Siddhicharan Shrestha (1913-1992) in nealese perspective.
There is a misconception that the Nepali language Nepali (Khaskura) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in Nepal, Bhutan, and some parts of India and Myanmar (Burma).
The term Nepal originally meant the Kathmandu Valley, and thus the terme Nepali , known as Khas Kura in earlier times, was forced upon the Newar speaking population of the Kathmandu valley The Kathmandu Valley, located in the Kingdom of Nepal, lies at the crossroads of ancient civilizations of Asia, and has at least 130 important monuments, including several places of pilgrimage for the Hindus and the Buddhists. , and other linguistic groups in the mountains and the plains particularly after the Gorkha Conquest of the Kathmandu valley kingdoms in 1768 1969. However, much before 1768, Pratap Malla, (1641-1674) the king of Kantipur (Kathmandu) had inscribed in·scribe
tr.v. in·scribed, in·scrib·ing, in·scribes
a. To write, print, carve, or engrave (words or letters) on or in a surface.
b. To mark or engrave (a surface) with words or letters. in Nepali that he had made Ranipokhari in memory of his son in 790 (1670 A.D.). Apparently, Nepali had become a lingua franca lingua franca (lĭng`gwə frăng`kə), an auxiliary language, generally of a hybrid and partially developed nature, that is employed over an extensive area by people speaking different and mutually unintelligible tongues in order to among the hill communities outside the Kathmandu valley much before Nepal's unification by Prithvi Narayan Shaha and his descendants. Pratap Malla's inscription indicates that it was also used in the Kathmandu valley to some extent probably by the communities living in the outskirts of the urban centres. Such a spread of Nepali language had given a sense of common identity to the peoples of the mountains who were otherwise divided into small outlying principalities called baisis and chaubisis.
Another misconception prevalent in Nepal especially among the scholars studying various aspects of Nepalese society is that Nepali is the language of the Brahman and Chhetri castes alone and that it is the Khas Brahman and Chhetri writers who have played an exclusive role in the development of modern Nepali literature Nepali Literature (Nepali: नेपाली साहित्य) refers to literature written in the Nepali language. . In fact, however, other linguistic and ethnic groups, particularly the Tibeto-Burman language Noun 1. Tibeto-Burman language - a branch of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages spoken from Tibet to the Malay Peninsula
Sino-Tibetan, Sino-Tibetan language - the family of tonal languages spoken in eastern Asia speakers, have written extensively in Nepali and contributed almost equally to the development of its literature. Sundarananda Bada (ca. 1783-1843), a Newar poet from the Kathmandu valley, had translated the Adhyatma Ramayana Adhyatma Ramayana is an ancient Sanskrit work extolling the spiritual virtues of the story of Ramayana. It comprises around 4200 verses, is embedded in Brahmānda Purana and is considered to be authored by Ved Vyasa. into Nepali (prose) around 1832 before the "pioneer poet" Bhanubhakta Acharya '''
Bhanubhakta Acharya' (Nepali: भानुभक्त आचार्य) (1814-1868) was a Nepali poet who translated the Ramayana'' from Sanskrit to Nepali. (1814-1868) had translated it from Sanskrit into Nepali (verse), around the 1850s. The very first poem available in the Nepali language, Prithvinarayan, was written by Suvananda Das, who is suspected to be a Newar poet from Lalitpur in the Kathmandu valley (Sambhav 1981:82-83).
Non-native Nepali Writers
The non-native writers of Nepali have been contributing significantly to the development of its literature as have the native speakers from the very beginning. This trend has been more pronounced in later periods, reflecting the growing strength of Nepalese identity based on the social and literary feelings expressed through the Nepali language. Besides the hill Brahmans and Chhetris, other prominent writers of Nepali include Newars, Rais, Limbus limbus /lim·bus/ (lim´bus) pl. lim´bi [L.] an edge, fringe, or border.
corneal limbus the edge of the cornea where it joins the sclera. , Tamangs, Thakalis and the various caste groups from the plains of Nepal and from Darjeeling district Coordinates:
Darjeeling is a district of West Bengal state in eastern India.Headquarters of the district is the hill station of Darjeeling. Kalimpong, Kurseong and Siliguri are the other major towns in the district. of West Bengal West Bengal: see Bengal.
State (pop., 2001: 80,176,197), northeastern India. It is bordered by Nepal and Bangladesh and the states of Orissa, Jharkhand, Bihar, Sikkim, Assam, and Meghalaya and has an area of 34,267 sq mi (88,752 sq km); (India). The following long list of the non-native writers of Nepali intends only to indicate that in a rather short history of Nepali literature their contribution has been as great as that of the native speakers.
A few better-known modern Nepali writers whose mother tongue mother tongue
1. One's native language.
2. A parent language.
the language first learned by a child
Noun 1. was probably other than Nepali were Riddhi Bahadur Ba`ha´dur
n. 1. A title of respect or honor given to European officers in East Indian state papers, and colloquially, and among the natives, to distinguished officials and other important personages. Malla (1898-1968), Paras Mani Mani (mä`nē): see Manichaeism.
or Manes or Manichaeus
(born April 14, 216, southern Babylonia—died 274?, Gundeshapur) Persian founder of Manichaeism. Pradhan (1898-1986), Baikuntha Prasad Prasāda (Sanskrit: प्रसाद), prasād/prashad (Hindi), Prasāda in (Kannada), prasādam (Tamil), or prasadam Lakoul (b. 1907), Satya Mohan Joshi (b. 1913), Kedar Man "Vyathi" (1914-1998), Bhawani Bhikshu (1914-1981), Hridaya Chandra Singh Chandra Singh was one of the eight nominees of the Leader of the Opposition to the Senate of Fiji after the 2006 elections.  References
1. ^ Parliament of the Fiji Islands Pradhan (1915-1960), Krishna Bhakta Shrestha (1915-1982), Ratna Dhwaj Joshi (1916-1987), Daman Raj Tuladhar (1916-1991), Ali Miyan (b. 1918) and Shiva Kumar Brigadier General KS Shiva Kumar (born January 29, 1948) was the third and final Force commander of UN troops serving in Rwanda. Biography
Kumar was born in Madras, India. As a youth, he attended St. Rai (1919).
Those who were born in the 1920s and contributed significantly to the growth of Nepali literature are Okiuyama Gwynn (b. 1920), Hari Shrestha (b. 1921), Govinda Bahadur Malla "Gothale" (b. 1922), Lain Singh Bangdel Lain Bangdel (1919-2002) is the former Chancellor of Nepal's Royal Academy and a renowned scholar, novelist, painter and art historian. In addition to being a leading authority on Nepalese art, Bangdel was responsible for introducing the modern trend of Western art into Nepal with (1924-2002), Bijaya Malla (1925-1999), Basu Pasa (b. 1925), Krishna Chandra Singh Pradhan (b. 1925), Birendra Subba (b. 1927), Keshav Lal Karmacharya (1928-1990), Indra Bahadur Rai (b. 1928), Kaji Man Kandangwa (b. 1929) and Kavindra Man Singh (b. 1929).
Prominent among those who were born in the 1930s are Dhuswan Saymi (b. 1932), Pasang Goparma (b. 1934), Man Bahadur Gurung (b. 1934), Dhruva Krishna Deep (b. 1934), Raj Narayan Pradhan (b. 1935), Shanta Shrestha (b. 1935), Bhupi Sherchan ''This article or section is being rewritten at He is one of the greatest poet ever born in Nepal. He was born in 1993 (B.S.) and died in 2046 (B.S.). He loved his country and countrymen above all else. He went to banaras college and he impressed everyone with his styles and poems. (1936-1989), Buddha Kumar Moktan (b. 1936), Bam Prasad Shrestha (b. 1936), Madan Mohan Mishra (b. 1936), Updendra Shrestha (b. 1936), Basu Shashi (1937-1991), Devichandra Shrestha (b. 1937), Parijat (1937-1993), Yugeshwar Verma (b. 1937), Kumar Pradhan (b. 1937), Bairagi Kainla (b. 1939) and Prem Thulung (b. 1939).
Those who were born in the 1940s and contributed equally to the development of Nepali literature are Krishna Bhakta Shrestha (b. 1940), Dwarika Shrestha (b.1940), Guman Singh Chamling (b. 1941.), Peter J. Karthak (b. 1941), Kumar Bahadur Joshi (b. 1941), Tulasi Diwas (b. 1941), Prithvi Sherchan (b. 1941), Ram Dayal Rakesh (b. 1942), Parashu Pradhan (b. 1943), Prem Sherpa Biroki (b. 1943), Banira Giri GIRI Guide d'Initiation à la Recherche dans l'Internet (French: Guide of Essential Internet Research)
GIRI Gray Iron Research Institute (Columbus, Ohio; now Iron Casting Research Institute) (b. 1946) Tej Prakash Shrestha (b. 1946), Shailendra "Sakar" (b. 1947), Man Bahadur Mukhiya (b. 1947), Krishna Bhushan Bala (b. 1947), Bhagirathi Shrestha (b. 1948), Prem Man Dangol (b. 1948) and Mohan Rai "Dukhun" (b. 1949).
After the political change of 1950 the list of such writers becomes much longer. A brief indicative list includes Madan Rai (b. 1950), Pavan pa·vane also pa·van
1. A slow, stately court dance of the 16th and 17th centuries, usually in duple meter.
2. A piece of music for this dance. Chamling (b. 1950), Shailendra K. Singh (b. 1950), Ramesh Shrestha (b. 1950), Shankar Kumar Shrestha (b. 1951), Rajesh Bantawa (b. 1951), Ashesh Malla (1954), Biyogi Budhathoki (b. 1954) Avinash Shrestha (b. 1955), Shantikumari Rai (b. 1956), Shankar Subba Fago (b. 1956), Bishwa Bimohan Shrestha (b. 1956), Bijaya Bajimaya (b. 1957), Sarubhakta Shrestha (b. 1957), Anita Tuladhar (b. 1959), Pramod Pradhan (b. 1959), Krishna Pradhan (b. 1959), Bhupal Rai (b. 1960), Ishwar Kumar Shrestha (b. 1960), Kumar Tamang "Yatru" (b. 1962), Ramesh Shrestha (b. 1968) and Momila Joshi (b. 1968).
It is notable that the non-native writers of Nepali literature come from both inside and outside Nepal, especially from Darjeeling, Kalimpong and Sikkim in India. For many writers, writing in Nepali seems to have become so natural now that it is almost unthinkable that they could have written in any other language.
Siddicharan Shrestha in Nepalese Perspective
Siddhicharan Shrestha Siddhicharan Shrestha is one of the most prominent writers of Nepal. He wrote in Nepal Bhasa and Nepali.
His poem 'Okhaldhunga' is considered one of the master-piece. In this poem he has mentioned about, how much pride he holds to mention about his birth-place. (1913-1992) comes from this tradition of non-native speakers of the Nepali language, but he stands out as one of its most important poets. Working in the 1930s, 1940s and 1950s--the golden period in Nepali literature called "Sharada-kal" (the Sharada magazine period),--he wrote in both Nepali and Newar, but his contribution to Nepali literature was highly acclaimed from early on. Suryabikram Gewali, a scholar, historian and literary critic Noun 1. literary critic - a critic of literature
critic - a person who is professionally engaged in the analysis and interpretation of works of art , wrote an article on Lakshmiprasad Devkota (1909-1959) and Siddhicharan Shrestha (1912-1992). This article published in the 1930s (reproduced in this volume in English) entitled "Two Stars in Nepal's Literary Sky" (Nepali Sahityakashaka Dui Tara) indicated how important Siddhicharan Shrestha was as a poet. Three years younger than Devkota, Shrestha was a romantic poet, focusing his poetic mind mainly on nature and human being, like his older peer.
The year 1951 was remarkable in Nepal's history as it witnessed a revolution overthrowing the century-old Rana rule (1846-1951). This revolution was to change not only the political system in Nepal, but every aspect of Nepalese society and culture including education and literature. This change in Nepal did not come all of a sudden. India's independence struggle led by Mahatma mahatma (məhăt`mə, –hät`–) [Sanskrit,=great-souled], honorific title used in India among Hindus for a person of superior holiness. Mohandas Gandhi is the best-known figure to whom the title was applied. Gandhi in the 1930s and 1940s had an impact on the educated segment of Nepalese society, although education itself was tightly restricted by the Rana rulers. Both Devkota and Shrestha have written poems refleciting this situation in the country.
Siddhicharan's poetry of the 1940s and 1950s is, therefore, worth studying as it reflects the hopes and frustrations of a medieval society in transition towards modernity. It was a period when Nepal went through the birth pangs birth pang
1. One of the repetitive pains occurring in childbirth. Often used in the plural.
2. birth pangs Difficulty or turmoil associated with a development or transition: of a new social order. The birth, however, was not without complications and hindrances. This period was characterized by confusion and chaos in Nepalese society. Accordingly, three distinct attitudes or trends are discernible in Nepalese poetry of the time: (1) traditional, (2) mixed, and (3) modern or romantic.
Some writers, such as Lekhanath Paudyal (1885-1966), remained heavily influenced by Sanskrit literary tradition in every aspect of their works. They were probably not very comfortable with the change in society. Lekhnath's Satya-Kali Samvad (Conversation between Satya and Kati) is full of nostalgia of the golden past (sayta yuga). As we move on to Balkrishna Sama (1903-1981), we find him drawing upon both the Sanskrit and English literary tradition, particularly in his dramas. Although Devkota drew also heavily upon Sanskrit in his works such as his epic Shakuntal, one of his very first works Muna Madan Muna-madan, a short epic narrative by the poet Laxmi Prasad Devkota, is one of the most popular work in the Nepali literature. Just before his death in 1959 he made his famous statement, "it would be all right if all my works were burned, except for 'Muna Madan. (1936) broke away sharply from the tradition both in terms of its form and content.
In Siddhicharan Shrestha, the dose of romanticism becomes much heavier. Seeing the plight of the people under the Rana rule, he advocated for a drastic change in society, to the point of suggesting a national political revolution to overthrow the Ranas. So the Rana rulers sentenced Shrestha to jail for 18 years for writing a poem in Newar in which he said "there will be no peace without a revolution" (Kranti bina thana Tha·na
See Thane. juimakhu swaccha shanti
Shanti (from Sanskrit शािन्त śāntiḥ) can mean:
It is a post-modernist tendency among literary critics to took for anti-colonial elements in the writings of Nepalese and Indian authors during the period before India's independence in 1947 and after it. However, since Nepal was never actually colonized Colonized
This occurs when a microorganism is found on or in a person without causing a disease.
Mentioned in: Isolation , there was hardly any such element except in Lekhanath's Satya-Kali Samvad. Rather than criticized the British colonialists, he actually praised them for their role in introducing modern science and technology to the Indian subcontinent Indian subcontinent, region, S central Asia, comprising the countries of Pakistan, India, and Bangladesh and the Himalayan states of Nepal, and Bhutan. Sri Lanka, an island off the southeastern tip of the Indian peninsula, is often considered a part of the subcontinent. . The romantics such as Devkota and Shrestha, however, did question the indigenous Rana family dictatorship A family dictatorship, in political science terms a personalistic regime, is a form of dictatorship that operates much like an absolute monarchy, yet occurs in a nominally republican state. as against the foreign rule.
Siddhicharan Shrestha's Poetry
Like those of Devkota, the main characteristics of Siddhichran Shrestha are indignation against poverty as in Timro baasita paisa pai·sa
n. pl. pai·se or paisa
See Table at currency.
[Hindi pais chhaina (Your Father has No Money, Son, 1952); the wrong aspects of the social tradition such as the untouchability of a section of human society, as indicated in his poems Chyamini (1951) and Achut (The Untouchable untouchable
Former classification of various low-status persons and those outside the Hindu caste system in Indian society. The term Dalit is now used for such people (in preference to Mohandas K. , 1955); call for a revolution against political and economic exploitation by the Rana rulers, as in many poems such as Sankat (Crisis, 1945), kag (The Crow, 1946), Yugako Urdi (Orders of Time, 1948); and disillusionment Disillusionment
loses innocence through WWI experience. [Am. Lit.: “The Killers”]
Angry Young Men
disillusioned postwar writers of Britain, such as Osborne and Amis. [Br. Lit. over the people's unfulfilled expectations from the 1951 revolution as in the poem Ba aaunubhaeko chhaina (Father Has Not Come Home, 1952). Parts of these poems are reproduced in this article with English translations by various authors. Except in cases where the credit is acknowledged, the translation, (or modification/ improvement of others) is done by the present author.
1. Timro baasitapaisa chhaina (1952) (Your Father has No Money, Son)
In this poem, as in another one, i. e., Ba aaunubhaeko chhaina (Father has not come home, #8 below), also written in 1952 the poet expresses disappointment over the fact that Nepalese people remain economically poor, and that there is no prospect of freedom from this grinding poverty. "Father has not come home" implies that democracy had not come to Nepal as yet, "Father" here symobolizes democracy, that is freedom without economic prosperity
Mind you, my son you will have none-- Delicious food and beautiful dress And the privilege to walk with pride, Holding books in a bundle tight Human you are, but better you were a dog-- Your father has no money, son! Whatever wages I get, my son, Toiling, moiling all day long, Are not enough to feed us full. Nothing useful can be done Your father has no money, son! Go and use your delicate hands, Earn a few paisa if you can. For your mother and father Droop, droop before your time Your father has no money, son! Grazing buffaloes, cows and sheep, Wandering on the banks and fields-- Read all the disarray In this book of Nepalese life-- Your father has no money, son! Schooling's gate is closed to you To enter through to intelligence, Knowledge varied and novel sense Pure and full of consciousness-- Your father has no money, son! (Trans. by Karmacharya, 1998)
2. Chyamini (1951)
Those professional castes who clean the toilets and streets in Kathmandu are called Chyame and Podey, and are regarded as untouchables untouchables: see Harijans.
lowest caste in India; social outcasts. [Ind. Culture: Brewer Dictionary, 1118]
See : Banishment . Chyamini is a woman belonging to the Chyame caste. The poet sees a beautiful Chyamini and as he becomes attracted to her, he becomes also aware of the unjust custom in the society which makes her untouchable.
Proud youth, gorgeous beauty, Burning bright, this Chyamini. When the heart-violin is playing and pouring out streams of the song, it is as if something is scratching, or something has gone wrong. When a tired traveler finds a peaceful and easy shelter, and is about to enter into the inn. It's like the door that shuts off saying "Oh, No: not here." This is a fleshy weapon That can dispel the darkness. But it cannot fit in my heart-sheath unless its callousness is scraped off. The custom is crooked, the rule fake. She has brought the Fate's order in paper that is tied to the string of her blouse; Go, get it, open it, and read it. Proud youth, gorgeous beauty, Burning bright, this Chyamini.
3. Achut (The Untouchable, 1955)
In this poem, the poet is attacking the same evil in society. He is speaking on behalf of God, who is rejecting the offerings from those who have outcaste out·caste
Noun 1. outcaste - a person belonging to no caste
individual, mortal, person, somebody, someone, soul - a human being; "there was too much for one person to do"
Adj. 1. their own fellow beings.
What is this you have brought me, untouched by your brothers and sisters? Take it back, I do not want such things, you cannot worship while hating yourselves, you may not enter my temple if you shut its, door to others Go away, oh sinners, go away fools and savages, your offerings I reject. Do not bow down at my feet, my body is burning, burning. The waters you bring are defiled, far worse than puss and mucus. If you truly wish to worship, bring before me the man whose rights you've usurped through all ages, touch first his feet against whom you have sinned, him you have called untouchable. Only then may you come to my temple, only then are you blessed as men, only then will you cease being thorns preventing our nation's progress, only then will you be straight. (Trans. by Hutt, 1991:61-62).
4. Sankat (The Crisis, 1945)
In this poem written five years before the collapse of Rana rule, the poet is speaking as a revolutionary young man, committed to overthrowing the unjust regime. He is ready to fight against all odds, and is prepared even to die. This kind of revolutionary fever is a special characteristic of Siddhicharan Shrestha.
Now that you have reached mid ocean You must not retreat in fear. The storm may rage--let it do so, You must not lose your nerve. Drown or die--what choice is there? Is this all that you fear? Millions die and millions drown To maintain the way of the world. Enough of a life that is full of tears-- Let me team to die with a smile. Let me be able to kiss with warm lips The rope I'll be hanged by. Paying no heed to the hurdle of tears Of sons, daughters, mother and wife, Let me be able to offer my breath In the fire of patriotic love. Listen, its Crisis who is calling, "I am Crisis, your beloved own. Since your birth I have been with you; Why feel offended now? Yes, of course, he was my companion; A support of life he was too. Long ago Happiness went away, Leaving me far behind. (Trans. By Karmacharya, 1998:23).
5. Kag (The Crow, 1946)
The crow is regarded as a messenger of Fate in Hindu society. When it crows in front of a house, it is supposed to be giving a good or bad message depending on its repose to people's order. If it obeys what the people say after its crowing, it means a good omen. If it does not obey what the people say it is a bad omen. In the following poem, the poet is asking the crow if it has brought the message of the end to the Rana rule.
Crow, what news do you bring? Please tell me your tidings. Sitting on the wall across the yard, Tell me please, what you have brought. Today it is so bad. Tell me of tomorrow. O clever bird in the sky! Shall I pass all my days like this? Or, shall I get some respite some day? Will the burden of my mind be removed, And shall I be fortunate one day or not? Will pleasure embrace me? Will it love me? O black shrewd bird, please tell me. It's within the human capacity to bear the pain of mind. It's among the gifts of the dream the hunger for prosperity is satisfied. So shall I take shelter with you now putting the gifts of my dream in the platter of humanity? This frustration and this hopelessness I will erase it, or tear it apart Dipping my songs in immortality, I will take a new life, that is glorious and I'll come to you, O brother crow, wait.
7. Yugako Urdi (Orders of Time, 1948)
Again, in this poem written just one year before the end of the Rana rule (1846-1951), the poet is writing about the "clarion call clarion call
strong encouragement to do something of the new age", that is dawning slowly upon the Nepalese land. It looked very likely that the Rana rule was going to collapse any time, after the British rule in India British rule in India, may refer to:
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. the poet, the youth has to be ready for braving the heavy odds, and win the battle against the Rana regime even at the cost of his own life.
Troubles befall a human being Not a stony thing A hailstorm lashes the flowers first In the garden green The broader the chest a person has The greater the blow to him. Bullets were fired on Gandhi only Not any other being. The submarine fire chooses the sea, Not a ditch or a stream; Troubles have nothing to savor On things the size of a gnat. What charm, my friend, do young girls find Among the little boys? Will those who are under troubles pressed Have a fitting chest? Troubles shine in the name of those Who face the same to death; A girt in love passes her days Weaving memories lost. Man that you are, rise up you must-- The crisis you must face; A man becomes a genuine man If the orders of time he obeys. (Trans. by Karmacharya, 1998: 34).
8. Ba aaunubhaeko chhaina (Father has not come home, 1952)
In this poem the poet finds that Aama ("Mother" Nepal) is awaiting Father ("Democracy") to arrive. But he also finds that democracy has not come to Nepal yet. So the poet has begun to see the promises broken. The feudal structure of the society remains intact. The lot of the poor people is the same. So the poet laments. In this way, the poetry of Siddhicharan Shrestha and that of the other poets such as Devkota, in the 1950s, describe a similar social condition and people's frustrations as in the 1990s after the restoration of democracy.
The rain is falling, the wind is blowing, Time has donned her garb of lateness, the lamps are lit, a meat is cooked. Mother is crying out, "Father has not come home." Times have changed, The Ranas have sunk, they say our chains are broken, but freedom, progress, democracy, none of these has come. Mother is crying out, "Father has not come home. The sting of our thought, the thunderbolt of our dreams, have smashed the skull of darkness, but a new dawn, a new age, a new day, none of these has dawned. Mother is crying out, "Father has not come home." (Trans. by Hutt, 1991:62)
Thus, Siddhicharan Shrestha came out straight against the Rana rule, poverty and other social evils associated with it. He wrote mostly in Nepali because it had wider audience including the Ranas themselves. He had a clear message for change. So he wrote in a simple language but with a great deal of symbolism in it.
Siddhicharan Shrestha's works in Nepali are collected in several volumes: Urvashi (Urvashi, a celestial nymph's name. 1960), Kopila (The Bud, 1964), Mero Pratibimba (My Reflection, 1964), Jyanmara Shail (Killer Mountain, 1982), Kuhiro ra Gham (Mist and Sunlight, 1988), Siddhicharanaka Pratinidhi Kavita (Siddhicharan's Representative Poems, 1988), Tiramire Tara (Twinkling Stars, 1988), Bachiraheko Awaj (Living Voice, 1989), Mangalman (Mangalman, name of a man, 1992) Ansu (Tears, 1993), and Karagaraka Samjhana (Memories of the Prisorr, 1995). Atmabilauna (My Cry) is forthcoming.
Siddhicharan Shrestha's works with no mention of dates are: Junkiri (Firefly), Bhimsen Thapa Bhimsen Thapa (1775-1839) was the second Prime Minister of Nepal. He is regarded as one of the National heroes of Nepal. Early Life
Bhimsen Thapa was born in the small district of Gorkha. (The Nepalese Prime Minister who fought a war against the British in 1814-1816, and died a tragic death in 1839), Balivadha (The Sacrifice of Bali), Shabari (name of a legendary figure), Rimjhim (Children's Poems), Yatra Yatra is Deepti Bhatnagar's religious travel guide television show, which focuses on a spiritual journey around the Indian temples over STAR Plus.
Yatra is also the name of Nana patekar & rekha starer with beautiful lyrics by Ahmed Wasi References
In the Newar language, Siddhichran Shrestha's main works are Siswan (Wax Flower wax flower
hoyaaustralis. ), Phuswan (The Last Flowers), Gwayaswan (A kind of Red Flower used in Tihar), Trishna (Thirst), Lubhumi (A Woman from Lubhu), Muswan (A Sweet Smelling Flower offered to Macchendra Nath), Siddhicharanaya Nibandha (Siddhicharan's Essays), Narihridya (The Woman's Heart) Uttara-Vilapa (Uttara's Lamentation lamentation,
n a prayer expressing affliction or sorrow and requesting defense, retribution, or comfort. ) and Ghama (Preface).
Unfortunately, very few of Siddhicharan Shretha's works are available in the bookstores. Most of them are out of print. So there is a need for the publication of his complete works in a single volume to facilitate a much more detailed study than the present one, which intends only to give a perspective in brief.
Bandhu, Chudamani, ed. 2055 (1998). Sajha Kavita, An Anthology of Nepali Poems). Kathmandu: Sajha Prakashan.
Bhattarai, Ghataraja. 2056 (1999). Nepali Lekhakakosha (A Dictionary of Nepalese Writers). Kathmandu: Lakshmi Prasada Devakota Pratishthana.
Bhaukaji, Bimal, (ed.). Phagun-Jeth, 2056-57 (March-May, 2000). Ghuyetro, (a literary periodical) Yugakavi Siddhicharan Visheshanka (Siddhicharan Special.). Kathmandu.
Clark, T. W. 1957. "The Rani ra·ni also ra·nee
n. pl. ra·nis also ra·nees
1. The wife of a rajah.
2. A princess or queen in India or the East Indies. Pokhari Inscription, Kathmandu". BSOAS.
Hutt, Michael. 1988. Nepali: A National Language and Its Literature. New Delhi New Delhi (dĕl`ē), city (1991 pop. 294,149), capital of India and of Delhi state, N central India, on the right bank of the Yamuna River. : Sterling Publishers Private Limited.
Hutt, Michael. 1991. Himalayan Voices: An Introduction to Modern Nepali Literature. Berkeley: University of California Press "UC Press" redirects here, but this is also an abbreviation for University of Chicago Press
University of California Press, also known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing. .
Karmacharya, Madhav Lal (Translator). 1998. A Handbook of Siddhicharan's Verse. Kathmandu: Royal Nepal. Academy.
Pradhan, Kumar. A History of Nepali Literature. Delhi: Sahitya Akademi The Sahitya Akademi is an Indian organisation dedicated to the promotion of literature in the languages of India. Founded on March 12 1954, it is supported by, though independent of, the Indian government. .
Rajavamshi, Shakarman, ed. 2027 (1970). Kantipur Shilalekhasuchi (A catalogue of Inscriptions from Kantipur Kathmandu: HMG hMG menotropins (human menopausal gonadotropin).
human menopausal gonadotropin Department--of Archaeology, National Archives.
Sambhav, Dayaram Shrestha. 2039 (1981). Prarambhika Kalako Nepali Sahitya; Itihasa ra Parampara (Nepali Literature of Initial Period: History and Tradition). Kathmandu: Curriculum Development Centre, Tribhuvan University.
Shrestha, Dayarama and Mohan Raj Sharma. 2056 (1999). Nepali Sahityako Samkshipta Itihasa (A Brief History of Nepali Literature, Fifth Edition). Kathmandu: Sajha Prakashan.
Shrestha, Chandra Bahadur. 1981. My Reminiscence rem·i·nis·cence
1. The act or process of recollecting past experiences or events.
2. An experience or event recollected: "Her mind seemed wholly taken up with reminiscences of past gaiety" of the Great Poet Laxmi Prasad Devkota Laxmi Prasad Devkota (b. 1909 in Kathmandu, d. 1959), was a Nepali poet. He is best known for the poem "Muna Madan." Early life
Devkota was the third son of Pandit Tila Madhav and Amar Rajya Laxmi Devi. . Kathmandu: Royal Nepal Academy.
Shrestha, Siddhicharan. 2035 (1978). Mero Pratibimba (My Reflection, Second Edition). Kathmandu: Sajha Prakashan.
--2052 (1995). Karagaraka Samjhana (Memories of the Prison). Kathmandu: Charu Shrestha.
Thakur, M. M. 1998. Lakshmi Prasad Devkota Selected Poems (An English Rendering). Kathmandu: Sandesh
Thapa, Netra B. 1990. A Short History of Nepal The History of Nepal is characterized by its isolated position in the Himalayas and its two dominant neighbors, India and China. Even though it was independent through most of its history, it was split in three from the 15th to 18th century. . Kathmandu: Ratna Pustak Bhandar.
JAYARAJ ACHARYA For the pen name of D. Murdock, see .
An acharya is an important religious teacher. The word has different meanings in Hinduism and Jainism. In Hinduism
In the Hindu religion, an acharya (आचार्य) is a Divine personality , Ph.D., Professor of English at Tribhuvan University.