementation improves the
decision making process.                        .774     .811

7. Six sigma is a tool to improve
internal business processes.                    .969     .998

8. Six sigma aims at reducing mistakes
in general.                                     .802     .891

9. Six sigma is basically a prevention too      .203     .311

10. Implementation of six sigma provides
consistency in Service Level Agreements
(SLAB).                                         .779     .843

11. Six sigma reduces customers'
complaints.                                     .448     .512

12. Implementing six sigma reduces
customer waiting time.                          .007     .013

13. It improves timing of answering
customers' calls.                               .765     .778

14. Six sigma in banking speeds service
delivery to customers.                          .617     .701

15. Six sigma will result in a higher
customer satisfaction rate.                     .630     .689

16. Implementing six sigma in the bank
will affect bank's image positively as a
quality organization that seeks
continuous improvement.                         .000     .001

17. Implementing six sigma will result
in higher expectations of customers that
are difficult to meet.                          .639     .712

-Based on a Likert scale: 1 = "strongly disagree"; 5 = "strongly
agree" * Using One Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Kruskal
Wallis (K-W) ** Significant at level .05

Table 5. Significant levels (P values) for the differences among
different managerial levels in the Qatari banking sector concerning
the critical success factor of Six Sigma implementation

Critical success factor                        ANOVA *    K-W *

F1. Management Support and commitment

1. Management supporting implementation of
   six sigma implementation.                     .252     .298

2. Management builds a control quality
   culture.                                      .220     .311

3. The task of quality control is assigned
   to a particular department.                   .593     .612

4. Business Heads promote quality control
   implementation.                               .005     .005

5. Management are concerned about the
   quality of service provided to customers      .397     .411

6. Quality control and continuous
   improvement are clear objectives in
   management strategy.                          .968     .998

F2. Measurement and feedback

1. Customer satisfaction levels are
   measured and monitored.                       .987     .999

2. A system to feedback customer concerns
   is established.                               .492     .544

3. Internal measures (such as quality
   costs, no. of rejects) collected to
   monitor quality improvement.                  .479     .567

4. Employees views are listened to and
   acted upon.                                   .635     .734

5. Critical processes are identified for
   improvement.                                  .482     .490

F3. Improvement tools and techniques

1. Statistical techniques used in design
   processes.                                    .001     .002

2. Statistical techniques used in
   production processes.                         .766     .833

3. Training on tools and techniques
   provided.                                     .799     .811

4. Non-production related functions such as
   marketing and sales use quality tools
   for improvement activities.                   .001     .002

5. Appropriate techniques are implemented
   when necessary.                               .017     .019

F4. Systems and processes

1. Systems and procedures for quality
   assurance are implemented.                    .033     .045

2. Information and data collection system
   established to monitor improvement
   activities.                                   .115     .221

3. Relevant training system in place.            .565     .671

4. Key business processes identified,
   improved and monitored.                       .481     .490

5. Key business processes focused on
   meeting the needs of customers.               .930     .986

F5. Resources

1. Sufficient financial resources provided
   to support improvement activities.            .858     .994

2. Human resource availability considered
   in improvement activities.                    .453     .546

3. Investment decisions based on sound
   resources consideration.                      .599     .652

4. Technical resources (e.g. software,
   equipment) are provided.                      .658     .711

F6. Education and training

1. Employees are trained in job-specific
   skills.                                       .367     .411

2. Employees are trained in
   quality-specific tools and techniques.        .883     .945

3. Employees are trained on total quality
   concepts.                                     .591     .644

4. Training time is provided for employees.      .276     .298

5. Regular training is provided by quality
   management team.                              .001     .002

-Based on a Likert scale: 1 = "not important at all"; 5 = "very
important" * Using One Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Kruskal
Wallis (K-W) ** Significant at level .05.
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Author:Salaheldin, Salaheldin Ismail; Abdelwahab, Iman Shafee
Publication:Global Business and Management Research: An International Journal
Date:Jan 1, 2009
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