Sex offenders. (Survey Summary).The numbers of sex offenders in 45 of the nation's prison systems and seven systems in Canada Canada (kăn`ədə), independent nation (2001 pop. 30,007,094), 3,851,787 sq mi (9,976,128 sq km), N North America. Canada occupies all of North America N of the United States (and E of Alaska) except for Greenland and the French islands of remained about the same as they were one year ago, according to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. respondents In the context of marketing research, a representative sample drawn from a larger population of people from whom information is collected and used to develop or confirm marketing strategy. of this Corrections Compendium com·pen·di·um
n. pl. com·pen·di·ums or com·pen·di·a
1. A short, complete summary; an abstract.
2. A list or collection of various items. survey on sex offenders. The numbers actually increased in 12 U.S. and two Canadian Canadian (kənā`dēən), river, 906 mi (1,458 km) long, rising in NE New Mexico. and flowing E across N Texas and central Oklahoma into the Arkansas River in E Oklahoma. systems, while sex offender sex offender n. generic term for all persons convicted of crimes involving sex, including rape, molestation, sexual harassment and pornography production or distribution. populations decreased in only four U.S. systems. This represents a substantial difference from information provided in the last Compendium sex offender survey in July July: see month. 1991, in which it was noted that sex offenders in prison had increased 48 percent during the preceding two years.
Of the numbers of sex offenders incarcerated incarcerated /in·car·cer·at·ed/ (in-kahr´ser-at?ed) imprisoned; constricted; subjected to incarceration.
Confined or trapped, as a hernia. in the respective reporting U.S. systems (149,420) and Canada (2,313), Utah and Wisconsin Wisconsin, state, United States
Wisconsin (wĭskŏn`sən, –sĭn), upper midwestern state of the United States. It is bounded by Lake Superior and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, from which it is divided by the Menominee indicated that 25.1 percent of each of their total populations are incarcerated for sex offenses A class of sexual conduct prohibited by the law.
Since the 1970s this area of the law has undergone significant changes and reforms. Although the commission of sex offenses is not new, public awareness and concern regarding sex offenses have grown, resulting in the . The percentage of sex offenders drops in Mississippi Mississippi, state, United States
Mississippi (mĭs'əsĭp`ē), one of the Deep South states of the United States. It is bordered by Alabama (E), the Gulf of Mexico (S), Arkansas and Louisiana, with most of the border formed by to 5.1 percent and in the District of Columbia District of Columbia, federal district (2000 pop. 572,059, a 5.7% decrease in population since the 1990 census), 69 sq mi (179 sq km), on the east bank of the Potomac River, coextensive with the city of Washington, D.C. (the capital of the United States). to less than 2 percent. First-time sex offenders account for 53,138 individuals, but 23 responding systems did not know their numbers. Special housing accommodations are in use in 20 U.S. systems and six in Canada. In Iowa, sex offenders are housed in the general population prior to participation in a treatment program, at which time they are housed in one facility that is prerelease-oriented. Missouri Missouri, state, United States
Missouri (mĭzr`ē, –ə), one of the midwestern states of the United States. instituted a handicapped-accessible, therapeutic community setting on May 15. If evaluated as a repetitive and compulsive com·pul·sive
Caused or conditioned by compulsion or obsession.
A person with behavior patterns governed by a compulsion.
the state of being subject to compulsion. sex offender by a psychologist psy·chol·o·gist
A person trained and educated to perform psychological research, testing, and therapy.
psychologist , a judge in New Jersey has the option to sentence an offender to the Adult Diagnostic Treatment Center.
In the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. , treatment for incarcerated sex offenders is voluntary in 30 of the reporting systems and mandatory Peremptory; obligatory; required; that which must be subscribed to or obeyed.
Mandatory statutes are those that require, as opposed to permit, a particular course of action. in 17 others. In Canada, voluntary commitments are carried out in six systems and are mandatory in three others. Dual designations may apply for a number of reasons, including: being a part of the sentence; mandatory for victim awareness but voluntary for psychological education; mandatory for parole parole (pərōl`), in criminal law, release from prison of a convict before the expiration of his term on condition that his activities be restricted and that he report regularly to an officer. consideration; or depending on the type of treatment offered. There is no treatment provided to sex offenders in California California (kăl'ĭfôr`nyə), most populous state in the United States, located in the Far West; bordered by Oregon (N), Nevada and, across the Colorado River, Arizona (E), Mexico (S), and the Pacific Ocean (W). , Maine, Mississippi or Oregon Oregon, city, United States
Oregon, city (1990 pop. 18,334), Lucas co., NW Ohio, a suburb adjacent to Toledo, on Lake Erie; inc. 1958. It is a port with railroad-owned and -operated docks. The city has industries producing oil, chemicals, and metal products. .
Types of treatment vary widely among the systems as noted in the reported numbers in the following table:
TYPE OF TREATMENT UNITED STATES CANADA Individual counseling 32 6 Group counseling 40 5 Inmate support groups 21 2 Medical treatment 24 4 Relapse prevention 35 5 Cognitive/behavioral 39 6 Offense-specific 29 4 Therapeutic communities 19 1
As noted, while 24 U.S. systems provide specialized spe·cial·ize
v. spe·cial·ized, spe·cial·iz·ing, spe·cial·iz·es
1. To pursue a special activity, occupation, or field of study.
2. treatment for sex offenders, several additional states indicated that they provide basic medical treatment but that it is not sex offender-specific. Other types of treatment modalities Modalities
The factors and circumstances that cause a patient's symptoms to improve or worsen, including weather, time of day, effects of food, and similar factors. are indicated, such as psychiatric psy·chi·at·ric
Of or relating to psychiatry.
psychiatric adjective Pertaining to psychiatry, mental disorders education, special community supervision, measurement of sexual interest, victim impact, an experimental drama therapy approach and a two-year intensive residential program. New Jersey includes specific programs, such as Clear Thinking, Victim Empathy empathy
Ability to imagine oneself in another's place and understand the other's feelings, desires, ideas, and actions. The empathic actor or singer is one who genuinely feels the part he or she is performing. , Personal Victimization victimization Social medicine The abuse of the disenfranchised–eg, those underage, elderly, ♀, mentally retarded, illegal aliens, or other, by coercing them into illegal activities–eg, drug trade, pornography, prostitution. and Arousal arousal /arous·al/ (ah-rou´z'l)
1. a state of responsiveness to sensory stimulation or excitability.
2. the act or state of waking from or as if from sleep.
3. Reconditioning, while Correctional cor·rec·tion
1. The act or process of correcting.
2. Something offered or substituted for a mistake or fault: made corrections in the report.
a. Service Canada Service Canada is part of a Government of Canada-wide service transformation initiative aimed at responding to Canadians' expressed desire for better, more responsive, less cluttered service from Canadian governments. (CSC (Card Security Code) A three- or four-digit number printed on the back of credit cards for security purposes. Called "Card Verification Value" (CVV) by Visa, "Card Validation Code" (CVC) by MasterCard and "Card Identification (CID) by American Express and Discover, ) provides a program designed to aid self-regulation/management of risk to re-offend. Activities involving victim-offender reconciliation occur in 15 systems and are being considered and/or developed in three others. CSC offers such a program only in exceptional cases.
Thirty-eight U.S. and eight Canadian systems have parole planning in effect, although 26 of the systems offer limited parole consideration. These limited conditions may include determinate DETERMINATE. That which is ascertained; what is particularly designated; as, if I sell you my horse Napoleon, the article sold is here determined. This is very different from a contract by which I would have sold you a horse, without a particular designation of any horse. 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 947, 950. sentencing for some sex offenses, becoming eligible when sentenced to two or more years; imposing a statutory 10-year sentence; identification as a serial sex offender; or completion of a required sex offender treatment program depending on the sentencing judge or the structure of the sentence, or determined by truth in sentencing Truth in Sentencing (or TIS) is a collection of different but related ideas about justice and fairness in the sentencing of criminals. Unlike earlier and better-known debates about what constitutes just sentencing, TIS is relatively unconcerned with what is fair for the criminal (e. . Sex offenders who were repeat offenders for violent crimes, those convicted of two violent sex offenses involving a victim younger than 13, those serving less than a six-month sentence, and specifically those serving a life sentence without parole are ineligible in·el·i·gi·ble
1. Disqualified by law, rule, or provision: ineligible to run for office; ineligible for health benefits.
2. for parole.
On Oct. 17, 2001, the U.S. Department of Justice's Office of Justice Programs announced a $2.8 million grant to 21 communities in 17 states to help develop, implement or expand comprehensive strategies to manage sex offenders under community supervision. The communities were to develop multidisciplinary teams including law enforcement, probation probation, method by which the punishment of a convicted offender is conditionally suspended. The offender must remain in the community and under the supervision of a probation officer, who is usually a court-appointed official. and parole officers, other criminal justice personnel, the courts, treatment providers and victim advocates. Although community expansion efforts might be a growing trend, other than mandatory sex offender registration This article requires authentication or verification by an expert.
Please assist in recruiting an expert or [ improve this article] yourself. See the talk page for details. , community supervision and treatment, home monitoring and periodic polygraph An instrument used to measure physiological responses in humans when they are questioned in order to determine if their answers are truthful.
Also known as a "lie detector," the polygraph has a controversial history in U.S. law. testing, few other requirements were reported.
Tracking sex offender recidivism recidivism: see criminology. is not conducted in 16 of the reporting systems and the methods vary among those that have implemented formal methods for tracking--from return to the department to the use of automated au·to·mate
v. au·to·mat·ed, au·to·mat·ing, au·to·mates
1. To convert to automatic operation: automate a factory.
2. database information systems to agent monitoring. A recent study conducted in Iowa indicated that sex offenders recidivate re·cid·i·vate
intr.v. re·cid·i·vat·ed, re·cid·i·vat·ing, re·cid·i·vates
To return to a previous pattern of behavior, especially to return to criminal habits. less than other offenders and are more likely to be convicted of misdemeanors than felonies. In the past two to three years, policy changes affecting sentencing have occurred in 21 U.S. systems and changes in corrections in 31 U.S. and six Canadian systems.
Primarily, it appears that the growth in sex offenders incarcerated in U.S. prisons is the result of such policy changes as longer sentences, extension of parole obligations, numbers of offenses required for sex offender registration, the amount of good time that could be earned based on certain violent crimes, and for civil commitment.
TABLE 1: POPULATION PERCENTAGE FIRST-TIME SYSTEM NUMBER OF SEX INCARCERATED POPULATION OFFENDERS ALABAMA No response ALASKA 659 17.7% Unknown ARIZONA 3,066 10.7% 2,606 ARKANSAS No response CALIFORNIA 20.009 12.7% Unknown COLORADO No response CONNECTICUT 2,825 (1) 15.2% Unknown DELAWARE No response DISTRICT 71 .019% 9 OF COLUMBIA FLORIDA 8,149 11.2% 5,653 GEORGIA 5,948 12.8% Unknown HAWAII No response IDAHO 1,016 18% 837 ILLINOIS 4,599 10.4% 2,704 INDIANA 3,132 15.8% 2,027 IOWA 1,090 13.5% Unknown KANSAS 2,135 (2) 24.9% Unknown KENTUCKY 1,894 11.7% Unknown LOUISIANA 3,219 9% 1,566 MAINE Unknown Unknown Unknown MARYLAND 1,742 7.4% 788 MASSACHUSETTS 2,100 20.8% Unknown MICHIGAN No response MINNESOTA 1,291 19.6% 930 MISSISSIPPI 1,106 5.1% 794 MISSOURI 4,059 13.9% 2,989 MONTANA 336 14% 165 NEBRASKA 634 16.1% Unknown NEVADA 1,817 17.5% 1,688 NEW HAMPSHIRE 610 24.2% Unknown NEW JERSEY 1,912 7% Unknown NEW MEXICO 614 10.7% 585 NEW YORK 5,877 8.8% 1,314 NORTH CAROLINA 4,068 12.6% Unknown NORTH DAKOTA 210 17.8% 178 OHIO 9,825 21.5% Unknown OKLAHOMA 2,308 10.1% 1,884 OREGON 3,538 (3) N/A 2,467 PENNSYLVANIA 4,175 10.8% 3,422 RHODE ISLAND 353 13.4% Unknown SOUTH CAROLINA 2,326 9.7% Unknown SOUTH DAKOTA 423 14.6% Unknown TENNESSEE 3,192 18% Unknown TEXAS 25,101 17.5% 17,880 UTAH 1,362 25.1% Unknown VERMONT 401 23.2% Unknown VIRGINIA 2,943 (FY) 10.1% Unknown WASHINGTON 3,022 19.6% 2,374 WEST VIRGINIA 703 19.5% Unknown WISCONSIN 5,236 25.1% Unknown WYOMING 324 19.3% 278 FEDERAL BUREAU No response OF PRISONS U.S. TOTALS 149,420 53,138 CANADIAN SYSTEMS MANITOBA 68 11.2% 23, est. NEWFOUNDLAND 47 13.8% 16 NOVA SCOTIA 13 4% 5 ONTARIO Not available N/A N/A PRINCE EDWARD 12 19.4% Unknown ISLAND SASKATCHEWAN 45-50 ADP 5.7%, est. Unknown YUKON TERRITORY 18 28.1% None CORRECTIONAL 2,107 16% 1,365 SERVICE CANADA CANADIAN TOTALS Approx. 2,313 Approx. 1,409 CHANGES FROM PREVIOUS TWO YEARS Inc- Dec- SYSTEM reased reased Same Comments ALABAMA No response ALASKA X New statutes and statutory changes ARIZONA X ARKANSAS No response CALIFORNIA X COLORADO No response CONNECTICUT X DELAWARE No response DISTRICT X OF COLUMBIA FLORIDA X .15% increase GEORGIA X Passage of SB441 and stricter parole policies HAWAII No response IDAHO X ILLINOIS X From 10.5% to 10.4% INDIANA X From 15.2% in 2000 to 15.8% IOWA X Leveling out of past trends; previous increase caused by a decade of increased penalties, better enforcement/prosecution and public awareness KANSAS X 6.6% increase resulting from public attention and high-profile cases KENTUCKY X Slight change by about 100 inmates LOUISIANA X MAINE X MARYLAND X MASSACHUSETTS X MICHIGAN No response MINNESOTA X MISSISSIPPI X MISSOURI X Typically, sentences are lengthy for sex offenders and those with prior sexual offenses may be sentenced to additional years in prison MONTANA X NEBRASKA X NEVADA X NEW HAMPSHIRE X NEW JERSEY X NEW MEXICO N/A N/A N/A NEW YORK X NORTH CAROLINA X NORTH DAKOTA X OHIO X OKLAHOMA X OREGON X PENNSYLVANIA X RHODE ISLAND X SOUTH CAROLINA X SOUTH DAKOTA X TENNESSEE X TEXAS X UTAH X VERMONT X Length of stay VIRGINIA X WASHINGTON X 1.1% decrease WEST VIRGINIA X WISCONSIN X X Greater community aware- ness, vigorous prosecution and conservative release rates and implementation of truth-in-sentencing WYOMING X FEDERAL BUREAU No response OF PRISONS U.S. TOTALS CANADIAN SYSTEMS MANITOBA X Increase in the current year for reasons unknown NEWFOUNDLAND X Possibly a slight decrease NOVA SCOTIA X ONTARIO N/A N/A N/A PRINCE EDWARD X ISLAND SASKATCHEWAN X Relatively constant population figures since 1996 YUKON TERRITORY X CORRECTIONAL X SERVICE CANADA CANADIAN TOTALS SYSTEM SPECIAL HOUSING ACCOMMODATIONS ALABAMA No response ALASKA Yes, but only if the inmates are participants in one of the two treatment programs ARIZONA Yes, in specific prison units, level-3 dorm setting or level-4 2-man cells ARKANSAS No response CALIFORNIA No, there are restrictions on minimum placements and programs COLORADO No response CONNECTICUT No, but some sex offenders are housed in protective custody for their safety DELAWARE No response DISTRICT No OF COLUMBIA FLORIDA No GEORGIA No HAWAII No response IDAHO No ILLINOIS Yes, for sexually dangerous offenders at one adult facility and for sex offenders in treatment at two adult facilities INDIANA No IOWA Yes, a treatment program at one facility that is prerelease-oriented; sex offenders are housed in the general population prior to treatment program participation KANSAS No KENTUCKY No LOUISIANA No MAINE No MARYLAND No MASSACHUSETTS No MICHIGAN No response MINNESOTA No, but there is a residential sex offender treatment unit that is not a protective unit MISSISSIPPI No MISSOURI Yes, in protective custody that is handicapped- accessible; the majority of sex offenders were moved into a therapeutic community setting May 15 for an intensive treatment phase MONTANA No NEBRASKA Yes, inpatient program located in half of a medium/maximum-security prison unit NEVADA Yes, in a specific institution that includes sex offender programming NEW HAMPSHIRE Yes, while in a sex offender program NEW JERSEY If evaluated as a repetitive and compulsive sex offender by a psychologist, a judge has the option to sentence the offender to the Adult Diagnostic Treatment Center (ADTC) NEW MEXICO Yes, but limited to those in treatment programs NEW YORK Yes, in protective custody as well as 2 residential sex offender counseling programs NORTH CAROLINA No NORTH DAKOTA No OHIO No OKLAHOMA Yes, for those in treatment, but offenders have contact with the general population OREGON No PENNSYLVANIA Yes, some units provide sex offender programming and there also is a therapeutic community for those sex offenders with alcohol and/or drug addictions RHODE ISLAND Yes, protective custody is available on a case- by-case basis but not mandated SOUTH CAROLINA No SOUTH DAKOTA No TENNESSEE Yes, for those in inpatient therapeutic community (phase 1) and for those in outpatient therapeutic community (phase 2) TEXAS Yes, in dedicated and segregated living areas for those in the treatment program. UTAH Yes, separate units VERMONT Yes, with 70 designated beds VIRGINIA Yes for inmates assigned to the residential sex offender treatment program WASHINGTON No WEST VIRGINIA No WISCONSIN Yes, separate units in residential treatment programs used to create therapeutic milieus WYOMING No FEDERAL BUREAU No response OF PRISONS U.S. TOTALS CANADIAN SYSTEMS MANITOBA Yes, separate unit for compulsory special treatment program NEWFOUNDLAND Yes, a protective custody living unit for a large percentage of sex offenders NOVA SCOTIA No ONTARIO Yes, cellular or dormitory protective custody units PRINCE EDWARD Yes, separate living unit ISLAND SASKATCHEWAN No YUKON TERRITORY Yes, special dorm in segregation unit CORRECTIONAL Yes, programs in specific location SERVICE CANADA CANADIAN TOTALS (1) CONNECTICUT: The Department of Corrections includes accused/pretrial population and sentenced offenders. Some inmates may be in accused status for a sexual offense and not convicted/sentenced for that offense but had previous convictions for other offenses and vice versa. (2) KANSAS: The number of sex offenders noted includes all offenders incarcerated for any sex offenses. (3) OREGON: The figure includes offenders who were convicted of a registerable sex offense at any time, past or present. TABLE 2: TREATMENT TYPES OF SCHEDULING TREATMENT Indi- Manda- Volun- vidual Group SYSTEM tory tary Comments Counse- Counse- ling ling ALABAMA No response ALASKA X X May be court- X X ordered ARIZONA X X X ARKANSAS No response CALIFORNIA No treatment provided COLORADO CONNECTICUT X X DELAWARE No response DISTRICT OF X X COLUMBIA FLORIDA X X GEORGIA X X X HAWAII No response IDAHO X X ILLINOIS X X X INDIANA X X Mandatory for X X victim aware- ness; voluntary for psychologi- cal education IOWA X X X KANSAS X X Mandatory for X X parole; volun- tary within facility KENTUCKY X X Depends on the X X treatment LOUISIANA X X Mandatory if a X X condition of sentence MAINE No treatment or programming for sex offender- specific population MARYLAND X X X MASSACHUSETTS X X MICHIGAN No response MINNESOTA X May include X X incentives MISSISSIPPI No treatment programs MISSOURI X X X MONTANA X X May be part of X X sentencing NEBRASKA X X X NEVADA X X NEW HAMPSHIRE X X NEW JERSEY X X NEW MEXICO X X NEW YORK X X X NORTH X X X CAROLINA NORTH DAKOTA X X X X OHIO X X OKLAHOMA X X X OREGON No treatment available in prison PENNSYLVANIA X X X RHODE ISLAND X X SOUTH X X X CAROLINA SOUTH DAKOTA X X X TENNESSEE X X X TEXAS X X X UTAH X X VERMONT X X X VIRGINIA X X X WASHINGTON X X X WEST VIRGINIA X X X X WISCONSIN X In institu- X X tions, except for educational Denier programs WYOMING X X X FEDERAL BUREAU No response OF PRISONS CANADIAN SYSTEMS MANITOBA X X X NEWFOUNDLAND X X X NOVA SCOTIA X ONTARIO X X X PRINCE EDWARD X X X ISLAND SASKATCHEWAN X YUKON X X X TERRITORY CORRECTIONAL X X X SERVICE CANADA TYPES OF TREATMENT Inmate Relapse Cognitive/ SYSTEM Support Medical Prevention Behavioral ALABAMA No response ALASKA X X ARIZONA X X X ARKANSAS No response CALIFORNIA COLORADO CONNECTICUT X X X DELAWARE No response DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA FLORIDA GEORGIA X X X HAWAII No response IDAHO X X X ILLINOIS X X X X INDIANA X X IOWA X X X X KANSAS X X KENTUCKY X X LOUISIANA X X X X MAINE MARYLAND X MASSACHUSETTS X X MICHIGAN No response MINNESOTA X X X MISSISSIPPI MISSOURI X X X X MONTANA X X X NEBRASKA X X X X NEVADA X X X NEW HAMPSHIRE X X X X NEW JERSEY X X X X NEW MEXICO X X X NEW YORK X X X NORTH X X CAROLINA NORTH DAKOTA X X X OHIO X X X OKLAHOMA X X X X OREGON PENNSYLVANIA X X X RHODE ISLAND X X SOUTH X X X CAROLINA SOUTH DAKOTA X X X TENNESSEE X X X X TEXAS X X X UTAH X X X X VERMONT X X X X VIRGINIA X X WASHINGTON X X X X WEST VIRGINIA X X WISCONSIN X X X X WYOMING X X X FEDERAL BUREAU No response OF PRISONS CANADIAN SYSTEMS MANITOBA X X NEWFOUNDLAND X X NOVA SCOTIA X X ONTARIO X X X X PRINCE EDWARD X ISLAND SASKATCHEWAN X YUKON X TERRITORY CORRECTIONAL X X X X SERVICE CANADA TYPES OF TREATMENT Of- Thera- fense- peutic VICTIM-OFFENDER SYSTEM Speci- Commu- Other RECONCILIATION fic nity ALABAMA No response ALASKA X X Additional No community programs ARIZONA Psychological No education groups ARKANSAS No response CALIFORNIA Yes COLORADO CONNECTICUT X Discharge Currently estab- planning for lishing groups; mental health/ coordinating with special needs a sexual assault offenders crisis service DELAWARE No response DISTRICT OF No COLUMBIA FLORIDA No GEORGIA Yes, victim impact program HAWAII No response IDAHO No ILLINOIS X X No INDIANA X No IOWA X Special Yes, for a few community cases on a small supervision scale KANSAS Currently being developed KENTUCKY X No LOUISIANA X No MAINE No MARYLAND No MASSACHUSETTS X X Psychological No educational classes and drama therapy (experimental treatment) MICHIGAN No response MINNESOTA X X No, but included in treatment programs MISSISSIPPI No MISSOURI X X Special tracks Yes, in local for cognitively communities with impaired or a panel of those high in inmates; only for the constructs those successful- of psychopathy ly completing treatment MONTANA Yes, through restorative justice NEBRASKA X X No NEVADA X No NEW HAMPSHIRE X X Yes, if initiated by the victims or their therapists NEW JERSEY X X Clear Thinking, Yes, with incest Victim Empathy, victims Personal Victimization, Arousal Reconditioning NEW MEXICO X Under consideration NEW YORK X X No NORTH X No CAROLINA NORTH DAKOTA Yes, on an individual basis OHIO X Psychological Yes, victim- education offender dialogues at victim's request OKLAHOMA X X Measurement of No sexual interest OREGON No PENNSYLVANIA X X Yes, at victim's request RHODE ISLAND X Yes, through victim services SOUTH X No CAROLINA SOUTH DAKOTA X No TENNESSEE X X Physiological No assessment TEXAS X X (1) UTAH X X Yes, through victim services upon request VERMONT X X Victim impact Yes, but only at victim's request VIRGINIA X Intensive 2-year No residential program WASHINGTON X Yes, but only at victim's request WEST VIRGINIA X No WISCONSIN X X Yes, as an independent program WYOMING X No FEDERAL BUREAU No response OF PRISONS CANADIAN SYSTEMS MANITOBA X No, but a limited experimentation NEWFOUNDLAND No NOVA SCOTIA Programs through No Community Corrections ONTARIO X No PRINCE EDWARD X No ISLAND SASKATCHEWAN No YUKON X No TERRITORY CORRECTIONAL X Self-regulation/ Yes, in exceptio- SERVICE CANADA management of nal cases only risk to re-offend (1) TEXAS: By law, offenders may request an orchiectomy (surgical removal of one or both testicles) if they have two or more sex offenses against a child in the state. TABLE 3: RELEASE PROVISIONS PAROLE SPECIAL RELEASE SYSTEM ELIGIBILITY COMMENTS PROVISIONS ALABAMA No response ALASKA Limited Determinates Usually regarding sentencing for contact with some sex offenses victims, porno- graphy, substance use, living arrangements and treatment requirements ARIZONA Limited Based on date of Living arrangements offense, statute and contact are sentenced under restricted regard- and degree of the ing children under offense 18; specified registration with officials; no contact with victims; treatment program participa- tion, if required ARKANSAS No response CALIFORNIA Limited Ineligible if May include drug/ sentenced to life alcohol and psycho- without the logical treatment possibility of programs, contact parole restrictions, curfew, and guide- lines on porno- graphy, residence travel movement and employment COLORADO No response CONNECTICUT Limited Eligible when Mandatory community sentenced to 2 or sex offender treat- more years ment; community supervision commen- surate with the offender's risk level DELAWARE No response DISTRICT OF Yes Sex offender COLUMBIA registry is kept by local law enforcement FLORIDA No Parole has been Varies, as provided abolished; how- by the state and/or ever, other types Parole Commission of release exist for which certain sex offenders may be eligible GEORGIA Limited SB440 and SB441 Sex offender mandate a 10-year registry is a sentence for sex requirement offenders HAWAII No response IDAHO Limited Offenders are Participation in a eligible unless a specific community judge has sex offender sentenced them to program is required a fixed term ILLINOIS No The Sexually Sexually dangerous Violent Commitment offenders are Act allows civil committed to the commitment of department by the persons who suffer circuit court are from a mental conditionally disorder (1) released or discharged when it has been determined they are no longer dangerous INDIANA Limited Some offenders are Periodic polygraph placed on testing; monitor- probation ing; treatment by community provider; special caseload attention IOWA Limited First-degree Sex offender sexual abuse registry and super- (assault with vision/treatment serious injury) are required carries a term of life without parole KANSAS Yes Numerous conditions are imposed on and provided to offenders in a special handbook KENTUCKY Limited Completion of a Numerous conditions sex offender including no treatment program contact with is required for minors, possession consideration; of pornography, about 8 percent of submission to sex offenders are regular polygraphy, granted parole employment restric- tions, curfews and continuation of sex offender treatment in the community LOUISIANA Limited Serial sex Sex offender offenders are registry is ineligible; sex required; limited offenders who are contact with minors determined to have (if offense was committed violent related to minors); crimes must serve and submit to a 85 percent of mental health their imposed evaluation and sentences treatment plan MAINE N/A Parole abolished N/A in 1976 MARYLAND Limited Certain repeat Counseling and sex offenders for offender registry violent crimes (including sex offenses) receive no parole, enhanced sentences MASSACHUSETTS Yes Completion of an intensive component of a sex offender treatment program is required in most cases, as well as continued treatment in the community MICHIGAN No response MINNESOTA No Absent a parole Numerous restric- system, determi- tions, including no nate sentencing is contact with minors in effect, with or victims; "supervised completion of a release" as part treatment program; of the sentence no possession of sexually explicit media material; and limited access to computers and/or the internet MISSISSIPPI Limited Sex offenders who Mental health committed a crime counseling and on or after other special 8/24/94 are not conditions are eligible for considered on a parole or early case-by-case basis release MISSOURI Limited Restricted if on a Mandatory after- C-5 security level care; phase for deviation of parole; monitored by polygraphy MONTANA Limited Depends on the Provisions may be sentencing judge applied by the sentencing judge or the Board of Pardons and Parole (relapse prevention) NEBRASKA Limited Depends on the Sex offender structure of the registry is sentence required; may be required to participate in a treatment program NEVADA Limited Sex offenders with General provisions related murder related to associa- charges may be tion limitations sentenced to life and treatment without parole, or death NEW HAMPSHIRE Yes Sex offender registry; no contact with victims; mandatory participation in a treatment program NEW JERSEY Yes Certain conditions are set on a case-by-case basis NEW MEXICO Limited Not eligible for Megan's Law is in offenders effect; starting convicted of 2 7/1/02, parole is violent sexual extended for 10 offenses when the years instead of victim was younger the usual 2 years than 13 NEW YORK Limited Not eligible if Yes; unspecified serving sentence of life without parole or death NORTH CAROLINA Limited Not eligible if Sex offender serving sentence registry in county of life without of residence parole NORTH DAKOTA Limited Based on charges Yes, unspecified and convictions OHIO Limited Truth in senten- Highest level of cing replaced supervision is parole on 7/1/96 required; for offenders community-based committed from treatment that date forward OKLAHOMA Yes Sex offender specific treatment OREGON Yes Sex offender registry; not eligible for early termination of community super- vision; additional requirements may apply PENNSYLVANIA Yes Follow-up counseling in the community RHODE ISLAND Limited Not eligible for Sex offender offenders serving registry; community less than a registration; other 6-month sentence departmental or life without provisions parole SOUTH CAROLINA No N/A SOUTH DAKOTA Limited Not eligible if Continued treatment serving a life sentence TENNESSEE Limited Not eligible if Statutory time serving a sentence requirements of life without regarding community parole notification, DNA testing, life parole status and outpatient treatment TEXAS Yes Sex offender registry and sex offender treatment UTAH Yes Yes, unspecified VERMONT Yes Sex offender registry and ongoing treatment VIRGINIA Limited Parole has been Determined on a abolished; how- case-by-case basis ever, some offen- and may include ders committed intensive parole before the law was supervision, home established are electronic monitor- eligible ing and follow-up treatment WASHINGTON Limited Eligible if Conditions are sentenced before established by a 7/1/84; not eligi- community correc- ble if sentenced tions officer who from 7/1/84 to supervises the 10/30/01. Eligible offender in the if sentenced from field and may 9/1/01 to present include restric- and deemed a tions on entering serious, violent any relationship sex offender and without informing for those who are the officer, not a serious, submitting to violent sex polygraph testing, offender body or residence searches and use or possession of mood- altering substances WEST VIRGINIA Yes Without approval, may have no contact with minors and no home plan close to a school zone or other areas visited by children WISCONSIN Limited After conviction, Numerous conditions the sentence are imposed, structure is including contact determined by the restrictions, courts; truth in employment require- sentencing guide- ments, sex offender lines also apply registry, DNA testing, payment of all court-order financial obliga- tions and treatment co-pays and they may not purchase, possess nor use a computer, software, hardware, modem, etc., without prior agent approval WYOMING Yes Numerous conditions are imposed, including victim contact; evalua- tion, polygraph testing and treat- ment (each at the offender's expense) FEDERAL BUREAU No response OF PRISONS CANADIAN SYSTEMS MANITOBA Yes None NEWFOUNDLAND Yes General conditions, including attending treatment programs and remaining away from children NOVA SCOTIA Yes General conditions, including contacts and associations ONTARIO Yes Conditions are determined by the Ontario Parole and Earned Release Board and include mandatory sex offender registry; also may include treatment require- ments and contact restrictions PRINCE EDWARD Yes Conditions may ISLAND include imposed provisions relating to children and housing, as well as checking in with authorities SASKATCHEWAN Yes Parole is a federal responsibility and offenders primarily are directed to treatment program options YUKON Yes General conditions TERRITORY may include victim contact or relate to previous behavior CORRECTIONAL Yes Psychological SERVICE CANADA counseling and attendance in a treatment program PAROLE SYSTEM ELIGIBILITY RECIDIVISM TRACKING ALABAMA No response ALASKA Limited Not at this time, but developing an MIS system ARIZONA Limited Tracked for return to the department and eventually for new criminal justice contacts nationally, as pad of an ongoing recidivism study ARKANSAS No response CALIFORNIA Limited Revocation Tracking System (RSTS) COLORADO No response CONNECTICUT Limited No; however, virtually no sex offenders commit or are arrested for another sex offense while on parole. DELAWARE No response DISTRICT OF Yes No COLUMBIA FLORIDA No No GEORGIA Limited No HAWAII No response IDAHO Limited No ILLINOIS No Yes, based on a 3-year process of determining a percentage of those released and returned to the Illinois Department of Corrections INDIANA Limited Yes, recently begun IOWA Limited Yes, and a recent study indicated that sex offenders recidivate less than other types of offenders and are more likely to be convicted of misdemeanors than felonies. KANSAS Yes All Kansas releasees are tracked. Sex offenders are not reported separately unless for a special project. KENTUCKY Limited Yes, through outcome studies by the Sex Offender Treatment Program LOUISIANA Limited Yes, by the Office of Probation and Parole and information is maintained in an automated database MAINE N/A N/A MARYLAND Limited No MASSACHUSETTS Yes No MICHIGAN No response MINNESOTA No Yes, annual follow-up of all 1992 releasees; the state is beginning to follow up on all sex offender releases from 1997 to 1999; intermittent research is conducted on a sample of all releasees. MISSISSIPPI Limited Yes, for all offenders who return to incarceration within the state, but not specific to sex offenders MISSOURI Limited Yes, through ad hoc reports MONTANA Limited No NEBRASKA Limited Yes, routine studies are conducted by the Department on all releasees NEVADA Limited No, not by the department NEW HAMPSHIRE Yes No NEW JERSEY Yes Yes, for a 3-year period or longer if released from the ADTC NEW MEXICO Limited Yes, for participating sex offenders; tracking of all offenders will be online this year NEW YORK Limited Yes, tracking is done annually and a 3-year post-release follow-up report is produced NORTH CAROLINA Limited No NORTH DAKOTA Limited No OHIO Limited No OKLAHOMA Yes Yes, termination summaries are completed and entered into a database OREGON Yes Yes, defined as a new felony conviction within 3 years of release PENNSYLVANIA Yes Yes, by the offense that has the greatest offense-gravity score, not for the lesser offense RHODE ISLAND Limited Yes, checks of individual criminal records and follow-up with treatment provider and parole officer SOUTH CAROLINA No No SOUTH DAKOTA Limited Yes, but not separate from all parolees TENNESSEE Limited Yes, via a database TEXAS Yes Yes, through the Criminal Justice Policy Council UTAH Yes Yes, for 3 years VERMONT Yes Yes, as specified in Criminal Justice and Behavior, Vol. 25 No. 2, June 1998 VIRGINIA Limited Tracking by staff when the inmates participate in the sex offender residential program; others may be identified as recidivists if they are returned to department commitment; generally, there is no ongoing research WASHINGTON Limited Violations of community supervision conditions and those returned to prison are tracked WEST VIRGINIA Yes Routine statistical and general record keeping WISCONSIN Limited Agent monitoring, sex offender registry and by readmission to a prison within the department WYOMING Yes No FEDERAL BUREAU No response OF PRISONS CANADIAN SYSTEMS MANITOBA Yes Some isolated research projects, but no more than for other offender groups NEWFOUNDLAND Yes Provincially, no tracking system is in place NOVA SCOTIA Yes No ONTARIO Yes Ontario Parole and Earned Release Board, with the addition of a provincial sex offender registry PRINCE EDWARD Yes No ISLAND SASKATCHEWAN Yes The National Dynamic Supervision Project tracks all supervised sex offenders longitudinally YUKON Yes Informally by the Sex Offender Risk TERRITORY Management Program staff CORRECTIONAL Yes Yes, but only up to the end of the SERVICE CANADA imposed sentence or if returned to custody under a new federal sentence (1) ILLINOIS: The court commits those offenders who suffer from a mental disorder, and it is substantially probable that they will engage in acts of sexual violence, to a secure sex offender treatment program run by the Department of Human Services. TABLE 4: POLICY CHANGES (within the past 2-3 years) SYSTEM IN SENTENCING IN CORRECTIONS ALABAMA No response ALASKA None known As a result of a court case, the parole board is no longer allowed to require that non-treated offenders must reside in cities where treatment is available ARIZONA None Changing definitions of sex offender and revising sex offender classifications ARKANSAS No response CALIFORNIA 1999-AB 2849 includes Effective July 2001, probation sentences as specialized high-risk sex qualifying counts for offender caseloads are Sexually Violent Predator supervised at a 40-to-1 (SVP); 1999-AB 1300 ratio changes PC 290 law to extend parole to 5 years, effective July 2006; SVO 2001 changed SVP requirements based on case law COLORADO No response CONNECTICUT Two new categories were Establishment of a sex established in the offender database for state's Persistent tracking and evaluation Offender Law: Persistent purposes; use of Dangerous Sexual Offender nationally accepted and and Persistent Serious validated risk Sexual Offender that instruments to assess allow increased re-offense risk sentencing and lifetime parole DELAWARE No response DISTRICT OF None None COLUMBIA FLORIDA Creation of "sex offender Specialized caseloads to community control" and handle sex offenders sex offender probation; expansion of conditions of supervision GEORGIA Legislation passed (1994) None mandating sentencing for sex offenders HAWAII No response IDAHO None In community corrections, parolees now are required to complete a 3-phase program; correctional officers receive mandatory 20 hours of on-the-job training; complete sex offender assessment tests are required; and employers must me informed of the offense ILLINOIS None A major movement is in place to make sex offender treatment mandatory--all the factions of treatment up to the stage of denial. These will be essentially educational in nature and on a regular basis and once denial is handled, actual treatment will begin. INDIANA Increased numbers of Implementation of sex offenses required for sex offender management; offender registry; length monitoring in facility of sentence for repeat and on parole sex offenders IOWA Post-incarceration civil Facilities, programs and commitment for "sexual hormonal intervention predators"; sex offender registry KANSAS Nothing significant New internal management policies and procedures covering a wide array of issues, including treatment, management and supervision (while incarcerated or in the community KENTUCKY Sex offenders sentenced since 1999 have a 3-year conditional release tacked onto the end of their prison sentences. They then are on probation and must attend the Sex Offender Treatment Program (SOTP) and follow conditions set by the officer. If they do not cooperate, they may be revoked and returned to prison for the balance of the 3 years. An additional statute withholds good time credits to sex offenders until they complete treatment in the prison. LOUISIANA Revisions related to sex Implementation of a offender registry uniform sex offender requirements; DNA testing treatment program of releasees; and treat- ment programs for the sex offenders MAINE None None MARYLAND None An informal agreement has been reached between the department and probation and parole to work together in following sex offenders after their release MASSACHUSETTS In September 1999, None legislation passed that reintroduced the civil commitment of sexually dangerous offenders MICHIGAN No response MINNESOTA Longer sentences for Increased sex offender first-degree criminal registry responsibilities sexual conduct (most and penalties for serious sex offenses) non-compliance MISSISSIPPI None None MISSOURI Sexually Violent Predator Missouri Standard Law was enacted in 1999 Operating Procedures affecting sentencing and (MoSOP) have been post-sentencing upgraded to meet current standards of practice. MONTANA None Policy 4.6.3 relative to core treatment programs and 4.5.27 concerning mental health NEBRASKA Parole eligibility dates None may be eliminated by the sentencing judge NEVADA None A unified sex offender treatment program is being implemented through the department NEW HAMPSHIRE None None NEW JERSEY None The ADTC has been accepting sex offenders who do not fall under the purview of the Sex Offender Law but are amenable to treatment NEW MEXICO In 1999, legislation The Therapeutic Community passed that reduced the Sex Offender Program amount of good time that began 10/15/01 could be earned for certain violent crimes (including violent sex crimes) from 50 percent to 15 percent of the sentence NEW YORK None Standardized written curriculum of 10 hours of group per week for 6 months and nightly homework assignments; one-on-one counseling also is provided when needed NORTH CAROLINA None None NORTH DAKOTA Civil commitment Offenders who maintained their innocence now are being given incident reports if they refuse treatment OHIO None None OKLAHOMA None All sex offenders who meet criteria are eligible for treatment, even if they are deniers OREGON If court-designated at Notifying local law time of sentencing, enforcement of offenders' sexually violent pending release is dangerous offenders are required; additional supervised for life funding to counties to supervise sexually violent dangerous offenders PENNSYLVANIA An amendment to the The therapeutic community "Registration of Sexual for sex offenders with Offenders" statutes was alcohol and/or other drug required due to the addictions was added state's 1999 Supreme Court decision that places the burden of proving a presumption of "sexually violent predator" status on the prosecution RHODE ISLAND The department has no Notifying offenders of authority over sentencing their duty to register inmates with law enforcement agencies and procedures for community notifica- tion, effective 2/12/01 SOUTH CAROLINA None None SOUTH DAKOTA None Restrictions on visits and property TENNESSEE More criminal codes are The department is being enacted each year reviewing options to to broaden the scope/type modify the program from of offenders voluntary to mandatory TEXAS None The state now has an outpatient civil commit- ment option for offenders with two or more qualifying sex offenses on their records UTAH Dismantled the mandatory/ None minimum sentencing system VERMONT None Classification system modifications VIRGINIA None Established procedures for the civil commitment of sexually violent predators; Section 37.1-70.4 requires the director of the Depart- ment to establish a treatment program for such offenders (program began in March 2001) WASHINGTON Senate Bill 6151 changed Offenders sentenced under sentencing for sex Senate Bill 6151 are offenders who committed supervised in the crimes on or after community for life 9/1/01; they are sentenced to an indeter- minate term and subject to a minimum- and maximum-term sentence WEST VIRGINIA None None WISCONSIN Truth in sentencing Pharmacological treatment status of sex offenders and polygraphy monitoring of sex offenders in treatment WYOMING None None FEDERAL BUREAU No response OF PRISONS CANADIAN SYSTEMS MANITOBA None The justice and law enforcement systems are developing a national registry of sex offenders in cooperation with the federal government NEWFOUNDLAND None Notification process; plans for a moderate intensity intervention program; streamlined prerelease programs NOVA SCOTIA None Specific supervision models have been developed in consultation with forensic psychologists ONTARIO None Introduction of the Ontario Sex Offender Registry; process for notification to police regarding high-profile/ high-risk sex offenders released into the community; introduction of the Victim Notifica- tion System that provides registered victims with automated telephone notification of any changes in a sentenced offender's release status PRINCE EDWARD None None ISLAND SASKATCHEWAN None Introduction of empirically validated risk assessment instru- ments provides a real ability to differentiate between the risk levels of offenders and appropriately refer the offenders to services YUKON TERRITORY None None CORRECTIONAL None New programs and SERVICE CANADA standards for treatment of sex offenders have been developed
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