Shorad on the go: self-propelled systems intended to provide short-range air defence on the battlefield are evolving to meet the challenges of high intensity and asymmetric operations.
For much of the past 50 years low-level air defence on the battlefield has concentrated against the threat from fighter ground attack aircraft A ground-attack aircraft is an aircraft that is designed to operate in direct support of ground forces such as infantry, tanks and other fighting vehicles. Their use is therefore tactical rather than strategic, operating at the front of the battle rather than against targets deeper and battlefield helicopters. Over recent years air defence systems have evolved to better counter these threats both by day and by night and also have expanded their target envelope to engage the growing threat of unmanned air vehicles and cruise missiles. Such systems must be highly mobile to support the strategic and tactical deployments of modern expeditionary forces. Increasingly, short-range air defence (also known as shorad) systems are being integrated with longer range systems capable of engaging ballistic missiles and--in the future--rocket, artillery and mortar threats.
At the lowest level mobile air defence is provided by missile systems many of which were developed initially as shoulder-launched man-portable air defence units known as manpads. In some armies these are complemented by self-propelled anti-aircraft guns that can also be used against ground targets. Amongst Western forces the most widely deployed of these missiles is the Raytheon Fim-92 Stinger The FIM-92 Stinger is a man portable infra-red homing surface-to-air missile developed in the United States and used by all the US armed services, with whom it entered service in 1981. The basic Stinger missile has to date been responsible for 270 confirmed kills of aircraft. fire-and-forget missile, which first entered service in 1982. The Boeing Integrated Defense Systems Boeing Integrated Defense Systems (Boeing IDS), based in St. Louis, Missouri, USA, is a unit of The Boeing Company responsible for defense and aerospace products and services. AN-TWQ-1 Avenger was developed in the early 1980s to provide the US Army with a low-cost highly mobile system. Mounted on an AM General Hummer, the Avenger gyro-stabilised turret is armed with eight Stinger missiles in two pods. Targets are acquired by using the optical sight or a flir (forward-looking infrared An airborne, electro-optical thermal imaging device that detects far-infrared energy, converts the energy into an electronic signal, and provides a visible image for day or night viewing. Also called FLIR. ) unit. The current production standard Fim-92C missile can engage targets beyond 4500 metres in range and at altitudes between ground level and 3800 metres. An FN Herstal MP3 .50 calibre heavy machine gun A heavy machine gun refers to either a larger-caliber, high-power machine gun or one of the smaller, medium-caliber (rifle caliber) machine guns meant for prolonged firing from heavy mounts, less mobile, or static positions (or some combination of the two). with 300 rounds of ready-to-use ammunition is fitted to provide self-defence and also cover the Stinger's dead zone out to 200 metres. A further eight missiles are carried in reserve and mounted with a grip stock to allow them to be launched from the shoulder. More than 1000 Avengers were produced for the US Army and US Marine Corps with the first becoming operational in 1989. In 1996 74 Avengers were sold to Taiwan and this was followed in 1998 by the sale of 50 systems to Egypt. Inactive since completing the first Egyptian Foreign Military Sales That portion of United States security assistance authorized by the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended, and the Arms Export Control Act of 1976, as amended. This assistance differs from the Military Assistance Program and the International Military Education and Training Program (FMS FMS - Flexible Manufacturing System (factory automation). ) in 2004, Boeing has restarted the Avenger production line in Huntsville, Alabama Huntsville is the county seat of Madison County, Alabama. Huntsville is the largest city in northern Alabama in a region of a half-million people, with the city proper having 168,132 residents (2006 estimate). , this after receiving a further $ 50 million FMS contract in late June to deliver additional 25 Avengers to Egypt along with associated spares and logistics support. The new systems, scheduled for delivery by September 2008, will equip two brigades each of twelve units. Company officials are keen to capitalise on the reopening of the line as several countries, including South Korea, the Czech Republic Czech Republic, Czech Česká Republika (2005 est. pop. 10,241,000), republic, 29,677 sq mi (78,864 sq km), central Europe. It is bordered by Slovakia on the east, Austria on the south, Germany on the west, and Poland on the north. , Poland and Thailand, have expressed an interest in the Avenger.
The Turkish Armed Forces took 40% of the offset of the European Stinger production programme so it is not surprising that a requirement for a mobile Stinger system was developed. Turkey's Aselsan produced the pedestal-mounted air defence system and has received a contract to produce 126 fire units in two versions: the Atilgan, which carries two standard vehicle-mounted launchers each with four ready-to-fire Stingers on a modified M113 tracked armoured personnel carrier, and the Zipkin, which has two two-cell Atas launchers mounted on a long-wheelbase 4 x 4 Land Rover See LANRover. . Each version also has a .50-calibre HMG hMG menotropins (human menopausal gonadotropin).
human menopausal gonadotropin . For export customers the system can be configured to launch other V-shorad missiles. Aselsan won its first export contract in mid-2005 to supply 18 pedestal units to the Royal Netherlands Army The Royal Netherlands Army (Koninklijke Landmacht) is the land forces element of the military of the Netherlands. The core fighting element of the army is divided into three separate brigades: two mechanised brigades and one airborne brigade. . These will be integrated onto the army's new Fennek 4 x 4 armoured vehicles and will replace the Gepard 35 mm vehicle. The Dutch configuration will feature two Stingers in the ready-to-launch position. The German Army also uses the Stinger, launched from the Rheinmetall Asrad (Advanced Short Range Air Defence) system, to provide self-propelled shorad cover. Developed as a private venture, the modular Asrad can be used with other missiles such as the MBDA MBDA Minority Business Development Agency (US Department of Commerce)
MBDA Michigan Broadband Development Authority
MBDA Minnesota Band Directors Association
MBDA Matra BAE Dynamics Alenia
MBDA Magnolia Ballroom Dancers' Association Mistral Mis·tral , Frédéric 1830-1914.
French writer and leader in the revival of Provençal as a literary language. He shared the 1904 Nobel Prize for literature.
n. and the Kolomna KBM (Knowledge Based Manufacturing) A full-featured custom manufacturing ERP system from Acacia for the AS/400. It was originally developed by Data3, which was acquired by the ASK Group and then by Computer Associates (CA) in 1994. See Acacia. Igla-1, and mounted on a range of tracked and wheeled chassis. The Germany Army decided to install the Asrad on the Rheinmetall Wiesel 2 light tracked airborne vehicle. The German order consisted of 50 Ozelot weapon platforms armed with four ready-to-launch Stingers, ten platoon command post vehicles equipped with the Ericsson Improved Hard 3D radar and seven battery command post vehicles. The Improved Hard radar can track more than 20 targets out to a maximum range of 20,000 metres and a maximum altitude of 10,000 metres. Rheinmetall received a $117 million contract from the Hellenic Army
This article is about the land force of the modern nation of Greece. See hoplites for information on Military systems in Ancient Greece.
The Hellenic Army (Greek: in October 2000 to supply 54 Asrad systems for integration on the locally produced Hummer chassis--in July 2002 the Finnish Defence Force ordered the Asrad-R, developed by Rheinmetall in collaboration with Saab Bofors Dynamics Saab Bofors Dynamics, located in Karlskoga, Sweden, is a subsidiary of Saab AB that specializes in defense materiel such as missile systems and anti-tank systems.
Its corporate heritage goes back to Bofors, which was founded in 1873. , which consists of a four-round RBS RBS Royal Bank of Scotland
RBS Role Based Security
RBS Rollback Segment
RBS Rare Book School (University of Virginia)
RBS Rural Business Cooperative Service
RBS Ribosome Binding Site (genetics) 70 launcher coupled with the Hard 3D radar. The Asrad-R was mounted on the BAE Systems BAE Systems
British manufacturer of aircraft, missiles, avionics, naval vessels, and other aerospace and defense products. BAE Systems was formed (1999) from the merger of British Aerospace (BAe) with Marconi Electronic Systems. M113 for trials, although the Finnish system is mounted on the Mercedes Unimog 5000 high-mobility vehicle.
Having deployed the Blowpipe blowpipe /blow·pipe/ (blo´pip) a tube through which a current of air is forced upon a flame to concentrate and intensify the heat. and Javelin missiles only in the man-portable configuration, the British Army decided that their successor, the Thales Starstreak, would be developed primarily for use as a self-propelled weapon with a man-carried capability. The first of 135 missiles, mounted on a BAE Systems tracked Stormer Stormer may refer to:
Thales has recently developed the modular Thor MultiMission System, a 500-kg unmanned turret armed with four ready to launch Starstreak missiles that can be mounted on a wide range of tracked and wheeled chassis. In 2005 Thales unveiled the Thor prototype mounted on an ATL (Active Template Library) A set of software routines from Microsoft that provide the basic framework for creating ActiveX and COM objects. Stemming from the standard template library (STL) that comes with C++ compilers, ATL includes an object wizard that sets up Pinzgauer 6 x 6 as used by the British Army. The launcher can be configured to fire four Starstreak multi-role missiles, two Starstreak missiles and either two fire-and-forget surface-to-air missiles such as the Stinger or two anti-armour/anti-structure missiles such as the Javelin or Spike-LR or four anti-armour/anti-structure missiles. The Thor reflects work underway following the 2003 order to supply the Starstreak for South Africa's Ground Based Air Defence programme.
MBDA's fire-and-forget Mistral is another man-portable missile that was successfully employed for vehicle applications. The Atlas lightweight twin-round launcher can be mounted on the flatbed of a 4 x 4 cross-country truck to provide an inexpensive solution such as that supplied to the Hungarian Army in 2000. The French Air Force fields 30 Thomson Shorts Aspic firing posts, which include four Mistral launchers mounted on the rear of the Peugeot P4 4 x 4 light utility vehicle. At Eurosatory in June 2006 MBDA unveiled a new turret that can be integrated into a wide range of tracked and wheeled chassis to produce a Multi-Purpose Combat Vehicle (MPCV MPCV Mine Protected Clearance Vehicle ) for both the air-defence and anti-tank roles. The turret was in fact jointly developed with Rheinmetall. At Eurosatory the MPCV was integrated in a Panhard 4 x 4 VBR (1) See MP3 VBR.
(2) (Variable Bit Rate) Refers to a communications or computer channel that changes its transmission speed based on any number of criteria. light armoured vehicle. Configured for the air defence mission the turret would be armed with four Mistral 2 missiles--two mounted on either side of the turret. Four of the new 3000-metre range MBDA Milan-ER (Extended Response) anti-tank guided missiles A list of ATGMs by country. Brazil
A term lenders commonly use to refer to the habits of borrowers taking out loans to repay the balance on other loans. Often reloading is done to take advantage of lower interest rates offered by other loans, and potential tax benefits. . Mounted on the centre of the turret is a Rheinmetall stabilized electro-optical sight capable of engaging air and ground targets by day and night. Also mounted on the turret is a .50-calibre HMG to provide local defence.
There are comparatively few self-propelled air defence systems in Western service at present. As part of BAE Systems Hagglunds Combat Vehicle 90 (CV90) family, the Swedish Army deploys the CV90 Anti-Aircraft Vehicle (AAV AAV Adeno-Associated Virus
AAV Asian-American Village
AAV Amphibious Assault Vehicle (US DoD)
AAV Association of Avian Veterinarians
AAV All Activity Vehicle (Mercedes-Benz)
AAV Airborne Assault Vehicle ), which mounts a turret equipped with a Bofors 40 mm L/70 gun and a Thales Defence Systems Gerfault TRS See traffic engineering methods.
TRS - term rewriting system 2620 search radar on the tracked CV90 chassis. The last of 30 vehicles ordered was delivered in 1999. The CV90 AAV turret is offered for integration on other platforms such as the Mowag Piranha 10 x 10 chassis, on which trials were conducted successfully in 1998.
Switzerland's Oerlikon Contraves (part of Rheinmetall) is seeking to exploit the success of its 35 mm Ahead programmable munition, now purchased by a least ten countries, by developing an air-defence vehicle to complement its GDF GDF Gaz De France
GDF Government(-wide) Data Files
GDF Guardia di Finanza (Italian Revenue Guard Corps)
GDF Global Development Finance (World Bank) series of twin 35 mm towed anti-aircraft guns. The company's new Skyranger air defence system consists of three components: the Skyranger Gun System, the Skyranger Missile Launcher System and the Skyranger Radar System with Integrated Control Centre. The manufacturer suggests that a typical unit comprises two guns, one missile launcher and a radar/command vehicle. The unmanned turret of the Skyranger Gun System is armed with an Oerlikon Contraves 35/1000 revolver cannon, which has 220 rounds of available ammunition. To engage ground targets, frangible fran·gi·ble
Capable of being broken; breakable. See Synonyms at fragile.
[Middle English, from Old French, from Medieval Latin frangibilis, from Latin frangere, to break armour piercing discarding sabot ammunition would be used, while Ahead ammunition would be used against air targets with a typical engagement sequence consisting of 20 to 24 rounds. A Rheinmetall Defence Electronics day/night sighting system, which features a laser rangefinder and a 3D radar with a range of 25 km, are mounted on the roof. Two crewmembers are seated in the hull to operate the turret. The first prototype is integrated on a Mowag Piranha 8 x 8 chassis, although the system can be installed in a range of wheeled and tracked chassis. Rheinmetall has indicated that the Spanish Army, among others, is interested in the Skyranger Gun System. The Skyranger missile launcher consists of the Rheinmetall Asrad with four ready-to-launch Saab Bofors Bolide bolide: see fireball. missiles.
France, Israel and the United States have all developed mobile launchers that employ missiles first developed for the air-to-air role. Raytheon, Kongsberg Defence and Aerospace and Boeing have collaborated to develop two surface launchers for Raytheon's AIM-120 Amraam family: the trailer-mounted six-missile Norwegian Advanced Surface-to-Air Missile System Noun 1. surface-to-air missile system - the shipboard system that fires missiles at aircraft
shipboard system - a system designed to work as a coherent entity on board a naval ship (Nasams), which entered service with the Royal Norwegian Air Force in 1995 and the 'Humraam' launcher, based on the Hummer, now in the final stage of development. The US Department of Defense deployed Nasams launchers around Washington DC for the presidential inauguration on 20 January 2005. The US Marine Corps awarded Raytheon a contract in April 2001 for the development of the Hummer-based Complementary Low Altitude Weapon System (Claws) and in February 2004 the US Army Aviation and Missile Command awarded Raytheon a contract to develop the Slamraam, which is also mounted on the Hummer, the two services' requirements have been merged into the Slamraam project. Using the same onboard electronics as the Nasams the Hummer can carry up to six missiles. The launchers would be used in conjunction with a Hummer-mounted Fire Direction Center That element of a command post, consisting of gunnery and communications personnel and equipment, by means of which the commander exercises fire direction and/or fire control. The fire direction center receives target intelligence and requests for fire, and translates them into , chosen by the US Army as its baseline Integrated Fire Control Station, and the trailer-mounted AN/MPQ-64 Sentinel 3D radar. The first integrated fire control system A system that performs the functions of target acquisition, tracking, data computation, and engagement control, primarily using electronic means and assisted by electromechanical devices. was delivered in May and the Slamraam successfully completed its System Critical Design Review in June.
At Eurosatory 2004 Rafael and Israel Aircraft Industries displayed the Spyder, a unit that combines surface-to-air Python 5 and Derby missiles. The partners adapted the infrared-guided Python 5 and electromagnetic beyond-visual-range Derby for the Sam role. The original Spyder, now known as the Spyder-SR (Short Range), Missile Fire Unit mounts four missiles in ready-to-fire launcher containers on the flatbed of a high-mobility 6 x 6 truck. The Spyder-SR has a maximum range of, << 15 km-plus against targets flying at altitudes of between 20 and 9000 metres >>, according to the manufacturer. The companies suggest that four fire units be linked to a truck-mounted command and control unit that incorporates an Elta DL/M 2106 Atar 3D surveillance radar able to track 60 targets at a maximum range of 35 km. Following a competitive evaluation that included systems from Europe, Russia and South Africa, the Indian Army is seeking cabinet approval to award a $ 250 million contract for the Spyder. The system is being evaluated by the Israel Defence Force. The Spyder-MR was developed to compete for a forthcoming Finnish Defence Force requirement. It mounts a combination of eight Python 5 and Derby missiles equipped with boosters to extend their range to 35 km and maximum altitude to 16,000 metres. The command unit is equipped with the new IAI/Elbit MFStar surveillance radar, which has a range of about 100 km. The short and medium-range Spyder systems are designed to be interoperable.
MBDA unveiled its Vertical Launch Mica concept for land and sea-based applications in 2000. It employs the hitherto fire-and-forget air-to-air Mica originally developed as an all-weather missile for the French Air Force; the missile was introduced into service with the Mirage 2000 in 1996. The land variant of the VL Mica (see cover photo) would mount a launch unit with up to 16 missiles on the rear of a five-tonne class cross-country truck. Two missiles are available: the active radar Mica RA and the passive imaging infrared Mica IR. Both missiles have an effective range and ceiling of more than 10,000 metres. The VL Mica was shortlisted along with the Israeli Spyder to meet an Indian requirement.
Strategic and tactical mobility will be an important requirement of future long-range systems such as the Meads (Medium Extended Air Defence System) being developed by Meads International to provide a more effective, mobile replacement for the Hawk and Nike low- to medium-altitude and the MIM-104 Patriot low- to high-altitude missile systems. The Meads is intended to protect both manoeuvre forces and fixed locations against tactical ballistic missiles, cruise missiles, drones and aircraft. The system is expected to achieve a first-unit-equipped status in US Army service by 2014 and completely replace the Patriot by 2030. The Meads consortium consists of MBDA Italia, Eads-LFK and Lockheed Martin. In June 2005 Meads International signed a $ 3.4 billion contract for the project's design and development phase. The Meads consists of six major components: multifunction fire control radar Noun 1. fire control radar - naval radar that controls the delivery of fire on a military target
naval radar - naval equipment consisting of a shipboard radar , surveillance radar, battle management system, command and control, communications, computers and intelligence, Certified Missile Round (Pac-3 missile and canister), launcher and Reloader. Like all elements of the system, the 16-missile Meads Launcher, mounted on a five-tonne 6 x 6 high mobility truck, can be carried by a C-130 Hercules tactical transport aircraft Aircraft designed primarily for the carriage of personnel and/or cargo over short or medium distances. . The Pac-3 missile is able to engage targets from 50 to more than 15,000 metres in altitude and more than 20,000 metres in range.
Russia has also developed a formidable arsenal of air-defence vehicles, essentially tracked, as is the preferred course in the East. One of the most formidable units is the KBP kbp
kilobase pair; for double-stranded nucleotides, a thousand nucleotide base pairs. Tunguska-M (left), which entered service in the early 1990s. It carries its own detection and tracking radars and electro-optical suite, plus two twin-barrelled 2A38M 30 mm guns flanked by no less than eight 9M311 missiles. On a lighter scale, and very much like the Western Mistral and Stinger man-portable missiles, the KBP Igla moved from shoulder to vehicle-mounted firing post as seen on the photo at right, taken by Armada editors at the Maks air show near Moscow.