Sexual practices at last heterosexual encounter and occurrence of orgasm in a national survey.
In heterosexual heterosexual /het·ero·sex·u·al/ (-sek´shoo-al)
1. pertaining to, characteristic of, or directed toward the opposite sex.
2. one who is sexually attracted to persons of the opposite sex. encounters, women are less likely to reach orgasm orgasm /or·gasm/ (or´gazm) the apex and culmination of sexual excitement.orgas´mic
n. than men. This has long been seen as a problem in the sexological literature (Fisher, 1973; Masters & Johnson, 1966, 1970; van de Velde van de Velde: see Velde, van de. , 1957). Men's orgasms, on the other hand, are generally seen as unproblematic unless they occur too soon during coitus coitus /co·i·tus/ (ko´it-us) sexual connection per vaginam between male and female.co´ital
coitus incomple´tus , coitus interrup´tus (a common occurrence) or are delayed or absent (a rare occurrence).
However, there has been little research at a population level that examines predictors of or factors associated with orgasm on any one occasion. Indeed, much of the research on female difficulties with orgasm or with heterosexual sex in general has focused more on indirect causes, such as upbringing up·bring·ing
The rearing and training received during childhood.
the education of a person during his or her formative years
Noun 1. , attitudes, religion, marital adjustment, anxiety, previous traumatic experiences, or the woman's relationship with her father or other figures (Anderson & Cyranowski, 1995; Fisher, 1973) rather than proximal proximal /prox·i·mal/ (-mil) nearest to a point of reference, as to a center or median line or to the point of attachment or origin.
adj. causes, such as the form of stimulation received. This is in spite of the information on clitoral clitoral
pertaining to or emanating from the clitoris.
may occur in Cushing's syndrome as a result of increased androgens produced by a hyperplastic or neoplastic adrenal cortex. stimulation "discovered" by Kinsey's team (1953) and Masters and Johnson Masters and Johnson, pioneering research team in the field of human sexuality, consisting of the gynecologist
William Howell Masters, 1915–2001, b. Cleveland, and the psychologist
Virginia Eshelman Johnson, 1925–, b. (1966). Indeed, Fisher even argued vigorously that beyond a certain minimal level of stimulation (unspecified Adj. 1. unspecified - not stated explicitly or in detail; "threatened unspecified reprisals"
specified - clearly and explicitly stated; "meals are at specified times" ), what the husband does or what he is like as a person makes little difference to his wife's potential for regular orgasm. Fisher is dismissive dis·mis·sive
1. Serving to dismiss.
2. Showing indifference or disregard: a dismissive shrug.
Adj. 1. of the advice of sex manuals about technique, but his view is challenged by the finding by Davidson and Darting (1989), in a survey of over 2,000 female nurses, that women who were sexually satisfied were much more likely to have a male partner who could delay his initial orgasm until they had had one themselves. Furthermore, "the most desired change in the sexual lives of this sample of women, regardless of marital status marital status,
n the legal standing of a person in regard to his or her marriage state. , was more foreplay foreplay /fore·play/ (for´pla) the sexually stimulating play preceding intercourse.
The sexual stimulation that precedes intercourse. " (p. 83).
Anderson and Cyranowski (1995), in their review of women's sexuality, pointed out that definitions of orgasm and orgasmic dysfunction dysfunction /dys·func·tion/ (dis-funk´shun) disturbance, impairment, or abnormality of functioning of an organ.dysfunc´tional
erectile dysfunction impotence (2). are heterogeneous, controversial, and unclear. For example, anorgasmia anorgasmia /an·or·gas·mia/ (an?or-gaz´me-ah) inability or failure to experience orgasm.anorgas´mic as a clinical diagnostic category may be defined as the lack of orgasm "following an unimpaired Adj. 1. unimpaired - not damaged or diminished in any respect; "his speech remained unimpaired"
undamaged - not harmed or spoiled; sound
uninjured - not injured physically or mentally sexual excitement phase" (p. 898). Such a definition, though applicable where there is a pharmacological Pharmacological
Referring to therapy that relies on drugs.
Mentioned in: Pain Management
pertaining to pharmacology. reason for the specific inability to reach orgasm, is not useful for identifying women who do not reach orgasm due to lack of appropriate stimulation.
Several major national surveys of sexual behavior sexual behavior A person's sexual practices–ie, whether he/she engages in heterosexual or homosexual activity. See Sex life, Sexual life. preceded the Australian Study of Health and Relationships. The British National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles The National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (NATSAL) is the name given to two face-to-face interviews of people in the United Kingdom regarding their sexual behaviour and patterns. The two rounds of interviews are NATSAL I (1990-91) and NATSAL II (2000-01). (Johnson, Wadsworth, Wellings, Field, & Bradshaw, 1994) focused largely on data required for the epidemiological epidemiological
emanating from or pertaining to epidemiology.
the associative relationships between the frequency of occurrence of a disease and its determinants, its predisposing and precipitating understanding of HIV HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus), either of two closely related retroviruses that invade T-helper lymphocytes and are responsible for AIDS. There are two types of HIV: HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is responsible for the vast majority of AIDS in the United States. and other sexually transmissible transmissible /trans·mis·si·ble/ (trans-mis´i-b'l) capable of being transmitted.
Capable of being conveyed from one person to another. infections, and did not ask directly about orgasm. The American study of the social organization of sexuality (Laumann, Gagnon, Michael, & Michaels, 1994), which took a broader, more sociological look at sexual conduct, asked about frequency of orgasm in the past 12 months. Among women (but not men), reporting orgasm rarely or never was associated with being unhappy (p. 358). There was no association between happiness and the occurrence of oral or anal sex Noun 1. anal sex - intercourse via the anus, committed by a man with a man or woman
anal intercourse, buggery, sodomy
sexual perversion, perversion - an aberrant sexual practice; in the last sexual event, or between happiness and the length of the last sexual event (more or less than 30 minutes). People who reported more frequent sex were more likely to be happy. This finding is in line with data from the Australian Study of Health and Relationships indicating that people who said they had sex often were more likely both to report their regular heterosexual relationship as extremely emotionally satisfying and to find the sex in their relationship extremely physically pleasurable pleas·ur·a·ble
pleasur·a·bil (Richters, Grulich, de Visser, Smith, & Rissel, 2003a).
The authors of the French survey remarked that despite recent activity in sex research as a result of AIDS, "empirical knowledge of sexual repertoires remains extremely limited" (Messiah, Blin v. t. & i. 1. To stop; to cease; to desist.
n. 1. Cessation; end.
1. a thin buckwheat pancake made with yeast and usually filled with sour cream and folded over. See also blini. , Fiche Same as microfiche. , & the ACSF ACSF Afghan Civil Society Forum
ACSF Artificial Cerebrospinal Fluid group, 1995, p. 1,358). Messiah et al. reported sexual practices at the last heterosexual encounter. (Respondents In the context of marketing research, a representative sample drawn from a larger population of people from whom information is collected and used to develop or confirm marketing strategy. with any same-sex activity in the previous 12 months were excluded from the analysis.) The interview asked about mutual caresses, masturbation masturbation
Erotic stimulation of one's own genital organs, usually to achieve orgasm. Masturbatory behavior is common in infants and adolescents, and is indulged in by many adults as well. Studies indicate that over 90% of U.S. males and 60–80% of U.S. of each partner by the other, self-masturbation, fellatio A sexual act in which a male places his penis into the mouth of another person.
At Common Law, fellatio was considered a crime against nature. It was classified as a felony and punishable by imprisonment and/or death. , cunnilingus An act in which the female sexual organ is orally stimulated.
At Common Law, cunnilingus was not a crime. It is presently a crime in some jurisdictions and is usually treated as Sodomy. , man's finger in vagina vagina: see reproductive system.
Genital canal in females. Together with the cavity of the uterus, it forms the birth canal. In most virgins, its external opening is partially closed by a thin fold of tissue (hymen), which has various forms, , vaginal vag·i·nal
1. Of or relating to the vagina.
2. Relating to or resembling a sheath.
pertaining to the vagina, the tunica vaginalis testis, or to any sheath. penetration (i.e., intercourse INTERCOURSE. Communication; commerce; connexion by reciprocal dealings between persons or nations, as by interchange of commodities, treaties, contracts, or letters. ), and anal intercourse Noun 1. anal intercourse - intercourse via the anus, committed by a man with a man or woman
anal sex, buggery, sodomy
sexual perversion, perversion - an aberrant sexual practice; . Repertoire Repertoire may mean Repertory but may also refer to:
1. Tending to penetrate; penetrant.
2. Displaying keen insight; acute.
Adj. 1. penetrative intercourse, as only 1% of them reported an encounter that did not include it.
The Finnish national survey carried out in 1991 was able to compare its results with a similar survey done in 1972 and found an increase in sexual satisfaction (Haavio-Mannila & Kontula, 1997). The evaluation of the most recent intercourse as pleasurable increased among women, reducing the gender gap, but men still enjoyed intercourse in general more than women. At most recent intercourse, 92% of men and 56% of women in the later survey achieved orgasm. The authors constructed a model to find factors related to physical sexual satisfaction and found that women's sexual satisfaction was better predicted by factors in the model: the path models explained only 21% of men's but 46% of women's satisfaction with sex. Satisfaction was directly connected to sexual assertiveness assertiveness /as·ser·tive·ness/ (ah-ser´tiv-nes) the quality or state of bold or confident self-expression, neither aggressive nor submissive. , frequent sex, using many techniques in sexual encounters, and orgasm. For women, it was also connected to young age, and for men, considering sexuality important in life, reciprocal Bilateral; two-sided; mutual; interchanged.
Reciprocal obligations are duties owed by one individual to another and vice versa. A reciprocal contract is one in which the parties enter into mutual agreements. love, and using sex materials.
Data have already been published from the Australian Study of Health and Relationships on the frequency of sexual activities The frequency of sexual activity of humans is determined by several parameters, and varies greatly from person to person, and within a person's lifetime.
The frequency of sexual intercourse might range from zero (sexual abstinence) for some to 15 or 20 times a week. at the last occasion of sex and the frequency of orgasm on that occasion (de Visser, Smith, Rissel, Richters, & Grulich, 2003). However, that analysis was simply descriptive and made no attempt to examine the relationship between sexual repertoire and orgasm. This article explores that relationship.
We stress, however, that the data collected in this study on sexual practice at last encounter were selective, with the choice of questions driven largely by relevance to health concerns about penetrative sex and condom 1. condom - The protective plastic bag that accompanies 3.5-inch microfloppy diskettes. Rarely, also used of (paper) disk envelopes. Unlike the write protect tab, the condom (when left on) not only impedes the practice of SEX but has also been shown to have a high failure use. Thus, respondents were asked about manual stimulation given and received, about oral sex, and about vaginal and anal intercourse, but not about many other sexual techniques and circumstances CIRCUMSTANCES, evidence. The particulars which accompany a fact.
2. The facts proved are either possible or impossible, ordinary and probable, or extraordinary and improbable, recent or ancient; they may have happened near us, or afar off; they are public or that may contribute to an encounter and to the probability of each partner reaching orgasm.
The methods used in the Australian Study of Health and Relationships are described in detail elsewhere (Smith, Rissel, Richters, Grulich, & de Visser, 2003). Briefly, between May 2001 and June 2002, computer-assisted telephone interviews were completed by a representative sample of 10,173 men and 9,134 women aged 16-59 years from households in all states and territories of Australia The states and territories of Australia make up the Commonwealth of Australia under a federal system of government.
States and territories of Australia
State Abbreviation Capital . Respondents were selected via modified random-digit dialing, with over-sampling of men and residents of some geographical areas. The overall response rate was 73.1% (69.4% among men and 77.6% among women). All respondents answered a core set of questions, including sexual histories, and a subsample sub·sam·ple
A sample drawn from a larger sample.
tr.v. sub·sam·pled, sub·sam·pling, sub·sam·ples
To take a subsample from (a larger sample). of 7,653 people provided detailed information about recent sexual behavior. The sample used in this analysis consists of the 5,118 men and women who were sexually active in the last year and who reported on their most recent sexual encounter with an opposite-sex partner.
The questions used to assess sexual practices at a woman's most recent sexual encounter with a man are displayed in the Appendix. Corresponding questions were asked of men about their most recent encounter with a woman. (Data relating to relating to relate prep → concernant
relating to relate prep → bezüglich +gen, mit Bezug auf +acc same-sex partners same-sex partner Social medicine A domestic partner of the same genotypic sex. See Homosexual. are not analyzed an·a·lyze
tr.v. an·a·lyzed, an·a·lyz·ing, an·a·lyz·es
1. To examine methodically by separating into parts and studying their interrelations.
2. Chemistry To make a chemical analysis of.
Factors Possibly Associated with Orgasm
Demographic factors used were age (recoded into 16-19, 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59); language spoken at home (English, other); education (less than secondary, secondary, post-secondary); household income (low < $20,000 per year, moderate $20,000-$52,000 per year, high > $52,000 per year); occupational classification (blue-collar, white-collar, manager/professional); religion or faith (yes, no).
Measures of lifetime sexual experience included age at first vaginal intercourse or oral sex (recoded as < 16 years or [greater than or equal to] 16 years); number of years sexually active (recoded as 0-2 years; 3-10 years; 11-20 years; 21 + years); total number of sexual partners over the lifetime (recoded as 0-2; 3-10; 11-20; 21+).
Sexual permissiveness was measured by six items that formed a scale with good internal consistency In statistics and research, internal consistency is a measure based on the correlations between different items on the same test (or the same subscale on a larger test). It measures whether several items that propose to measure the same general construct produce similar scores. (Cronbach's [alpha] = 0.74; Rissel, Richters, Grulich, de Visser, & Smith, 2003). Scores ranged from 1 to 5, with higher scores indicating more permissive permissive adj. 1) referring to any act which is allowed by court order, legal procedure, or agreement. 2) tolerant or allowing of others' behavior, suggesting contrary to others' standards.
PERMISSIVE. attitudes. These raw scores were recoded into low (> 1 SD below the sample mean), moderate, and high (> 1 SD above the sample mean).
Measures of recent sexual activity included: masturbated in the last month (yes, no); deliberately visited internet sex site in the last year (yes, no); watched X-rated film in the last year (yes, no); used sex toys sex toy Sexology Any device used during sexual activity to enhance pleasure Examples Chains, dildos, special condoms, edible undergarments, whip Per Cicero O tempora! O mores! in the last year (yes, no); frequency of sex in the last four weeks (no sex, up to twice a week, more than twice a week).
Respondents indicated their relationship to their most recent sexual partner (regular, other). Those who had sex with a regular partner indicated the length of their relationship with this partner (less than 1 year, 1-2 years, 2-5 years, 5-10 years, 10-20 years, 21+ years).
Data were weighted to adjust for the probability of household selection (households with more phone lines were more likely to be contacted) and to adjust for the probability of selection within a household (individuals living in households with more eligible people were less likely to be selected). Further weighting on the basis of age, gender, and area of residence ensured that both the full sample and the subsample matched the Australian population as reported in the 2001 Census (Smith et al., 2003). Weighted data were analyzed using the survey estimation estimation
In mathematics, use of a function or formula to derive a solution or make a prediction. Unlike approximation, it has precise connotations. In statistics, for example, it connotes the careful selection and testing of a function called an estimator. commands in Stata Stata (Statistics/Data Analysis) is a statistical program created in 1985 by Statacorp that is used by many businesses and academic institutions around the world. Most of its users work in research, especially in the fields of economics, sociology, political science, and Version 7.0 (StataCorp, 2002). Factors associated with outcome variables were identified via univariate logistic regression In statistics, logistic regression is a regression model for binomially distributed response/dependent variables. It is useful for modeling the probability of an event occurring as a function of other factors. (dichotomous di·chot·o·mous
1. Divided or dividing into two parts or classifications.
2. Characterized by dichotomy.
di·chot outcome variables). The adjustment for demographic and sexual history variables in Table 5 was done by entering the predictor variable Noun 1. predictor variable - a variable that can be used to predict the value of another variable (as in statistical regression)
variable quantity, variable - a quantity that can assume any of a set of values into the regression equation Regression equation
An equation that describes the average relationship between a dependent variable and a set of explanatory variables. simultaneously with the demographic variables. This allowed us to determine whether the predictor variable had a significant effect on the likelihood of orgasm independent of the demographic confounders.
Practices at Last Sexual Encounter
As reported by de Visser et al. (2003), vaginal intercourse was the most common practice, engaged in by 95% of respondents. For the convenience of readers, these findings are repeated in Table 1, together with the odds ratio for the difference between men's and women's responses. It was more common for men to report manual stimulation of their female partner and cunnilingus than for women to report receiving such stimulation, but the differences were not huge and the picture was roughly consistent: in about three fourths of encounters, the respondent In Equity practice, the party who answers a bill or other proceeding in equity. The party against whom an appeal or motion, an application for a court order, is instituted and who is required to answer in order to protect his or her interests. received manual sex, and in about a one fourth, the respondent received oral sex. Anal intercourse occurred in less than 1% of encounters.
Combinations of Sexual Practices
Table 2 displays the combinations of sexual practices engaged in during respondents' most recent heterosexual encounters. Of the 64 possible combinations of these six practices, men engaged in 40 and women engaged in 35.
The behavior of half of the men (49.9%) was captured by two combinations: vaginal intercourse plus mutual manual stimulation (35.3%) and the same combination with mutual oral sex as well (14.6%). The next most common combinations were vaginal intercourse with manual stimulation of the woman (10.8%) and vaginal intercourse alone (9.6%).
The behavior of nearly half (48.2%) of the women was similarly captured by two combinations: vaginal intercourse plus mutual manual stimulation, and vaginal intercourse alone. The next most common combinations were vaginal intercourse plus mutual manual and oral sex (11.4%), and vaginal intercourse plus manual stimulation of the woman (9.8%).
Prevalence of Orgasm During Most Recent Sexual Encounter
At their last sexual encounter, 94.8% of men and 68.9% of women had an orgasm. Table 3 displays associations between orgasm during the most recent heterosexual encounter and demographic variables. A man was significantly less likely to have had an orgasm during his most recent sexual encounter if he was aged 16-19 (p = .004). There was no significant association between whether men reached orgasm during their most recent sexual encounters and language spoken at home (p = .134); education (p = .093); household income (p = .273); occupational classification (p = .474); or religious belief (p = .308).
A woman was significantly less likely to have had an orgasm during her most recent sexual encounter if she was aged 16-19 or 50-59 (p = .010). She was significantly more likely to have had an orgasm during her most recent sexual encounter if she spoke English at home (p = .008); had completed post-secondary education (p = .022); had a higher household income (p = .002); and had a managerial/professional occupation (p = .017). The likelihood of orgasm was not related to having a religion or faith (p = .378).
Table 4 displays associations between orgasm during the most recent heterosexual encounter and sexual history variables. Men were significantly less likely to have had an orgasm during their most recent sexual encounter if they had been sexually active for two or fewer years (p = .010), had less permissive attitudes toward sex (p = .031), or if the encounter was with an occasional or casual partner rather than a regular one (p < .001). They were significantly less likely to have had an orgasm if they had been in the relationship with the regular sexual partner for less than one year or for between two and five years, but most likely to have had an orgasm with a regular partner of between one and two years' standing (p = .017). Whether men had an orgasm during the most recent sexual encounter was not significantly related to whether they became sexually active before age 16 (p = .976), the number of sexual partners they had had over the lifetime (p = .273), whether they had masturbated in the last month (p = .767), had deliberately visited an internet sex site in the last year (p = .671), watched an X-rated video or film in the last year (p = .419), or had used sex toys in the last year (p = .129).
Women were significantly less likely to have had an orgasm during their most recent sexual encounter if the encounter was with a non-regular sexual partner (p < .001). They were significantly more likely to have had an orgasm if they had used a sex toy in the last year (p = .044) or had sex more than twice a week in the four weeks before being interviewed (p = .003). Women in relationships of one to two years' standing were the most likely to have an orgasm (p = .024). Whether women had an orgasm during the most recent sexual encounter was not significantly related to whether they had become sexually active before age 16 (p = .651), the length of time they had been sexually active (p =. 144), the number of sexual partners over the lifetime (p = .455), whether they had masturbated in the last month (p = .671), had deliberately visited an internet sex site in the last year (p = .352), had watched an X-rated video or film in the last year (p = .511), or their attitudes toward sex (p = .424).
Orgasm and Sexual Practice
Table 5 shows the association between the likelihood of orgasm and the number of sexual practices engaged in during the most recent heterosexual encounter. Both men (p < .001) and women (p < .001) were more likely to have an orgasm if they engaged in a greater number of sexual practices, with orgasm most likely in encounters in which five practices were experienced. For both men and women, when the analyses were adjusted to account for the effect of factors identified as significantly associated with orgasm (see Tables 3 and 4), the patterns of results and the sizes of the odds ratios did not change. This suggests that the association between number of sexual practices and orgasm is independent of the influence of demographic factors and sexual history.
For men, the likelihood of orgasm was not strongly influenced by the number of sexual practices, probably because of the high proportion of men having orgasms from a single practice, usually vaginal intercourse. For women, the results were different and suggested that it is only when practices such as oral and manual stimulation are added to vaginal intercourse that women become more likely to have an orgasm.
In order to investigate this further, we looked at the likelihood of orgasm for the more common combinations of practices (Table 6). For simplicity, we excluded those practices where the respondent stimulated the partner (i.e. manual stimulation of the partner, cunnilingus for men, and fellatio for women). These practices may be arousing but are intuitively unlikely to lead directly to orgasm for the respondent.
Almost all men reached orgasm in encounters that included vaginal intercourse. Fewer men, but still over 80%, reached orgasm in encounters where they received oral and/or manual stimulation but did not have intercourse Verb 1. have intercourse - have sexual intercourse with; "This student sleeps with everyone in her dorm"; "Adam knew Eve"; "Were you ever intimate with this man?" . The picture for women was quite different: orgasm was least likely (50%) among the group whose only reported practice was vaginal intercourse. Rates were higher (around 70%) among those who had intercourse plus manual stimulation, or intercourse plus cunnilingus. But orgasm was more likely for those who had intercourse and also received both manual and oral stimulation; indeed, it appeared to be most frequent among the small number of women who received such stimulation but did not have intercourse, though numbers for some combinations were too small to permit significance testing.
This study was based on a large national representative sample with a high response rate (73.1%). Although prevalence estimates from such studies are likely to suffer some residual bias due to higher refusal rates among more embarrassed and less sexually active respondents--the "sex survey volunteer effect"--this is a minimal issue for this analysis based on the last sexual encounter in the previous year. People who had not had sex in the past year were not asked these questions.
More women (1.9%) than men (0.5%) reported sexual encounters including none of the six practices we asked about. This suggests that women may be more likely to count activities as sex when they do not include intercourse, though such a suggestion is not supported by other research. In the French national survey (Messiah et al., 1995), 99% of encounters reported by both men and women included intercourse, and in three studies of university students in different countries, men were more likely than women to count non-coital activities as "sex" (Pitts & Rahman, 2001; Richters & Song, 1999; Sanders San´ders
n. 1. An old name of sandalwood, now applied only to the red sandalwood. See under Sandalwood. & Reinisch, 1999).
Men were more likely to report all the practices asked about, particularly those that they did to their partner (manual stimulation of the vaginal area and cunnilingus) rather than those received from the partner (manual stimulation of the penis and fellatio). It may be that women regard some manual or oral stimulation received from their partners during foreplay as too perfunctory per·func·to·ry
1. Done routinely and with little interest or care: The operator answered the phone with a perfunctory greeting.
2. Acting with indifference; showing little interest or care. to report, or the men's responses may be subject to social desirability bias Social desirability bias is the inclination to present oneself in a manner that will be viewed favorably by others. Being by nature social creatures, people are generally inclined to seek some degree of social acceptance, and as with other psychological terms, "social desirability" . However, the data allow us to form a view of the most common sexual encounter between men and women in Australia. It consists of vaginal intercourse preceded, accompanied, or followed by the partners stimulating each other's genitals gen·i·tals
Genitalia. by hand. At their most recent sexual encounter, about half the respondents had vaginal intercourse plus manual stimulation of either or both partners. About a third had vaginal plus manual plus oral sex (given and/or received), and 12% had only vaginal intercourse. Only around 7% had any other combination, including "none of the above" (i.e., they had sex but not any of the practices we asked about), oral or manual sex without vaginal intercourse, and any combinations including anal sex. Although the percentages are not directly comparable because we did not ask about "caresses," the finding of a lack of repertoire diversity is broadly similar to the French survey (Messiah et al., 1995). Despite the fact that a range of possible practices was not asked about, the heavy concentration on a few of the many possible combinations of the six practices we did ask about suggests that a fairly limited "script" for sex is well-established (Gagnon & Simon, 1974).
Other practices that people may have done at their last sexual encounter but which were not asked about include hugging and kissing, licking Licking, river, c.320 mi (515 km) long, rising in E Ky. and flowing NW to the Ohio River opposite Cincinnati; the North and South Forks are its chief tributaries. or stroking non-genital areas of the body (including nipples or anus), "dry humping Humping could refer to:
Demographic and relationship characteristics were associated with orgasm, but the differences were not as dramatic as the associations with gender and with sexual practice. The exception is what appears to be a learning effect: men and women under 20 and men with less than three years' sexual experience were less likely to have an orgasm. (Less experienced women also appeared to have a lower likelihood of orgasm, but the difference did not reach statistical significance.) The nature of the relationship in which the sex occurred also had a strong effect: less than half of the women having sex with a casual or occasional partner reached orgasm.
The associations between orgasm and demographic characteristics suggest a social class effect, with better-educated, non-immigrant women more likely to have orgasms. The effect of sexual permissiveness was weak--indeed non-significant in women--though the association between use of sex toys and orgasm in women may indicate a link between orgasm and sexual interest or adventurousness Adventurousness
See also Journey, Quest, Wandering.
Adversity (See FAILURE.)
Advice (See COUNSEL.)
Affectation (See PRETENSION.)
Affliction (See SUFFERING. , which may affect orgasm directly or via a wider repertoire of sexual practices. The lower rate of orgasm in women over 50 and in relationships lasting over 20 years may have a physiological physiological /phys·i·o·log·i·cal/ (-loj´i-kal) pertaining to physiology; normal; not pathologic.
phys·i·o·log·i·cal or phys·i·o·log·ic
adj. Abbr. phys.
1. component, but is probably compounded by an age-cohort-related cultural limitation of sexual practice.
It is unusual for a man not to have an orgasm when he has sex with a woman: only 5.2% of men did not reach orgasm at their last heterosexual encounter. It is much more common for women, 31.1% of whom did not reach orgasm. This difference is reflected in the survey's findings on sexual difficulties, which showed that women were much more likely than men to have trouble reaching orgasm (Richters et al., 2003c).
One reason for this may be the heavy concentration on vaginal intercourse as the central, almost compulsory sexual practice, which is more effective as a way for men to reach orgasm than for women. This conjecture CONJECTURE. Conjectures are ideas or notions founded on probabilities without any demonstration of their truth. Mascardus has defined conjecture: "rationable vestigium latentis veritatis, unde nascitur opinio sapientis;" or a slight degree of credence arising from evidence too weak or too was confirmed when we examined the relationship between combinations of sexual practices and orgasm in Tables 5 and 6. In general, men were highly likely to have an orgasm in any encounter that included vaginal intercourse, but were somewhat less likely to do so if they only received oral and/or manual sex. Nonetheless, among men whose partners stimulated them manually or performed fellatio as well, more than 80% had an orgasm. In contrast, women who had vaginal intercourse but no oral or manual stimulation had only a 50% chance of reaching orgasm. Among those who had vaginal intercourse and whose male partners also stimulated them manually--the largest group--71% had an orgasm. Few people had anal intercourse, but it did not seem to make much difference in the likelihood of orgasm for men or women.
Although women were more likely to reach orgasm when the encounter included manual and oral sex, their orgasms did not necessarily occur during these practices. Some encounters may be based on the understanding of fairness or reciprocity reciprocity
In international trade, the granting of mutual concessions on tariffs, quotas, or other commercial restrictions. Reciprocity implies that these concessions are neither intended nor expected to be generalized to other countries with which the contracting parties articulated by Braun, Gavey, and McPhillips's (2003) New Zealand New Zealand (zē`lənd), island country (2005 est. pop. 4,035,000), 104,454 sq mi (270,534 sq km), in the S Pacific Ocean, over 1,000 mi (1,600 km) SE of Australia. The capital is Wellington; the largest city and leading port is Auckland. respondents (white, largely tertiary tertiary (tûr`shēârē), in the Roman Catholic Church, member of a third order. The third orders are chiefly supplements of the friars—Franciscans (the most numerous), Dominicans, and Carmelites. educated). One man summarized this script as "usually she will come first, I go down on her and then later I'll come inside her." It is also probable that some women are more likely to reach orgasm during intercourse if they have been highly aroused by other practices first. Braun et al. suggested that there were limits to the discourse of reciprocity: the man's orgasm tends to "signal an end to 'sex'" (p. 247); if the woman wants further stimulation after this, she needs to claim it explicitly.
We cannot assume, of course, that everyone having sex wants to reach orgasm on that occasion. Although there is evidence that women who have frequent orgasms are more likely to be satisfied with their sex lives (Haavio-Mannila & Kontula, 1997), it does not matter to everyone. Women who had sex more than twice a week in the past four weeks were more likely to have an orgasm at their last encounter, but the difference was not large.
One possible explanation for the discrepancy DISCREPANCY. A difference between one thing and another, between one writing and another; a variance. (q.v.)
2. Discrepancies are material and immaterial. between male and female experience of orgasm in partnered encounters is that men want sex more often than women, with the result that in established couples, some of the sexual interactions are what women popularly call "mercy fucks" or "freebies." When asked how often they would ideally like to have sex, men's stated ideal frequency was somewhat higher than women's. The median response from men was four to six times a week, whereas the median response from women was in the "two or three times a week" category. Only 3.4% of men but 10.1% of women wanted sex less than once a week, and 24.3% of men but only 8.3% of women wanted sex daily (Richters et al., 2003a). This means that there are likely to be more relationships in which the man wants sex more often than the woman than vice versa VICE VERSA. On the contrary; on opposite sides. . (Note that this does not necessarily mean the woman wants less sex; she may desire longer or more elaborate sessions rather than daily "quickies.") Thus, some of the intercourse-only events may be occasions on which the woman is not interested in orgasm but is obliging o·blig·ing
Ready to do favors for others; accommodating.
o·bliging·ly adv. the man, and some of the no-intercourse events consisting of manual and oral stimulation of the woman may be occasions on which the man, uninterested in reaching orgasm himself, is obliging the woman.
If we return to the sexual practice findings with this in mind, we see that nearly 12% of reported sexual encounters consisted of vaginal intercourse alone, with a high chance of orgasm for the man but a comparatively low chance for the woman. The putative Alleged; supposed; reputed.
A putative father is the individual who is alleged to be the father of an illegitimate child.
A putative marriage is one that has been contracted in Good Faith and pursuant to ignorance, by one or both parties, that certain counterpart of this encounter for women is manual stimulation, or manual stimulation plus cunnilingus, reported by less than 0.3% of respondents. It is hard to escape the conclusion that when the man is keen to have sex but the woman is not, intercourse ensues and the man reaches orgasm, but when the woman is keen but the man is not, sex rarely happens.
Another possible explanation for the discrepancy between male and female experience of orgasm in partnered encounters is that women are intrinsically less keen on sex than men and/or less physiologically phys·i·o·log·i·cal also phys·i·o·log·ic
1. Of or relating to physiology.
2. Being in accord with or characteristic of the normal functioning of a living organism.
3. capable of reaching orgasm. There may be evolutionary reasons for this. Nonetheless, in cultures that support and encourage female sexual pleasure, women do often reach orgasm and appear to enjoy sex more and be happier if they do so. Our findings suggest that manual and oral sex provide the direct stimulation for many women that makes orgasm more likely, though still less likely than for men. Women having sex with women were more likely to reach orgasm at their last encounter (76%) than women with male partners (69%), though this is still a lower proportion experiencing orgasm than among men with male partners (89%; Grulich, de Visser, Smith, Rissel, & Richters, 2003).
All of these comparisons, however, make the naive assumption that orgasms are qualitatively all the same and can simply be counted, and that more is better. Sex therapist Bernard Apfelbaum (personal communication) has argued that we should not see men's greater number of orgasms as an unalloyed un·al·loyed
1. Not in mixture with other metals; pure.
2. Complete; unqualified: unalloyed blessings; unalloyed relief. advantage for them; for many, he argued, sex consists of a valiant VALIANT Valsartan in Acute Myocardial Infarction Trial Cardiology A series of multinational M&M trials to determine the effects of valsartan–Diovan® but often failed effort to avoid ejaculation ejaculation /ejac·u·la·tion/ (e-jak?u-la´shun) forcible, sudden expulsion; especially expulsion of semen from the male urethra. that comes too early, before arousal arousal /arous·al/ (ah-rou´z'l)
1. a state of responsiveness to sensory stimulation or excitability.
2. the act or state of waking from or as if from sleep.
3. has had much chance to build. This correlates with our finding that more men than women (24% vs. 12%) reported reaching orgasm too early (Richters et al., 2003c).
Considerable effort has been expended ex·pend
tr.v. ex·pend·ed, ex·pend·ing, ex·pends
1. To lay out; spend: expending tax revenues on government operations. See Synonyms at spend.
2. on the "sex problem" of women: they appear to be less interested in sex than men, they report more problems, and they are less likely to reach orgasm in partnered sex (Gagnon & Simon, 1974; Kinsey et al., 1953; Richters et al., 2003c). Recent attempts to medicalize med·i·ca·lize
To characterize a behavior or condition as a disorder requiring medical treatment. women's sexual difficulties to create a market for a "pink Viagra" (Moynihan, 2003; Wyllie, 2005) and the arguments against this (Kaschak & Tiefer, 2001) have drawn attention to the issue. Our findings suggest, however, that the proximal cause--the sexual stimulation Sexual stimulation is any stimulus that leads to sexual arousal or orgasm. The term often implies stimulation of the genitals but may also include stimulation of other areas of the body, stimulation of the senses (such as sight or hearing), and mental stimulation (such as that delivered to women in the typical, rigidly-scripted heterosexual interaction--has more to do with whether they reach orgasm (and, we suspect, enjoy sex) than with more obscure and distant causes. Most demographic and sexual history variables, apart from young age and non-English-speaking background, were comparatively weakly weak·ly
adj. weak·li·er, weak·li·est
Delicate in constitution; frail or sickly.
1. With little physical strength or force.
2. With little strength of character. associated with orgasm. It is likely that insofar in·so·far
To such an extent.
Adv. 1. insofar - to the degree or extent that; "insofar as it can be ascertained, the horse lung is comparable to that of man"; "so far as it is reasonably practical he should practice as such factors affect the likelihood of orgasm, they do so partly or even largely through the mechanism of sexual practice.
Questions Asked About Sexual Practices During Women's Most Recent Sexual Encounter With Men
The last time you had sex, did he put his penis into your vagina?
The last time you had sex, did he put his penis into your anus?
The last time you had sex, did you have oral sex with your mouth on his penis?
Did you have oral sex with his mouth on your vaginal area?
Did you stimulate his penis with your hand?
Did he stimulate your clitoris clitoris /clit·o·ris/ (klit´ah-ris) the small, elongated, erectile body in the female, situated at the anterior angle of the rima pudendi and homologous with the penis in the male.
n. or vaginal area with his hand?
And the last time you had sex with him, did you have an orgasm?
Note. We are indebted in·debt·ed
Morally, socially, or legally obligated to another; beholden.
[Middle English endetted, from Old French endette, past participle of endetter, to oblige to our ASHR co-investigator, Andrew Grulich, and to the staff of the Hunter Valley Hunter Valley, region of New South Wales, SE Australia. The Hunter River and its tributaries occupy this valley S of the Mt. Royal Range. The land in the upper valley is used for livestock grazing, dairying and agriculture. Research Foundation who managed the data collection and undertook the interviewing. We thank the 20,776 Australians who took part in the three phases of the project and shared so freely the sometimes intimate aspects of their lives.
Manuscript accepted November 8, 2005
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Richard de Visser
University of Sussex, United Kingdom
University of Sydney The University of Sydney, established in Sydney in 1850, is the oldest university in Australia. It is a member of Australia's "Group of Eight" Australian universities that are highly ranked in terms of their research performance.
Anthony Smith For other persons named Anthony Smith, see Anthony Smith (disambiguation).
Anthony Smith (born March 30, 1926) is, among other things, an explorer, author and former Tomorrow's World television presenter.
Australian Research Centre in Sex, Health and Society, La Trobe University 1. u/r = unranked
2.AsiaWeek is now discontinued. Student life
During the 1970s and 1980s, La Trobe, along with Monash, was considered to have the most politically active student body of any university in Australia. , Melbourne
Address correspondence to Dr Juliet Richters, National Centre in HIV Social Research, Webster Webster, town (1990 pop. 16,196), Worcester co., S Mass., near the Conn. line; settled c.1713, set off from Dudley and Oxford and inc. 1832. The chief manufactures are footwear, fabrics, and textiles. Building, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW NSW New South Wales
Noun 1. NSW - the agency that provides units to conduct unconventional and counter-guerilla warfare
Naval Special Warfare 2052, Australia; e-mail email@example.com.
Table 1. Sexual Practices and Orgasm at Most Recent Heterosexual Encounter Practice Men % Women % OR (95% CI) Vaginal 95.6 93.9 0.99 (0.67-1.46) intercourse Manual stimulation of woman by man 81.4 75.7 0.80 (0.64-0.98) Manual stimulation of man by woman 73.9 69.5 0.89 (0.73-1.07) Cunnilingus 30.3 24.3 0.76 (0.63-0.92) Fellatio 26.4 23.7 0.89 (0.74-1.08) Anal 0.9 0.7 0.79 (0.36-1.73) intercourse Source: de Visser et al. (2003), Table 5. Table 2. Combinations of Sexual Practices During Respondents' Most Recent Heterosexual Encounters Frequency Men % Women % None of the practices asked about 0.5 1.9 One vaginal 9.6 13.9 manual (of the man) 0.6 0.2 manual (of the woman) 0.1 0.3 fellatio <0.1 <0.1 Two vaginal + manual (woman) 10.8 9.8 vaginal + manual (man) 4.1 4.1 manual (man) + manual (woman) 0.8 1.4 vaginal + cunnilingus 0.7 0.6 fellatio + manual (man) 0.4 0.4 vaginal + fellatio 0.1 0.1 cunnilingus + manual (woman) 0.1 <0.1 cunnilingus + manual (man) 0.1 <0.1 fellatio + manual (woman) <0.1 -- anal + manual (woman) <0.1 -- vaginal + anal -- 0.1 Three vaginal + manual (man) + manual (woman) 35.3 34.3 vaginal + cunnilingus + manual (woman) 1.7 1.4 vaginal + fellatio + manual (man) 0.9 0.8 vaginal + fellatio + cunnilingus 0.4 0.8 vaginal + fellatio + manual (woman) 0.4 0.5 fellatio + cunnilingus + manual (man) 0.2 0.8 cunnilingus + manual (man) + manual (woman) 0.3 0.6 fellatio + manual (man) + manual (woman) 0.4 <0.1 vaginal + cunnilingus + manual (man) 0.3 <0.1 vaginal + anal + manual (woman) 0.1 0.1 fellatio + cunnilingus + manual (woman) <0.1 <0.1 anal + fellatio + manual (man) <0.1 -- Four vaginal + cunnilingus + manual (man) + manual (woman) 8.3 7.0 vaginal + fellatio + manual (man) + manual (woman) 5.5 6.7 vaginal + fellatio + cunnilingus + manual (woman) 1.5 0.7 fellatio + cunnilingus + manual (man) + manual (woman) 0.7 0.8 vaginal + fellatio + cunnilingus + manual (man) 0.6 0.3 vaginal + anal + manual (man) + manual (woman) <0.1 0.3 vaginal + anal + cunnilingus + manual (woman) 0.1 -- Five vaginal + fellatio + cunnilingus + manual (man) + manual (woman) 14.6 11.4 vaginal + anal + fellatio + cunnilingus + manual (woman) <0.1 <0.1 vaginal + anal + fellatio + manual (man) + manual (woman) <0.1 <0.1 vaginal + anal + cunnilingus + manual (man) + manual (woman) 0.1 -- vaginal + anal + fellatio + cunnilingus + manual (man) <0.1 -- Six vaginal + anal + fellatio + cunnilingus + manual (man) + manual (woman) 0.6 0.2 Total 100.0 100.0 Table 3. Associations Between Demographic Characteristics and Orgasm at Last Sexual Encounter Men Women (n = 2,858) (n = 2,260) Orgasm % OR (95% CI) Age 16-19 83.8 0.27 (0.12-0.61) 20-29 95.1 1.00 30-39 95.4 1.07 (0.53-2.15) 40-49 96.0 1.23 (0.54-2.82) 50-59 94.5 0.89 (0.42-1.87) Language spoken at home English 95.1 1.00 other 89.9 0.46 (0.17-1.27) Highest completed education less than secondary 92.7 1.00 secondary 94.7 1.39 (0.80-2.43) post-secondary 96.3 2.06 (1.00-3.94) Household income (annual) < $20000 92.4 1.00 $20000-$52000 94.5 1.43 (0.66-3.09) > $52000 95.7 1.86 (0.85-4.06) Occupational classification * blue-collar 94.3 1.00 white-collar 94.9 1.13 (0.61-2.09) manager/professional 96.0 1.43 (0.80-2.56) Religion or faith yes 94.1 1.00 no 95.4 1.29 (0.79-2.10) Total 94.8 Orgasm % OR (95% CI) Age 16-19 52.4 0.43 (0.23-0.80) 20-29 72.1 1.00 30-39 71.4 0.97 (0.68-1.38) 40-49 71.6 0.97 (0.66-1.43) 50-59 61.4 0.61 (0.41-0.93) Language spoken at home English 69.5 1.00 other 45.4 0.36 (0.17-0.77) Highest completed education less than secondary 64.2 1.00 secondary 70.7 1.34 (0.96-1.87) post-secondary 71.9 1.42 (1.05-1.93) Household income (annual) < $20000 58.3 1.00 $20000-$52000 69.5 1.63 (1.12-2.36) > $52000 73.1 1.94 (1.33-2.82) Occupational classification * blue-collar 65.4 1.00 white-collar 65.7 1.01 (0.69-1.48) manager/professional 74.5 1.54 (1.01-2.35) Religion or faith yes 70.2 1.00 no 67.7 0.89 (0.69-1.15) Total 68.9 * Excludes respondents who had never worked. Table 4. Associations Between Sexual History and Orgasm at Last Sexual Encounter Men (n = 2,858) Orgasm % OR (95% Cl) Age first vaginal or oral < 16 94.8 1.00 [greater than or equal to] 16 94.7 0.99 (0.58-1.69) Years sexually active 0-2 88.2 0.29 (0.12-0.68) 3-10 96.3 1.00 11-20 93.3 0.54 (0.26-1.10) 21 plus 95.9 0.89 (0.44-1.80) Partners in lifetime 1-2 93.2 0.78 (0.37-1.64) 3-10 94.5 1.00 11-20 94.5 0.99 (0.52-1.89) 21 plus 96.4 1.53 (0.87-2.70) Masturbated last month no 94.6 1.00 yes 94.9 1.07 (0.67-1.73) Visited internet sex site last year no 94.8 1.00 yes 94.3 0.90 (0.55-1.48) Watched X-rated film last year no 94.4 1.00 yes 95.3 1.22 (0.76-1.95) Used sex toys last year no 95.1 1.00 yes 92.3 0.61 (0.32-1.15) Sexual permissiveness low 90.8 0.48 (0.24-0.93) moderate 95.4 1.00 high 95.5 1.03 (0.37-2.88) Frequency of sex in last 4 weeks 0 95.8 1.00 up to twice a week 92.9 0.57 (0.28-1.15) more than twice a week 97.5 1.73 (0.78-3.82) Partner type regular 95.5 1.00 other 87.6 0.34 (0.19-0.58) Relationship length * < 1 year 92.2 0.19 (0.05-0.65) 1-2 years 98.5 1.00 2-5 years 93.3 0.22 (0.06-0.77) 5-10 years 96.2 0.40 (0.10-1.57) 10-20 years 96.7 0.46 (0.13-1.61) > 20 years 95.3 0.32 (0.09-1.12) Total 94.8 Women (n = 2,260) Orgasm % OR (95% Cl) Age first vaginal or oral < 16 70.2 1.00 [greater than or equal to] 16 68.6 0.93 (0.68-1.28) Years sexually active 0-2 56.8 0.61 (0.32-1.15) 3-10 68.2 1.00 11-20 72.6 1.23 (0.87-1.74) 21 plus 68.7 1.02 (0.73-1.43) Partners in lifetime 1-2 66.2 0.83 (0.61-1.12) 3-10 70.3 1.00 11-20 72.0 1.08 (0.75-1.57) 21 plus 67.1 0.86 (0.57-1.31) Masturbated last month no 68.6 1.00 yes 70.0 1.07 (0.79-1.44) Visited internet sex site last year no 69.0 1.00 yes 61.9 0.73 (0.38-1.42) Watched X-rated film last year no 68.4 1.00 yes 70.8 1.12 (0.80-1.57) Used sex toys last year no 67.7 1.00 yes 75.2 1.45 (1.01-2.08) Sexual permissiveness low 64.8 0.81 (0.57-1.15) moderate 69.6 1.00 high 71.3 1.09 (0.71-1.67) Frequency of sex in last 4 weeks 0 67.9 1.00 up to twice a week 65.0 0.88 (0.64-1.20) more than twice a week 76.3 1.52 (1.05-2.21) Partner type regular 70.0 1.00 other 48.7 0.41 (0.27-0.62) Relationship length * < 1 year 69.1 0.56 (0.25-1.25) 1-2 years 79.9 1.00 2-5 years 72.0 0.65 (0.32-1.32) 5-10 years 72.9 0.68 (0.35-1.33) 10-20 years 71.3 0.63 (0.33-1.19) > 20 years 65.3 0.47 (0.25-0.91) Total 68.9 * Respondents who had sex with a regular partner. Table 5. Numbers of Sexual Practices During the Most Recent Heterosexual Encounter and Their Association With Orgasm Number of % who % had practices did this orgasm Men None 0.5 16.7 One 10.3 92.3 Two 17.2 95.8 Three 40.1 94.0 Four 16.6 96.5 Five 14.8 97.8 Six 0.6 97.2 Total 100.0 94.8 Women None 1.9 18.4 One 14.5 49.0 Two 16.5 58.6 Three 39.6 72.3 Four 15.8 80.6 Five 11.5 89.0 Six 0.2 83.4 Total 100.0 68.9 Number of OR (95% Cl) practices OR (95% CI) adjusted * Men None 0.02 (0.00-0.08) 0.02 (0.00-0.10) One 1.00 1.00 Two 1.90 (0.77-4.71) 2.00 (0.82-4.90) Three 1.32 (0.59-2.97) 1.30 (0.58-2.88) Four 2.34 (0.84-6.49) 2.68 (1.00-7.17) Five 3.65 (1.39-9.63) 3.86 (1.44-10.33) Six 2.95 (0.37-23.66) 4.96 (0.55-45.03) Total Women None 0.23 (0.05-1.10) 0.33 (0.06-1.76) One 1.00 1.00 Two 1.47 (0.96-2.26) 1.38 (0.87-2.17) Three 2.71 (1.85-3.98) 2.61 (1.74-3.90) Four 4.31 (2.56-7.25) 4.14 (2.41-7.12) Five 8.40 (4.86-14.53) 8.69 (4.80-15.72) Six 5.21 (0.82-33.13) 5.54 (0.80-38.59) Total * Adjusted for effect of significant demographic and sexual history variables identified in Table 3 and Table 4. Table 6. Combinations of Sexual Practices Received and Orgasm at Respondents' Most Recent Heterosexual Encounters Men Practice % who did this % who had orgasm Vaginalintercourse only 22.8 94.5 Vaginal intercourse + manual stimulation of respondent 48.0 95.2 Vaginal intercourse + oral stimulation of respondent 2.4 98.6 Vaginal intercourse + manual + oral stimulation 21.6 97.7 Manual stimulation only 1.9 81.6 Manual + oral stimulation 1.7 87.3 Oral stimulation only < 0.1 * Any combination that included anal intercourse 1.0 91.2 Women Practice % who did this % who had orgasm Vaginal intercourse only 18.9 49.6 Vaginal intercourse + manual stimulation of respondent 51.3 70.9 Vaginal intercourse oral stimulation of respondent 2.5 72.8 Vaginal intercourse + manual + oral stimulation 20.6 85.6 Manual stimulation only 2.4 78.7 Manual + oral stimulation 0.9 90.0 Oral stimulation only < 0.1 * Any combination that included anal intercourse 0.7 69.5 Note. Manual and oral stimulation of the partner by the respondent are omitted from this analysis, so columns do not add up to 100%. * Numbers too small to allow reliable estimate with weighted data.