Sexual behaviors and attitudes and ethnic identity during college.Rates of HIV HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus), either of two closely related retroviruses that invade T-helper lymphocytes and are responsible for AIDS. There are two types of HIV: HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is responsible for the vast majority of AIDS in the United States. infection are higher for ethnic minority youth than for European Americans (Centers for Disease Control [CDC See Control Data, century date change and Back Orifice.
CDC - Control Data Corporation ], 2005). These rates might be, in part, a result of African American African American Multiculture A person having origins in any of the black racial groups of Africa. See Race. and Latino American adolescents engaging in riskier sexual behaviors than do European Americans (Douglas et al., 1997). Ethnic differences in HIV rates and sexual behaviors, however, might be confounded with factors that vary by ethnic group, including individual level factors like socioeconomic status (SES) and environmental factors like neighborhood poverty levels (e.g., Driscoll, Biggs, Brindis, & Yankah, 2001; Miller, Benson, & Galbraith, 2001). Studying college students of diverse ethnic backgrounds with similar individual characteristics, as well as living arrangements and lifestyle, might improve the understanding of ethnic differences in sexual behaviors and attitudes.
Ethnic identity commitment may play a key role in explaining variation in sexual behaviors and attitudes between and within ethnic groups--that is, even more important than differences between individuals of different ethnic backgrounds is variation within these ethnic groups. For instance, African American youth with a strong sense of identity are less likely to engage in risky sexual behavior sexual behavior A person's sexual practices–ie, whether he/she engages in heterosexual or homosexual activity. See Sex life, Sexual life. (Belgrave, Matin mat·in also mat·in·al
Of or relating to matins or to the early part of the day.
[Middle English, from Old French, sing. of matines, matins; see matins.] , & Chambers, 2000). Particularly important populations for examining this issue are late adolescents and emerging adults (ages 15-24), who are more likely to contract HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) than older individuals (Weinstock, Berman, & Cates n. pl. 1. Provisions; food; viands; especially, luxurious food; delicacies; dainties.
Cates for which Apicius could not pay.
Choicest cates and the fiagon's best spilth.
- R. Browning. , 2004). Despite more formal education, college students are still at risk for transmission of STIs (Lefkowitz & Gillen, 2005). This study examined sexuality in an ethnically diverse sample of first-year college students. Our goals were to explore ethnic differences in sexual behaviors and attitudes and to understand how ethnic identity is associated with sexual behaviors and attitudes among college students from three ethnic backgrounds.
Ethnic Group Differences in Sexual Behaviors During Adolescence adolescence, time of life from onset of puberty to full adulthood. The exact period of adolescence, which varies from person to person, falls approximately between the ages 12 and 20 and encompasses both physiological and psychological changes.
We examine three behaviors that place individuals at risk for HIV and other STIs: number of sexual partners, not using a condom 1. condom - The protective plastic bag that accompanies 3.5-inch microfloppy diskettes. Rarely, also used of (paper) disk envelopes. Unlike the write protect tab, the condom (when left on) not only impedes the practice of SEX but has also been shown to have a high failure , and alcohol use before or during sexual activity. We focus on vaginal vag·i·nal
1. Of or relating to the vagina.
2. Relating to or resembling a sheath.
pertaining to the vagina, the tunica vaginalis testis, or to any sheath. and anal sex Noun 1. anal sex - intercourse via the anus, committed by a man with a man or woman
anal intercourse, buggery, sodomy
sexual perversion, perversion - an aberrant sexual practice; because these behaviors carry the highest risk of HIV and other STIs (Skurnick et al., 1998; Warner et al., 2008). Individuals with more sexual partners increase their opportunities for disease transmission and unwanted pregnancy unwanted pregnancy Obstetrics A pregnancy that is not desired by one or both biologic parents. See Teen pregnancy. (Ericksen & Trocki, 1992; Thomas et al., 2001). Having sex without condoms presents risks due to the exchange of bodily fluids and the possibility of unwanted pregnancy. Using alcohol before or during sexual behaviors is also associated with riskier sexual behaviors (Cooper, 2002).
In this article, we examine ethnicity ethnicity Vox populi Racial status–ie, African American, Asian, Caucasian, Hispanic to better understand cultural values acquired through different historical and social circumstances and transmitted down from generation to generation (Weinberg & Williams, 1988; Wyatt, 1991). Identifying ethnic differences in behaviors and attitudes will inform the promotion of sexual health among each ethnic group. We recognize, however, that within ethnic group differences exist. For instance, we know that Mexican American adolescent boys begin sexual activity one year older than other Latinos (Day, 1992). In this study, we focus on between- rather than within-ethnic group differences, although we acknowledge the important variation within each group.
Past research suggests that African Americans and Latino Americans engage in more risky sexual behaviors than do European Americans. African American adolescents, including college students, report more lifetime sexual partners than Latino Americans or European Americans (Douglas et al., 1997; Santelli, Brener, Lowry, Bhatt, & Zabin, 1998), in part because African Americans initiate sexual intercourse sexual intercourse
or coitus or copulation
Act in which the male reproductive organ enters the female reproductive tract (see reproductive system). earlier (Baldwin, Whiteley, & Baldwin, 1992; Blum et al., 2000) and report (for men only) more concurrent partners than others (Adimora, Schoenbach, & Doherty, 2007). European American and Latino American college students report similar numbers of lifetime partners (Farmer & Meston, 2006). Researchers have not found ethnic differences in number of partners in the past 12 months for college students (Kim, De La Rosa De La Rosa is a surname in the Spanish language meaning of the Rose
In contrast to the risk profile for sexual partners, African American adolescents, including college students, are more likely to use condoms than European Americans (Beckman, Harvey, & Tiersky, 1996; Davis, Sloan, MacMaster, & Kilbourne, 2007; Douglas et al., 1997; Soet, Dudley, & Dilorio, 1999). Latino American adolescents, including college students, use condoms less frequently than others (Douglas et al., 1997; Driscoll et al., 2001). Some studies, however, do not find significant differences between Latino American and European American college students in recent condom use (Farmer & Meston, 2006). Research suggests that European American adolescents, including college students, are more likely to consume alcohol, to have used alcohol with their most recent partners, and to have unprotected sex Unprotected sex refers to any act of sexual intercourse in which the participants use no form of barrier contraception. Sexually transmitted infections
Specifically, unprotected sex more often under the influence of alcohol than African Americans or Latino Americans (Cooper, Peirce, & Huselid, 1994; Kahler, Read, Wood, & Palfai, 2003; Kim et al., 2007).
Ethnic differences in sexual experience during late adolescence, however, are not parallel across gender. African American and Latino American men report more partners than European American men, whereas women of different backgrounds do not differ (Santelli et al., 1998). Some studies found that European American and Latino American men report more frequent condom use than women in these groups (Gurman & Borzekowski, 2004; Santelli, Lindberg, Abma, McNeely, & Resnick, 2000), but others found no gender differences (e.g., Farmer & Meston, 2006). Few studies have examined gender differences in sexual behaviors for all three ethnic groups in the same sample, introducing possible confounds of location, student status, and environment.
Thus, past research suggests that each ethnic group has a distinct behavioral pattern In software engineering, behavioral design patterns are design patterns that identify common communication patterns between objects and realize these patterns. By doing so, these patterns increase flexibility in carrying out this communication. that represents different levels of sexual risk. Previous ethnic difference findings, however, may not reflect the range of sexual experiences among ethnic minority youth attending a predominantly pre·dom·i·nant
1. Having greatest ascendancy, importance, influence, authority, or force. See Synonyms at dominant.
2. European American college. College students experience similar ecological environments to each other (Maggs, 1997), which may shape their sexual values and practices in similar ways regardless of ethnic background. One's experiences at college, however, are likely to differ depending on the ethnic composition of the university population. Research suggests that African Americans' and Latino Americans' sexual behavior may vary by classroom or neighborhood compositions, respectively (Furstenberg, Morgan, Moore, & Peterson, 1987; Upchurch, Aneshensel, Mudgal, & McNeely, 2001). These studies suggest that both ethnic group membership and ethnic composition of social environments influence individuals' sexual practices. Individuals may be more likely to practice sexual behaviors associated with their own ethnic group when surrounded by members of the same group who presumably pre·sum·a·ble
That can be presumed or taken for granted; reasonable as a supposition: presumable causes of the disaster. practice and promote these behaviors. Therefore, although studies of adolescents and college students (e.g., Beckman et al., 1996; Douglas et al., 1997; Kim et al., 2007; Soet et al., 1999) suggest ethnic differences in sexual behaviors, ethnically diverse students enrolled at a predominantly European American college might exhibit fewer ethnic differences in sexual behavior. We focus on students as they first transition to college, to capture their earliest college experiences.
Based on past research, we predicted ethnic differences for risky lifetime sexual behaviors. Specifically, we predicted that African Americans would report more frequent lifetime condom use and more sexual partners than other groups. We also predicted that Latino Americans would report the least frequent condom use, whereas European Americans would report consuming alcohol before or during intercourse more frequently than others. In contrast, we predicted that African American, Latino American, and European American students would not differ in their recent sexual behaviors. We also explored gender differences by ethnicity, although due to the limited past research, we made no directional In one direction. Contrast with omnidirectional. hypotheses.
Ethnic Group Differences in Sexual Attitudes
Research on ethnic differences in sexual attitudes and beliefs has mostly focused on condom-related beliefs (e.g., Beckman et al., 1996; Johnson et al., 1994; Soet et al., 1999), which are important predictors of college students' condom use (e.g., Boone & Lefkowitz, 2004; Jemmott & Jemmott, 1992). Ethnic differences in condom-related beliefs are consistent with behavioral differences. Generally, African American adolescents feel more positive about condom use than do European Americans (Beckman et al., 1996; Johnson et al., 1994; Soet et al., 1999). Little research has explored Latino Americans' condom-related beliefs, although in one study they did not differ from European Americans (Farmer & Meston, 2006).
Other aspects of sexual attitudes missing from current models of risky sexual behavior (e.g., Theory of Planned Behavior In psychology, the theory of planned behavior is a theory about the link between attitudes and behavior. It was proposed by Icek Ajzen (his last name is sometimes spelled "Aizen") as an extension of the theory of reasoned action. It is one of the most predictive persuasion theories. ; Ajzen, 1991) are valuable because they may help us understand the "broader cultural and social context of sexuality" (Amaro, 1995, p. 440). Conservative sexual attitudes and perceptions of HIV are important because they might reflect cultural differences in values about sexuality. Some evidence suggests that Latino American college students hold more conservative sexual attitudes than other groups (Padilla & O'Grady, 1987). Studies conducted in non-college adult populations have found that European Americans hold more conservative sexual attitudes than African Americans (Samuels, 1997). Finally, European American college students are more aware of HIV and AIDS than African Americans (Davis et al., 2007), which might result in more concern for contracting HIV among European Americans than others. By examining differences in a wider range of sexual attitudes among ethnically diverse college students at a predominantly European American university, we can examine whether ethnic differences exist when students have relatively similar daily experiences. Based on past research, we predicted that African Americans would have more positive attitudes toward condom use than others. We also predicted that Latino Americans would report more conservative attitudes than others. Finally, we predicted that European Americans would report more fear of contracting HIV than African Americans. We also explored gender differences by ethnicity, although due to the limited past research, we made no directional hypotheses.
Although past research identifies ethnic group differences in sexual behaviors and attitudes, variation within ethnic groups exceeds differences between groups. Assessing ethnic differences in sexual behaviors and attitudes using ethnic group membership only considers one aspect of the individual's ethnic identity. Identifying associations between ethnic identity commitment and sexuality may explain how sexual behaviors and attitudes vary within ethnic groups by commitment to one's own ethnic group's values and practices. Adolescents achieve a sense of ethnic identity through a process of exploration and commitment that includes self-identifying with their own ethnic group, experiencing a sense of belonging, and positive attitudes toward this group (Phinney, 1992). African American and Latino American adolescents who have an achieved ethnic identity also report greater wellbeing and more effective coping skills (Ong, Phinney, & Dennis, 2006; Phinney, 1992; Seaton, Scottham, & Sellers, 2006), which may allow them to develop a healthier sexual well-being (Brooks-Gunn & Paikoff, 1993). Moreover, the meaning of sexuality and accompanying sexual scripts vary across ethnic groups (e.g., Stephens & Few, 2007). Some research suggests that African American adolescent girls with a stronger sense of ethnic identity report less risky sexual attitudes than girls with a weaker sense of identity (Belgrave et al., 2000; Townsend, 2002). However, a strong sense of ethnic identity could lead to risky sexual behavior if ethnic minority youth accept negative stereotypes of their own ethnic group (Stephens & Few, 2007). Ethnic identity might not be protective among these adolescents. However, very little research linking sexual behaviors and attitudes with ethnic identity commitment exists, making conclusions difficult.
Recognizing associations between ethnic identity commitment and sexuality might help to identify individual differences in sexual behaviors and attitudes within ethnic groups. Moreover, individual differences might be more pronounced in certain environments. Variability in ethnic identity commitment exists within ethnic minority groups such as Latinos attending predominantly ethnic minority universities (Ong, Phinney, & Dennis, 2006). When the ethnic composition of the environment is different from individuals' own ethnicity, however, students' daily experiences involve frequent contact with members of other ethnic groups who may influence their identities and behaviors. Students who want to interact with members of their own ethnic group for affirmation A solemn and formal declaration of the truth of a statement, such as an Affidavit or the actual or prospective testimony of a witness or a party that takes the place of an oath. An affirmation is also used when a person cannot take an oath because of religious convictions. of their past ethnic socialization socialization /so·cial·iza·tion/ (so?shal-i-za´shun) the process by which society integrates the individual and the individual learns to behave in socially acceptable ways.
n. may need to actively search for these opportunities. We predict that sexual behaviors and attitudes would vary within ethnic minority groups depending on their own ethnic identity commitment among this population. Thus, we expect ethnic identity commitment to be a more important correlate of sexual behaviors and attitudes for ethnic minorities than ethnic group membership.
Based on the limited past research, we predicted that more ethnic identity-committed African Americans and Latino Americans would report less risky behaviors and attitudes, and that these associations would remain significant even after controlling for gender, ethnicity, and SES among students attending a predominantly European American university. We also explored gender differences in these associations, but we made no directional hypotheses.
In summary, we had the following hypotheses:
H1: Ethnic minority college students would report riskier lifetime behaviors than European Americans. Specifically, Latino Americans would report riskier condom use, and African Americans would report more partners. In contrast, European Americans would report greater lifetime consumption of alcohol before or during intercourse than other participants (la). The three groups would not differ in their recent sexual behaviors (1b).
H2: African Americans would have more positive attitudes toward condom use than others (2a). Latino Americans would report more conservative attitudes than others (2b). European Americans would be more fearful of contracting HIV than African Americans (2c).
H3: More ethnic identity-committed African Americans and Latino Americans would report fewer risky sexual behaviors (3a) and less risky sexual attitudes (3b). These associations would not be significant for European Americans.
We also examined any differences by gender for all hypotheses.
We recruited first-year college students in September of 2002 at a large (>40,000 students) Northeastern public university in a college town. We oversampled ethnic minorities. The registrar provided a list of all first-year students, their ethnicities, and contact information. We contacted all African American and Latino American students (aged 17-19 years), and randomly selected a subsample sub·sam·ple
A sample drawn from a larger sample.
tr.v. sub·sam·pled, sub·sam·pling, sub·sam·ples
To take a subsample from (a larger sample). of European American students (9% of all students aged 17-19 years who were Caucasian, not Hispanic, according to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. the registrar's definition). From the initial 839 students invited to participate, 52% completed the survey. Response rates did not differ by ethnic group, [chi square chi square (kī),
n a nonparametric statistic used with discrete data in the form of frequency count (nominal data) or percentages or proportions that can be reduced to frequencies. ](2, N= 157)= 1.5, p >.05.
The sample consisted of 434 (52% female) first-year college students, aged 17.5 to 19.8 years (M=18.5, SD=0.4). Thirty-three percent of the participants were African American (including African American, African, and Caribbean), 29% were Latino American (including Mexican American, Puerto Rican Puer·to Ri·co
Abbr. PR or P.R.
A self-governing island commonwealth of the United States in the Caribbean Sea east of Hispaniola. , and South American), and 39% were European American. Eighty-eight percent of African Americans, 84% of Latino Americans, and 99% of European Americans were born in the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. . We determined ethnicity based on participants' reports of their ethnic group. Nineteen percent of the African American, 24% of the Latino American, and 1% of the European American participants self-reported two or more ethnic backgrounds. We categorized cat·e·go·rize
tr.v. cat·e·go·rized, cat·e·go·riz·ing, cat·e·go·riz·es
To put into a category or categories; classify.
cat these participants according to the lists we had obtained from the registrar because the university form allowed the reporting of only one ethnic group.
Mothers' education varied by ethnic group (see Table 1). African American mothers had fewer years of education than European Americans, [chi square] (1, N=307)= 11.3, p < .001; and Latino Americans, [chi square] (1, N=266)= 5.1, p < .05. Nearly all participants identified as heterosexual heterosexual /het·ero·sex·u·al/ (-sek´shoo-al)
1. pertaining to, characteristic of, or directed toward the opposite sex.
2. one who is sexually attracted to persons of the opposite sex. (97%); less than 1% as homosexual, gay, or lesbian; 2% as bisexual bisexual /bi·sex·u·al/ (-sek´shoo-al)
1. pertaining to or characterized by bisexuality.
2. an individual exhibiting bisexuality.
3. pertaining to or characterized by hermaphroditism.
4. ; and 1% as "other" (e.g., undecided).
Students participated during September through November of their first year of college. We contacted participants by e-mail or phone to schedule an appointment. Undergraduate research assistants administered paper-and-pencil surveys in groups. All students completed informed consent forms before their surveys, and received $25 for completing the survey.
Family SES. Participants reported on mothers' educational status to indicate family SES. We used mothers' education instead of fathers' because the two variables were correlated cor·re·late
v. cor·re·lat·ed, cor·re·lat·ing, cor·re·lates
1. To put or bring into causal, complementary, parallel, or reciprocal relation.
2. (r=.52), fathers' education (5%) was missing more often than mothers' education (<1%), and more students lived only with their mothers (18%) than only with their fathers (2%). Participants indicated on a nine-point scale each parent's education level. SES served as a control in analyses.
Risky sexual behavior. Participants indicated whether they had ever had penetrative pen·e·tra·tive
1. Tending to penetrate; penetrant.
2. Displaying keen insight; acute.
Adj. 1. penetrative sex (sex in which the penis penetrates the vagina vagina: see reproductive system.
Genital canal in females. Together with the cavity of the uterus, it forms the birth canal. In most virgins, its external opening is partially closed by a thin fold of tissue (hymen), which has various forms, or anus). Respondents In the context of marketing research, a representative sample drawn from a larger population of people from whom information is collected and used to develop or confirm marketing strategy. who reported being sexually experienced were asked follow-up questions about their sexual behavior. Only the subsample of sexually active participants (n=254) was included in the risky sexual behavior analyses.
We assessed age at first intercourse for descriptive purposes. We asked about lifetime and recent (past 3 months) risky sexual behavior. We chose 3-month reports because Jaccard, McDonald, Wan, Dittus, and Quinlan (2002) found that assessment of sexual behavior over moderate time durations (3 or 6 months) is more consistent than assessment over short (1 month) or long (12 months) durations. For both lifetime and recent behavior, participants reported on three variables (number of sexual partners, use of condoms, and alcohol consumption before or during a sexual encounter). For number of partners, we performed analyses with log transformations of the raw data to normalize normalize
to convert a set of data by, for example, converting them to logarithms or reciprocals so that their previous non-normal distribution is converted to a normal one. the distribution. Condom use and alcohol consumption questions consisted of five-point scales ranging from 1 (never), 2 (some of the time), 3 (most of the time), 4 (every time except once), to 5 (every time).
Outcome Expectancies of Condom Use. This measure contains two subscales: prevention expectancies and hedonistic he·don·ism
1. Pursuit of or devotion to pleasure, especially to the pleasures of the senses.
2. Philosophy The ethical doctrine holding that only what is pleasant or has pleasant consequences is intrinsically good. expectancies (Jemmott & Jemmott, 1992). The prevention subscale consists of three items, with higher scores indicating stronger beliefs that condoms provide physical protection from pregnancy, STIs, and AIDS (e.g., "Condoms can prevent pregnancy"). The hedonistic subscale contains five items, with higher scores indicating more positive beliefs about condoms (e.g., "Sex feels good when a condom is used"). Respondents used a five-point scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree) for seven items. For the last item on the hedonistic subscale, participants rated their response on a five-point scale ranging from 1 (very negative) to 5 (very positive). Jemmott and Jemmott reported adequate reliability. Reliability in this study was adequate for prevention and hedonistic subscales ([alpha] = .90 and [alpha] = .70, respectively, for African Americans; [alpha] = .86 and [alpha] = .72, respectively, for Latino Americans; and [alpha] =.84 and [alpha] =.80, respectively, for European Americans).
Conservative Sexual Attitude Scale. We adapted this measure from the Sexual Attitudes Scale (Hudson, Murphy, & Nurius, 1983), which assesses conservative attitudes toward sex (e.g., "I think sex should be reserved for marriage"). Our adaptation contains 12 of the 25 original items. We removed 13 items that were repetitive, inappropriate for college-age respondents, or outdated. In pilot data, the long and short versions were highly correlated, r(202)= .96. Respondents rated their agreement to these items on a five-point scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). Higher scores indicate more conservative attitudes. Reliability in this sample was good ([alpha] = .87 for African Americans, [alpha] = .85 for Latino Americans, and [alpha] = .88 for European Americans) and comparable to past studies (Hudson et al., 1983; Samuels, 1997).
Fear of AIDS. We used a subscale from the Multidimensional AIDS Anxiety Questionnaire (Snell Snell , George 1903-1996.
American geneticist. He shared a 1980 Nobel Prize for discoveries concerning cell structure that enhanced understanding of the immunological system, resulting in higher success rates in organ transplantation. & Finney, 1996), which contains six items, with higher scores indicating more concern or fear about AIDS (e.g., "I feel scared when I think about catching AIDS from a sexual partner"). Respondents rated their agreement on a five-point scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). Reliability in this study was good ([alpha] = .89 for African Americans, [alpha] = .90 for Latino Americans, and [alpha] = .91 for European Americans) and comparable to previous work (Snell & Finney, 1996).
Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure. This 14-item scale assesses ethnic identity achievement and commitment (e.g., "I have a strong sense of belonging to my own ethnic group") including behaviors and attitudes associated with ethnic identity exploration, a positive affiliation to one's ethnic group, and practices indigenous to one's ethnic origin (Phinney, 1992). Higher scores indicate more ethnic identity commitment. Participants rated each item on a four-point scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 4 (strongly agree). Reliability in this study was good ([alpha] = .86 for African Americans, [alpha] = .91 for Latino Americans, and [alpha] = .88 for European Americans) and comparable to the original measure (Phinney, 1992).
Descriptive Analyses of Sexual Behavior and Ethnic Identity
More than one half (59%) of participants reported being sexually experienced, with age at first intercourse ranging from 11 to 18 years (M=16.2, SD=0.4). There were ethnic differences in age at first intercourse, F(2, 250) = 15.9, p < .001. Specifically, African Americans (M=15.6, SD=1.8) initiated sexual activity about 1 year younger than European Americans (M=16.8, SD=1.1; p<.001) and Latino Americans (M=16.2, SD=1.3; p<.05). We performed analyses of risky sexual behaviors with the subgroup sub·group
1. A distinct group within a group; a subdivision of a group.
2. A subordinate group.
3. Mathematics A group that is a subset of a group.
tr.v. of participants who were sexually active (n=254) and analyses of sexual attitudes with the full sample (N= 434).
There were also ethnic differences in ethnic identity, F(2, 430)=66.6, p<.001. Both Latino Americans (M=3.0, SD=0.6) and African Americans (M=3.2, SD = 0.5) reported being more committed than European Americans did (M=2.5, SD = 0.5; ps < .001.
Ethnic Differences in Sexual Behaviors
H1 was that ethnic groups would differ in lifetime sexual behaviors (1a), but not recent behaviors (1b). We performed 2 (Gender) x 3 (Ethnicity) analyses of covariance Covariance
A measure of the degree to which returns on two risky assets move in tandem. A positive covariance means that asset returns move together. A negative covariance means returns vary inversely. (ANCOVAs) to examine main effects of ethnicity and interactions between ethnicity and gender, with mother education and age as covariates. When ethnic groups differed, we conducted simple planned orthogonal contrasts to determine the specific group differences.
We found significant main effects of ethnicity for two of the three lifetime sexual behaviors, and no significant Ethnicity x Gender interactions (see Table 2). Contrast tests revealed that African Americans reported 1 1/2 more lifetime partners than did European Americans (p < .01), but did not differ from Latino Americans. Latino Americans reported less frequent lifetime use of condoms than either African Americans or European Americans (ps<.001). European Americans did not differ from the other two groups in their alcohol use before or during sexual experiences. There were no ethnic differences for recent sexual behaviors. Thus, results primarily supported H1.
Ethnic Differences in Sexual Attitudes
H2 was that there would be ethnic differences in sexual attitudes. We performed 2 (Gender) x 3 (Ethnicity) ANCOVAs to examine main effects of ethnicity and interactions between ethnicity and gender, with mother's education and age as covariates. We found significant main effects of ethnicity for two of the four sexual attitudes (see Table 3), and no significant interactions. Contrast tests revealed that Latino Americans were less positive about condoms than were African Americans and European Americans (ps<.05). European Americans reported less fear of AIDS than African Americans and Latino Americans did (ps<.001). Thus, results partially supported H2.
Associations Between Sexual Behaviors and Ethnic Identity
H3 was that ethnic identity commitment would be associated with ethnic minority students' sexual behaviors, above and beyond ethnic group membership, SES, age, and gender. We performed hierarchical linear regressions to test these associations. We created two dummy Sham; make-believe; pretended; imitation. Person who serves in place of another, or who serves until the proper person is named or available to take his place (e.g., dummy corporate directors; dummy owners of real estate). variables for ethnicity and one for gender. The first compared Latino Americans (coded as 1) to the rest of the sample (0). The second compared African Americans (1) to the rest of the sample (0). We chose these two dummy variables to examine how ethnic identity related to sexual behaviors specifically among ethnic minority students. In the gender dummy variable This article is not about "dummy variables" as that term is usually understood in mathematics. See free variables and bound variables.
In regression analysis, a dummy variable , we coded women as 0 and men as 1. We entered mothers' education, age, gender, Latino American, and African American as controls in Step 1. We entered ethnic identity in Step 2. We entered the two-way interactions between ethnic identity and the two ethnicity variables in Step 3. Finally, we entered the three-way interactions between gender, ethnic identity, and each ethnicity variable in Step 4. We performed one regression for each of the six sexual behavior measures. We focus our discussion on the main effects or interactions with the independent variable of interest (ethnic identity) because these variables test H3. In Table 4, we present the two regressions in which change in [R.sup.2] for Steps 2, 3, or 4 was significant. Neither ethnic identity commitment nor its interaction with ethnicity was significant in the regressions for number of lifetime partners, number of recent partners, lifetime condom use, or recent alcohol use before or during sex; therefore, we omit o·mit
tr.v. o·mit·ted, o·mit·ting, o·mits
1. To fail to include or mention; leave out: omit a word.
a. To pass over; neglect.
b. these from the table.
The fourth step of the model for lifetime alcohol consumption before or during sexual intercourse was significant. The final model explained 15% of the variance. The interaction between ethnic identity commitment, African American ethnicity, and gender was significant. To examine the source of this interaction, we conducted follow-up analyses by running separate regressions for each of the six Ethnic x Gender groups, omitting ethnicity, gender, and all interactions. Associations between ethnic identity commitment and alcohol use before or during sexual intercourse were significant for European American ([beta] = -.39, p < .05) and African American men ([beta]= .36, p < .05), but not for Latino American men ([beta] = .17) or any women ([beta]s =-.18 and -.11). Contrary to predictions, European American men who were more ethnic identity committed consumed less alcohol before or during intercourse, whereas African American men who were more committed consumed more alcohol before or during sexual intercourse.
The third step of the model for recent condom use was significant. The final model explained 11% of the variance. Both interactions between ethnicity and ethnic identity commitment were significant. Follow-up analyses performed separately by ethnic group revealed that the association between condom use and ethnic identity commitment was significant for European Americans ([beta]=.41; p<.001), but not for African Americans ([beta]=-.17) or Latino Americans ([beta]=.05). European Americans who were more ethnic identity committed used condoms more frequently than European Americans who were less committed.
Thus, we did not find support for H3. Although lifetime alcohol consumption before or during sexual intercourse was associated with ethnic identity commitment in African American men, the direction was contrary to expectations. Ethnic identity commitment was associated with less risky sexual behavior for European Americans, but not for the rest of the sample.
Associations Between Sexual Attitudes and Ethnic Identities
H4 was that ethnic identity commitment would be associated with sexual attitudes for ethnic minority students. We performed four regressions following the same four steps used to test H3. In Table 4, we present the two regressions in which change in [R.sup.2] for Step 2 was significant. Neither ethnic identity commitment nor its interaction with ethnicity was significant in the regressions for the two condom attitude measures.
The second step of the model for conservative sexual attitudes was significant. The final model explained 9% of the variance (see Table 4). Individuals who were more committed had more conservative sexual attitudes.
The second step of the model for fear of AIDS was significant. The final model explained 11% of the variance (see Table 4). Individuals who were more committed feared AIDS more. Thus, the fourth hypothesis was not supported because the associations did not vary by ethnicity.
Ethnic Differences in Sexual Behaviors and Attitudes
As predicted, we found ethnic group differences in lifetime, but not recent, sexual behaviors. We also found ethnic group differences in some sexual attitudes. Ethnic differences did not vary by gender. African Americans reported more lifetime sexual partners than did European Americans and Latino Americans. In support of past research (e.g., Baldwin et al., 1992; Blum et al., 2000), we found that African Americans initiated sexual intercourse earlier than European Americans and Latino Americans. Thus, ethnic differences in lifetime partners might be due to age differences in sexual debut. Because there were no differences in number of recent partners, our findings suggest that these ethnic differences decrease by late adolescence. This lack of difference, however, might also reflect how the college context influences students' sexual behavior. Across ethnic groups, students at this university might have more similar leisure activity options and experiences compared to students attending colleges in more urban and ethnically diverse cities. These experiences might similarly shape sexual behavior regardless of ethnic background. Lack of ethnic differences in alcohol use before or during sexual intercourse might also reflect similar exposure to and attitudes about alcohol. A recent campus survey indicated that students consume 10 drinks, on average, during the weekend, and most students believe that college students consume 6.4 drinks when "partying" (PennState Pulse Survey, 2006). In this college environment, therefore, students of all ethnic groups may share views about alcohol and engage in sexual intercourse while consuming alcohol at similar rates.
Latino Americans reported less-frequent lifetime condom use and more negative attitudes about condoms than others. Previous studies indicate that Latino college students use condoms less frequently and are more conservative than European Americans (Padilla & O'Grady, 1987). In this study, attitudinal differences occurred for beliefs regarding condoms interfering with pleasure, but not expectancies about condoms' preventive abilities. Previous research has suggested that Latinos may have a present-time orientation (Roosa, Morgan-Lopez, Cree, & Specter, 2002) in that they think more about the present than the future. It is possible that this orientation may lead them to be more concerned about immediate sexual pleasure than the long-term negative outcomes of engaging in sexual intercourse without a condom. This cultural characteristic might still influence Latinos' sexual behaviors and attitudes even when attending a predominantly European American college. In contrast to prior work (Beckman et al., 1996; Soet et al., 1999), we found no differences in condom use or attitudes between African Americans and European Americans. In these studies, most African Americans attended Southeastern and predominantly African American universities. These results highlight the importance of social context. When African Americans live in a predominantly European American community, their social networks likely include more European Americans. Because African Americans' condom use is associated with peer perceptions of condom use (Stanton et al., 2002), having more European American peers may result in their condom-related behaviors and attitudes becoming more similar to the predominant pre·dom·i·nant
1. Having greatest ascendancy, importance, influence, authority, or force. See Synonyms at dominant.
Despite the similar college environment, we found ethnic differences in fear of AIDS. Similar to research about AIDS awareness (Davis et al., 2007), European Americans reported less fear than other ethnic groups. In college campuses, conversations about sex, drinking, and condom use might be more prevalent than conversations about AIDS. Perceived fear of AIDS, therefore, might still be influenced by participants' previous environment. Because AIDS is more prevalent in both African American and Latino American communities (CDC, 2005), these differences in fear may actually reflect accurate differences in appraisals of risk in students' communities of origin or personal knowledge of people living with HIV.
Sexual Behaviors, Sexual Attitudes, and Ethnic Identities
Based on previous work (Belgrave et al., 2000), we predicted ethnic identity commitment would serve as a protective factor for ethnic minority college students. In contrast to our hypothesis, ethnic identity commitment was associated with only European Americans' risky sexual behavior. Ethnic identity commitment also was associated with risky attitudes in all groups regardless of ethnicity. Phinney (1992) reported that ethnic identity is not very salient for ethnic majorities. For the majority group, however, ethnic identity is closely related to national identity (Phinney, Cantu, & Kurtz, 1997), which is a strong predictor of self-esteem (Phinney et al., 1997). This association between national identity and self-esteem may be even more pronounced in the post-September 11 era. During September 2001, European American college students reported high patriotism Patriotism
See also Chauvinism, Loyalty.
comic-strip character known as the “protector of the American way.” [Comics: Horn, 155–156]
elm traditional symbol of American patriotism. (Li & Brewer, 2004), which may stem from increased consciousness of national identity. Because self-esteem is associated with lower sexual risk behaviors (Belgrave et al., 2000), it is possible that ethnic identity serves as a protective factor for European Americans. Contrary to predictions, we also found that African American men who were more committed to their ethnic identity consumed alcohol before or during sexual intercourse more frequently. Ethnic identity, therefore, may serve as a protective factor in some instances, but not others. Minority students are often exposed to stereotypes about their communities and their drug-use behaviors (Marsiglia, Kulis, & Hecht, 2001). Similar to previous work (Stephens & Few, 2007), we can conclude that African American men with stronger ethnic identities might engage in riskier behaviors as a result of acting on these stereotypes.
Limitations and Conclusions
Our study provides some evidence for the role of ethnic identity commitment as a protective factor for sexual behaviors and attitudes. These findings, however, should be interpreted with caution. Ethnic identity explained a relatively small amount of variance, indicating that many other factors play a role. In addition, some researchers have argued about the meaning and importance of ethnicity for European Americans' identity (Phinney, 1992). Moreover, we were surprised that there were no associations between ethnic identity and sexuality for Latino Americans. Of all three ethnic groups in our study, Latino Americans tend to vary the most in terms of length of time their families have resided in the United States, language use, and country of origin (Driscoll et al., 2001). Therefore, assessing these acculturation acculturation, culture changes resulting from contact among various societies over time. Contact may have distinct results, such as the borrowing of certain traits by one culture from another, or the relative fusion of separate cultures. indicators may be more important than ethnic identity among Latino Americans.
Results should not be generalized gen·er·al·ized
1. Involving an entire organ, as when an epileptic seizure involves all parts of the brain.
2. Not specifically adapted to a particular environment or function; not specialized.
3. to non-college students, or even all college students, especially because ethnic minorities are less likely to attend college than the ethnic majority (Berkner & Choy, 2008). Moreover, we intentionally in·ten·tion·al
1. Done deliberately; intended: an intentional slight. See Synonyms at voluntary.
2. Having to do with intention. collected data at a predominantly European American college, and findings are specific to this ecological context. Future studies should compare late adolescents of diverse ethnic backgrounds attending different college environments (e.g., historically Black colleges, urban commuter colleges) to better explain how diverse ecological contexts impact ethnic minorities' sexuality. Moreover, future studies should assess if sexual attitudes and behaviors differ within an ethnic group based on national origin. Puerto Ricans It may never be fully completed or, depending on its its nature, it may be that it can never be completed. However, new and revised entries in the list are always welcome.
This list of Puerto Ricans are at greater risk of HIV infection than Mexican Americans (Driscoll et al., 2001); therefore, Mexican Americans and Puerto Ricans may differ in their fear of AIDS.
This study was cross-sectional. Because ethnic minority students' ethnic identity commitment increases during college (Saylor & Aries, 1999), the protective role of ethnic identity might become more prominent in subsequent years. In addition, we cannot determine the direction of these associations. It is possible that students who engage in riskier behaviors, for instance, develop a less committed ethnic identity as a result of their sexual experiences.
Despite these limitations, our findings have implications for culturally sensitive prevention work on college campuses, such as designing sociocultural strategies (Kreuter, Lukwago, Bucholtz, Clark, & Sanders-Thompson, 2003). Promoting exploration and commitment to one's own ethnic identity could be an effective strategy in promoting healthy practices valued among specific ethnic groups. Furthermore, researchers have typically conceptualized ethnic identity as a protective factor for ethnic minorities (e.g., Ong et al., 2006). Promoting ethnic identity commitment in European Americans, however, might also encourage healthy sexuality. For example, engaging in one's own ethnic group practices might promote self-esteem and discourage risky behaviors, including sexual risk. These programs, however, should also encourage understanding of cultural differences in sexual health and contact between ethnic groups to promote diversity and reduce stereotypes and discrimination between and within ethnic groups (Berryman-Fink, 2006; Kreuter et al., 2003).
In conclusion, we found that ethnic differences were more prevalent in lifetime than in recent sexual behaviors, improving our understanding of ethnicity and sexuality within specific developmental periods and ecological contexts. We also found that ethnic identity might serve a protective role against risky attitudes, indicating its relevance to college students' sexuality.
DOI (Digital Object Identifier) A method of applying a persistent name to documents, publications and other resources on the Internet rather than using a URL, which can change over time. : 10.1080/00224490902829616
Adimora, A. A., Schoenbach, V. J., & Doherty, I. A. (2007). Concurrent sexual partnerships among men in the United States. American Journal of Public Health, 97, 2230-2237.
Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 179-211.
Amaro, H. (1995). Love, sex, and power: Considering women's realities in HIV prevention. American Psychologist, 50, 437-447.
Baldwin, J. D., Whiteley, S., & Baldwin, J. I. (1992). The effect of ethnic group on sexual activities related to contraception contraception: see birth control.
Birth control by prevention of conception or impregnation. The most common method is sterilization. The most effective temporary methods are nearly 99% effective if used consistently and correctly. and STDs. Journal of Sex Research, 29, 189-205.
Beckman, L. J., Harvey, M., & Tiersky, L. A. (1996). Attitudes about condoms and condom use among college students. College Health, 44, 243-250.
Belgrave, F. Z., Marin, B. V. O., & Chambers, D. B. (2000). Cultural, contextual, and intrapersonal in·tra·per·son·al
Existing or occurring within the individual self or mind.
intra·per predictors of risky sexual attitudes among urban African American girls in early adolescence. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 6, 309-322.
Berkner, L, & Choy, S. (2008). Descriptive summary of 2003-04 beginning postsecondary students: Three years later (Report No. NCES-2008174). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved July 30, 2008, from http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid-2008174.
Berryman-Fink, C. (2006). Reducing prejudice on campus: The role of intergroup in·ter·group
Being or occurring between two or more social groups: intergroup relations; intergroup violence. contact in diversity education. College Student Journal, 40, 511-516.
Blum, R. W., Beuhring, T., Shew, M. L., Bearinger, L. H., Sieving, R. E., & Resnick, M. D. (2000). The effects of race/ethnicity, income, and family structure on adolescent risk behaviors. American Journal of Public Health, 90, 1879-1884.
Boone, T. L., & Lefkowitz, E. S. (2004). Safer sex and the Health Belief Model: Considering the contributions of peer norms and socialization factors. Journal of Psychology and Human Sexuality This article is about human sexual perceptions. For information about sexual activities and practices, see Human sexual behavior.
Generally speaking, human sexuality is how people experience and express themselves as sexual beings. , 16, 51-68.
Brooks-Gunn, J., & Paikoff, R. L. (1993). "Sex is a gamble, kissing is a game": Adolescent sexuality and health promotion. In S. G. Millstein, A. C. Petersen, & E. O. Nightingale nightingale, common name for a migratory Old World bird of the family Turdidae (thrush family), celebrated for its vocal powers. The common nightingale of England and Western Europe, Luscinia megarhynchos, is about 6 1-2 in. (16. (Eds.), Promoting the health of adolescents: New directions for the twenty-first century (pp. 180-208). New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of : Oxford University Press.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), agency of the U.S. Public Health Service since 1973, with headquarters in Atlanta; it was established in 1946 as the Communicable Disease Center. . (2005). HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report, 2004. Atlanta: Author.
Cooper, M. L. (2002). Alcohol use and risky sexual behavior among college students and youth. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 14(Suppl. 14), 101-117.
Cooper, M. L., Peirce, R. S., & Huselid, R. F. (1994). Substance use and sexual risk taking among Black adolescents and White adolescents. Health Psychology, 13, 251-262.
Davis, C., Sloan, M., MacMaster, S., & Kilbourne, B. (2007). HIV/AIDS knowledge and sexual activity: An examination of racial differences in a college sample. Health & Social Work, 32, 211-218.
Day, R. D. (1992). The transition to first intercourse among racially and culturally diverse youth. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 54, 749 762.
Dolcini, M. M., Coates, T. J., Catania, J. A., Kegeles, S. M., & Hauck, W. W. (1995). Multiple sexual partners and their psychosocial psychosocial /psy·cho·so·cial/ (si?ko-so´shul) pertaining to or involving both psychic and social aspects.
Involving aspects of both social and psychological behavior. correlates: The population-based AIDS in multiethnic neighborhoods (AMEN Amen: see Amon.
Expression of agreement or confirmation used in worship by Jews, Christians, and Muslims. The word derives from a Semitic root meaning “fixed” or “sure. ) study. Health Psychology, 14, 22-31.
Douglas, K. A., Collins, J. L., Warren, C., Kann, L., Gold, R., Clayton, S., et al. (1997). Results from the 1995 National College Health Risk Behavior Survey. Journal of American College Health, 46, 55-66.
Driscoll, A. K., Biggs, M. A., Brindis, C. D., & Yankah, E. (2001). Adolescent Latino reproductive health Within the framework of WHO's definition of health as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, reproductive health, or sexual health/hygiene : A review of the literature. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences behavioral sciences,
n.pl those sciences devoted to the study of human and animal behavior. , 23, 255-326.
Ericksen, K. P., & Trocki, K. F. (1992). Behavioral risk-factors for sexually transmitted diseases Sexually transmitted diseases
Infections that are acquired and transmitted by sexual contact. Although virtually any infection may be transmitted during intimate contact, the term sexually transmitted disease is restricted to conditions that are largely in American households. Social Science & Medicine, 34, 843-853.
Farmer, M. A., & Meston, C. M. (2006). Predictors of condom use self-efficacy in an ethnically diverse university sample. Archives of Sexual Behavior Archives of Sexual Behavior is an academic sexology journal and the official publication of the International Academy of Sex Research.
Contributions consist of empirical research (both quantitative and qualitative), theoretical reviews and essays, clinical case , 35, 313-326.
Furstenberg, F. F., Jr., Morgan, S. P., Moore, K. A., & Peterson, J. L. (1987). Race differences in the timing of adolescent intercourse. American Sociological Review, 52, 511-518.
Gurman, T., & Borzekowski, D. L. G. (2004). Condom use among Latino college students. Journal of American College Health, 52, 169-178.
Howard, D. E. & Wang, M. Q. (2004). Multiple sexual-partner behavior among sexually active US adolescent girls. American Journal of Health Behavior, 28, 3-12.
Hudson, W. W., Murphy, G. J., & Nurius, P. S. (1983). A short-form scale to measure liberal vs. conservative orientations toward human sexual expression. Journal of Sex Research, 19, 258-272.
Jaccard, J., McDonald, R., Wan, C. K., Dittus, P. J., & Quinlan, S. (2002). The accuracy of self-reports of condom use and sexual behavior. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 32, 1863-1905.
Jemmott, L. S., & Jemmott, J. B. (1992). Increasing condom-use intentions among sexually active Black adolescent women. Nursing Research, 41, 273-279.
Johnson, E. H., Jackson, L. A., Hinkle, Y., Gilbert, D., Hoopwood, T., Lollis, C. M., et al. (1994). What is the significance of Black White differences in risky sexual behavior? Journal of the National Medical Association, 86, 745-759.
Kahler, C. W., Read, J. P., Wood, M. D., & Palfai, T. B. (2003). Social environmental selection as a mediator mediator n. a person who conducts mediation. A mediator is usually a lawyer, or retired judge, but can be a non-attorney specialist in the subject matter (like child custody) who tries to bring people and their disputes to early resolution through a conference. of gender, ethnic, and personality effects on college student drinking. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors Psychology of Addictive Behaviors Journal
Psychology of Addictive Behaviors publishes peer-reviewed original articles related to the psychological aspects of addictive behaviors. , 17, 226-234.
Kim, S., De La Rosa, M., Trepka, M. J., & Kelley, M. (2007). Condom use among unmarried students in a Hispanic-serving university. AIDS Education and Prevention, 19, 448-461.
Kreuter, M. W., Lukwago, S. N., Bucholtz, D. C., Clark, E. M., & Sanders-Thompson, V. (2003). Achieving cultural appropriateness in health promotion programs: Targeted and tailored approaches. Health Education and Behavior, 30, 133 146.
Lefkowitz, E. S. & Gillen, M. M. (2005). "Sex is just a normal part of life": Sexuality in emerging adulthood Emerging adulthood is a phase of the life span between adolescence and full-fledged adulthood, proposed by Jeffrey Arnett in a 2000 article in the American Psychologist (summary of article).
The concept of Emerging Adulthood is closely related to the idea of a "Twixter. . In J. J. Arnett & J. L. Tanner The code name for the Xeon version of the Pentium III chip. See Xeon. (Eds.), Coming of age in the twenty-first century: The lives and contexts of emerging adults (pp. 235-255). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Li, Q., & Brewer, M. B. (2004). What does it mean to be an American? Patriotism, nationalism, and American identity after 9/11. Political Psychology, 25, 727-739.
Maggs, J. L. (1997). Alcohol use and binge drinking binge drinking An early phase of chronic alcoholism, characterized by episodic 'flirtation' with the bottle by binges of drinking to the point of stupor, followed by periods of abstinence; BD is accompanied by alcoholic ketoacidosis–accelerated lipolysis and as goal-directed action during the transition to post secondary education. In J. Schulenberg, J. L. Maggs, & K. Hurrelmann (Eds.), Health risk and developmental transition during adolescence (pp. 345-371). New York: Cambridge University Press Cambridge University Press (known colloquially as CUP) is a publisher given a Royal Charter by Henry VIII in 1534, and one of the two privileged presses (the other being Oxford University Press). .
Marsiglia, F. F., Kulis, S., & Hecht, M. L. (2001). Ethnic labels and ethnic identity as predictors of drug use among middle school students in the Southwest. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 11, 21-48.
Miller, B. C., Benson, B., & Galbraith, K. A. (2001). Family relationships and adolescent pregnancy adolescent pregnancy See Teenage pregnancy. risk: A research synthesis. Developmental Review, 21, 1-38.
Ong, A. D., Phinney, J. S., & Dennis, J. (2006). Competence under challenge: Exploring the protective influence of parental support and ethnic identity in Latino college students. Journal of Adolescence, 29, 961-979.
Padilla, E. R., & O'Grady, K. E. (1987). Sexuality among Mexican Americans: A case of sexual stereotyping This article
* Its neutrality is disputed.
* It may contain original research or unverifiable claims.
* It does not cite any references or sources. . has multiple issues:Journal of Personality and Social Psychology The Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (often referred to as JPSP) is a monthly psychology journal of the American Psychological Association. It is considered one of the top journals in the fields of social and personality psychology. , 52, 5-10.
PennState Pulse Survey. (2006). Retrieved March 23, 2008, from http://www.sa.psu.edu/sara/pulse/140-StudentDrinking.pdf Phinney, J. S. (1992). The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure: A new scale for use with diverse groups. Journal of Adolescent Research, 7, 156-176.
Phinney, J. S., Cantu, C. L., & Kurtz, D. A. (1997). Ethnic and American identity as predictors of self-esteem among African American, Latino American, and White Adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 26, 165-185.
Roosa, M. W., Morgan-Lopez, A. A., Cree, W. K., & Specter, M. M. (2002). Ethnic culture, poverty, and context: Sources of influence on Latino families and children. In J. M. Contreras, K. A. Kems, & A. M. Neal-Bamett (Eds.), Latino children and families in the United States (pp. 27-44). Westport, CT: Praeger.
Samuels, H. P. (1997). The relationships among selected demographics The attributes of people in a particular geographic area. Used for marketing purposes, population, ethnic origins, religion, spoken language, income and age range are examples of demographic data. and conventional and unconventional sexual behaviors among Black and White heterosexual men. Journal of Sex Research, 34, 85-92.
Santelli, J. S., Brener, N. D., Lowry, R., Bhatt, A., & Zabin, L. S. (1998). Multiple sexual partners among US adolescents and young adults. Family Planning family planning
Use of measures designed to regulate the number and spacing of children within a family, largely to curb population growth and ensure each family’s access to limited resources. Perspectives, 30, 271-275.
Santelli, J. S., Lindberg, L. D., Abma, J., McNeely, C. S., & Resnick, M. (2000). Adolescent sexual behavior
Saylor, E. S., & Aries, E. (1999). Ethnic identity and change in social context. Journal of Social Psychology, 139, 549-566.
Seaton, E. K., Scottham, K. M., & Sellers, R. M. (2006). The status model of racial identity development in African American adolescents: Evidence of structure, trajectories, and well-being. Child Development, 77, 1416-1426.
Skurnick, J. H., Kennedy, C. A., Perez, G., Abrams, J., Vermund, S. H., Denny, T., et al. (1998). Behavioral and demographic risk factors for transmission of human immunodeficiency virus human immunodeficiency virus
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
A transmissible retrovirus that causes AIDS in humans. type 1 in heterosexual couples: Report from the Heterosexual HIV Transmission Study. Clinical Infectious Diseases Clinical Infectious Diseases in an academic journal published by the University of Chicago Press which publishes articles on the pathogenesis, clinical investigation, medical microbiology, diagnosis, immune mechanisms, and treatment of diseases caused by infectious agents. , 26, 855-864.
Snell, W. E., Jr., & Finney, P. (1996). The Multidimensional AIDS Anxiety Questionnaire. Unpublished manuscript.
Soet, J. E., Dudley, W. N., & Dilorio, C. (1999). The effects of ethnicity and perceived power on women's sexual behavior. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 23, 707-723.
Stanton, B., Xiaoming, L., Pack, R., Cottrell, L., Harris, C., & Burns, J. M. (2002). Longitudinal lon·gi·tu·di·nal
Running in the direction of the long axis of the body or any of its parts. influence of perceptions of peer and parental factors on African American adolescent risk involvement. Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine The New York Academy of Medicine was founded in 1847 by a group of leading New York City metropolitan area physicians as a voice for the medical profession in medical practice and public health reform. , 79, 536-548.
Stephens, D. P., & Few, A. L. (2007). Hip hop hip-hop or hip hop
1. A popular urban youth culture, closely associated with rap music and with the style and fashions of African-American inner-city residents.
2. Rap music.
adj. honey or video ho: African American preadolescents' understanding of female sexual scripts in hip hop culture Hip hop is a subculture, which is said to have begun with the work of DJ Kool Herc, Grandmaster Flash & the Furious Five, and Afrika Bambaattaa.
The four main aspects, or "elements", of hip hop culture are MCing (rapping), DJing, urban inspired art/tagging (graffiti), and . Sexuality & Culture: An Interdisciplinary in·ter·dis·ci·pli·nar·y
Of, relating to, or involving two or more academic disciplines that are usually considered distinct.
Adjective Quarterly, 11, 48-69.
Thomas, A. G., Brodine, S. K., Shaffer, R., Shafer, M. A., Boyer, C. B., Putnam, S., et al. (2001). Chlamydial chlamydial
pertaining to members of the family Chlamydiaceae.
abortion in cows, ewes, sows and goat does caused by Chlamydophila abortus and C. pecorum. See enzootic abortion of ewes. infection and unplanned pregnancy in women with ready access to health care. Obstetrics and Gynecology gynecology (gīn'əkŏl`əjē), branch of medicine specializing in the disorders of the female reproductive system. Modern gynecology deals with menstrual disorders, menopause, infectious disease and maldevelopment of the , 98, 1117-1123.
Townsend, T. G. (2002). The impact of self-components on attitudes toward sex among African American preadolescent girls: The moderating role of menarche menarche /me·nar·che/ (me-nahr´ke) establishment or beginning of the menstrual function.menar´cheal
The first menstrual period, usually during puberty. . Sex Roles, 47, 11-20.
Upchurch, D. M., Aneshensel, C. S., Mudgal, J., & McNeely, C. S. (2001). Sociocultural contexts of time to first sex among Hispanic adolescents. Journal of Marriage and Family, 63, 1158-1169.
Warner, L., Newman, D. R., Kamb, M. L., Fishbein, M., Douglas, J. M., Zenilman, J., et al. (2008). Problems with condom use among patients attending sexually transmitted disease sexually transmitted disease (STD) or venereal disease, term for infections acquired mainly through sexual contact. Five diseases were traditionally known as venereal diseases: gonorrhea, syphilis, and the less common granuloma inguinale, clinics: Prevalence, predictors, and relation to incident gonorrhea gonorrhea (gŏnərē`ə), common infectious disease caused by a bacterium (Neisseria gonorrhoeae), involving chiefly the mucous membranes of the genitourinary tract. and chlamydia chlamydia (kləmĭd`ēə), genus of microorganisms that cause a variety of diseases in humans and other animals. Psittacosis, or parrot fever, caused by the species Chlamydia psittaci, . American Journal of Epidemiology epidemiology, field of medicine concerned with the study of epidemics, outbreaks of disease that affect large numbers of people. Epidemiologists, using sophisticated statistical analyses, field investigations, and complex laboratory techniques, investigate the cause , 167, 341-349.
Weinberg, M. S., & Williams, C. J. (1988). Black sexuality: A test of two theories. Journal of Sex Research, 25, 197-218.
Weinstock, H., Berman, S., & Cates, W. (2004). Sexually transmitted diseases among American youth: Incidence and prevalence estimates, 2000. Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 36, 6-10.
Wyatt, G. E. (1991). Examining ethnicity versus race in AIDS related sex research. Social Science and Medicine, 33, 37-45.
Graciela Espinosa-Hernandez and Eva S. Lefkowitz
Department of Human Development and Family Studies, Pennsylvania State University Pennsylvania State University, main campus at University Park, State College; land-grant and state supported; coeducational; chartered 1855, opened 1859 as Farmers' High School.
An earlier version of this article was presented at the 2005 biennial biennial, plant requiring two years to complete its life cycle, as distinguished from an annual or a perennial. In the first year a biennial usually produces a rosette of leaves (e.g., the cabbage) and a fleshy root, which acts as a food reserve over the winter. meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Atlanta, GA. This research was supported by Grant R01 HD 41720 from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development to Eva S. Lefkowitz and by a fellowship from Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Technologia to Graciela Espinosa-Hernandez. We gratefully acknowledge Jill Boelter, Meghan M. Gillen, Shelley Hosterman, Eric Loken, Susan McHale, Lisa Meyer, Kristie Patton, Lyndsey Sturm, and Amber Thompson for their help with study design, data scoring and entering, data cleaning, and statistical analyses. We also thank Kelly Cichy, Anthony D'Augelli, Cindy Shearer shearer
person whose occupation is shearing sheep. , Tara Stoppa, Dena Swanson, Sara Vasilenko, and the reviewers for their thoughtful comments on earlier versions of this article.
Correspondence should be addressed to Graciela Espinosa-Hernandez, Department of Human Development and Family Studies, Pennsylvania State University, S-110 Henderson Building, University Park, PA 16802. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Table 1. Parents' Educational Status (Percentage) by Ethnicity African Americans European Americans Mothers' Fathers' Mothers' Fathers' Education Education Education Education Educational Status (n = 139 (n = 127) (n = 168) (n = 166) Not high school 7.2 7.9 1.2 1.2 graduate High school diploma 48.2 37.7 30.4 28.2 Associate or 28.8 29.1 54.2 42.8 bachelor's degree Graduate degree 15.8 25.2 14.3 27.7 G: Latino Americans Mothers' Fathers' Education Education Educational Status (n = 125) (n = 121) Not high school 8.8 6.6 graduate High school diploma 34.4 33.9 Associate or 40.8 31.4 bachelor's degree Graduate degree 16.0 28.1 Table 2. Analyses of Covariance of Sexual Behaviors by Ethnicity and Gender Controlling for Mothers' Education and Age African Americans European Americans Sexual Behaviors M SD M SD Lifetime report Number of sexual partners 3.6 3.3 2.2 2.0 Number of sexual partners 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.6 (log transformation) Condom use 2.7 1.1 2.8 1.2 Alcohol consumption 0.5 0.8 0.7 0.7 before or during sexual intercourse Past 3 months report Number of sexual partners 1.2 1.0 1.3 0.9 Number of sexual partners 0.3 0.5 0.2 0.4 (log transformation) Condom use 2.6 1.5 2.9 1.5 Alcohol consumption 0.5 1.1 0.7 0.8 before or during sexual intercourse Latino Americans F Sexual Behaviors M SD (Ethnicity) Lifetime report Number of sexual partners 3.3 4.0 Number of sexual partners 0.8 0.9 5.3 ** (log transformation) Condom use 2.1 1.2 7.2 *** Alcohol consumption 0.7 0.8 0.7 before or during sexual intercourse Past 3 months report Number of sexual partners 1.3 1.2 Number of sexual partners 0.3 0.5 0.6 (log transformation) Condom use 2.2 1.6 2.3 Alcohol consumption 0.5 0.9 0.4 before or during sexual intercourse F (Gender x Sexual Behaviors [f.sup.2] Ethnicity) Lifetime report Number of sexual partners Number of sexual partners .04 1.8 (log transformation) Condom use .06 1.5 Alcohol consumption .01 0.4 before or during sexual intercourse Past 3 months report Number of sexual partners Number of sexual partners .01 0.5 (log transformation) Condom use .02 0.6 Alcohol consumption .00 0.2 before or during sexual intercourse Note. Raw and log transformation scores are reported for number of sexual partners. However, Fs were calculated with log transformations. Means for Ethnicity x Gender and effect sizes for interactions are not shown because interactions were not significant. Sample size (n=208- 248) is reduced because 41% of participants were not sexually active, and some data were missing. Response options for use of condoms and alcohol consumption were assessed on a five-point scale ranging from 1 (never), 2 (some of the time), 3 (most of the time), 4 (every time except once), to 5 (every time). ** p <.01. *** p <.001. Table 3. Analyses of Covariance of Sexual Attitudes by Ethnicity and Gender Controlling for Mothers' Education and Age African Americans European Americans Sexual Attitudes M SD M SD Prevention expectancies for 11.9 3.2 12.4 2.8 condom use Hedonistic expectancies for 18.4 3.5 18.3 3.9 condom use Conservative sexual attitudes 33.2 9.2 31.4 8.7 Fear of AIDS 21.7 5.8 18.3 6.2 Latino Americans F Sexual Attitudes M SD (Ethnicity) Prevention expectancies for 11.9 2.8 1.0 condom use Hedonistic expectancies for 17.4 3.5 3.0 * condom use Conservative sexual attitudes 31.7 8.0 2.1 Fear of AIDS 21.1 5.8 12.7 *** F (Gender x Sexual Attitudes [f.sup.2] Ethnicity) Prevention expectancies for .01 1.1 condom use Hedonistic expectancies for .02 0.1 condom use Conservative sexual attitudes .01 1.4 Fear of AIDS .06 0.4 Note. Due to missing data, sample size ranged from n = 415 to 432. Means for Ethnicity x Gender and effect sizes for interactions are not shown because interactions were not significant. * p < .05. *** p < .001. Table 4. Standardized Betas in Regression Predicting Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors From Mothers' Education, Age, Gender, Ethnicity, and Ethnic Identity Lifetime Alcohol Consumption before or During Sexual Recent Intercourse Condom (n = 244; Use (n = 206; Variable [R.sup.2] = .15 ***) [R.sup.2] = .11 ***) Step 1 Mother's education .23 *** .07 Age .11 .02 Gender .07 .05 LA .03 -.17 * AA -.05 -.05 [DELTA][R.sup.2] .08 *** .03 Step 2 Mother's education .23 *** .07 Age .11 .03 Gender .07 .06 LA .04 -.23 ** AA -.04 -.14 Ethnic identity -.02 .15 [DELTA][R.sup.2] (1-2) .00 .02 Step 3 Mother's education .22 *** .08 Age .11 .02 Gender .06 .08 LA .11 -.32 *** AA -.05 -.15 Ethnic identity -.25 .46 *** Ethnic Identity x LA .14 -.21 * Ethnic Identity x AA .28 *** -.32 *** [DELTA][R.sup.2] (2-3) .03 ** .05 *** Step 4 Mother's education .22 *** .08 Age .09 .02 Gender -.02 .09 LA .13 -.32 *** AA -.04 -.15 Ethnic identity -.27 * .46 *** Ethnic Identity x LA .06 -.23 * Ethnic Identity x AA .12 -.26 * Ethnic Identity x LA .12 .03 x Gender Ethnic Identity x AA .25 *** -.08 x Gender [DELTA][R.sup.2] (3-4) .04 ** .00 Conservative Fear of Sexual AIDS Attitudes (n = 428; (n = 425; Variable [R.sup.2] = .09 ***) [R.sup.2] = .11 ***) Step 1 Mother's education -.03 -.10 * Age .07 .03 Gender -.22 *** -.14 *** LA .01 .20 *** AA .10 .24 *** [DELTA][R.sup.2] .06 *** .09 *** Step 2 Mother's education -.03 -.09 Age .09 .04 Gender -.21 *** -.14 *** LA -.O5 .l5 ** AA .02 .19 *** Ethnic identity .17 *** .13 * [DELTA][R.sup.2] (1-2) .02 *** .01 * Step 3 Mother's education -.03 -.09 * Age .09 .04 Gender -.22 *** -.14 *** LA -.04 .17 *** AA .01 .18 *** Ethnic identity .13 .06 Ethnic Identity x LA .01 .04 Ethnic Identity x AA .08 .09 [DELTA][R.sup.2] (2-3) .00 .00 Step 4 Mother's education -.04 -.10 * Age .09 .04 Gender -.23 *** -.16 *** LA -.04 .17 *** AA .00 .18 *** Ethnic identity .13 .05 Ethnic Identity x LA .04 .06 Ethnic Identity x AA .03 .00 Ethnic Identity x LA -.05 -.01 x Gender Ethnic Identity x AA .08 .13 x Gender [DELTA][R.sup.2] (3-4) .00 .01 Note. We performed separate regressions for all lifetime and 3-month behaviors and attitudes. This table presents only regressions where ethnic identity or its interactions were significant. LA = Latino American; AA = African American. * p < .05. ** p < .01. *** p < .001.