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Sex offenders in the correctional system.

Some have said that the number of sex offenders in our prisons is growing astronomically. Is that hype? Or is it fact? The last issue of Corrections Compendium to address this topic was in July 2002. At that time, 12 U.S. systems reported that their sex offender populations had increased in the previous two years, while 28 of the systems stayed the same or nearly the same. Eleven years prior, the July 1991 issue of Compendium stated that sex offenders in prisons had increased 48 percent during the preceding two years.

Forty-four U.S. systems and two Canadian systems responded to the current survey. Information on the Canadian provinces is available in the individual tables but is not included in the following summary. Responses from the U.S. systems show that 182,488 individuals, or 15 percent of the 1.25 million total inmates in those systems, were incarcerated for sex offenses at reporting time. In the systems that gave exact numbers, 56 percent of the sex offenders (101,875) were incarcerated for a first-time sexual offense; 10 systems were unable to identify first-time sex offenders.

When asked to report if their numbers had increased, decreased or remained basically the same in the preceding two years, 12 systems indicated that their numbers had increased, and only Kentucky stated that its numbers had decreased. Alabama and Maine did not maintain such figures. The remaining 29 reporting systems noted that their totals for sex offenders had remained about the same. A few comments were made regarding the increases such as: additional offenses had been placed on Indiana's registry; Michigan's sex offender parole approval rate is very low; Texas sex offenders are serving a longer percentage of their sentences; and Virginia implemented enhanced screening and assessment. Legislative actions also impacted the numbers (see Table 4).

Somewhat surprisingly, 22 of the reporting systems do not provide special accommodations for sex offenders. Iowa and Michigan separate offenders who are identified as predators. Some systems provide housing for sex offenders in close proximity to their treatment program areas, while other systems provide separate housing for all sex offenders or as an option for sex offenders.

Treatment Programs

The results from Georgia, Rhode Island and Vermont are not tabulated in the following percentages, due to special circumstances. For the remaining respondents, whether on a mandatory or voluntary basis, individual counseling is provided by 80 percent of the systems, group counseling by 95 percent, inmate support programs by 60 percent, medical treatment by 45 percent, relapse prevention by 88 percent, cognitive behavioral therapy by 83 percent, offender-specific counseling by 65 percent, and therapeutic communities by 55 percent of the systems. Several other sex offender treatment plans were identified, including family and spousal counseling in Hawaii, short-term crisis intervention therapy in Nevada, and sexual reconditioning in Tennessee. Participation in programs is stipulated by the courts in some states. In other states, offenders may lose parole consideration or other privileges if they decline treatment or are unsuccessful in the program. Twenty-four of the reporting systems do not provide a victim/offender reconciliation program.

Parole Eligibility and Release Provisions

All sex offenders are eligible for parole consideration in 10 systems, whereas 27 systems reported that not all sex offenders are eligible. (Parole has been abolished for all offenses in Florida, Maine and North Carolina.) A number of the systems stipulated that because of legislative actions, certain dates were applied to parole consideration based on when the offender was sentenced. Sex offenders are denied parole in the following situations: after two strikes in Arkansas, if they have mandatory life sentences in Iowa, if they also committed first-degree murder in Michigan and when so ordered by the court in Montana.

Release provisions cited include: requirements to register with law enforcement or other agencies; restrictions on housing, employment or proximity to schools, day care centers, etc.; GPS monitoring; polygraph testing; attending community treatment programs; and other court-ordered stipulations. In addition to standard conditions of parole, North Dakota assigns 17 special conditions for sex offenders, and Wyoming has a 30-subject listing of special conditions. Twenty-eight of the systems indicated that they track recidivism in one form or another.

Legislative Actions and Policy Changes

Tables 4 and 5 specifically identify legislative actions that occurred within the past two years and the changes in policy and sentencing that resulted. For example, Maryland has established a mandatory 25-year sentence for sex offenses against children younger than 13, and Iowa established a 10-year or lifetime supervision for most sex offenders. Arkansas has changed its policy to increase the sentencing felony level for sex offenders having incorrect addresses on identification when registering. In addition, Missouri now allows probation and parole officials to search sex offenders' home computers. When considering whether the sex offender population is truly growing, one should analyze the stated legislative actions that are impacting and will impact the numbers in the years to come.

For information on surveys featured in this or past issues of Corrections Compendium, contact Cece Hill, CEGA Services Inc., P.O. Box 81826, Lincoln, NE 68501; (402)420-0602.
SEX OFFENDERS--TABLE 1: POPULATION

 FIRST-TIME
 CURRENT SEX OFFENDER SEX
SYSTEM POPULATION POPULATION OFFENDERS

ALABAMA 29,263 4,235 1,845

ALASKA No response

ARIZONA 37,508 5,172 3,207

ARKANSAS 14,320 2,390 2,031

CALIFORNIA 172,958 23,153 16,795

COLORADO 22,310 4,791 309

CONNECTICUT 23,719 1,974 905

DELAWARE 5,937 402 Unknown

FLORIDA 95,144 13,622 8,534

GEORGIA 60,817 7,221 5,887

HAWAII 6,063 657 603

IDAHO 7,376 1,413 1,142

ILLINOIS No response

INDIANA 24,638 3,723 2,274

IOWA 8,712 1,292 1,046

KANSAS 8,814 2,425 Unknown

KENTUCKY 22,540 1,325 1,069

LOUISIANA No response

MAINE 2,125 370 Unknown

MARYLAND 23,397 2,122 40%, est.

MASSACHUSETTS 10,135 1,326 604

MICHIGAN 50,136 12,320 9,143

MINNESOTA 9,214 1,655 Unknown

MISSISSIPPI 24,897 2,044 Unknown

MISSOURI 29,945 4,519 1,785

MONTANA 2,507 590 Unknown

NEBRASKA 4,410 811 581

NEVADA 13,450 2,159 1,831

NEW HAMPSHIRE 2,767 677 Unknown

NEW JERSEY 27,300 2,125, est. Unknown

NEW MEXICO No response

NEW YORK 62,846 6,561 4,815

NORTH CAROLINA 38,568 5,126 2,995

NORTH DAKOTA 1,442 350 35

OHIO 50,000 9,465 5,968

OKLAHOMA 25,199 4,679 3,371

OREGON No response

PENNSYLVANIA 45,922 6,116 5,106

RHODE ISLAND 3,944 pretrial 376 Unknown
 and sentenced

SOUTH CAROLINA 23,434 2,113 1,324

SOUTH DAKOTA 3,378 483 (5) 344

TENNESSEE 19,510 3,517 2,991

TEXAS 152,661 26,167 7,417

UTAH No response

VERMONT 2,165 426 Most, est.

VIRGINIA 32,534 3,201 2,192

WASHINGTON 16,942 3,164 2,405

WEST VIRGINIA 4,917 989 Unknown

WISCONSIN 23,476 4,875 2,971

WYOMING 2,097 367 350

CANADIAN SYSTEMS

NOVA SCOTIA 457 Not tracked Unknown

ONTARIO 8,761 515 Unknown

 CHANGES FROM PREVIOUS TWO YEARS
 ALLOCATED
SYSTEM BUDGET Increased Decreased

ALABAMA Unknown N/A N/A

ALASKA No response

ARIZONA 2.6% of total

ARKANSAS 0.0095%

CALIFORNIA Unknown

COLORADO 0.4%

CONNECTICUT 9.6%

DELAWARE <1%

FLORIDA Unknown

GEORGIA 0.01%

HAWAII Unknown

IDAHO Unknown

ILLINOIS No response

INDIANA 0.59% X

IOWA 3% X

KANSAS 0.8%, est.

KENTUCKY Unknown X

LOUISIANA No response

MAINE 0.09% Unknown Unknown

MARYLAND <1% X

MASSACHUSETTS 6%

MICHIGAN <1% X

MINNESOTA 0.49% (3)

MISSISSIPPI N/A X

MISSOURI Unknown

MONTANA Unknown

NEBRASKA 14.5% of mental X
 health budget

NEVADA <1%

NEW HAMPSHIRE <1.09%

NEW JERSEY 3.579% (4)

NEW MEXICO No response

NEW YORK 0.3%, excluding X
 staff

NORTH CAROLINA Unknown

NORTH DAKOTA Unknown X

OHIO 0.15%

OKLAHOMA $70,000

OREGON No response

PENNSYLVANIA Unknown X

RHODE ISLAND 0.24%

SOUTH CAROLINA 0.05%

SOUTH DAKOTA <1% X

TENNESSEE Unknown

TEXAS 0.10% X

UTAH No response

VERMONT <1%

VIRGINIA Unknown X

WASHINGTON 13%, biennial
 basis

WEST VIRGINIA Unknown

WISCONSIN Unknown

WYOMING 1%

CANADIAN SYSTEMS

NOVA SCOTIA Unknown N/A N/A

ONTARIO Unknown

 CHANGES FROM PREVIOUS TWO YEARS

SYSTEM Same Comments

ALABAMA N/A Numbers were not kept.

ALASKA No response

ARIZONA X

ARKANSAS X

CALIFORNIA X

COLORADO X

CONNECTICUT X

DELAWARE X

FLORIDA X

GEORGIA X

HAWAII X

IDAHO X

ILLINOIS No response

INDIANA Additional offenses placed
 on registry

IOWA Due to statute changes

KANSAS X 2006 House Bill increased
 sentences for certain sex
 offenses involving minors.

KENTUCKY

LOUISIANA No response

MAINE Unknown

MARYLAND Increased 4%

MASSACHUSETTS X

MICHIGAN Sex offender parole
 approval rate is very low.

MINNESOTA X

MISSISSIPPI

MISSOURI X

MONTANA X

NEBRASKA Increased sentences due to
 passage of legislative bill

NEVADA X Anticipate future impact due
 to legislative actions

NEW HAMPSHIRE X

NEW JERSEY X

NEW MEXICO No response

NEW YORK

NORTH CAROLINA X

NORTH DAKOTA

OHIO X

OKLAHOMA X

OREGON No response

PENNSYLVANIA Recategorized offenses for
 accurate reporting

RHODE ISLAND X

SOUTH CAROLINA X

SOUTH DAKOTA

TENNESSEE X

TEXAS Sex offenders are serving a
 higher percentage of their
 sentences.

UTAH No response

VERMONT X

VIRGINIA Slight increase due to enhanced
 screening and assessment

WASHINGTON X

WEST VIRGINIA X

WISCONSIN X Increases may occur due to
 recent legislative action.

WYOMING X

CANADIAN SYSTEMS

NOVA SCOTIA N/A

ONTARIO X

SYSTEM SPECIAL HOUSING ACCOMMODATIONS

ALABAMA No

ALASKA No response

ARIZONA Separate housing is an inmate option.

ARKANSAS No

CALIFORNIA No

COLORADO No

CONNECTICUT No, but a sex offender can request a move to
 protective custody.

DELAWARE No

FLORIDA No

GEORGIA No

HAWAII No

IDAHO Unknown

ILLINOIS No response

INDIANA Males housed in one of two facilities dedicated to
 sex offenders; female sex offenders in one facility

IOWA For offenders identified as predators

KANSAS No (1)

KENTUCKY No

LOUISIANA No response

MAINE 60-bed therapeutic community treatment unit

MARYLAND No

MASSACHUSETTS Various housing options (combined with mental
 health directives)

MICHIGAN Predators are segregated while others may be
 concentrated to facilitate treatment

MINNESOTA An exclusive unit for inmates in treatment program

MISSISSIPPI No

MISSOURI No

MONTANA A 180-bed low-security unit

NEBRASKA Dedicated beds at one facility

NEVADA No

NEW HAMPSHIRE Inmates participating in treatment programs are
 housed together.

NEW JERSEY Offenders characterized under the New Jersey Sex
 Offender Act by a pattern of repetitive and
 compulsive behavior, and if willing and amenable
 for treatment, may be housed at an alternative
 center.

NEW MEXICO No response

NEW YORK Residential therapeutic setting

NORTH CAROLINA No

NORTH DAKOTA No

OHIO No

OKLAHOMA Two separate treatment program housing units

OREGON No response

PENNSYLVANIA Two modified therapeutic community facilities and
 six facilities that include separated residential
 units

RHODE ISLAND An 84-bed specialized treatment unit at a
 medium-security facility

SOUTH CAROLINA One tier of one dorm for inmates in the treatment
 program

SOUTH DAKOTA No

TENNESSEE A dedicated housing unit at one facility and a
 special needs facility for inmates participating
 in treatment program

TEXAS No

UTAH No response

VERMONT If in treatment, high-risk inmates are housed in a
 separate facility from low-risks, who may remain in
 the general population.

VIRGINIA Segregated for disciplinary purposes, if necessary;
 separate housing in one facility

WASHINGTON Yes, but not specified

WEST VIRGINIA No

WISCONSIN Therapeutic community residence for long-term
 program participants

WYOMING No

CANADIAN SYSTEMS

NOVA SCOTIA Possible housing with other protective custody
 inmates

ONTARIO Possible housing in protective custody or
 segregation cells, if beds are available

(1) KANSAS: At one facility, medium-custody inmates participating
in a treatment program are housed on the same floor as the program;
participants at other facilities are not separated from the general
population.

(2) MAINE: The figure includes adult and juvenile facilities and
community corrections.

(3) MINNESOTA: The percentage includes adult and juvenile
incarcerations, supervision, and probation and parole services.

(4) NEW JERSEY: An additional 2.52 percent is targeted for fiscal
year 2008 for the civilly committed sex offender population and
its treatment.

(5) SOUTH DAKOTA: An additional 303 inmates who were not convicted
of a sex crime but subsequently have been identified as having a
sexual behavior issue are not included.

SEX OFFENDERS--TABLE 2: TREATMENT PROGRAMS

 TYPE OF TREATMENT PROGRAMS

 Inmate
 Individual Group Support
SYSTEM Counseling Counseling Programs

ALABAMA V V V

ALASKA No response

ARIZONA V V V

ARKANSAS V V V

CALIFORNIA M M

COLORADO V V V

CONNECTICUT V V V

DELAWARE V V V

FLORIDA V V

GEORGIA

HAWAII V V

IDAHO No response

ILLINOIS No response

INDIANA V M V

IOWA M M V

KANSAS M

KENTUCKY V V

LOUISIANA No response

MAINE V V

MARYLAND V V V

MASSACHUSETTS V V

MICHIGAN V

MINNESOTA M/V M V

MISSISSIPPI

MISSOURI X X X

MONTANA V V V

NEBRASKA V V

NEVADA V

NEW HAMPSHIRE V V

NEW JERSEY V V V

NEW MEXICO No response

NEW YORK V M M

NORTH CAROLINA V V V

NORTH DAKOTA M V

OHIO V

OKLAHOMA V V

OREGON No response

PENNSYLVANIA V V V

RHODE ISLAND

SOUTH CAROLINA V V

SOUTH DAKOTA M M

TENNESSEE V V V

TEXAS M M M

UTAH No response

VERMONT

VIRGINIA V V V

WASHINGTON V V V

WEST VIRGINIA V V V

WISCONSIN V M/V V

WYOMING V V V

CANADIAN SYSTEMS

NOVA SCOTIA

ONTARIO V V V

 TYPE OF TREATMENT PROGRAMS

 Cognitive
 Medical Relapse Behavioral
SYSTEM Treatment Prevention Therapy

ALABAMA V V V

ALASKA No response

ARIZONA V V V

ARKANSAS V V V

CALIFORNIA M

COLORADO V V V

CONNECTICUT V V V

DELAWARE

FLORIDA V V

GEORGIA

HAWAII V V

IDAHO No response

ILLINOIS No response

INDIANA M M M

IOWA V M M

KANSAS M M

KENTUCKY V

LOUISIANA No response

MAINE V V

MARYLAND V V

MASSACHUSETTS M M M

MICHIGAN V V

MINNESOTA M M

MISSISSIPPI

MISSOURI X X X

MONTANA V V

NEBRASKA V V

NEVADA

NEW HAMPSHIRE V V

NEW JERSEY V V V

NEW MEXICO No response

NEW YORK M M

NORTH CAROLINA V V V

NORTH DAKOTA M M

OHIO M V

OKLAHOMA V V

OREGON No response

PENNSYLVANIA V V V

RHODE ISLAND

SOUTH CAROLINA V

SOUTH DAKOTA M M

TENNESSEE V V V

TEXAS M (4) M M

UTAH No response

VERMONT

VIRGINIA V V V

WASHINGTON V V V

WEST VIRGINIA V V

WISCONSIN V M/V M/V

WYOMING V V V

CANADIAN SYSTEMS

NOVA SCOTIA

ONTARIO V M/V V

 TYPE OF TREATMENT PROGRAMS

 Offender-
 Specific Therapeutic
SYSTEM Counseling Community Other

ALABAMA V V

ALASKA No response

ARIZONA V V

ARKANSAS V V Informational
 and education
 classes
 specific to the
 problems being
 addressed

CALIFORNIA

COLORADO V V

CONNECTICUT V V

DELAWARE

FLORIDA

GEORGIA

HAWAII Family and
 spousal
 counseling

IDAHO No response

ILLINOIS No response

INDIANA M Therapeutic
 community
 currently being
 developed

IOWA M

KANSAS M

KENTUCKY

LOUISIANA No response

MAINE V V

MARYLAND V

MASSACHUSETTS M M

MICHIGAN

MINNESOTA M M

MISSISSIPPI

MISSOURI X X

MONTANA V

NEBRASKA V V

NEVADA Crisis
 intervention
 (short-term
 therapy) and
 referral
 to medical
 department,
 if needed

NEW HAMPSHIRE V V

NEW JERSEY V See footnote
 for formal
 program
 topics (1)

NEW MEXICO No response

NEW YORK M M

NORTH CAROLINA V V

NORTH DAKOTA M Individual
 counseling is
 extremely
 limited in
 availability.

OHIO V

OKLAHOMA

OREGON No response

PENNSYLVANIA V V

RHODE ISLAND See footnote
 (2)

SOUTH CAROLINA

SOUTH DAKOTA Operated by
 the Special
 Treatment of
 Perpetrators
 STOP (3)

TENNESSEE V V Sexual
 reconditioning

TEXAS M M

UTAH No response

VERMONT

VIRGINIA V V

WASHINGTON V V

WEST VIRGINIA V

WISCONSIN M/V V

WYOMING V V

CANADIAN SYSTEMS

NOVA SCOTIA

ONTARIO M/V V

 TYPE OF
 TREATMENT
 PROGRAMS

 VICTIM-OFFENDER RECONCILIATION
SYSTEM Comments PROGRAM IN USE

ALABAMA No

ALASKA No response

ARIZONA Yes, and designed to focus on
 giving victims a voice, using
 written exercises, videos and
 victim impact panels

ARKANSAS Some inmates No
 may have
 participation
 stipulations as
 a condition
 for parole
 consideration
 but may decline
 treatment.

CALIFORNIA No

COLORADO Yes, but not stipulated

CONNECTICUT A periodic A victim-offender dialogue
 screening that must be victim-initiated
 interview for
 classification
 is mandatory.

DELAWARE No

FLORIDA No

GEORGIA All sex No
 offender
 psycho-
 educational
 programs are
 not considered
 treatment.

HAWAII Medical or Offered to those incest sex
 psychiatric offenders who seek reunification
 issues are with their victimized children
 referred to the and only when both the offender's
 prison health therapist and the victim's
 care unit. therapist agree

IDAHO No response

ILLINOIS No response

INDIANA No

IOWA No

KANSAS Offenders After screening for readiness and
 may decline appropriateness, recommendations
 treatment, with must be received from Victim
 consequences to Services and the offender's
 follow (loss of treatment therapist
 privileges,
 good time,
 etc.).

KENTUCKY No

LOUISIANA No response

MAINE No

MARYLAND No

MASSACHUSETTS No

MICHIGAN No

MINNESOTA Direction and Available for most offenders, but
 placement for with specific procedures and
 treatment is preparation
 based on bed
 availability;
 individual
 counseling may
 be mandatory or
 voluntary.

MISSISSIPPI Treatment or No
 special
 interventions
 are not
 available.

MISSOURI Xs are used Yes, with emphasis on victim
 to indicate empathy
 that all the
 services are
 available but
 were not
 specified as
 M or V.

MONTANA Unknown

NEBRASKA No

NEVADA No

NEW HAMPSHIRE Coordinated by Victim Services

NEW JERSEY Treatment is Yes, as indicated in the New
 mandatory if Jersey footnote
 mandated by the
 court; if the
 treatment is
 rejected by the
 offender,
 he/she may be
 transferred to
 an optional
 facility for
 possible
 treatment.

NEW MEXICO No response

NEW YORK Administered by the Office of
 Court Administration

NORTH CAROLINA No

NORTH DAKOTA The "mandatory" No
 services are
 defined as
 staff
 recommended or
 court ordered.

OHIO Part of program offered through
 Victim Services, but not
 separate for sex offenders

OKLAHOMA No

OREGON No response

PENNSYLVANIA While The Office of the Victim Advocate
 voluntary, if uses a mediation program
 offenders
 do not
 successfully
 complete the
 program they
 will not be
 eligible for
 parole.

RHODE ISLAND Actual mediation is handled by a
 local community victim services
 office, if the victim contacts
 the prison or the parole board.

SOUTH CAROLINA No

SOUTH DAKOTA No

TENNESSEE No

TEXAS The victim-offender
 mediation/dialogue program
 is more a restorative justice
 program that can provide a
 form of healing.

UTAH No response

VERMONT The Vermont Available for the victims if
 Treatment they request it
 Program for
 Sexual
 Aggression uses
 a cognitive-
 behavioral
 approach in a
 therapeutic
 setting.

VIRGINIA While No
 voluntary,
 offenders who
 opt out of the
 program, by
 Virginia Code,
 will lose the
 ability to earn
 good time.

WASHINGTON No

WEST VIRGINIA No

WISCONSIN Programs are Victim-offender dialogue is not
 mandatory in considered a reconciliation
 the community program but is available for all
 and voluntary offenders, not restricted by type
 in the of crime; only the victim can
 institutions. request a meeting.

WYOMING While Under development at the present
 voluntary, time
 failure to take
 a recommended
 program may
 result in a
 loss of
 privileges or
 lengthening of
 sentence.

CANADIAN SYSTEMS

NOVA SCOTIA All programs No
 are provided
 under community
 supervision.

ONTARIO Mandatory in No
 the community
 and voluntary
 in the
 institution

M = Mandatory

V = Voluntary

(1) NEW JERSEY: Specific treatment programs are provided for: anger
management, arousal reconditioning, clear thinking, emotional
regulation, personal victimization, relapse prevention, sex
education, social skills/relationship group, stress management and
victim empathy. Medical treatment is voluntary except for in cases
of tuberculosis, hunger strikes (when the inmate's life is at
immediate risk) and mental health treatment when on a forced
medication regime.

(2) RHODE ISLAND: As a long-term, open-ended program designed to
identify and address the contributing factors to sexual violence,
offenders are provided a variety of core groups and skill-building
classes, such as personal accountability, relapse prevention,
cognitive distortion, relationships and communication skills. A
treatment contract is required and all who participate must admit
their offenses and sign a waiver of confidentiality.

(3) SOUTH DAKOTA: The STOP program consists of different steps of
therapy, educational treatment and relapse prevention, including
Family History, Sexual Terminology, Sexual Anatomy and Diagramming,
Disclosure Assignment (History of Pornography, Observed Sexual
Behaviors, Masturbation, Sexual Perpetration), and Sexual History
Polygraph Booklet.

(4) TEXAS: The programs are mandatory when the offender is placed
in one of them. Medical treatment, however, is available for all
offenders, except when directed at impacting sex-offending behavior;
the only medical intervention specifically for sex offenders is
surgical castration, which is voluntary for those offenders who
statutorily qualify.

SEX OFFENDERS--TABLE 3: RELEASE PROVISIONS

 ALL SEX
 OFFENDERS
 ELIGIBLE
SYSTEM FOR PAROLE COMMENTS

ALABAMA Yes

ALASKA No response

ARIZONA No For offenses prior to Jan. 1, 1994,
 unless sentenced to flat time, or
 for all sex offenders after Jan. 1,
 1994

ARKANSAS No A two-strikes rule applies for
 certain sex offenses.

CALIFORNIA Yes

COLORADO No Class 1 felony offenders serve a life
 sentence with no parole eligibility
 or a death sentence.

CONNECTICUT Yes

DELAWARE No

FLORIDA No Abolished in 1983 but an option for
 very old offenses

GEORGIA No Determined on a case-by-case basis

HAWAII Yes

IDAHO Unknown

ILLINOIS No response

INDIANA Yes

IOWA No Life sentences are mandatory.

KANSAS No After July 1, 2006, aggravated
 habitual offenders are sentenced to
 life without parole if convicted of
 a sexually violent crime with at
 least two prior same convictions.

KENTUCKY Yes

LOUISIANA No response

MAINE No Parole has been abolished.

MARYLAND No Eligible if crime was committed prior
 to Oct. 1, 2007

MASSACHUSETTS No First-degree lifers are not eligible.

MICHIGAN No Offenders who also committed
 first-degree murder are not eligible

MINNESOTA No Sex offenders sentenced to life
 without parole are not eligible.

MISSISSIPPI No Eligible if convicted prior to 1995
 and required to serve a mandatory
 sentence. (1)
MISSOURI Yes

MONTANA No When so ordered by the sentencing judge

NEBRASKA Yes

NEVADA No Offenders with an additional murder
 conviction are not eligible

NEW HAMPSHIRE Yes, but Must complete the sex offender
 restricted treatment program; not eligible if
 sentenced to life without parole

NEW JERSEY No Determined by the sentence imposed
 by the court

NEW MEXICO No response

NEW YORK No Offenders sentenced to an
 indeterminate term are eligible for
 discretionary release. (2)

NORTH CAROLINA No Parole was abolished for all crimes
 committed on or after Oct. 1, 1994;
 sex offenders are therefore eligible,
 depending on the date of their crime.

NORTH DAKOTA No Gross sexual imposition with force is
 an 87% truth-in-sentencing case and
 not parole eligible.

OHIO No Two types of sentences apply: those
 who receive flat sentences with
 supervision and those who appear
 before the parole board.

OKLAHOMA Yes

OREGON No response

PENNSYLVANIA No Offenders given life sentences are
 not eligible.

RHODE ISLAND No Offenders serving life sentences
 are not eligible.

SOUTH CAROLINA No Eligible for crimes committed on
 or after January 1996 (4)

SOUTH DAKOTA No Lifers are not eligible; a new
 no-parole provision may apply for
 certain sex offenders, if warranted.

TENNESSEE No Certain serious offenses are
 precluded by statute.

TEXAS Yes

UTAH No response

VERMONT No Offenders serving mandatory life
 sentences with no parole are not
 eligible.

VIRGINIA No Eligible for crimes committed on or
 before Jan. 1, 1995, when parole was
 abolished

WASHINGTON Yes

WEST VIRGINIA Yes

WISCONSIN No Eligible for crimes committed prior
 to Jan. 1, 2000, on a discretionary
 basis; others are under
 truth-in-sentencing guidelines

WYOMING No Offenders serving life sentences
 are not eligible

CANADIAN SYSTEMS

NOVA SCOTIA Yes

ONTARIO Yes

SYSTEM SPECIAL RELEASE PROVISIONS

ALABAMA Sex offender notification and restrictions on where
 they may live or areas they may be around

ALASKA No response

ARIZONA No residing or associating with anyone under age
 18 without a parent, guardian or responsible adult
 present; no loitering around areas where the
 targeted clientele is under 18; register with the
 sheriff (Maricopa County) within 72 hours and
 report changes of address; participate in sex
 offender counseling; and have no contact with the
 victim

ARKANSAS Increased supervision applies.

CALIFORNIA Agreement to a 14-point listing of special
 conditions that identify factors of drug/alcohol
 abuse, treatment, contact with minors,
 associations, residence, travel and movement,
 possessions and activities

COLORADO Yes, but unspecified

CONNECTICUT Registration that includes physical address, e-mail
 addresses and instant messaging screen name; most
 sex offenders must attend special sex offender
 treatment programs; and most are GPS monitored

DELAWARE None

FLORIDA Florida Parole Commission special conditions apply.

GEORGIA Restrictions on residence and employment and on
 computer use and contact with minors

HAWAII Must participate in weekly group or individual
 sessions, be polygraphed at regular intervals, and
 a for behavior modification as needed for treatment

IDAHO Unknown

ILLINOIS No response

INDIANA Yes, but unspecified

IOWA No visitations with minor victims and community
 treatment is required

KANSAS Thirteen potential restrictions are imposed, based
 on the individual sex offender's risks and needs
 and may include treatment, restricted or limited
 contact with minors, residence restrictions,
 limitations on computer use/access, etc.

KENTUCKY Must enter and successfully complete treatment
 programs in the community

LOUISIANA No response

MAINE

MARYLAND Offenders must complete the mandatory-minimum
 sentence if the victim (after Oct. 1, 2007) was
 under age 13; no employment involving children; no
 contact with victims or youth organizations; and
 no possession of child pornography

MASSACHUSETTS Conditions rest with the parole board, a separate
 state agency.

MICHIGAN Numerous standard and special conditions can be
 imposed on a case-by-case basis when deemed
 applicable.

MINNESOTA An entire set of conditions is applied, including
 additional conditions specific to the offender's
 offense type and offense characteristics/
 circumstances.

MISSISSIPPI Registration with the Mississippi Department of
 Public Safety and must report monthly and abide
 by all provisions set forth by statute

MISSOURI Required to register and continue treatment within
 the community

MONTANA Special conditions, if any, may be dictated by
 court order.

NEBRASKA Vary on a case-by-case basis but usually include
 electronic monitoring

NEVADA Usually subjected to a program of lifetime
 supervision and subject to community registration,
 depending on the tier of their offense

NEW HAMPSHIRE Standard stipulations apply and offenders are
 required to register.

NEW JERSEY General conditions are determined by the state
 parole board depending on the sentencing terms,
 such as community supervision for life or parole
 supervision for life.

NEW MEXICO No response

NEW YORK Numerous special conditions can be applied over
 and above the standard conditions, and the Division
 of Parole is responsible for establishing the
 individualized conditions of release.

NORTH CAROLINA Specially trained parole officers are used and
 parole restrictions apply; selected offenders may
 be placed on GPS monitoring depending on the crime
 dynamics and some for life.

NORTH DAKOTA Seventeen special conditions have been added
 to standard conditions of parole that include
 restrictions on residence, treatment, suitable
 employment, loitering, purchase or possession of
 sexually stimulating materials, use of a 900 phone
 number, etc.

OHIO Subject to special sex offender conditions of
 supervision as well as complying with parole
 board conditions

OKLAHOMA Specific rules and conditions pertain to
 registration and residency restrictions, treatment
 and polygraph requirements

OREGON No response

PENNSYLVANIA Often restricted to residency locations and access
 to computers; when the victim(s) include minors,
 interaction restrictions may be applied; possession
 of pornography is prohibited; treatment is
 typically required in virtually all cases
 including polygraph testing

RHODE ISLAND Standard parole conditions apply, as well as
 special conditions; treatment is mandatory and
 other conditions may apply, such as unsupervised
 contact with minors, substance abuse or mental
 health treatment, and no contact with victim.

SOUTH CAROLINA All sex offenders must report to local law
 enforcement and register on the state's sex
 offender registry database. For crimes committed
 before 1996, parole supervision applies; community
 release offenders are subject to two years of
 community supervision; offenders completing their
 sentence for crimes committed before 1996 do not
 have community supervision, but must register.

SOUTH DAKOTA Must comply with sex offender registry
 requirements, and treatment may apply to some.

TENNESSEE Electronic monitoring if required by statute;
 proximity restrictions; or subject to certain
 restrictions on conduct imposed b the Board of
 Probation and Parole

TEXAS Special conditions are imposed on most sex
 offenders consisting of seven mandatory components
 that include treatment, no victim contact, certain
 occupations, attendance at an institution of
 higher learning without board approval, viewing
 pornography and polygraph testing, plus three
 additional conditions if the crime was on a child
 and six other discretionary conditions.

UTAH No response

VERMONT Numerous conditions apply per the parole board and
 the department.

VIRGINIA When returning to certain districts, special
 conditions may be imposed by the district
 officials.

WASHINGTON Special conditions may apply as well as lifetime
 supervision in some cases.

WEST VIRGINIA Registration and restrictions on proximity to
 minors, schools, etc.

WISCONSIN Assigned parole agents set special conditions after
 release such as electronic monitoring, residency
 requirements, no contact requirements, etc.;
 mandatory GPS tracking for certain serious sex
 offenders is slated to take effect in the near
 future.

WYOMING A 30-subject listing of special conditions is
 applicable.

CANADIAN SYSTEMS

NOVA SCOTIA Special conditions may be applied per the
 discretion of the National Parole Board.

ONTARIO Special conditions may be applied on a case-by-case
 basis dependent on conditional sentence/probation
 order.

SYSTEM RECIDIVISM TRACKING

ALABAMA All inmates returning into the system are tracked.

ALASKA No response

ARIZONA Yes, including recording applicable data

ARKANSAS No

CALIFORNIA No

COLORADO Unknown

CONNECTICUT No

DELAWARE No

FLORIDA Yes, as with all releasees

GEORGIA Statistical monitoring of those returned to prison
 for new offense and technical violations

HAWAII Yes, for all releasees for life (the state has a
 20-year record)

IDAHO Unknown

ILLINOIS No response

INDIANA Yes, a rate for sex offenders is computed as well
 as for the general population.

IOWA Three-year tracking

KANSAS Yes, via a contracted provider for one to three
 years

KENTUCKY No

LOUISIANA No response

MAINE No

MARYLAND No, sex offender parolees are so few (2.2%) that
 the need is not considered vital.

MASSACHUSETTS Yes, and broken down to first-, second- and
 third-year figures

MICHIGAN Yes, routine analyses for each annual release
 cohort

MINNESOTA Yes, including separation by offense type, is a
 part of the biennial performance report, with
 additional research reports specifically on sex
 offenders

MISSISSIPPI No

MISSOURI Yes, focusing on those who complete treatment or
 do not complete treatment and the reasons for the
 failure

MONTANA Yes, tracked for violations and returns to prison

NEBRASKA Tracked on a three-year basis for technical
 violations and new crimes committed

NEVADA Yes, and are considered part of the department's
 population until the expire

NEW HAMPSHIRE Yes, for those released from or returned to the
 state prison

NEW JERSEY Requirement to study all releasees from the Adult
 Diagnostic and Treatment Center to measure program
 effectiveness to repetitive and compulsive
 offenders

NEW MEXICO No response

NEW YORK Yes, a three-year post-release follow-up

NORTH CAROLINA No

NORTH DAKOTA No

OHIO Yes, a 10-year study by the Bureau of Research
 and a follow-up study

OKLAHOMA No, but parole and the department have the
 capability

OREGON No response

PENNSYLVANIA No, due to staffing resources, but has the
 capability to do so

RHODE ISLAND Yes, periodic retrospective studies are
 conducted. (3)

SOUTH CAROLINA Tracking is completed for all releasees who return
 to prison but individual follow-up is not
 conducted by the department.

SOUTH DAKOTA No

TENNESSEE No

TEXAS Tracked by the Texas Legislative Budget Board but
 not specifically rated for sex offenders

UTAH No response

VERMONT Yes, based on the "Outcome of a Treatment Program
 for Adult Sex Offenders" (Journal of Interpersonal
 Violence, 2003)

VIRGINIA Yes, for a period of three years, with plans for
 a five-year study

WASHINGTON Yes, for a five-year period measured as a new
 commitment that results in a return to prison

WEST VIRGINIA Yes, periodic studies

WISCONSIN Yes, baseline studies covering periods from 1980
 through 2002 involving 480,000 offenders have been
 conducted as well as other baseline studies

WYOMING Yes, for those whose crimes were committed within
 the state

CANADIAN SYSTEMS

NOVA SCOTIA No

ONTARIO No

(1) MISSISSIPPI: Offenders convicted after 1995 are required to
serve 85 percent of their sentences; capital rape may receive death
sentence by injection or a life sentence that now requires serving
until age 65; if they are age 55 or older upon conviction, they must
serve 12 years.

(2) NEW YORK: When sentenced to determinate terms, offenders may
earn good time; however, such offenders are not eligible for
discretionary release. A person convicted as a second violent felony
offender on or after Oct. l, 1995; as a violent felony offender on or
after Sept. 1, 1998; or any felony sex offense on or after April 13,
2007, is sentenced to a determinate term of imprisonment and a period
of post-release supervision.

(3) RHODE ISLAND: The studies provide data for sex offenders released
on parole with a specific release cohort, but the department does
not aggregate recidivism statistics for any group of offenders in
real-time.

(4) SOUTH CAROLINA: Truth-in-sentencing legislation passed in 1995
designated most sex offenses as no-parole; therefore, sex offenders
who committed crimes on or after January 1996 must serve 85% of their
sentence before release and be supervised in the community for two
years.

SEX OFFENDERS--TABLE 4: LEGISLATIVE ACTIONS (WITHIN THE PAST TWO
YEARS)

SYSTEM LEGISLATIVE ACTIONS

ALABAMA Amended the Sex Offender Community Notification
 statute

ALASKA No response

ARIZONA Convicted homeless sex offenders must register as
 transients; Motor Vehicles must update addresses
 annually; monitored with a GPS system if convicted
 of dangerous crimes against children; those who
 fail to register must be sentenced to either
 lifetime probation or imprisonment for not less
 than the presumptive sentences authorized by law;
 statements made while undergoing sex offender
 treatment are not admissible in a criminal
 proceeding unless a new violation has been
 determined; Level 3 sex offenders (against
 children) prohibited from living within 1,000 feet
 of a school or child care facility; and registered
 sex offenders must notify local county sheriff of
 e-mail addresses or other online identifiers

ARKANSAS None

CALIFORNIA Five separate legislative actions

COLORADO Revisions to sex offender registration and
 community notification, including sexual violent
 predator provisions

CONNECTICUT Updated registry rules; a Risk Assessment Board was
 established; the department must ensure registry;
 e-mail addresses and instant message screen names
 must be registered; special treatment is required
 as a condition of probation or conditional
 discharge; and a DNA test is required before
 release

DELAWARE Provided a two-year window during which victims
 can bring forth a civil action; amended the
 existing Megan's Law to conform to recent federal
 legislative changes required under the Adam Walsh
 Act; created a Sex Offender Management Board;
 created explicit protections for children in civil
 custody matters; provided GPS tracking for tier
 III sex offenders; allowed for the use of digital
 outdoor advertising technology; expanded the
 definition of sexual offenses; expanded coverage
 of the Child Safe School Zone Act; mandated a life
 sentence by the Superior Court if convicted of a
 class A or B felony sex offense against a child;
 increased the visibility and content of the sex
 offender Web site; and required the court to make
 specific findings of fact prior to a visitation
 order where a child must be brought to a
 correctional facility

FLORIDA Amended Jessica's Law

GEORGIA Increased mandatory minimums for certain sex
 offenses, proximity restrictions and lifetime
 registration

HAWAII None

IDAHO Increased the maximum terms for a number of sex
 crimes, such as murder during perpetration;
 increased mandatory-minimum sentences for certain
 repeat offenders; the statute of limitations was
 eliminated for certain sex crimes against children;
 and proximity to schools was restricted

ILLINOIS No response

INDIANA Oversight of registration was moved to the
 department; applied more restrictions; loss of
 credit time if treatment is refused; and enhanced
 sexually violent predator statute

IOWA Established either 10-ear or lifetime supervision
 for most sex offenders

KANSAS Increased penalties for sex offenses against
 children (Jessica's Law); increased registration
 requirements; established a Sex Offender Policy
 Council to review key sex offender issues during
 the next two years, addressed registration issues
 in compliance with the federal Adam Walsh Act, and
 extended the residential restriction moratorium to
 June 30, 2009

KENTUCKY Required registration of e-mail, instant messaging,
 chat and other internet communications identities;
 extensive changes relative to sex offenses and
 punishment

LOUISIANA No response

MAINE Unknown

MARYLAND Mandatory 25-year sentences for sex offenses
 against a child under 13; extended sex offender
 parole supervision for life; notification by local
 law enforcement to local communities into which a
 sex offender moves; and established a Sex Offender
 Advisory Board and sex offender management teams,
 staffed by the Division of Parole and Probation

MASSACHUSETTS Increased the statute of limitations for sexual
 crimes against children; registration requirements
 must be completed within five days by custodial
 agencies, which includes anticipated future
 residence and anticipated secondary addresses,
 offense history, documentation of any treatment
 received for a mental abnormality, official version
 of any sex offenses, prior incarceration history,
 and the projected maximum release date and earliest
 possible release date; and must provide all
 information on offender transfers to the board
 within 10 days

MICHIGAN Changes to registration act; and revised
 legislative sentencing guidelines scoring for
 selected sex offenses and characteristics

MINNESOTA Provided mandatory life sentences without parole
 for certain egregious first-time sex offenders and
 repeat offenders; placed a mandatory conditional
 release supervision time from five to 10 years
 for sex offenders, unless receiving lifetime
 supervision; and an amendment to include a
 screening committee and independent legal counsel
 within the screening process conducted b the
 department prior to release of sex offenders

MISSISSIPPI Made a stalking violation by a registered sex
 offender a felony, criminalized eluding
 registration; authorized electronic monitoring;
 began participation in federal DNA Indexing
 System; and revised registration law to conform
 to federal Adam Walsh Act

MISSOURI Created "attempted" statutory rape and sodomy child
 molestation with previous conviction; school
 proximity restrictions within 500 feet; and
 requirements for failure to register

MONTANA Established guidelines for sex offenses against
 children 12 or under

NEBRASKA Enhanced penalties and enacted lifetime sex
 offender monitoring

NEVADA Enhanced sentencing; tightened parole conditions
 and enforcement of community registration; and
 required all sex offenders to be registered prior
 to release from custody

NEW HAMPSHIRE Passed a Sexual Predatory Act that increases the
 length of sentence and allows for five-year civil
 commitment following incarceration in specifically
 identified circumstances

NEW JERSEY Municipal not state legislation restricting
 residences

NEW MEXICO No response

NEW YORK Amended Sex Offender Management and Treatment Act
 providing determinate sentencing for all felony
 sex offenders; increased period of post-release
 supervision; enhanced treatment while incarcerated;
 provided a comprehensive system for reviewing sex
 offenders upon release, parole or post-release
 supervision; and designated agencies with
 jurisdiction to determine whether a detained sex
 offender has a mental abnormality that may lead to
 confinement in a secure treatment facility operated
 by the Office of Mental Health

NORTH CAROLINA GPS monitoring for some offenders and strict
 registration laws in compliance to the federal
 Adam Walsh Law

NORTH DAKOTA Restricted proximity to schools; mandatory
 sentencing; mandatory probation supervision; and
 statute involving civil commitments

OHIO Two bills (unspecified)

OKLAHOMA Lengthened minimum sentences for some sex crimes;
 requirements for longer periods of registration,
 risk assessment and residence restrictions; and
 mandatory obtainment of an annual driver's license
 designating them as a sex offender

OREGON No response

PENNSYLVANIA Increased mandatory-minimum sentences for certain
 offenses from 25 to 50 years, including for an
 offense involving a child 13 or under; registration
 for any resident convicted of a crime in another
 state; GPS monitoring for life; established an
 online location map accessible to the public on
 location of sex offenders; established a new
 chapter in the Crimes Code that included failure to
 comply with registration requirements of Megan's
 Law; places on the Sex Offender Assessment Board
 certain requirements for written description of the
 offense; required data inclusion of a physical
 description of the offender; and requires employers
 to perform background checks on all potential
 employees who would have regular contact with
 children

RHODE ISLAND Assigns penalties for child molestation,
 first-degree sexual assault (Jessica's Law)

SOUTH CAROLINA Unknown

SOUTH DAKOTA Enhanced registration requirements; increased
 penalties for failure to register; created
 community safety zones involving loitering or
 residency; a mandatory requirement for state
 participation in the national Sex Offender
 Registry; created a statewide Sex Offender
 registry and Internet access; required risk
 assessments prior to sentencing; increased
 penalties for recidivist sex offenders with young
 victims; created new felony offenses for harboring
 sex offenders or for threats to commit another
 offense; enhanced the felony for out-of-state
 offenders failing to register their move to the
 state; and applying no-parole provisions for
 certain sex offenders if warranted, based on
 history and assessments

TENNESSEE Toughened penalties for sex offenders; heightened
 scrutiny of released offenders; and laced
 restrictions on offenders released into the
 community

TEXAS Six Senate and House bills were provided impacting
 major changes in current legislation [] far too
 extensive to delineate in this survey, but refer
 to the department for detailed information

UTAH No response

VERMONT Numerous revisions to statutes concerning
 sentencing serious sex offenders, including
 mandatory-minimum, life maximums and higher
 minimums

VIRGINIA Mandatory GPS monitoring for offenders failing to
 register; enactment of a narrow proximity law; and
 a prohibition for offenders convicted of certain
 offenses from entering school property

WASHINGTON Not available at resent time

WEST VIRGINIA A Child Protection Act that included a wide range
 of implications for sentencing and sex offender
 management

WISCONSIN Registration requirements for sex offenders based
 upon a juvenile delinquency adjudication; lifetime
 imprisonment for certain sex offenders; provided
 penalties for sexual contact or intercourse
 involving a 16- or 17-year-old by a person who
 works or interacts with him/her through an
 occupation or volunteer position; DNA testing;
 mandatory confinement terms for certain child sex
 offenses; GPS monitoring; registry changes to
 include residency and Web site information; defined
 a sexually violent person; defined sexual contact
 and provided penalties; provided penalties for
 sexual intercourse or contact with a person under
 the influence of alcohol; and provided penalties
 for sexual assault of a child

WYOMING Possible life imprisonment for sex offenders with
 two or more sex convictions

CANADIAN SYSTEMS

NOVA SCOTIA None

ONTARIO None

SEX OFFENDERS--TABLE 5: POLICY CHANGES (WITHIN THE PAST TWO YEARS)

 POLICY CHANGES IN POLICY CHANGES IN
SYSTEM SENTENCING CORRECTIONS

ALABAMA Not available No changes

ALASKA No response

ARIZONA No change Increased program
 funding for Sex Offender
 Education and Treatment,
 an evidence-based
 program offered to both
 male and female
 offenders.

ARKANSAS Increased sentencing Pro-active policy to
 felony level for eliminate rape in prison
 incorrect address on IDs
 when registering; living
 near a victim, a school
 or a day care center;
 entering a school
 campus; indecent
 exposure; transporting
 a minor for prohibited
 sexual conduct; and
 sexual indecency with a
 child

CALIFORNIA No change No change

COLORADO No major change No major change

CONNECTICUT No change No change

DELAWARE No change No change

FLORIDA Jessica Lunsford Act, Numerous local
 requiring use of GPS ordinances restricting
 monitoring for some sex residences (proximity to
 offenders not sentenced schools, etc.) affect
 to prison placement of released
 inmates.

GEORGIA Mandatory minimums A procedure to ensure
 increased on most sex that all offenders are
 offenders but not for registered prior to
 first-time sex release
 offenders.

HAWAII No change No change

IDAHO No change No change

ILLINOIS No response

INDIANA Revisions to the Indiana Registration oversight
 Code that increased was moved to the
 registration length and Indiana Department of
 frequency Corrections, and all sex
 offenders are housed at
 two specific treatment
 facilities.

IOWA No particular changes GPS monitoring has been
 implemented in the
 community.

KANSAS Parole eligibility as A new parole unit was
 noted on Table 3 formed as a pilot
 project to manage and
 supervise a select group
 of higher-risk sex
 offenders using a GPS
 monitoring system.

KENTUCKY Harsher penalties for Sex offenders are
 most felon sex offenders moved to specialized
 supervision officers.

LOUISIANA No response

MAINE No change No change

MARYLAND Parole and probation No change
 guidelines have changed
 somewhat

MASSACHUSETTS No change No change

MICHIGAN Sentencing reform that A partnership with
 could affect all offense Kalamazoo County on its
 types still under federal Comprehensive
 consideration Approaches to Sex
 Offender Management
 (CASOM) grant to pilot
 comprehensive approaches
 to sex offender
 management

MINNESOTA No change Enhancement of the
 department's sexual
 psychopathic
 personality/sexual
 dangerous person policy,
 a screening process by
 adding independent legal
 counsel

MISSISSIPPI No change A revision of
 departmental policies
 and standard operating
 procedures

MISSOURI Probation and parole now No change
 has access to search sex
 offenders' home
 computers.

MONTANA No change No change

NEBRASKA Enhanced penalties Based on a new category
 for civil commitment
 (dangerous sex
 offender), the
 department has the
 responsibility for
 evaluating certain sex
 offenders prior to
 their discharge and
 has implemented a new
 treatment model that
 includes three levels
 of treatment using the
 health lives model.

NEVADA Increased enforcement Enhanced conditions for
 and compliance with parole
 community registration

NEW HAMPSHIRE Increased sentences and Adopted a detailed
 requirement to identify Prison Rape Elimination
 convicted sex offenders Act policy
 who are eligible for a
 new five-year civil
 commitment

NEW JERSEY No change No change

NEW MEXICO No response

NEW YORK No change Having helped negotiate
 new legislation,
 the department has
 significantly enhanced
 its capacity to provide
 sex offender treatment,
 in essence doubling the
 treatment capacity, and
 introduced a more
 comprehensive treatment
 program for moderate-and
 high-risk offenders.

NORTH CAROLINA Unknown Reduced the numbers
 eligible for
 community-based programs
 such as work release

NORTH DAKOTA Yes, but not specified Significant changes,
 including school
 property prohibitions,
 mandatory sentences,
 mandatory supervision
 on probation, civil
 commitment statute
 changes and more

OHIO No change No change

OKLAHOMA Lengthened minimum Requirement for longer
 sentences for some sex periods of registration,
 crimes risk assessment and
 stricter residency
 restrictions, and
 requiring offenders to
 obtain an annual drivers
 license designating
 them as a sex offender

OREGON No response

PENNSYLVANIA Based on legislation A policy issued in
 noted on Table 4 December 2005 was the
 first standardized
 change in assessment/
 treatment of adult sex
 offenders.

RHODE ISLAND No policies in effect No policies in effect
 for management of
 incarcerated sex
 offenders except for
 notifying offenders of
 their duty to register
 with law enforcement
 agencies and procedures
 for notification

SOUTH CAROLINA No change No change

SOUTH DAKOTA No change Registration requirement
 for incarcerated sex
 offenders

TENNESSEE Unknown as these are No change
 determined by the courts

TEXAS As noted on Table 4 No change

UTAH No response

VERMONT Many revisions, as noted Supervision and release
 on Table 4 criteria and designation
 of high-risk,
 noncompliant sex
 offender status

VIRGINIA No change Policy decisions have
 revolved around new
 legislation noted on
 Table 4

WASHINGTON Additional offenses Release strategies and
 require registration; the need for approved
 new crimes have been addresses for all
 added as registerable, current sex offenders;
 such as criminal return of offenders to
 trespass against a the county of their
 child; failure to first conviction in the
 register now is a state of Washington;
 felony; and there is and reentry programming
 increased law available to all
 enforcement verification offenders
 of level II and level
 III offenders.

WEST VIRGINIA No changes were No change
 specified

WISCONSIN No change Mandatory GPS monitoring
 in the community for
 certain sex offenders is
 scheduled to take effect
 in the near future;
 day-to-day instruction
 available to probation
 and parole agents to
 incorporate new
 legislation due to
 having no written
 materials available;
 elimination of Sex
 Offenders Treatment
 Deniers program; only
 one opportunity to
 participate in treatment
 due to available bed
 space; and allowed
 minimum custody on a
 more limited basis

WYOMING No change Implemented a sex
 offender risk assessment
 tool and contracted for
 sex offender treatment

CANADIAN SYSTEMS

NOVA SCOTIA No change No change

ONTARIO Risk assessments must be Risk assessment
 reported in presentence supervision of offenders
 reports for the court. in the community is
 reported.
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Title Annotation:Survey Summary
Publication:Corrections Compendium
Article Type:Table
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Mar 1, 2008
Words:7910
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