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Silicon Valley Firms' Operational Tactics and Venture Performance in Greater China.

The factors that influenced the market entry decisions and operational tactics of 24 Silicon Valley "hi-tech hi-tech  
Variant of high-tech.


using sophisticated, esp. electronic, technology

Adj. 1.
" firms in China, Hong Kong Hong Kong (hŏng kŏng), Mandarin Xianggang, special administrative region of China, formerly a British crown colony (2005 est. pop. 6,899,000), land area 422 sq mi (1,092 sq km), adjacent to Guangdong prov. , and Taiwan Taiwan (tī`wän`), Portuguese Formosa, officially Republic of China, island nation (2005 est. pop. 22,894,000), 13,885 sq mi (35,961 sq km), in the Pacific Ocean, separated from the mainland of S China by the 100-mi-wide (161-km) Taiwan  is revealed and examined in this research. First, our study reviews a market entry model developed for China; then we examine the micro-level strategies that our 24 sample firms used to improve venture performance in greater China. It is shown through a case analysis methodology that a contingent link between market entry decision factors and entry mode selection does exist and that creating a good "fit" between these decision factors and the operating mode choice does lead to improved venture performance. Specifically, foreign venture performance is explained in part by choosing an operating mode that meets the requirements of a firm's international strategy. The case analysis also indicates that a firm's emphasis on integrating its marketing efforts closely with its customers requirements, typically with a wholly-owned subsidiary presence, increases venture perf ormance for one-and two-step suppliers. The results also demonstrate that technology transfer costs and environmental concerns are normally managed by more refined means than operating mode selection. Specifically, the high-tech high-tech also hi-tech
adj. Informal
Of, relating to, or resembling high technology.


same as hi-tech

Adj. 1.
 firms in our study use micro-level strategies to protect their technology and minimize environmental uncertainty while meeting host government demands and achieving market access.

This study examines the process by which U.s. "high-tech" firms choose to enter into the markets of Greater China (1). Specifically, we examine the linkage linkage

In mechanical engineering, a system of solid, usually metallic, links (bars) connected to two or more other links by pin joints (hinges), sliding joints, or ball-and-socket joints to form a closed chain or a series of closed chains.
 between a firm's market entry choice and its venture performance. We also look closely at certain microstrategies that were undertaken to improve the likelihood of venture success. To identify these issues we conduct a case analysis of 24 Silicon Valley high-tech manufacturers and their investments into China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong. We build upon the market entry framework that we developed in a 2000 study that analyzed an·a·lyze  
tr.v. an·a·lyzed, an·a·lyz·ing, an·a·lyz·es
1. To examine methodically by separating into parts and studying their interrelations.

2. Chemistry To make a chemical analysis of.

 15 market entries into China.' That study developed a contingency contingency n. an event that might not occur.  framework that was based on a replication In database management, the ability to keep distributed databases synchronized by routinely copying the entire database or subsets of the database to other servers in the network.

There are various replication methods.
 case analysis methodology. (2) There we found that some market entry modes were higher performing given certain market conditions, proprietary technologies, and governmental constraints CONSTRAINTS - A language for solving constraints using value inference.

["CONSTRAINTS: A Language for Expressing Almost-Hierarchical Descriptions", G.J. Sussman et al, Artif Intell 14(1):1-39 (Aug 1980)].
. This study looks beyond the contingent market entry model and explores the micro-strategies that firms used to enhance their venture performance.

First, we review the market entry literature that focuses on China. Then we review the theoretical foundations of our market entry model. Finally, we discuss the micro-strategies that were employed by our 24 firms as they pursued the Greater China market.

Reviewing the Scholarship

A firm's entry mode choice generally determines its amount of control over a new venture as well as the amount of resources it needs to commit. (3) With unlimited resources and free from external constraints, a firm would rationally choose the operating mode that gave it the most control possible over venture operations. Because firms have finite finite - compact  resources to commit to foreign operations, a choice is forced upon them, and a tradeoff must be established between the amount of resources (capital, know-how know-how  
The knowledge and skill required to do something correctly. See Synonyms at art1.


Informal the ability to do something that is difficult or technical
, etc.) it can spare and the amount of control it deems necessary to succeed in the country.

A review of the market entry research on China is crucial to benchmarking our entry mode and venture performance framework. Recent studies that looked at operating modes found that most firms entering China preferred the joint venture method. (4) However, the choice of operating mode was often the result of Chinese Chinese, subfamily of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages (see Sino-Tibetan languages), which is also sometimes grouped with the Tai, or Thai, languages in a Sinitic subfamily of the Sino-Tibetan language stock.  governmental constraints. (5) Recent research unveils significant conflicts of interest between the Chinese government Ever since Republic of China founded in January 1st, 1912, China has had several regional and national governments. List
  • Chinese Soviet Republic
  • Provisional Government of the Republic of China
  • Reformed Government of the Republic of China
 and multinational corporations

Main article: multinational corporations

  • ABB
  • ABN-Amro
  • Accenture
  • Aditya Birla
  • Affiliated Computer Services Inc
  • Airbus
  • Allianz
  • Altria Group
  • American Express
  • Akzo Nobel
  • Apple Inc.
. (6)

However, regardless of the chosen entry mode, investing firms are primarily interested in maximizing venture performance. One research team found that seven of the eight U.S./Chinese joint ventures they studied reported profitable performance. (7) Managers of both sides of the ventures said they were satisfied with the venture although U.S. managers expressed concerns over the lack of control over the venture while Chinese managers would prefer a faster pace of technology transfer to the venture. Using a comparative case study methodology of four U.S./PRC joint ventures, another team found that the bargaining power of joint venture partners influenced control in a joint venture and ultimately venture performance. They found that Chinese managers generally focus on learning from the U.S. partner, while U.S. management desires market share and profitability. (8) Others report an 11.6 percent average ROI (Return On Investment) The monetary benefits derived from having spent money on developing or revising a system. In the IT world, there are more ways to compute ROI than Carter has liver pills (and for those of you who never heard of that expression, it means a lot).  of the U.S. companies that they survey in China, (9) and another reports that 11 of the 14 U.S./Chinese join t ventures that they studied report "good ROI." (10)

Another study of over 1,000 foreign enterprises in China finds that the operating modes they examined (wholly foreign-owned enterprises, equity joint ventures and cooperative ventures) did not significantly affect the level of profitability. They also show that enterprises from the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area.  and Japan are more profitable than those of Hong Kong or Taiwan. (11) A related study of 1066 foreign enterprises in China uses duration analysis to track the time it takes foreign ventures to receive permits, begin production, and earn a profit. These authors report that wholly-owned subsidiaries and cooperative operations with non-state-owned enterprises start manufacturing faster than other forms of business. (12) However, once again, the mode of investment does not seem to be related to the time it takes to earn a profit.

This report examines the relationship between the factors that impact the entry mode choice, and ultimate venture performance. The decision factors we explore include: (1) international strategy, (2) decision context (decision process comprehensiveness and decision team heterogeneity het·er·o·ge·ne·i·ty
The quality or state of being heterogeneous.


the state of being heterogeneous.
), (3) technology transfer costs, and (4) environmental potential and uncertainty. The entry mode choices include: wholly-owned subsidiary (WOS), joint venture (JV), and exporting.

The linkage between the decision factors, the market entry choice, and the venture performance is determined through a contingency relationship. We examine the theoretical grounding for each of the decision factors to prescribe pre·scribe
To give directions, either orally or in writing, for the preparation and administration of a remedy to be used in the treatment of a disease.
 the appropriate relationship of each decision factor to the entry mode choice and ultimate venture performance. We propose that the "fit" between an optimal profile of the decision factors and the entry mode choice has a positive effect on venture performance.

The market entry mode decision model and contingency matrix were evaluated and modified through an iterative it·er·a·tive  
1. Characterized by or involving repetition, recurrence, reiteration, or repetitiousness.

2. Grammar Frequentative.

Noun 1.
 case analysis methodology. (13) In essence, the data from each case are compared with the template (1) A pre-designed document or data file formatted for common purposes such as a fax, invoice or business letter. If the document contains an automated process, such as a word processing macro or spreadsheet formula, then the programming is already written and embedded in the  framework. Where the template framework adequately explains the findings of two or more cases, replication was shown and support for the template model claimed. Where the results from a case conflict with the framework, the framework was adapted to better explain the case data.

Supporting Theory

Five theoretical perspectives are applied to the entry model development. 1. International Strategy Variables (Motivations for Foreign Involvement). (14) A firm's international strategy is defined as its choices in acquiring foreign resources, capturing foreign markets, and integrating its operations globally. The international strategy typology typology /ty·pol·o·gy/ (ti-pol´ah-je) the study of types; the science of classifying, as bacteria according to type.


the study of types; the science of classifying, as bacteria according to type.
 (market-seeking, resource-seeking, transnational integration, competitive response) discussed in this article attempts to capture both the venture and corporate level motivations of the firm. This typology is based on the motivations for foreign involvement [15] and the global strategic considerations. [16]

2. Decision Context Variables (Dominant Logic Theory of the Firm. [17] Decision context is defined in terms of both the decision process a firm employs and the makeup makeup

In the performing arts, material used by actors for cosmetic purposes and to help create the characters they play. Not needed in Greek and Roman theatre because of the use of masks, makeup was used in the religious plays of medieval Europe, in which the angels' faces
 of the decision team. Because corporate decisions are often an artifact A distortion in an image or sound caused by a limitation or malfunction in the hardware or software. Artifacts may or may not be easily detectable. Under intense inspection, one might find artifacts all the time, but a few pixels out of balance or a few milliseconds of abnormal sound  of a previous time, this article examines the role that the decision context of the firm plays in determining the firm's entry decision. The strategic mentality men·tal·i·ty
The sum of a person's intellectual capabilities or endowment.
 of the firm, [18] rooted in the Dominant Logic Theory of the firm, implies that firms will tend to enter new international markets in much the same way that they have entered existing international markets (maintaining the general strategy of the firm).

3. Technology Transfer Costs (Transaction Cost Economics) [19] defines technology as "a body of knowledge, tools, and techniques, derived from both science and practical experience, that is used in the development, design, production, and application of products, processes, systems, and services." This definition indicates that technology entails both physical machinery and know-how. Technology transfer costs are defined as the costs associated with the transfer of a firm's technology (machinery or know-how) across organizational boundaries.

4. Environmental Variables (Options Theory) [20] defines the environment as "the totality TOTALITY. The whole sum or quantity.
     2. In making a tender, it is requisite that the totality of the sum due should be offered, together with the interest and costs. Vide Tender.
 of physical and social factors that are taken directly into consideration in the decision-making decision-making,
n the process of coming to a conclusion or making a judgment.

decision-making, evidence-based,
n a type of informal decision-making that combines clinical expertise, patient concerns, and evidence gathered from
 behavior of individuals in the organization." Options theory has proven useful in past organizational research on global expansion and strategic alliances. [21] It also seems particularly useful for environmental analysis. Some analysts contend that the value of an option increases as the volatility of the underlying asset's value rises, without regard to the direction of the latter's change in value. [22] This implies that as the perceived environmental uncertainty (PEU PEU Pain Execution Unit (Part of the PainStation art project)
PEU Perceived Ease of Use
PEU Power Electronics Unit
PEU Processing Electronics Unit
PEU Peripheral Electronics Unit
PEU Pci Expansion Unit
) of a potential market increases, the value of keeping an option open increases by allowing the organization potential future gains or by limiting its losses.

Because the value of the firm can be conceived in terms of the sum of the Net Present Value (NPV NPV

See: Net present value
) of its operations and the value of its options, a firm's involvement in a new market can be predicted based on the perceived value of the market, as measured by each of these indicators. However, they vary in their influence. High NPV implies high involvement (WOS), and moderate NPV implies moderate involvement (JV). However, high options value implies high PEU and the need to keep an option open through low involvement (licensing). The firm can be predicted to respond to the highest contributor to firm value-either the NPV or the Options value. (See Table One.)

5. Performance (Contingency Theory Contingency theory refers to any of a number of management theories. Several contingency approaches were developed concurrently in the late 1960s.

They suggested that previous theories such as Weber's bureaucracy and Taylor's scientific management had failed because they
) [23] Our analysis bases predictions of performance on a contingency "fit" relationship between entry choice and the proposed optimal profile of contingency factors. Performance in this study is measured as objective venture profitability. To ensure superior performance of new international ventures, it is posited that management must ensure an effective alignment Alignment is the adjustment of an object in relation with other objects, or a static orientation of some object or set of objects in relation to others.
  • An alignment of megaliths: see stone row.
 between the firm's international strategy, the environment of the new international venture, the technology involved, and the entry mode choice. Because it is posited that each of these entry modes best "fits" a particular profile of the independent factors, it is argued that performance will be enhanced when the entry mode matches the corresponding optimizing profile. This notion of matching a strategy to a contingent set of circumstances CIRCUMSTANCES, evidence. The particulars which accompany a fact.
     2. The facts proved are either possible or impossible, ordinary and probable, or extraordinary and improbable, recent or ancient; they may have happened near us, or afar off; they are public or
 forms the essence of contingency theory. [24]

Fit, here, is defined as adherence adherence /ad·her·ence/ (ad-her´ens) the act or condition of sticking to something.

immune adherence
 to an externally specified profile. [21] In this investigation, an ideal profile of decision factors is established through the preceding theoretical integration. Adherence to this prescribed pre·scribe  
v. pre·scribed, pre·scrib·ing, pre·scribes
1. To set down as a rule or guide; enjoin. See Synonyms at dictate.

2. To order the use of (a medicine or other treatment).
 profile should lead to enhanced performance, while deviation DEVIATION, insurance, contracts. A voluntary departure, without necessity, or any reasonable cause, from the regular and usual course of the voyage insured.
 from this profile should lead to poorer performance. Because it is posited that each of these operating modes best "fits" a particular profile of the independent factors, it is argued that performance will be enhanced when the operating mode matches the corresponding optimizing profile.

The market entry model (Figure One) was developed from the case analysis of 15 U.S. ventures entering the PRC market. The firm's international strategy is shown to be the driving force (bold arrow) for the market entry decision. Within the firm's international strategy, a market-seeking strategy is segmented into high versus low sales integration effort. The high and low integration market-seeking strategies are the primary drivers of the operating mode choices taken by the firms in this sample. The firm's decision context is shown to moderate the international strategy choice and operating mode selection. High decision context often allowed for a better international strategy and mode selection, but did not lead to a particular selection. The environment and technology transfer costs are not completely discounted but are primarily managed in ways other than the operating mode choice. Therefore, their link to the operating mode decision is weaker than that of a firm's international strategy.

Additional moderators are shown to exist in the market entry model. Resource and government constraints and incentives moderate the decision context and the operating mode choice. Firms with more slack 1. (operating system) slack - Internal fragmentation. Space allocated to a disk file but not actually used to store useful information.
2. (jargon) slack
 resources were able to spend additional time and capital in contemplating an operating mode. This ability led to a higher decision context and often a better decision. Firms also responded to resource incentives or efficiencies in their mode choice. Simply, firms pursued efficiency in their resource expenditures while attempting to satisfy their international strategy or minimize their technology transfer costs. Normally, this resource incentive or efficiency is a function of the scale of involvement. For example, a high level of sales make the fixed costs fixed costs, the costs that do not change to meet fluctuations in enrollment or in use of services (e.g., salaries, rent, business license fees, and depreciation).
 of a wholly-owned sales office more efficient than the variable costs of a distributor.

External constraints, typically from host government agencies, often restrict the choice of operating mode. This is particularly true for investment in China. These external constraints also impact the decision context, in that firms either spend less time on an operating mode choice because of external constraints or spend increased time looking for Looking for

In the context of general equities, this describing a buy interest in which a dealer is asked to offer stock, often involving a capital commitment. Antithesis of in touch with.
 ways to maneuver maneuver /ma·neu·ver/ (mah-noo´ver) a skillful or dextrous method or procedure.

Bracht's maneuver  a method of extraction of the aftercoming head in breech presentation.
 around external constraints. The link to performance is given within the new contingency framework. The contingency framework is adapted from the case findings as displayed in Table Two. Here, performance is predicted to be higher for firms where the operating mode "fits" with the contingency factors. Fit between the operating mode choice and the firm's international strategy is shown to be particularly significant. The order of importance of factor fit with the operating mode is shown from left to right. International strategy is predominant pre·dom·i·nant  
1. Having greatest ascendancy, importance, influence, authority, or force. See Synonyms at dominant.

 and must be primarily accounted for in fit estimation estimation

In mathematics, use of a function or formula to derive a solution or make a prediction. Unlike approximation, it has precise connotations. In statistics, for example, it connotes the careful selection and testing of a function called an estimator.
 for high performance. Potential strategies which ma y be pursued by the firm are made somewhat more specific based on the results from the case analysis.

To sum, the data for market entry indicate a strong impact of the firm's international strategy on the operating mode choice of the firm. Further, a link between the fit of the operating mode choice, decision factors and performance is shown to exist. A firm's technology transfer costs do not seem to significantly impact the operating mode decision as these estimated costs are managed in other ways.

Research Design and Data Collection Procedures

1. Interviews -- These are the most important for insightful first-hand first-hand

obtained directly from the original source


1. directly from the original source

 information. Three segments of interviews are used for this collection; open ended (unstructured questions), focused semistructured questions, and a structured survey (26)

The research design chosen for this investigation is the multiple-case study approach. The items most pertinent PERTINENT, evidence. Those facts which tend to prove the allegations of the party offering them, are called pertinent; those which have no such tendency are called impertinent, 8 Toull. n. 22. By pertinent is also meant that which belongs. Willes, 319.  to this investigation include:

2. Archival records -- Company annual reports, 10Ks, press releases, and financial data

3. Direct observation -- Factory floor tours, observation of the condition of the headquarters and the mood of the personnel

4. Documentation -- Company internal administrative notes and outside newspaper articles. (These data mainly serve to corroborate To support or enhance the believability of a fact or assertion by the presentation of additional information that confirms the truthfulness of the item.

The testimony of a witness is corroborated if subsequent evidence, such as a coroner's report or the testimony of other
 and augment aug·ment  
v. aug·ment·ed, aug·ment·ing, aug·ments
1. To make (something already developed or well under way) greater, as in size, extent, or quantity:
 evidence from other sources).

Although much of the theory extension and model adaptation is based on the open-ended o·pen-end·ed
1. Not restrained by definite limits, restrictions, or structure.

2. Allowing for or adaptable to change.

 discussions with executives from the participating companies, the remarks are validated val·i·date  
tr.v. val·i·dat·ed, val·i·dat·ing, val·i·dates
1. To declare or make legally valid.

2. To mark with an indication of official sanction.

 with structured survey rating questions on many of the same topics. Further, archival records, other documentation, and direct observation are used to triangulate See triangulation.  on what appear to be the most important issues to the operating mode decision and venture performance.

The final target sample includes firms from the computer/integrated circuit, telecommunications Communicating information, including data, text, pictures, voice and video over long distance. See communications. , and medical equipment industries. All the firms are "high-tech" manufacturers/developers. The range of investment sites studied included those in China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan.

Data Analysis

The multiple-case process is performed to provide a more holistic Holistic
A practice of medicine that focuses on the whole patient, and addresses the social, emotional, and spiritual needs of a patient as well as their physical treatment.

Mentioned in: Aromatherapy, Stress Reduction, Traditional Chinese Medicine
 understanding of the market entry decision and its link to performance as well as the supporting strategies and tactics taken by the firms in this sample. Analysis proceeded with the strategy asserted by researchers R.K. Yin and K.M. Eisenhardt respectively. (27) That is, the theoretical framework and propositions were used to guide the data analysis, and (using each case description) to allow more insights to emerge. Within-case analysis is completed by writing up a summary of each interview discussion, as well as the observations and analysis of the discussion. Pertinent background information from each company's annual reports, 10Ks, and press releases is also included in each case summary. Separate files for each company case are maintained and referred to when necessary for additional information. The purpose here is to become intimately familiar with each case as a stand alone entity. (28) This case database allows more coherent analysis and better access for replication or reanalysis, thus increasing the reliability of the findings. (29) Data (qualitative summary, questionnaire responses, and background information) from each company are then triangulated and summarized to a common format to better permit pattern matching 1. pattern matching - A function is defined to take arguments of a particular type, form or value. When applying the function to its actual arguments it is necessary to match the type, form or value of the actual arguments against the formal arguments in some definition.  to the theoretical template and cross case comparisons.


The main purpose of the investigation is to study the micro strategies and tactics that firms used in addition to their entry mode. Table Three describes the destination of investment for our sample firms.

The market entry modes represented in the sample are fairly diverse. The WOS (sales/service/liaison/hub) offices in the sample serve a variety of functions depending on the parent company's objective and host country constraints. For example, many of the WOS offices in China are liaison offices that cannot sell products directly, but can demonstrate and market their products and delegate A person who is appointed, authorized, delegated, or commissioned to act in the place of another. Transfer of authority from one to another. A person to whom affairs are committed by another.

A person elected or appointed to be a member of a representative assembly.
 sales to third party distributors, usually based in China or Hong Kong. These liaison offices are wholly-owned entities and require higher resource and control than strictly distributor relationships. Therefore, these are grouped with WOS (sales/service). One firm's subsidiary office serves as a regional hub to manage the distribution effort for the region. The balance of the WOS sales offices are typically staffed with between five and ten sales managers sales manager ngerente m/f de ventas

sales manager ndirecteur commercial

sales manager sale n
 and field engineers. They often provide extensive service to regional clients and usually require substantial capital to set up and maintain. Overall, each of the subsidiar y offices are wholly controlled by the parent company and have little if any manufacturing capacity.

The manufacturing subsidiaries all carry out significant manufacturing or development work in the host country. The joint venture manufacturing and sales operations are all conducted with a host country firm and are typically chosen in part to satisfy some host government restrictions to ownership. (One joint venture was a three-way partnership with two U.S. firms and one Chinese firm.) The distributor modes are usually chosen by smaller companies seeking market penetration Noun 1. market penetration - the extent to which a product is recognized and bought by customers in a particular market
penetration - the act of entering into or through something; "the penetration of upper management by women"
, and best represent the export option in the sample.

All exporters used intermediaries in the host country. This is most likely because of the complexity of many of the products offered by the sample firms. This complexity normally requires at least some period of set up and training that is performed either by distributors or local support staff. A number of busineses in the sample firms have recently replaced distributors with WOS sales offices as these firms increase focus on their international sales and service effort. No licensing agreements existed in the sample. In the following we provide a summary discussion of two ages from the study.

Case Summaries and Arguments

Firm 1

The first company that was examined in the main field study is a medium-sized Me´di`um-sized`

a. 1. Having a medium size; as, a medium-sized man s>.

Adj. 1. medium-sized - intermediate in size
medium-size, moderate-size, moderate-sized
 manufacturer of components that are inserted into integrated circuits Integrated circuits

Miniature electronic circuits produced within and upon a single semiconductor crystal, usually silicon. Integrated circuits range in complexity from simple logic circuits and amplifiers, about 1/20 in. (1.
. Essentially, this company is a supplier to integrated circuit integrated circuit (IC), electronic circuit built on a semiconductor substrate, usually one of single-crystal silicon. The circuit, often called a chip, is packaged in a hermetically sealed case or a nonhermetic plastic capsule, with leads extending from it for  fabricators. Its customer supplies PC makers who sell to the general public. In essence, this company is two steps down the value chain from the final customer. Firm 1 chose a distributor in Hong Kong to look for new markets in Hong Kong and China. We classified its strategy as market-seeking. The respondent In Equity practice, the party who answers a bill or other proceeding in equity. The party against whom an appeal or motion, an application for a court order, is instituted and who is required to answer in order to protect his or her interests.  asserts that resource constraints limit the firm's pursuit of this market to a distributor. This corresponds to the weak cash position of the firm because of its recent acquisitions and extraordinary expenses as stated in its public reports.

Performance is rated as being low. The respondent commented that "There is a pony in China somewhere, but we have not found it yet." This company demonstrates moderate decision comprehensiveness and low decision team heterogeneity. This low decision context probably impacted the strategy and operating mode selection. Technology transfer costs are rated moderate to high. The market entry model suggests that the moderate to high technology transfer costs demand higher internalization Internalization

A decision by a brokerage to fill an order with the firm's own inventory of stock.

When a brokerage receives an order they have numerous choices as to how it should be filled.
, perhaps through a joint venture or subsidiary, and thus do not fit well with the distributor choice.

According to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.

2. In keeping with: according to instructions.

 the respondent's discussion and questionnaire items, the assessment of the environment potential is high and the uncertainty moderate. This indicates a moderate NPV for the country. The moderate net present value demands a joint venture and does not fit the distributor choice. Performance is low. The fit between the decision factors and the operating mode choice is low. Predictebly, the firm exhibited low performance.

It seems here that the low decision context is a significant factor in leading to a poor strategy of market-seeking where a more highly integrated sales effort is demanded because of the nature of the technology and need to fit its technology with the potential customer. Thus, decision context is shown to moderate the international strategy choice as well as the operating mode selection.

During the analysis of this case, we developed a new insight. We determined that some companies have the need for a higher integrated sales effort for complex devices. We also developed the notion of a 2-step supplier- two steps away from a final consumer.

Firm 3

This company is a large firm that manufactures integrated circuits for PC makers. It entered China via a wholly-owned sales/service office in Beijing Beijing (bā-jĭng) or Peking (pē-kĭng, pā–), city (1994 est. urban pop. 6,093,300; 1994 est. total pop. 7,240,700), capital of the People's Republic of China. It is in central Hebei prov.  to serve northern China customers. It made this choice only after an exhaustive process over eight years to determine when the market was ready and facilities were available to set up operations. The firm indicates a highly integrated sales strategy of following customers to supply comprehensive direct service. This assessment is made primarily on the respondent comments as no questionnaire items were prepared for this emerging strategy from the study.

The firm also hopes to slowly establish a brand name to attract new customers. Therefore, the WOS fits well with the strategy. This good "fit" between its operating mode choice and strategy is probably the result of the high decision context that the company employs. Although this firm has perceptions of high environmental uncertainty the company has been able to mitigate mit·i·gate
To moderate in force or intensity.

miti·gation n.
 these fears through establishing an office in a university with a trusted core of people. The respondent commented that the "trigger was a well established core of people and their perception that the market was ready."

A new insight that developed from this case is the importance of a core group of trusted people in the country who can launch operations when the market is ready. Table Four summarizes the perinent case data for all the sample firms.

Analysis Discussion (Micro-Level Strategies)

Providing Better Service to Customers Within the market-seeking international strategy, it has become apparent that a differentiation could be drawn between those firms that provide a highly integrated sales service with those that provide a relatively low level of sales integration. Ten companies indicate that their high integration sales strategy to meet customer needs and service requirements is the primary factor that led to their operating decision.

The high-integration sales strategy emphasizes a higher dedication to servicing customers (often existing customers now operating abroad) versus a concern on finding new customers and markets. This focus often led firms in the study to move from distribution strategies to direct subsidiaries for sales and service offices. This high-integration sales strategy seems to be a function of three factors: the design-in requirement for a company's product as a component in its customer's products, the relative value chain position of the focal company, and the desired level of service differentiation.

A number of companies emphasize the need to design their product into their customer's production system. This design-in requirement meant that a firm's sales force needs to be present at the design facility of their customer. For example, Firm 3, a semiconductor manufacturer, indicated the need to have a presence at their OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturer) The rebranding of equipment and selling it. The term initially referred to the company that made the products (the "original" manufacturer), but eventually became widely used to refer to the organization that buys the products and  customer's design facility. He stated "We need to design-in our product with the OEM to make the sale, therefore we must be where the design is taking place." Firm 17, a maker of semiconductor fabrication fabrication (fab´rikā´shn),
n the construction or making of a restoration.
 equipment echoes this sentiment, stating that "our product is so integrated into the design of a fabrication facility that it is not important where our product is finally put in place. We must sell at the development stage of a fabrication production system."

Firm 8, a designer of passive electronic components for various electronic OEMs, also emphasized the need to design its product into its customers' products as well. The failure of its current distributor to do this led to its firing. In sum, many of the supplier firms indicate a need to "design-in" their product into current or potential client firms' products. This design-in requirement seems best satisfied with a direct presence (WOS) at the point of customer product design.

The point of design-in is determined to be a function of the customer company structure. Another semiconductor equipment manufacturer states that "a multi-level sale strategy depends on the customer structure; for a centralized cen·tral·ize  
v. cen·tral·ized, cen·tral·iz·ing, cen·tral·iz·es
1. To draw into or toward a center; consolidate.

 company, design-in and sales take place at the headquarters, then each of the company's fabrication facilities around the world implements that design. In a decentralized de·cen·tral·ize  
v. de·cen·tral·ized, de·cen·tral·iz·ing, de·cen·tral·iz·es
1. To distribute the administrative functions or powers of (a central authority) among several local authorities.
 company, the design-in and sale are at the site of the facility, to allow modification for each facility." The case analysis indicates that the supplying firm's design-in requirement and the customer company structure influences the operating mode strategy of the firm. Table Five illustrates the impact of this relationship.

Here, the level of design-in matched against the customer company's structure drives the operating mode decision and the disposition of a company's resources and sales effort. High level design-in requirement drives high-integration sales strategies (WOS for sales and service) and the customer structure (centralized to decentralized) determines the point of supplier focus (headquarters or production site). Low design-in requirement can be satisfied with third party distribution efforts at either the customer headquarters (centralized structure) or customer production site (decentralized structure). Typically, supplier firms face this requirement more than OEMs.

The importance of the customer is also seen to drive the level of sales integration. The importance of the customer seems to be associated with the relative point on the value chain of the supplier and the customer. The value chain notion was first brought to light by Michael Porter This article or section needs sources or references that appear in reliable, third-party publications. Alone, primary sources and sources affiliated with the subject of this article are not sufficient for an accurate encyclopedia article. . It simply discusses the various points of value creation of a product from various suppliers to the final consumer. As shown to emerge from the case arguments, four value chain positions exist in the sample: the OEM (original equipment manufacturer) which sells to the public, the 1-step supplier (one step from the final customer) which sells to the OEM, the 2-step supplier which sells to the 1-step supplier, and the 1-step OEM which sells to a user of the product which sells services to the public.

The general public is seen as the final consumer for any product. Thus, the OEM who makes computers for sale directly to the public is linked to the public. The OEM which makes final products for professionals to create products for the final consumer is seen as one step away from the public (1-step OEM). The 1-step supplier could be the integrated circuit manufacturer who supplies chips to the computer maker, or the computer peripheral manufacturer who sells its product to the computer maker. The 2-step supplier could be the firm that manufacturers equipment needed for the creation of the integrated circuits that are then sold to the computer manufacturer. Here, greater sales-integration seems to be a function of the distance the focal company is away from the final consuming public. Table Six indicates the value chain position of the sample firms.

In this sample of high tech firms investing in Greater China there is a direct relation between the point of the value chain of the focal company and its level of sales integration. Of the six 2-step supplier companies, two emphasize a high-integrated sales strategy as the primary determinant determinant, a polynomial expression that is inherent in the entries of a square matrix. The size n of the square matrix, as determined from the number of entries in any row or column, is called the order of the determinant.  driving their market entry strategy. Both of these companies rate venture performance as moderate to high. (One firm in the sample, without performance data, also judged its high-integration sales strategy as the primary determinant.) Of the other four 2-step suppliers, all indicate a low-integration sales (market-seeking) strategy as the predominant determinant of their operating mode choice and all of these firms judge performance as low.

Of the nine 1-step suppliers, four indicate a high-integration sales strategy as the primary factor impacting their operating mode choice. These four firms indicate moderate or high performance. Three of the four 1-step suppliers that indicate a low-integration market-seeking factor as a primary determinant have low performance. The remaining 1-step supplier indicates resource-seeking as a primary factor determining their operating choice. For 1-step suppliers focusing on sales, there is an indication that a high-integration sales strategy is more effective than a low-integration market-seeking strategy. This relationship is not as strong as for the 2-step suppliers.

Of the five 1-step OEMs, 3 indicate a high-integration sales orientation, all with moderate to high performance. Here, the tendency for high-integration sales is still strong but its necessity to build high performance is not as clear as for the one and 2-step suppliers. Of the 4 OEMs, 2 indicate a low-integration market-seeking focus as the primary factor. All have moderate to high performance. One OEM has a high-integration sales strategy, also with high performance. This data clearly points to both a higher tendency for firms down the value chain to more often exhibit a high-integration sales strategy than OEMs and to profit from that orientation.

Here, the incidence of a high-integration sales strategy in a general market-seeking orientation is clearly highest among 2-step suppliers and most effective for 1 and 2-step suppliers. OEMs seem to be successful with pure market-seeking emphasis. This relationship is shown in Figure Two.

In addition to the design-in requirement and value chain position of the focal firm, sales integration is also seen as a level of service differentiation that can serve as a competitive advantage. Firm 16, a manufacturer of IC fabrication equipment, indicates that a direct presence shows customers more commitment and respect. Another supplier to IC manufacturers states that "in order to get business, we must promise the fab facility that we will be direct on site, even though the design and sale are made in the United States. Fabrication production customers want you to be direct at production site." Another semiconductor equipment manufacturer emphasizes "... integrated circuit fabrication facilities cost at least $3 billion and depreciation is the highest expense over labor and materials labor and materials (time and materials) n. what some builders or repair people contract to provide and be paid for, rather than a fixed price or a percentage of the costs. ; therefore, they must run around the clock. They cannot afford down time. They must have fast competent direct service from the vendor".

To review, the level of sales integration is seen to be a function of (1) design-in requirement/customer structure, (2) value chain position, and (3) desired service level differentiation. The need for a higher sales integration international strategy is shown to increase with increasing design-in requirement, a value chain position further from the final consumer, and a higher level of desired service differentiation. A high integration sales strategy is thus defined as a concentrated effort to anticipate customer needs and to provide timely tailored solutions that meet or exceed customer requirements through highly interactive direct support. This high integration sales effort seems appropriate for many of the firms in this sample which could be considered specialty equipment producers. Researchers have found that "specialty equipment producers usually need to design for and work closely with individual clients." (30)

A high sales-integration strategy normally requires a direct presence (WOS) to bring high venture performance. Of the eight companies in the study that indicate high integration sales effort as the primary factor driving the operating mode choice and report performance data, all have WOSs or JVs--all reporting moderate to high performance. None have an indirect presence of a distribution strategy.

Distinguishing a high versus a low sales integration effort within a market-seeking strategy has precedent in the international marketing literature. Maintaining close integration with a customer who is expanding internationally often necessitates following that customer abroad. A pair of researchers, studying U.S. advertising agencies, state that many service firms enter foreign markets to service the foreign subsidiaries of their domestic clients. They assert that this motive motive or motif (mōtēf`), in music, a short phrase or passage of two or more notes and repeated or elaborated throughout the composition. The term is usually used synonymously with figure.  by service firms to go abroad is distinct from manufacturing firms because service firms have specific knowledge about their home country clients and can serve them better than host country firms. (31) Another argues that advertising firms go abroad primarily to keep their existing clients. (32) This motive for foreign involvement has also been shown to exist in international banking. (33) Some categorize cat·e·go·rize  
tr.v. cat·e·go·rized, cat·e·go·riz·ing, cat·e·go·riz·es
To put into a category or categories; classify.

 this "service-oriented Different ideas of service-orientation are found in different domains.
  • In business computing - Service-orientation
  • In human sexuality - Service-oriented (sexuality)
" motive as client following versus a market-seeking motive in which the focal firm enters international marke ts to serve foreign customers. (34)

Researchers argue that the motive to follow and serve existing customers differentiates service industry foreign investment motivations from manufacturing industry foreign investment motivations. (35) However, the high integration sales strategy and resulting client following behavior from many of the firms in this study indicate that this motive may be equally critical for high-tech manufacturing firms that depend on system integration. Once again, this client following or high integration behavior appears stronger for firms further down the value chain from the final customer.

Managing Technology Transfer Risk As shown in the entry framework, the firms choice of entry mode was primarily chosen to implement it's it's  

1. Contraction of it is.

2. Contraction of it has. See Usage Note at its.

it's it is or it has
it's be ~have
 strategy rather than as a vehicle to protect technology from appropriation The designation by the government or an individual of the use to which a fund of money is to be applied. The selection and setting apart of privately owned land by the government for public use, such as a military reservation or public building. . We found that technology transfer was managed in other ways such as transferring older rather than newer technology, peripheral rather than core technology, and segmented rather than complete technology processes.

For example, a semiconductor equipment manufacturer, ended up transferring 5-year old process technology to a Chinese joint venture to achieve its objective of forming a legal entity, hiring its own people, and better servicing its clients. Firm 22 established an R&D facility in China to conduct basic research on core technology, but research is performed on only segments of that technology that the headquarters farms out to it. This activity meets Chinese government requirements and allows greater sales integration in the region. Firm 19, a semiconductor manufacturer, established a joint venture with a Chinese company to manufacture line cards to facilitate import of its own ICs into China. However, this line card manufacture was peripheral to its core competency A core competency is something that a firm can do well and that meets the following three conditions specified by Hamel and Prahalad (1990):
  1. It provides customer benefits
  2. It is hard for competitors to imitate
  3. It can be leveraged widely to many products and markets.
 and has little long term value to the company. These technology transfer management strategies are illustrated in Table Seven.

Previous studies analyze the costs as well as risks of international technology transfer. (36) The notion behind these studies is that firms should keep technologies that are tacit and valuable within their own organization boundaries (i.e., wholly-owned subsidiary). This is because the costs and risks associated with transferring a tacit or valuable technology to another organization through either a joint venture or licensing arrangement can be high. Researchers, studying 1226 technology transfers, find that firms are more likely to internally transfer technologies that are newer and closer to the core of the firm's business. (37) However, the choice of operating mode or organizational structure This article has no lead section.

To comply with Wikipedia's lead section guidelines, one should be written.
 is not always available to MNEs that are expanding operations internationally.

This fact is particularly clear for investment in China. Chinese government policy classifies potential inward investments Inward investment is the injection of money from an external source into a region, in order to purchase capital goods for a branch of a corporation to locate or develop its presence in the region.  as those that are encouraged, allowed, or prohibited pro·hib·it  
tr.v. pro·hib·it·ed, pro·hib·it·ing, pro·hib·its
1. To forbid by authority: Smoking is prohibited in most theaters. See Synonyms at forbid.

. A preterential status may allow a foreign investor greater latitude latitude, angular distance of any point on the surface of the earth north or south of the equator. The equator is latitude 0°, and the North Pole and South Pole are latitudes 90°N and 90°S, respectively.  in choice of an operating mode. However, this may not always be the case. Investment modes and other issues are often arbitrary Irrational; capricious.

The term arbitrary describes a course of action or a decision that is not based on reason or judgment but on personal will or discretion without regard to rules or standards.
 in emerging nations without clear investment guidelines guidelines, a set of standards, criteria, or specifications to be used or followed in the performance of certain tasks.
. Further, the transfer of a technology to a foreign entity, even if that foreign entity is wholly-owned, is not without risk or cost.

The costs associated with making a firms' current domestic technology operational in a wholly-owned foreign entity can be predicted to be a function of language barriers and cultural differences. However, the risks of technology loss in a wholly-owned foreign entity can also be predicted to be higher than in a domestic subsidiary because of varying legal and regulatory environments. For example, foreign workers foreign workers

Those who work in a foreign country without initially intending to settle there and without the benefits of citizenship in the host country. Some are recruited to supplement the workforce of a host country for a limited term or to provide skills on a
 may not be bound by the same legal constraints of technology licensing when leaving an MNE's subsidiary for other firms. Host government regulations may also require the eventual sale of a wholly-owned foreign subsidiary to local firms.

Because of government limitations of operating mode, and uncertain legal and regulatory consequences for wholly-owned entities in foreign countries, the MNEs in this sample of firms use finer-grained strategies to manage international technology transfer risks. In particular, MNEs separate technology into pieces, and only transfer those pieces that present minimum risks. By manipulating the nature (core versus peripheral) and the totality (complete versus segment), of a technology transferred to a foreign entity, firms are able to prevent critical technology transfer to foreign operating units operating unit

A type of operating company that engages in transactions with outsiders and that is owned by another business. For example, in 1995 the stockholders of Capital Cities/ABC approved a $19 billion merger with the Walt Disney Company, whereupon

Dealing with Environmental Uncertainty

As with managing technology, dealing with an uncertain environment seems to have only minor association with the operating mode choice or resulting venture performance. Firm 3, a semiconductor manufacturer, states that it follows customers on a world-wide basis wherever they operate. Firm 20, a provider of manufacturing services to OEMs, maintains an ongoing relationship with central government authorities to mitigate risk and smooth possible operating constraints. The firms in the sample manage environmental risk and uncertainty primarily through relationship building with local governments and industry officials, joint venture partner selection, regional site selection (some sites were owned by local governments or more stable foreign governments), local recruitment activities, and through exercising a high decision context. Importantly, though, the environment was relegated to a task to manage rather than a major issue that drove entry mode choice.


We find that firms entering the markets of Greater China can indeed enhance venture performance by selecting an operating mode that supports their strategic objectives for the market. However, we also find that the firms in our sample utilized micro-strategies distinct from the choice of operating mode to better serve customers, manage technology transfer risk, and minimize the environmental uncertainty of their operations.

Technology transfer costs were dealt with as a secondary issue in the context of meeting a firm's strategic objectives. Only one firm in the sample cites technology transfer costs as the primary factor that needs to be accounted for in the operating mode choice, and this firm suffered poor performance because it never realized the market penetration it had hoped for. Technology transfer costs seem to be better managed through finer-grained strategies such as transferring peripheral rather than core technology, and transferring segmented rather than complete technology processes.

Firms also attempt to transfer old rather than new technologies to appease ap·pease  
tr.v. ap·peased, ap·peas·ing, ap·peas·es
1. To bring peace, quiet, or calm to; soothe.

2. To satisfy or relieve: appease one's thirst.

 host government demands and pursue their own objectives. However, most governments, from both developing and advanced countries, recognize superior technology and normally insist on it. Therefore, the firms in this study have, as a group, found more implicit ways to manage the costs and risk of technology transfer.

In general, the risk of the country environment in which the firm is operating is managed through means other than the selection of an operating mode. Developing relations with government officials, careful site selection and recruitment, and a high decision context seem to help mitigate the perceived risk in the country environments where a firm is operating.

Within the factor of a firm's international strategy, it became clear that a further distinction needs to be made. The notion of a high-integration market-seeking strategy as distinct from a low-integration market-seeking strategy emerged from the case analysis. The high-integration market-seeking strategy appears to be a function of a firm's design-in requirement for its product, its relative value chain placement, and its desired level of differentiation. Here, the high-integration market-seeking strategy is best served by a direct presence of the focal firm.

The notion of relative value chain position and its demand on a firm's strategy and operations warrant close attention by corporate decision makers and further investigation by researchers. In this study, firms further down the value chain from the final consumer normally pursued a high-integration market-seeking strategy and were rewarded for that effort. The predominance pre·dom·i·nance   also pre·dom·i·nan·cy
The state or quality of being predominant; preponderance.

Noun 1. predominance - the state of being predominant over others
predomination, prepotency
 of a firm's international strategy in driving its foreign operating mode decision supports the earlier findings of researchers in their assertion of the role of global strategic considerations. (38) However, it calls into question the traditional management literature that focuses on the role of technology in determining appropriate organization structure. (39) Perhaps it is the increasing globalization globalization

Process by which the experience of everyday life, marked by the diffusion of commodities and ideas, is becoming standardized around the world. Factors that have contributed to globalization include increasingly sophisticated communications and transportation
 of industry that relegates the protection of technology to a secondary status. It may also be characteristic of the "high-tech" industry, and, specifically, the computer industry, with its shortening technology life cycles, that makes the p rotection of today's technology less important than selling today's technology as quickly as possible and developing new technologies for tomorrow's markets.

In a short product life cycle industry environment, firms may be well advised to trade access to current technology in order to gain access to current markets as this current technology will be out of date by the time potential joint venture partners learn how to develop it themselves. Thus, it is conceivable con·ceive  
v. con·ceived, con·ceiv·ing, con·ceives
1. To become pregnant with (offspring).

 that the value of accessing today's markets outweighs the value of today's technology. Firms, therefore, may consider sharing access to today's technology for access to new markets. Firms would be betting on their capacity to continue to develop new technology to again sell in tomorrow's markets. It would then be the capacity to design, not the design itself that is critical to the firm. The value of the capacity to design is found in the human resources The fancy word for "people." The human resources department within an organization, years ago known as the "personnel department," manages the administrative aspects of the employees.  and slack capital that allow concentration and focus on this design capacity.

In industries where the rate of technology development is slower, this relation between technology transfer costs and organization structure and operating mode choice may be much different. This notion coincides with the velocity of industry change. High velocity industry change and the inability to protect technology effectively via patents and trademarks increases the value of current market access vis a-vis current technology. Firms in lower velocity industries that can employ patent protection may not envision the same relationship between technology and market access. For example, pharmaceutical companies, which may patent a drug composition, would seemingly seem·ing  
Apparent; ostensible.

Outward appearance; semblance.

seeming·ly adv.
 be far less likely to trade market access for technology access because of their ability to protect their current design as well as their capacity to design.

The predominance of the high-integration market-seeking strategy at the origin of the value chain among one and two-step suppliers also indicates an increasing appreciation for design-in capability to secure market access. (Market access in this case is with the individual customer rather than the country.) The capacity to design is thus leveraged to gain individual customer access. Ready-to-fit components are becoming less abundant in industries with high velocity technological change. Thus, it is the company with a capacity to design that will capture critical customers. Firms may then leverage their design capacity to keep current customers and pursue new markets. Those firms that do not have custom design capacity or the will to exercise it may lose out.

Of the 15 cases of investment in China, five firms operated with a joint venture. Of the remaining non-mainland China cases, only one firm chose the joint venture investment mode. This tendency to joint venture in China is replete re·plete  
1. Abundantly supplied; abounding: a stream replete with trout; an apartment replete with Empire furniture.

2. Filled to satiation; gorged.

 in the literature. It seems clear that the joint venture operating mode is the mode most often favored by the Chinese government. Investing firms also appear to accept this mode in hopes of learning more of the Chinese environment from joint venture partners. Restrictions to other modes of operations clearly drive this tendency. It bears pointing out that none of the five distributorships are within China. China places significant constraint Constraint

A restriction on the natural degrees of freedom of a system. If n and m are the numbers of the natural and actual degrees of freedom, the difference n - m is the number of constraints.
 on exporters where the products are not clearly needed or could otherwise be provided internally.

Of the cases studied, 12 firms cite government restrictions to their investment modes. Eleven of these 12 were cases of investment in China. Clearly, government constraints do play a significant role in limiting the operating strategies available to firms pursuing investment in China. This fact makes all the more significant the finer-grained strategies of technology transfer management and environment uncertainty abatement A reduction, a decrease, or a diminution. The suspension or cessation, in whole or in part, of a continuing charge, such as rent.

With respect to estates, an abatement is a proportional diminution or reduction of the monetary legacies, a disposition of property by will, when
 discussed earlier. Still, even with these constraints, venture performance in China does not seem to be greatly diminished di·min·ish  
v. di·min·ished, di·min·ish·ing, di·min·ish·es
a. To make smaller or less or to cause to appear so.

. Of the 15 firms operating in China, 11 report high or moderate performance. This rate of success is comparable to the non-mainland Chinese ventures.

The primary factor motivating investment in China is a market-seeking strategy. Twelve of the 15 firms that pursued investment in China indicate either a high or low-integration market-seeking international strategy. The prevalence of market-seeking motivations exists despite the plentiful plen·ti·ful  
1. Existing in great quantity or ample supply.

2. Providing or producing an abundance: a plentiful harvest.
 supply of qualified and inexpensive labor available in China. This predisposition predisposition /pre·dis·po·si·tion/ (-dis-po-zish´un) a latent susceptibility to disease that may be activated under certain conditions.

 to view China as a potential marketplace rather than a resource base may be specific to "high-tech" manufacturers who hesitate to develop the specific skill base that is necessary to support their sophisticated manufacture processes, but envision large product sales within China's massive market.

In all, the highly complex and restrictive investment environment of China emphasizes the importance of finding the most suitable operating modes available given the nature of the factors which investing firms deem most crucial. Further, while China provides an example of a highly restrictive investing environment, it is certainty not alone among nations that impose significant restrictions on investing firms. Therefore, the generalizability of the findings specific to China should still be substantial.


1. Ensure that the operating mode choice suits the strategy persued for the new vernture

2. Use alternative methods of managing technology transfer/protection issues, such as transferring peripheral rather than core technology and partial rather than complete technological processes

3. To minimize the uncertainty of the environment of operations, pursue relationship building with local officials and partnering with more experienced firms

4. If a high-integration sales effort is called for, a WOS sales/support office is likely to be more effective that other dustribution strategies

5. Employ a comprehensive decision process to ensure all alternatives have been evaluated

MARK V. CANNICE, Ph.D., is an assistant professor at the University of San Francisco     [  School of Business and Management. His research centers on foreign investment and technology management of U.S. high tech firms that enter into the Asia/Pacific Rim. He has presented his research findings in this area to academic and executive audiences. He is the co-founder and director of the USF USF University of South Florida
USF Universal Service Fund (often part of phone bill in US)
USF University of San Francisco
USF University of Sioux Falls
USF University of St.
 New Venture Center which supports international and domestic entrepreneurship en·tre·pre·neur  
A person who organizes, operates, and assumes the risk for a business venture.

[French, from Old French, from entreprendre, to undertake; see enterprise.
. He completed his Ph.D. in international business at Indiana University Indiana University, main campus at Bloomington; state supported; coeducational; chartered 1820 as a seminary, opened 1824. It became a college in 1828 and a university in 1838. The medical center (run jointly with Purdue Univ. , is a graduate of the U.S. Naval Academy at Annapolis Annapolis, river, Canada
Annapolis, river, c.75 mi (120 km) long, rising in W Nova Scotia, Canada, and flowing SW past Annapolis Royal to Annapolis Basin, an arm of the Bay of Fundy.
, and is a U.S. Naval Reserve A Naval Reserve is the reserve body of a nation's Navy, typically called-upon in times of conflict. Naval Reserves include;
  • Royal Australian Naval Reserve
  • Royal Naval Reserve (United Kingdom)
  • United States Navy Reserve

JOHN D. DANIELS Daniels is a surname that may refer to:
  • Alyssa Daniels, an American web designer
  • Annette Daniels, an American mezzo-soprano opera singer
  • Anthony Daniels, an English actor mostly known for playing C-3PO in Star Wars
, Ph.D., holds the Samuel Samuel, two books of the Bible, originally a single work, called First and Second Samuel in modern Bibles, and First and Second Kingdoms in the Septuagint. They are considered part of "Deuteronomistic history," in which the book of Deuteronomy functions as the  N. Friedland Friedland, town, Russia
Friedland: see Pravdinsk.
Friedland, town, Czech Republic
Friedland: see Frýdlant, Czech Republic.
 Chair at the University of Miami This article is about the university in Coral Gables, Florida. For the university in Oxford, Ohio, see Miami University.

The University of Miami (also known as Miami of Florida,[2] UM,[3] or just The U
. Previously, he held the E. Clairborne Robins Chair at the University of Richmond Richmond, cities, United States

1 City (1990 pop. 87,425), Contra Costa co., W Calif., on San Pablo Bay, an inlet of San Francisco Bay; inc. 1905.
 and was director of the Center for International Business Education and Research (CIBER CIBER Center for International Business Education and Research (various locations)
CIBER Center for International Business and Research (Michigan State University)
CIBER Cellular Inter-Carrier Billing Exchange Record
) at Indiana University. He served as president and dean of the Fellows of the Academy of International Business and as chair of the International Division of the Academy of Management. He has published numerous books, of which his co-authored textbook textbook Informatics A treatise on a particular subject. See Bible. , International Business: Environments and Operations, is in its 9th edition. His articles have appeared in such leading journals as Academy of Management Journal, California California (kăl'ĭfôr`nyə), most populous state in the United States, located in the Far West; bordered by Oregon (N), Nevada and, across the Colorado River, Arizona (E), Mexico (S), and the Pacific Ocean (W).  Management Review, Columbia Columbia, cities, United States
Columbia (kəlŭm`bēə).

1 City (1990 pop. 75,883), Howard co., central Md., between Washington, D.C., and Baltimore.
 Journal of World Business, International Marketing Review, Journal of Business Research, Journal of International Business Studies JIBS, the Journal of International Business Studies, (ISSN: 0047-2506, eISSN: 1478-6990) is the official publication of the Academy of International Business (AIB) and is published by Palgrave Macmillan. , Management International Review, Strategic Management Journal, and Weltwirtschftliches Archiv.

(1.) Cannice, M. V., J. D. Daniels Daniels (born on 24 August 1980 in Mineola, New York) is an American actor best known for playing Peter Mark in The Mighty Ducks and ben in CB4. He is now attending Columbia University in New York,NY. , "Operating Modes and Performance: U.S. High-tech Ventures in China," Management and Organizations in China, edited by Anne Anne, British princess
Anne (Anne Elizabeth Alice Louise), 1950–, British princess, only daughter of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, duke of Edinburgh. She was educated at Benenden School.
 Tsui and Iris Ng, Macmillan Macmillan, river, c.200 mi (320 km) long, rising in two main forks in the Selwyn Mts., E Yukon Territory, Canada, and flowing generally W to the Pelly River. It was an important route to the gold fields from c.1890 to 1900. , 2000.

(2.) Yin, R.K., Case Study Research: Design and Methods, 2nd ed, Sage Publications This article or section needs sources or references that appear in reliable, third-party publications. Alone, primary sources and sources affiliated with the subject of this article are not sufficient for an accurate encyclopedia article. : Beverly Hills Beverly Hills, city (1990 pop. 31,971), Los Angeles co., S Calif., completely surrounded by the city of Los Angeles; inc. 1914. The largely residential city is home to many motion-picture and television personalities. , CA, 1994.

(3.) Anderson Anderson, river, Canada
Anderson, river, c.465 mi (750 km) long, rising in several lakes in N central Northwest Territories, Canada. It meanders north and west before receiving the Carnwath River and flowing north to Liverpool Bay, an arm of the Arctic
, Erin Erin (ĕr`ĭn, ēr`–), ancient and poetic name of Ireland.  and Hubert Hubert may refer to:
  • The European family name Hubert and first name.
  • As a family name it is explained as an abbreviation of Hubertz (Yiddish and Sorbian form of Huberowitz) meaning "Houber's son" or "(son) of Heber" or simply
 Gatignon, "Modes of Foreign Entry: A Transaction Cost Analysis and Propositions," Journal of International Business Studies, Fall 17, 1986, 1-26.

(4.) Shi SHI Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd. (Japan)
SHI Samsung Heavy Industries
SHI Social Health Insurance (Europe)
SHI Statutory Health Insurance
SHI Samsung Heavy Industries Co, Ltd
, Yizheng Yizheng is a city in China with a population of 600000 (2007), in the province of Jiangsu. . "Technological Capabilities and International Production Strategy of Firms: the Case of Foreign Direct Investment in China," Journal of World Business, 36(2), 2000, 184-204. Pan, Yigang, "Financial Performance and Survival Multinational Corporations in China," Strategic Management Journal, 20, 1999, 359-374.

(5.) Pan, Yigang, Dvid K. Tse, "The Hierarchical Model In a hierarchical data model, data are organized into a tree-like structure. The structure allows repeating information using parent/child relationships: each parent can have many children but each child only has one parent.  of Market entry Modes, Jornal of International Business Studies, 31(4), 2000, 535-554.

(6.) Peng, Mike W., Controlling the Foreign Agent: How Governments Deal with Multinationals in a Transition Economy, Management International Review, 40 (2), 2000, 141-165.

(7.) Osland, Gregory E., and S. Tamer Cavusgil, "Performance Issues in US China Joint Ventures," California Management Review, 38(2), 1996, 106-130.

(8.) Yan, Amin AMIN Arabic Media Internet Network  and Barbara Barbara

maid exemplifying personal and domestic neatness. [Br. Lit.: Old Curiosity Shop]

See : Orderliness
 Gray, "Bargaining Power, Management Control, and Performance in United States-China Joint Ventures: A Comparative Case Study," Academy of Management Journal, 37(6), 1994, 148-1517.

(9.) Stelzer, L., M. Chunguang, and J. Hanthin, Review, 19(6), 1992, 54-56.

(10.) Campbell Campbell, city, United States
Campbell, city (1990 pop. 36,048), Santa Clara co., W Calif., in the fertile Santa Clara valley; founded 1885, inc. 1952.
, N.C.G., "Experiences of Western Companies in China," Euro-Asia Business Review, 6, 1989, 35-38.

(11.) Pan, Yigang, Peter K.K. Chi, and Charng Kao KAO Kuiper Airborne Observatory (NASA)
KAO Kuusamo, Finland (Airport Code)
KAO Kappa Alpha Order (fraternity)
KAO Kick Ass Offense (football) 
, "A Comparative Study of Profitability of Foreign Enterprises in China," Working Paper at the Lundquist College of Business, University of Oregon The University of Oregon is a public university located in Eugene, Oregon. The university was founded in 1876, graduating its first class two years later. The University of Oregon is one of 60 members of the Association of American Universities. , 1996.

(12.) Chi, Peter S.K., Hsiu-Wen Wu, Gang Pan and Charng Kao, "Duration Analysis of Performance of Foreign Enterprises in China," Working paper at Cornell University Cornell University, mainly at Ithaca, N.Y.; with land-grant, state, and private support; coeducational; chartered 1865, opened 1868. It was named for Ezra Cornell, who donated $500,000 and a tract of land. With the help of state senator Andrew D.  Ithaca, NY, 1995.

(13.) Yin, R.K., loc.cit.

(14.) Behrman Behr·man   , S(amuel) N(athaniel) 1893-1973.

American playwright whose works include The Second Man (1927) and No Time for Comedy (1939).
, J.N., The Role of International Companies in Latin America Latin America, the Spanish-speaking, Portuguese-speaking, and French-speaking countries (except Canada) of North America, South America, Central America, and the West Indies. : Autos and Petrochemicals, Lexington Lexington.

1 City (1990 pop. 225,366), seat of Fayette co., N central Ky., in the heart of the bluegrass region; inc. 1832, made coextensive with Fayette co. 1974.
 Books: Lexington, MA, 1972.

Hill, Charles Charles, archduke of Austria
Charles, 1771–1847, archduke of Austria; brother of Holy Roman Emperor Francis II. Despite his epilepsy, he was the ablest Austrian commander in the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic wars; however, he was handicapped by
 W., Peter Hwang Hwang can refer to:
  • Dennis Hwang - a Korean American graphic artist.
  • Hwang (Korean name) - a common Korean family name.
  • Hwang Jin-i - a legendary kisaeng of the Joseon Dynasty.
  • Yi Hwang - a prominent Korean Confucian scholar.
 and Wi Chan Kim Kim

orphan wanders streets of India with lama. [Br. Lit.: Kim]

See : Adventurousness
, "An Eclectic e·clec·tic  
1. Selecting or employing individual elements from a variety of sources, systems, or styles: an eclectic taste in music; an eclectic approach to managing the economy.

 Theory of the Choice of International Entry Mode," Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 11, 1990, 117-28.

(15.) Behrman, J.N., loc. Cit.

(16.) Hill, Charles W., Peter Hwang and Wi Chan Kim, loc. Cit.

(17.) Prahald, C. K. and R. A. Bettis, "The Dominant Logic: A New Linkage Between Diversity and Performance," Strategic Management Journal, 7(6), 1986, 485-501.

(18.) Bartlett, C. A. and S. Ghoshal, Managing Across Borders: The Transnational Solution, Hutchinson Hutchinson, city (1990 pop. 39,308), seat of Reno co., S central Kans., on the Arkansas River; inc. 1872. It is a commercial and industrial center in a grain (especially wheat), livestock, and oil region.  Business Books: London London, city, Canada
London, city (1991 pop. 303,165), SE Ont., Canada, on the Thames River. The site was chosen in 1792 by Governor Simcoe to be the capital of Upper Canada, but York was made capital instead. London was settled in 1826.
, 1989.

(19.) Williamson Wil·liam·son   , Mount

A peak, 4,382.9 m (14,370 ft) high, in the Sierra Nevada of east-central California.
, O.L., Markets and Hierarchies: Analysis and Antitrust Antitrust

The antitrust laws apply to virtually all industries and to every level of business, including manufacturing, transportation, distribution, and marketing. They prohibit a variety of practices that restrain trade.
 Implications, New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of
: Free Press, 1975.

(20.) Black, F. and M. Scholes Scholes(/skowlz/ or /šowlz/) could refer to the following places:

United Kingdom:
  • Scholes, Greater Manchester
  • Scholes, South Yorkshire
  • Scholes, Cleckheaton, Kirklees, West Yorkshire
  • Scholes, Holmfirth, Kirklees, West Yorkshire
, "The Pricing of Options and Corporate Liabilities," Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 81, 1973, 637-659. Bowman, E. and D. Hurry, "Strategy Through The Options Lens: An Integrated View of Resource Investments and the Incremental-choice Process," Academy of Management Review, 18(4), 1993, 760-782.

Duncan Duncan, city (1990 pop. 21,732), seat of Stephens co., SW Okla., in an oil, farm, and cattle area; inc. 1892. There is an oil industry, and electronics, concrete, and apparel are manufactured. During the late 19th cent. , R.B., "Characteristics of Organizational Environments and Perceived Envrionmental Uncertainty," Administrative Science Quarterly Administrative Science Quarterly, founded in 1956, is one of the most eminent academic journals in the field of organizational studies. It is published by Cornell University.

People claimed to have been involved as founders include James D.
, 17, 1972, 313-327.

(21.) Kogut, Bruce Bruce, Scottish royal family descended from an 11th-century Norman duke, Robert de Brus. He aided William I in his conquest of England (1066) and was given lands in England. , "Joint Ventures and the Option to Expand and Acquire," Management Science, Vol. 37, 1991, 19-33.

(22.) Cox, J.C., S.A. Ross Ross , Sir Ronald 1857-1932.

British physician. He won a 1902 Nobel Prize for proving that malaria is transmitted to humans by the bite of the mosquito.
, and M. Rubinstein Ru·bin·stein   , Anton Gregor 1829-1894.

Russian pianist and composer who founded the St. Petersburg Conservatory (1862). His compositions include chamber music, operas, and six symphonies.

Noun 1.
, Options Markets, Prentice Hall Prentice Hall is a leading educational publisher. It is an imprint of Pearson Education, Inc., based in Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, USA. Prentice Hall publishes print and digital content for the 6-12 and higher education market. History
In 1913, law professor Dr.
: Englewood Englewood (ĕng`gəlwd).

1 City (1990 pop. 29,387), Arapahoe co., N central Colo., on the South Platte River, a residential and industrial suburb of Denver; inc. 1903.
 Cliffs, NJ, 1985.

(23.) Woodward, Joan Joan

of Arc, St. (1412–1431) heroically followed call to save France. [Christian Hagiog.: Attwater, 187]

See : Patriotism
, Industrial Organization: Theory and Practice, Oxford University Press: London, 1965.

(24.) Woodward, loc.cit.

(25.) Venkatraman, N., "The Concept of Fit in Strategy Research: Toward Verbal and Statistical Correspondence," Academy of Management Review, 14(3), 1989, 423-444.

(26.) Bouchard, Thomas (language) Thomas - A language compatible with the language Dylan(TM). Thomas is NOT Dylan(TM).

The first public release of a translator to Scheme by Matt Birkholz, Jim Miller, and Ron Weiss, written at Digital Equipment Corporation's Cambridge Research Laboratory runs
 J. Jr., "Field Research Methods: Interviewing, Questionnaires, Participant Observation participant observation,
n a method of qualitative research in which the researcher understands the contex-tual meanings of an event or events through participating and observing as a subject in the research.
, Systematic Observation, Unobtrusive Measures," M.D. Dunnette (Ed.), Industrial and Organizational Psychology Industrial and organizational psychology (also known as I/O psychology, work psychology, work and organizational psychology, W-O psychology, occupational psychology, personnel psychology or talent assessment , 9, 1976, 363-413.

(27.) Yin, R. K., loc. cit

Eisenhardt, K. M., Building Theories from Case Study Research," Academy of Management Review, 14(4) 1989, 532-550.

(28.) Eisenhardt, loc. cit.

(29.) Yin, R. K., Loc.cit.

(30.) Danields, John D., and J. Bracker, "Profit Performance: Do Foreign Operations Make a Difference?" Management International Review, 29, 1989, 46-56.

(31.) Terpstra, V., and C. M. Yu, Determinanats of Foreign Investment of U.S. Advertising Agencies, Journal of International Business Studies, 19(1), 33-46.

(32.) Miracle, G.E., Management of International Advertising, Ann Arbor Ann Arbor, city (1990 pop. 109,592), seat of Washtenaw co., S Mich., on the Huron River; inc. 1851. It is a research and educational center, with a large number of government and industrial research and development firms, many in high-technology fields such as : Bureau of Business Research, Graduate School of Business Administration, University of Michigan (body, education) University of Michigan - A large cosmopolitan university in the Midwest USA. Over 50000 students are enrolled at the University of Michigan's three campuses. The students come from 50 states and over 100 foreign countries. , 1966.

(33.) Khoury Khoury (occasionally Khouri or Coury; Arabic: خوري) is an Arabic surname that is unique to Arab Christians. The term Khoury means "priest" in Arabic. , Sarkis
For the three religious figures with this name, see Patriarch Sarkis of Jerusalem.
Sarkis (Zabunyan) (born 1938 in Istanbul, Turkey) is a Turkish-born Armenian artist.

His family moved to Istanbul from Sivas.
 J., Internationl Banking A Special Look at Foreign Banks in the U.S., Journal of International Business Studies, Winter, 1979, 36-52.

Nigh nigh  
adv. nigh·er, nigh·est
1. Near in time, place, or relationship: Evening draws nigh.

2. Nearly; almost: talked for nigh onto two hours.
, Douglas Douglas, city, Isle of Man
Douglas, city (1991 pop. 19,950), capital of the Isle of Man, Great Britain. It is a popular resort, connected by rail to Ramsey and Port Erin, on the Irish Sea. Tourism is the chief industry.
, Kang KANG Kansas Air National Guard  r. Cho, and Surest Krishnan Krishnan is a popular name in south India. Some of the well known Krishnans are:
  • M. S. Krishnan: Professor of Business Information Technology at the Ross School of Business, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
, "The Roal of Location-Related Facotors in U.S Banking Involvement Abroad: An Empirical Examination," Journal of International Business Studies, Spring, 1985, 1.17.

(34.) Erramilli, M.R. and C.P. Ran, "Choice of Fsoreign Market Entry Modes by Service Firms: Role of Market Knowledge," Management International Review, 30(2), 1990, 135-150.

(35.) Terpstra, V. and C.M. Yu, "Determinants of Foreign Investment of U.S. Advertising Agencies," Journal of International Business Studies, 19(1), 1988, 33-46.

(36.) Kogut, B. and Udo Zander zan·der  
n. pl. zander or zan·ders
A common European pikeperch (Stizostedion lucioperca) valued as a food fish.

[German, from Low German Sander
, "Knowledge of the Firm and the Evolutionary Theory
''This article is about the creole theory. You may be looking for the concept of biological evolution. For other uses, see Evolution (disambiguation).

Main article: Creole language
The evolutionary perspective
 of the Multinational Corporation multinational corporation, business enterprise with manufacturing, sales, or service subsidiaries in one or more foreign countries, also known as a transnational or international corporation. These corporations originated early in the 20th cent. ," Journal of International Business Studies, Fourth Quarter, 1993, 625-645.

Kim, W. Chan and Peter Hwang, "Global Strategy and Multinational's Entry Mode Choice," Journal of International Business Studies, First Quarter, 1992, 29-52.

(37.) Davidson Da·vid·son   , Jo(seph) 1883-1952.

American sculptor best remembered for his vigorous portrait busts of Woodrow Wilson, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Albert Einstein, among others.
, W.H. and D.C. McFetridge, "Key Characteristics in the Choice of International Technology Transfer Mode," Journal of International Business Studies, 16(2), 1985, 5-20.

(38.) Kim, W. Chan and Peter Hwang, loc. cit.

(39.) Anderson, Erin and Hubert Gatignon, loc. cit. Contractor, F.J., "Contractual and Cooperative Forms of International Business: Towards a Unified Theory of Modal Mode-oriented. A modal operation switches from one mode to another. Contrast with non-modal.

1. modal - (Of an interface) Having modes. Modeless interfaces are generally considered to be superior because the user does not have to remember which mode he is in.
 Choice," Management International Review, Vol. 30, 1990, 31-54.

Kogut, B. and Udo Zander, loc. cit.
Table One

                          High PEU            Low PEU

High Strategic Potential  High Options Value  Low Options Value

                          Moderate NPV        High NPV

Low Strategic Potential   Low Options Value   Low Options Value

                          LOW NPV             Moderate NPV
Table Two

Adapted Foreign Operating Mode Contigency Profile

               International                  Environment
Mode/Factors   Strategy

Wholly-owned   1) Market-seeking              High Net Present
Subsidiary        (high-integration)          Value
               2) Market-seeking
                  high volume)
               3) Resource-seeking
               4) Transnational Integration
               5) Competitive Response

Joint Venture  1) Market-seeking              Moderate NPV
                  (through JV partner         or Option Value
               2) Less Optimal mode
                  for any strategy listed
                  above, but may be necessay
                  to meet government
                  or resource constraints

Distributor    1) Market-seeking (low-        High Option Value
                  integration, low volume;
                  or resource constraints)

Mode/Factors   Transfer Costs

Wholly-owned   High to Moderate

Joint Venture  Moderate

Distributor    Moderate to Low
Table Three

Destination of Investment

Destination of Investment  Number of Firms

China                            15
Hong Kong                         7
Taiwan                            2

Total                            24
Table Four

Summary of Pertinent Case Data for the Sample Firms

Description       Firm 1              Firm 2

Main products     Manufacture         Manufacture logic
Description       components          devices for
                  for ICs             computers and

Value Chain       2-step supplier     1-step supplier

Operating Mode    Distributor         Distributor

Venture Location  Hong Kong           Hong Kong

Entry Date        1992                1993

Foreign Entity    Sales and service   Sales and service
Activity          for Chinese market  for Chinese market

International     Market- seeking     Market-seeking

Decision Context  Low                 Low

Technology        Moderate to high    Moderate
Transfer Costs

Environment Net   Mod. NPV            Mod. NPV
Present Value or  Mod. Option         Low Option
Option Value

Primary Factor    Market- seeking     Market-seeking

Constraints       Resources           None

Performance       Low                 Low

Insights          Notion of 2-step    Emphasize need for
                  supplier            high-integration
                                      sales strategy for
                                      1-step supplier

Description       Firm 3              Firm 4

Main products     Manufacture ICs     Manufacture
Description                           communication
                                      infra. equipment

Value Chain       1-step supplier     1-step OEM

Operating Mode    WOS (sales)         Joint venture (sales)

Venture Location  China               China

Entry Date        1994                1995

Foreign Entity    Sales and service   Sales and service
Activity          for Chinese market  for Chinese market

International     Market-seeking      Market-seeking
                  (high-integration)  (high-integration)

Decision Context  High                Low

Technology        Moderate            Moderate
Transfer Costs

Environment Net   Mod. Option         Mod. NPV
Present Value or  Low NPV             Mod. Option
Option Value

Primary Factor    Market-seeking      Market-seeking
                  (high-integration)  (high-integration)

Constraints       None                Gov. restrictions

Performance       High                Moderate

Insights          Need core group of  Choose JV partner
                  trusted people to   aligned with target
                  start operation     market

Description       Firm 5               Firm 6

Main products     Manufacture          Manufacture
Description       Computers            Computers

Value Chain       OEM                  OEM

Operating Mode    Joint venture        WOS (sales)

Venture Location  China                China

Entry Date        1996                 1994

Foreign Entity    Manufacture          Sales and service
Activity          computers for China  for Chinese
                  & export             market

International     Market-seeking       Market-seeking

Decision Context  High                 High

Technology        Moderate             High
Transfer Costs

Environment Net   Mod. NPV Mod.        Low NPV; Low
Present Value or  Option               Option
Option Value

Primary Factor    Market-seeking       Market-seeking

Constraints       Resources,           Resources, US &
                  government           China Gov.

Performance       Mod. to high         Moderate

Insights          Must increase local  Customer resource
                  market share to      constraints demand
                  encourage related    mix of old and new
                  suppliers            technology

Description       Firm 7                 Firm 8

Main products     Manufacture            Design passive
Description       Medical                electronic
                  Equipment              components

Value Chain       1-step OEM             2-step supplier

Operating Mode    WOS (sales)            Distributor

Venture Location  China                  Hong Kong

Entry Date        1994                   1994

Foreign Entity    Sales and service      Sales and local
Activity          for Chinese            customers

International     Market-seeking         Market-seeking
Strategy          (high-integration)

Decision Context  Low                    Moderate

Technology        Mod. to high           High
Transfer Costs

Environment Net   High NPV; Low          Moderate Option;
Present Value or  Option                 Low NPV
Option Value

Primary Factor    Market-seeking         Market-seeking

Constraints       None                   Resources

Performance       High                   Low

Insights          Increasing sales       Design-in requirement
                  potential makes fixed  makes high-integration
                  costs of sales         vital for performance
                  office more efficient
                  than distributor

Description       Firm 9                 Firm 10

Main products     Manufacture            Manufacture comp.
Description       computer memory        peripheral
                  boards                 equipment

Value Chain       1-step supplier        1-step supplier

Operating Mode    Joint venture          Joint venture
                  (development)          (manufacture)

Venture Location  China                  Hong Kong

Entry Date        1994                   1995

Foreign Entity    Joint development      Manf. and
Activity          and sales              distribute to China

International     Market-seeking         Market-seeking
Strategy                                 (high-integration)

Decision Context  Low                    High

Technology        Moderate               high
Transfer Costs

Environment Net   Moderate NPV;          Moderate NPV;
Present Value or  Moderate Option        Mod. Option
Option Value

Primary Factor    Market-seeking         Market-seeking

Constraints       Gov. restrictions      None

Performance       Low                    Moderate

Insights          Use of JV              Notion of Design-in of
                  development to         product to customer
                  attain market seeking  operations

Description       Firm 11                    Firm 12

Main products     Manufacture                Manufacture ICs
Description       Medical

Value Chain       1-step OEM                 1-step supplier

Operating Mode    WOS (regional              Distributor
                  hub & sales support)

Venture Location  Hong Kong                  Hong Kong

Entry Date        1994                       1995

Foreign Entity    Support regional           Distribute
Activity          sales effort               product in
                                             S. China

International     Transnational              Market-seeking
Strategy          Integration

Decision Context  Low                        Low

Technology        Moderate                   Moderate
Transfer Costs

Environment Net   Low NPV                    Low Option
Present Value or  Low Option                 Low NPV
Option Value

Primary Factor    Transnational              Market-seeking

Constraints       None                       Resources

Performance       Moderate                   Low

Insights          Need relations with        Key to success is
                  local Chinese              finding right people
                  companies to reach         (honest, committed to
                  markets outside of major   profession for
                  cities hit by distributor  long term)

Description       Firm 13               Firm 14

Main products     Manufacture semi-     Design computer
Description       conductor processing  display chip sets

Value Chain       2-step supplier       1-step supplier

Operating Mode    WOS                   WOS
                  (sales/support)       (sales/support)

Venture Location  China                 Taiwan

Entry Date        1995                  1988

Foreign Entity    Sales/support for     Sales for Taiwan
Activity          China customers       'mom and pop'

International     Market-seeking        Market-seeking
Strategy          (high-integration)

Decision Context  Moderate              Low

Technology        Moderate              Moderate
Transfer Costs

Environment Net   Low NPV               Moderate NPV
Present Value or  Low Option            Moderate
Option Value                            Option

Primary Factor    Market-seeking        Market-seeking

Constraints       Government            U.S. customers

Performance       Moderate              Moderate

Insights          Use indirect mode     Small company must
                  to enter country      go abroad to find
                  and cut ties when     customers when large
                  established           domestic firms are not

Description       Firm 15                   Firm 16

Main products     Manufacture               Manufacture IC
Description       medical diagnostic        fabrication
                  equipment                 equipment

Value Chain       1-step OEM                2-step supplier

Operating Mode    WOS (sales/support)       WOS

Venture Location  Hong Kong                 Taiwan

Entry Date        1988                      1995

Foreign Entity    Sales and service for     Sales, service and
Activity          China * SE Asia           product support

International     Market-seeking            Market-seeking
Strategy          (high-integration)        (high-integration)

Decision Context  Low                       Low

Technology        High                      High
Transfer Costs

Environment Net   High NPV                  High NPV
Present Value or  Low Option                Low Option
Option Value

Primary Factor    Market-seeking            Market-seeking
                  (high-integration)        (high-integration)

Constraints       None                      None

Performance       High                      High

Insights          Notion of wave effect     Direct presence
                  of product adoption from  shows customers
                  international experience  more commitment
                  of local customers

Description       Firm 17                Firm 18

Main products     Manufacture IC         Manufacture IC
Description       fabrication yield      processing
                  management equipment   equipment

Value Chain       2-step supplier        2-step supplier

Operating Mode    WOS (service)          WOS (liaison)

Venture Location  China                  China

Entry Date        1996                   1980s

Foreign Entity    Service for China      Demonstrate product;
Activity          fab facilities         coordinate country

International     Market-seeking         Market-seeking
Strategy          (high-integration)

Decision Context  Unclear                High

Technology        High                   High
Transfer Costs

Environment Net   Moderate NPV           Moderate Option
Present Value or  Moderate Option        Low NPV
Option Value

Primary Factor    Market-seeking         Tech. Transfer

Constraints       None                   Government

Performance       Unknown                Low

Insights          Sale of high design-   Emphasis on tech.
                  in product is often    transfer costs may be
                  made at headquarters.  misplaced. Use other
                  Should have direct     tech. mgmt. strategies
                  presence there

Description       Firm 19               Firm 20

Main products     Manufacture           Provide design,
Description       Integrated Circuits   manf. services to

Value Chain       1-step supplier       1-step supplier

Operating Mode    JV (manufacture)      WOS (Manf)

Venture Location  China                 China

Entry Date        1994                  1996

Foreign Entity    Manf. line card to    Manf./Design
Activity          use with own ICs      servicdes for OEMs

International     Transnational         Market-seeking
Strategy          (learning)            (high-integration)

Decision Context  Low                   High

Technology        Moderate              Moderate
Transfer Costs

Environment Net   Low NPV               Moderate NPV
Present Value or  Low Option            Low Option
Option Value

Primary Factor    Transnational         Market-seeking
                  Integration           (high-integration)

Constraints       Government            None

Performance       Low                   Moderate

Insights          Low decision context  Develop on-going
                  led to poor partner   relation with
                  selection.            government to
                                        mitigate potential

Description       Firm 21               Firm 22

Main products     Manufacture disk      Manufacture range
Description       drives                of computers

Value Chain       1-step supplier       OEM

Operating Mode    Joint venture         WOS (Research and
                  (Manf)                Development)

Venture Location  China                 China

Entry Date        1992                  1995

Foreign Entity    Test and Assembly of  Do basic and applied
Activity          Disk Drives           research. Consult
                                        with potential customers

International     Resource-seeking      Market-seeking
Strategy                                (high-integration)

Decision Context  Low                   High

Technology        Moderate              High
Transfer Costs

Environment Net   High NPV              Moderate NPV
Present Value or  Low Option            Mod. Option
Option Value

Primary Factor    Resource-seeking      Market-seeking

Constraints       Government            Government

Performance       High                  High

Insights          Change strategy from  Provide R&D to meet
                  Market-seeking to     Gov. demands and use as
                  Resource-seeking as   competitive advantage to
                  new information       attract customers
                  became available

Description       Firm 23                Firm 24

Main products     Develop design         Manufacture video
Description       software               communication

Value Chain       1-step OEM             OEM

Operating Mode    WOS (liaison office)   WOS (sales/service)

Venture Location  China                  China

Entry Date        1995                   1995

Foreign Entity    Work with Gov.         Sales and service to
Activity          officials, coordinate  local customers
                  with distributors

International     Market-seeking         Market-seeking

Decision Context  High                   Moderate

Technology        High                   Low
Transfer Costs

Environment Net   Moderate NPV           High NPV
Present Value or  Mod. Option            Low Option
Option Value

Primary Factor    Market-seeking         Market-seeking

Constraints       Gov.                   Government

Performance       High                   High

Insights          Develop relationship   Upgrade market
                  with Gov. to further   seeking strategy
                  product acceptance.    with direct
                  Piggyback on related   presence
Table Five

Operating Mode Choice = F (Design-in Requirement and Customer Structure)

Design-in Requirement

                    High        Low

Customer   Cent     WOS (HQ)    Dist. (HQ)

           Decent.  WOS (site)  Dist. (site)
Value Chain Position of the Sample Firms

Value chain position  Number of firms

     OEM                     4

     1-step OEM              5

     1-step supplier         9

     2-step supplier         6

     Total                  24
Table Seven

Technology Transfer Management Strategies

            Segment                    Complete

Core        Partitioned core transfer  Significant core transfer

Peripheral  Minor non-core transfer    Complete non-core transfer
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Date:Jun 22, 1999
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