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Sex offenders in the correctional system.



Some have said that the number of sex offenders in our prisons is growing astronomically as·tro·nom·i·cal   also as·tro·nom·ic
adj.
1. Of or relating to astronomy.

2. Of enormous magnitude; immense: an astronomical increase in the deficit.
. Is that hype hype 1   Slang
n.
1. Excessive publicity and the ensuing commotion: the hype surrounding the murder trial.

2.
? Or is it fact? The last issue of Corrections Compendium com·pen·di·um  
n. pl. com·pen·di·ums or com·pen·di·a
1. A short, complete summary; an abstract.

2. A list or collection of various items.
 to address this topic was in July July: see month.  2002. At that time, 12 U.S. systems reported that their sex offender sex offender n. generic term for all persons convicted of crimes involving sex, including rape, molestation, sexual harassment and pornography production or distribution.  populations had increased in the previous two years, while 28 of the systems stayed the same or nearly the same. Eleven years prior, the July 1991 issue of Compendium stated that sex offenders in prisons had increased 48 percent during the preceding two years.

Forty-four U.S. systems and two Canadian Canadian (kənā`dēən), river, 906 mi (1,458 km) long, rising in NE New Mexico. and flowing E across N Texas and central Oklahoma into the Arkansas River in E Oklahoma.  systems responded to the current survey. Information on the Canadian provinces is available in the individual tables but is not included in the following summary. Responses from the U.S. systems show that 182,488 individuals, or 15 percent of the 1.25 million total inmates in those systems, were incarcerated incarcerated /in·car·cer·at·ed/ (in-kahr´ser-at?ed) imprisoned; constricted; subjected to incarceration.

in·car·cer·at·ed
adj.
Confined or trapped, as a hernia.
 for sex offenses A class of sexual conduct prohibited by the law.

Since the 1970s this area of the law has undergone significant changes and reforms. Although the commission of sex offenses is not new, public awareness and concern regarding sex offenses have grown, resulting in the
 at reporting time. In the systems that gave exact numbers, 56 percent of the sex offenders (101,875) were incarcerated for a first-time sexual offense; 10 systems were unable to identify first-time sex offenders.

When asked to report if their numbers had increased, decreased or remained basically the same in the preceding two years, 12 systems indicated that their numbers had increased, and only Kentucky Kentucky, state, United States
Kentucky (kəntŭk`ē, kĭn–), one of the so-called border states of the S central United States. It is bordered by West Virginia and Virginia (E); Tennessee (S); the Mississippi R.
 stated that its numbers had decreased. Alabama and Maine did not maintain such figures. The remaining 29 reporting systems noted that their totals for sex offenders had remained about the same. A few comments were made regarding the increases such as: additional offenses had been placed on Indiana's registry The configuration database in all 32-bit versions of Windows that contains settings for the hardware and software in the PC it is installed in. The Registry is made up of the SYSTEM.DAT and USER.DAT files. Many settings previously stored in the WIN.INI and SYSTEM. ; Michigan's sex offender parole parole (pərōl`), in criminal law, release from prison of a convict before the expiration of his term on condition that his activities be restricted and that he report regularly to an officer.  approval rate is very low; Texas sex offenders are serving a longer percentage of their sentences; and Virginia Virginia, state, United States
Virginia, state of the south-central United States. It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean (E), North Carolina and Tennessee (S), Kentucky and West Virginia (W), and Maryland and the District of Columbia (N and NE).
 implemented enhanced screening and assessment. Legislative actions also impacted the numbers (see Table 4).

Somewhat surprisingly, 22 of the reporting systems do not provide special accommodations for sex offenders. Iowa and Michigan Michigan (mĭsh`ĭgən), upper midwestern state of the United States. It consists of two peninsulas thrusting into the Great Lakes and has borders with Ohio and Indiana (S), Wisconsin (W), and the Canadian province of Ontario (N,E).  separate offenders who are identified as predators. Some systems provide housing for sex offenders in close proximity PROXIMITY. Kindred between two persons. Dig. 38, 16, 8.  to their treatment program areas, while other systems provide separate housing for all sex offenders or as an option for sex offenders.

Treatment Programs

The results from Georgia Georgia, country, Asia
Georgia (jôr`jə), Georgian Sakartvelo, Rus. Gruziya, officially Republic of Georgia, republic (2005 est. pop. 4,677,000), c.26,900 sq mi (69,700 sq km), in W Transcaucasia.
, Rhode Island Rhode Island, island, United States
Rhode Island, island, 15 mi (24 km) long and 5 mi (8 km) wide, S R.I., at the entrance to Narragansett Bay. It is the largest island in the state, with steep cliffs and excellent beaches.
 and Vermont Vermont (vərmŏnt`) [Fr.,=green mountain], New England state of the NE United States. It is bordered by New Hampshire, across the Connecticut R.  are not tabulated in the following percentages, due to special circumstances special circumstances n. in criminal cases, particularly homicides, actions of the accused or the situation under which the crime was committed for which state statutes allow or require imposition of a more severe punishment. . For the remaining respondents In the context of marketing research, a representative sample drawn from a larger population of people from whom information is collected and used to develop or confirm marketing strategy. , whether on a mandatory Peremptory; obligatory; required; that which must be subscribed to or obeyed.

Mandatory statutes are those that require, as opposed to permit, a particular course of action.
 or voluntary basis, individual counseling is provided by 80 percent of the systems, group counseling by 95 percent, inmate INMATE. One who dwells in a part of another's house, the latter dwelling, at the same time, in the said house. Kitch. 45, b; Com. Dig. Justices of the Peace, B 85; 1 B. & Cr. 578; 8 E. C. L. R. 153; 2 Dowl. & Ry. 743; 8 B. & Cr. 71; 15 E. C. L. R. 154; 2 Man. & Ry. 227; 9 B. & Cr.  support programs by 60 percent, medical treatment by 45 percent, relapse prevention by 88 percent, cognitive behavioral therapy cognitive behavioral therapy
n.
A highly structured psychotherapeutic method used to alter distorted attitudes and problem behavior by identifying and replacing negative inaccurate thoughts and changing the rewards for behaviors.
 by 83 percent, offender-specific counseling by 65 percent, and therapeutic communities by 55 percent of the systems. Several other sex offender treatment plans were identified, including family and spousal spou·sal  
adj.
1. Of or relating to marriage; nuptial.

2. Of or relating to a spouse.

n.
Marriage; nuptials. Often used in the plural.
 counseling in Hawaii, short-term crisis intervention crisis intervention Psychiatry The counseling of a person suffering from a stressful life event–eg, AIDS, cancer, death, divorce, by providing mental and moral support. See Hotline.  therapy in Nevada Nevada (nəvăd`ə, –vä–), far western state of the United States. It is bordered by Utah (E), Arizona (SE), California (SW, W), and Oregon and Idaho (N). , and sexual reconditioning in Tennessee Tennessee, state, United States
Tennessee (tĕn`əsē', tĕn'əsē`), state in the south-central United States.
. Participation in programs is stipulated by the courts in some states. In other states, offenders may lose parole consideration or other privileges privileges,
n the authority granted to a physician or dental professional by a hospital governing board to provide patient care in the hospital. Clinical privileges are limited to the individual's license, experience, and competence.
 if they decline treatment or are unsuccessful in the program. Twenty-four of the reporting systems do not provide a victim/offender reconciliation program.

Parole Eligibility and Release Provisions

All sex offenders are eligible for parole consideration in 10 systems, whereas 27 systems reported that not all sex offenders are eligible. (Parole has been abolished for all offenses in Florida Florida, state, United States
Florida (flôr`ĭdə, flŏr`–), state in the extreme SE United States. A long, low peninsula between the Atlantic Ocean (E) and the Gulf of Mexico (W), Florida is bordered by Georgia and
, Maine and North Carolina North Carolina, state in the SE United States. It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean (E), South Carolina and Georgia (S), Tennessee (W), and Virginia (N). Facts and Figures


Area, 52,586 sq mi (136,198 sq km). Pop.
.) A number of the systems stipulated that because of legislative actions, certain dates were applied to parole consideration based on when the offender was sentenced. Sex offenders are denied parole in the following situations: after two strikes in Arkansas Arkansas, river, United States
Arkansas (ärkăn`zəs, är`kənsô'), river, c.1,450 mi (2,330 km) long, rising in the Rocky Mts., central Colo.
, if they have mandatory life sentences in Iowa, if they also committed first-degree murder in Michigan and when so ordered by the court in Montana.

Release provisions cited include: requirements to register with law enforcement or other agencies; restrictions on housing, employment or proximity to schools, day care centers, etc.; GPS (1) (General Print Server) An IBM mainframe feature that lets TN3270 clients access LPD/LPR printers via the SNA/VTAM network. See TN3270 and VTAM.

(2) (Global Positioning S
 monitoring; polygraph An instrument used to measure physiological responses in humans when they are questioned in order to determine if their answers are truthful.

Also known as a "lie detector," the polygraph has a controversial history in U.S. law.
 testing; attending community treatment programs; and other court-ordered stipulations. In addition to standard conditions of parole, North Dakota North Dakota, state in the N central United States. It is bordered by Minnesota, across the Red River of the North (E), South Dakota (S), Montana (W), and the Canadian provinces of Saskatchewan and Manitoba (N).  assigns Individuals to whom property is, will, or may be transferred by conveyance, will, Descent and Distribution, or statute; assignees.

The term assigns is often found in deeds; for example, "heirs, administrators, and assigns to denote the assignable nature of
 17 special conditions for sex offenders, and Wyoming Wyoming, city, United States
Wyoming, city (1990 pop. 63,891), Kent co., W Mich., in the greater Grand Rapids metropolitan area, on the Grand River; settled 1832, inc. 1959.
 has a 30-subject listing of special conditions. Twenty-eight of the systems indicated that they track recidivism recidivism: see criminology.  in one form or another.

Legislative Actions and Policy Changes

Tables 4 and 5 specifically identify legislative actions that occurred within the past two years and the changes in policy and sentencing that resulted. For example, Maryland Maryland (mâr`ələnd), one of the Middle Atlantic states of the United States. It is bounded by Delaware and the Atlantic Ocean (E), the District of Columbia (S), Virginia and West Virginia (S, W), and Pennsylvania (N).  has established a mandatory 25-year sentence for sex offenses against children younger than 13, and Iowa established a 10-year or lifetime supervision for most sex offenders. Arkansas has changed its policy to increase the sentencing felony felony (fĕl`ənē), any grave crime, in contrast to a misdemeanor, that is so declared in statute or was so considered in common law.  level for sex offenders having incorrect Incorrect means to not be correct and may also refer to:
  • Politically incorrect
  • Incorrectly formatted data, a computer error
See also
  • Correctness
  • Anomalously numbered roads in Great Britain
  • Disputes in English grammar (Incorrect English)
 addresses on identification when registering. In addition, Missouri Missouri, state, United States
Missouri (mĭzr`ē, –ə), one of the midwestern states of the United States.
 now allows probation probation, method by which the punishment of a convicted offender is conditionally suspended. The offender must remain in the community and under the supervision of a probation officer, who is usually a court-appointed official.  and parole officials to search sex offenders' home computers. When considering whether the sex offender population is truly growing, one should analyze an·a·lyze
v.
1. To examine methodically by separating into parts and studying their interrelations.

2. To separate a chemical substance into its constituent elements to determine their nature or proportions.

3.
 the stated legislative actions that are impacting and will impact the numbers in the years to come.

For information on surveys featured in this or past issues of Corrections Compendium, contact Cece Hill, CEGA CEGA Combustion Engineering/General Atomics
CEGA Central Electricity Generating Authority
 Services Inc., P.O. Box 81826, Lincoln Lincoln, city and district, England
Lincoln, city (1991 pop. 79,980) and district, Lincolnshire, E England, in the Parts of Kesteven, on the Witham River.
, NE 68501; (402)420-0602.
SEX OFFENDERS--TABLE 1: POPULATION

                                                         FIRST-TIME
                       CURRENT        SEX OFFENDER           SEX
SYSTEM               POPULATION        POPULATION         OFFENDERS

ALABAMA                     29,263           4,235            1,845

ALASKA                                 No response

ARIZONA                     37,508           5,172            3,207

ARKANSAS                    14,320           2,390            2,031

CALIFORNIA                 172,958          23,153           16,795

COLORADO                    22,310           4,791              309

CONNECTICUT                 23,719           1,974              905

DELAWARE                     5,937             402          Unknown

FLORIDA                     95,144          13,622            8,534

GEORGIA                     60,817           7,221            5,887

HAWAII                       6,063             657              603

IDAHO                        7,376           1,413            1,142

ILLINOIS                               No response

INDIANA                     24,638           3,723            2,274

IOWA                         8,712           1,292            1,046

KANSAS                       8,814           2,425          Unknown

KENTUCKY                    22,540           1,325            1,069

LOUISIANA                              No response

MAINE                        2,125             370          Unknown

MARYLAND                    23,397           2,122        40%, est.

MASSACHUSETTS               10,135           1,326              604

MICHIGAN                    50,136          12,320            9,143

MINNESOTA                    9,214           1,655          Unknown

MISSISSIPPI                 24,897           2,044          Unknown

MISSOURI                    29,945           4,519            1,785

MONTANA                      2,507             590          Unknown

NEBRASKA                     4,410             811              581

NEVADA                      13,450           2,159            1,831

NEW HAMPSHIRE                2,767             677          Unknown

NEW JERSEY                  27,300     2,125, est.          Unknown

NEW MEXICO                             No response

NEW YORK                    62,846           6,561            4,815

NORTH CAROLINA              38,568           5,126            2,995

NORTH DAKOTA                 1,442             350               35

OHIO                        50,000           9,465            5,968

OKLAHOMA                    25,199           4,679            3,371

OREGON                                 No response

PENNSYLVANIA                45,922           6,116            5,106

RHODE ISLAND        3,944 pretrial             376          Unknown
                     and sentenced

SOUTH CAROLINA              23,434           2,113            1,324

SOUTH DAKOTA                 3,378         483 (5)              344

TENNESSEE                   19,510           3,517            2,991

TEXAS                      152,661          26,167            7,417

UTAH                                   No response

VERMONT                      2,165             426       Most, est.

VIRGINIA                    32,534           3,201            2,192

WASHINGTON                  16,942           3,164            2,405

WEST VIRGINIA                4,917             989          Unknown

WISCONSIN                   23,476           4,875            2,971

WYOMING                      2,097             367              350

CANADIAN SYSTEMS

NOVA SCOTIA                    457     Not tracked          Unknown

ONTARIO                      8,761             515          Unknown

                                      CHANGES FROM PREVIOUS TWO YEARS
                      ALLOCATED
SYSTEM                 BUDGET           Increased         Decreased

ALABAMA                    Unknown         N/A               N/A

ALASKA                                 No response

ARIZONA              2.6% of total

ARKANSAS                   0.0095%

CALIFORNIA                 Unknown

COLORADO                      0.4%

CONNECTICUT                   9.6%

DELAWARE                       <1%

FLORIDA                    Unknown

GEORGIA                      0.01%

HAWAII                     Unknown

IDAHO                      Unknown

ILLINOIS                               No response

INDIANA                      0.59%          X

IOWA                            3%          X

KANSAS                  0.8%, est.

KENTUCKY                   Unknown                            X

LOUISIANA                              No response

MAINE                        0.09%       Unknown           Unknown

MARYLAND                       <1%          X

MASSACHUSETTS                   6%

MICHIGAN                       <1%          X

MINNESOTA                0.49% (3)

MISSISSIPPI                    N/A          X

MISSOURI                   Unknown

MONTANA                    Unknown

NEBRASKA           14.5% of mental          X
                     health budget

NEVADA                         <1%

NEW HAMPSHIRE               <1.09%

NEW JERSEY              3.579% (4)

NEW MEXICO                             No response

NEW YORK           0.3%, excluding          X
                             staff

NORTH CAROLINA             Unknown

NORTH DAKOTA               Unknown          X

OHIO                         0.15%

OKLAHOMA                   $70,000

OREGON                                 No response

PENNSYLVANIA               Unknown          X

RHODE ISLAND                 0.24%

SOUTH CAROLINA               0.05%

SOUTH DAKOTA                   <1%          X

TENNESSEE                  Unknown

TEXAS                        0.10%          X

UTAH                                   No response

VERMONT                        <1%

VIRGINIA                   Unknown          X

WASHINGTON           13%, biennial
                             basis

WEST VIRGINIA              Unknown

WISCONSIN                  Unknown

WYOMING                         1%

CANADIAN SYSTEMS

NOVA SCOTIA                Unknown         N/A               N/A

ONTARIO                    Unknown

                             CHANGES FROM PREVIOUS TWO YEARS

SYSTEM                  Same                     Comments

ALABAMA                  N/A         Numbers were not kept.

ALASKA                                 No response

ARIZONA                   X

ARKANSAS                  X

CALIFORNIA                X

COLORADO                  X

CONNECTICUT               X

DELAWARE                  X

FLORIDA                   X

GEORGIA                   X

HAWAII                    X

IDAHO                     X

ILLINOIS                               No response

INDIANA                              Additional offenses placed
                                     on registry

IOWA                                 Due to statute changes

KANSAS                    X          2006 House Bill increased
                                     sentences for certain sex
                                     offenses involving minors.

KENTUCKY

LOUISIANA                              No response

MAINE                  Unknown

MARYLAND                             Increased 4%

MASSACHUSETTS             X

MICHIGAN                             Sex offender parole
                                     approval rate is very low.

MINNESOTA                 X

MISSISSIPPI

MISSOURI                  X

MONTANA                   X

NEBRASKA                             Increased sentences due to
                                     passage of legislative bill

NEVADA                    X          Anticipate future impact due
                                     to legislative actions

NEW HAMPSHIRE             X

NEW JERSEY                X

NEW MEXICO                             No response

NEW YORK

NORTH CAROLINA            X

NORTH DAKOTA

OHIO                      X

OKLAHOMA                  X

OREGON                                 No response

PENNSYLVANIA                         Recategorized offenses for
                                     accurate reporting

RHODE ISLAND              X

SOUTH CAROLINA            X

SOUTH DAKOTA

TENNESSEE                 X

TEXAS                                Sex offenders are serving a
                                     higher percentage of their
                                     sentences.

UTAH                                   No response

VERMONT                   X

VIRGINIA                             Slight increase due to enhanced
                                     screening and assessment

WASHINGTON                X

WEST VIRGINIA             X

WISCONSIN                 X          Increases may occur due to
                                     recent legislative action.

WYOMING                   X

CANADIAN SYSTEMS

NOVA SCOTIA              N/A

ONTARIO                   X

SYSTEM                       SPECIAL HOUSING ACCOMMODATIONS

ALABAMA            No

ALASKA                                 No response

ARIZONA            Separate housing is an inmate option.

ARKANSAS           No

CALIFORNIA         No

COLORADO           No

CONNECTICUT        No, but a sex offender can request a move to
                   protective custody.

DELAWARE           No

FLORIDA            No

GEORGIA            No

HAWAII             No

IDAHO              Unknown

ILLINOIS                               No response

INDIANA            Males housed in one of two facilities dedicated to
                   sex offenders; female sex offenders in one facility

IOWA               For offenders identified as predators

KANSAS             No (1)

KENTUCKY           No

LOUISIANA                              No response

MAINE              60-bed therapeutic community treatment unit

MARYLAND           No

MASSACHUSETTS      Various housing options (combined with mental
                   health directives)

MICHIGAN           Predators are segregated while others may be
                   concentrated to facilitate treatment

MINNESOTA          An exclusive unit for inmates in treatment program

MISSISSIPPI        No

MISSOURI           No

MONTANA            A 180-bed low-security unit

NEBRASKA           Dedicated beds at one facility

NEVADA             No

NEW HAMPSHIRE      Inmates participating in treatment programs are
                   housed together.

NEW JERSEY         Offenders characterized under the New Jersey Sex
                   Offender Act by a pattern of repetitive and
                   compulsive behavior, and if willing and amenable
                   for treatment, may be housed at an alternative
                   center.

NEW MEXICO                             No response

NEW YORK           Residential therapeutic setting

NORTH CAROLINA     No

NORTH DAKOTA       No

OHIO               No

OKLAHOMA           Two separate treatment program housing units

OREGON                                 No response

PENNSYLVANIA       Two modified therapeutic community facilities and
                   six facilities that include separated residential
                   units

RHODE ISLAND       An 84-bed specialized treatment unit at a
                   medium-security facility

SOUTH CAROLINA     One tier of one dorm for inmates in the treatment
                   program

SOUTH DAKOTA       No

TENNESSEE          A dedicated housing unit at one facility and a
                   special needs facility for inmates participating
                   in treatment program

TEXAS              No

UTAH                                   No response

VERMONT            If in treatment, high-risk inmates are housed in a
                   separate facility from low-risks, who may remain in
                   the general population.

VIRGINIA           Segregated for disciplinary purposes, if necessary;
                   separate housing in one facility

WASHINGTON         Yes, but not specified

WEST VIRGINIA      No

WISCONSIN          Therapeutic community residence for long-term
                   program participants

WYOMING            No

CANADIAN SYSTEMS

NOVA SCOTIA        Possible housing with other protective custody
                   inmates

ONTARIO            Possible housing in protective custody or
                   segregation cells, if beds are available

(1) KANSAS: At one facility, medium-custody inmates participating
in a treatment program are housed on the same floor as the program;
participants at other facilities are not separated from the general
population.

(2) MAINE: The figure includes adult and juvenile facilities and
community corrections.

(3) MINNESOTA: The percentage includes adult and juvenile
incarcerations, supervision, and probation and parole services.

(4) NEW JERSEY: An additional 2.52 percent is targeted for fiscal
year 2008 for the civilly committed sex offender population and
its treatment.

(5) SOUTH DAKOTA: An additional 303 inmates who were not convicted
of a sex crime but subsequently have been identified as having a
sexual behavior issue are not included.

SEX OFFENDERS--TABLE 2: TREATMENT PROGRAMS

                               TYPE OF TREATMENT PROGRAMS

                                                           Inmate
                     Individual           Group            Support
SYSTEM               Counseling        Counseling         Programs

ALABAMA                   V                 V                 V

ALASKA                                 No response

ARIZONA                   V                 V                 V

ARKANSAS                  V                 V                 V

CALIFORNIA                M                 M

COLORADO                  V                 V                 V

CONNECTICUT               V                 V                 V

DELAWARE                  V                 V                 V

FLORIDA                   V                 V

GEORGIA

HAWAII                    V                 V

IDAHO                                  No response

ILLINOIS                               No response

INDIANA                   V                 M                 V

IOWA                      M                 M                 V

KANSAS                                      M

KENTUCKY                  V                 V

LOUISIANA                              No response

MAINE                     V                 V

MARYLAND                  V                 V                 V

MASSACHUSETTS             V                 V

MICHIGAN                                    V

MINNESOTA                M/V                M                 V

MISSISSIPPI

MISSOURI                  X                 X                 X

MONTANA                   V                 V                 V

NEBRASKA                  V                 V

NEVADA                                      V

NEW HAMPSHIRE                               V                 V

NEW JERSEY                V                 V                 V

NEW MEXICO                             No response

NEW YORK                  V                 M                 M

NORTH CAROLINA            V                 V                 V

NORTH DAKOTA                                M                 V

OHIO                                        V

OKLAHOMA                  V                 V

OREGON                                 No response

PENNSYLVANIA              V                 V                 V

RHODE ISLAND

SOUTH CAROLINA            V                 V

SOUTH DAKOTA              M                 M

TENNESSEE                 V                 V                 V

TEXAS                     M                 M                 M

UTAH                                   No response

VERMONT

VIRGINIA                  V                 V                 V

WASHINGTON                V                 V                 V

WEST VIRGINIA             V                 V                 V

WISCONSIN                 V                M/V                V

WYOMING                   V                 V                 V

CANADIAN SYSTEMS

NOVA SCOTIA

ONTARIO                   V                 V                 V

                               TYPE OF TREATMENT PROGRAMS

                                                          Cognitive
                       Medical           Relapse         Behavioral
SYSTEM                Treatment        Prevention          Therapy

ALABAMA                   V                 V                 V

ALASKA                                 No response

ARIZONA                   V                 V                 V

ARKANSAS                  V                 V                 V

CALIFORNIA                                  M

COLORADO                  V                 V                 V

CONNECTICUT               V                 V                 V

DELAWARE

FLORIDA                                     V                 V

GEORGIA

HAWAII                                      V                 V

IDAHO                                  No response

ILLINOIS                               No response

INDIANA                   M                 M                 M

IOWA                      V                 M                 M

KANSAS                                      M                 M

KENTUCKY                                    V

LOUISIANA                              No response

MAINE                                       V                 V

MARYLAND                                    V                 V

MASSACHUSETTS             M                 M                 M

MICHIGAN                                    V                 V

MINNESOTA                                   M                 M

MISSISSIPPI

MISSOURI                  X                 X                 X

MONTANA                   V                                   V

NEBRASKA                                    V                 V

NEVADA

NEW HAMPSHIRE                               V                 V

NEW JERSEY                V                 V                 V

NEW MEXICO                             No response

NEW YORK                                    M                 M

NORTH CAROLINA            V                 V                 V

NORTH DAKOTA                                M                 M

OHIO                                        M                 V

OKLAHOMA                                    V                 V

OREGON                                 No response

PENNSYLVANIA              V                 V                 V

RHODE ISLAND

SOUTH CAROLINA                              V

SOUTH DAKOTA                                M                 M

TENNESSEE                 V                 V                 V

TEXAS                   M (4)               M                 M

UTAH                                   No response

VERMONT

VIRGINIA                  V                 V                 V

WASHINGTON                V                 V                 V

WEST VIRGINIA                               V                 V

WISCONSIN                 V                M/V               M/V

WYOMING                   V                 V                 V

CANADIAN SYSTEMS

NOVA SCOTIA

ONTARIO                   V                M/V                V

                               TYPE OF TREATMENT PROGRAMS

                      Offender-
                      Specific         Therapeutic
SYSTEM               Counseling         Community           Other

ALABAMA                   V                 V

ALASKA                                 No response

ARIZONA                   V                 V

ARKANSAS                  V                 V          Informational
                                                       and education
                                                       classes
                                                       specific to the
                                                       problems being
                                                       addressed

CALIFORNIA

COLORADO                  V                 V

CONNECTICUT               V                 V

DELAWARE

FLORIDA

GEORGIA

HAWAII                                                 Family and
                                                       spousal
                                                       counseling

IDAHO                                  No response

ILLINOIS                               No response

INDIANA                   M                            Therapeutic
                                                       community
                                                       currently being
                                                       developed

IOWA                      M

KANSAS                    M

KENTUCKY

LOUISIANA                              No response

MAINE                     V                 V

MARYLAND                  V

MASSACHUSETTS             M                 M

MICHIGAN

MINNESOTA                 M                 M

MISSISSIPPI

MISSOURI                  X                 X

MONTANA                                     V

NEBRASKA                  V                 V

NEVADA                                                 Crisis
                                                       intervention
                                                       (short-term
                                                       therapy) and
                                                       referral
                                                       to medical
                                                       department,
                                                       if needed

NEW HAMPSHIRE             V                 V

NEW JERSEY                                  V          See footnote
                                                       for formal
                                                       program
                                                       topics (1)

NEW MEXICO                             No response

NEW YORK                  M                 M

NORTH CAROLINA            V                 V

NORTH DAKOTA              M                            Individual
                                                       counseling is
                                                       extremely
                                                       limited in
                                                       availability.

OHIO                      V

OKLAHOMA

OREGON                                 No response

PENNSYLVANIA              V                 V

RHODE ISLAND                                           See footnote
                                                       (2)

SOUTH CAROLINA

SOUTH DAKOTA                                           Operated by
                                                       the Special
                                                       Treatment of
                                                       Perpetrators
                                                       STOP (3)

TENNESSEE                 V                 V          Sexual
                                                       reconditioning

TEXAS                     M                 M

UTAH                                   No response

VERMONT

VIRGINIA                  V                 V

WASHINGTON                V                 V

WEST VIRGINIA             V

WISCONSIN                M/V                V

WYOMING                   V                 V

CANADIAN SYSTEMS

NOVA SCOTIA

ONTARIO                  M/V                V

                       TYPE OF
                      TREATMENT
                      PROGRAMS

                                      VICTIM-OFFENDER RECONCILIATION
SYSTEM                Comments                PROGRAM IN USE

ALABAMA                              No

ALASKA                                 No response

ARIZONA                              Yes, and designed to focus on
                                     giving victims a voice, using
                                     written exercises, videos and
                                     victim impact panels

ARKANSAS           Some inmates      No
                   may have
                   participation
                   stipulations as
                   a condition
                   for parole
                   consideration
                   but may decline
                   treatment.

CALIFORNIA                           No

COLORADO                             Yes, but not stipulated

CONNECTICUT        A periodic        A victim-offender dialogue
                   screening         that must be victim-initiated
                   interview for
                   classification
                   is mandatory.

DELAWARE                             No

FLORIDA                              No

GEORGIA            All sex           No
                   offender
                   psycho-
                   educational
                   programs are
                   not considered
                   treatment.

HAWAII             Medical or        Offered to those incest sex
                   psychiatric       offenders who seek reunification
                   issues are        with their victimized children
                   referred to the   and only when both the offender's
                   prison health     therapist and the victim's
                   care unit.        therapist agree

IDAHO                                  No response

ILLINOIS                               No response

INDIANA                              No

IOWA                                 No

KANSAS             Offenders         After screening for readiness and
                   may decline       appropriateness, recommendations
                   treatment, with   must be received from Victim
                   consequences to   Services and the offender's
                   follow (loss of   treatment therapist
                   privileges,
                   good time,
                   etc.).

KENTUCKY                             No

LOUISIANA                              No response

MAINE                                No

MARYLAND                             No

MASSACHUSETTS                        No

MICHIGAN           No

MINNESOTA          Direction and     Available for most offenders, but
                   placement for     with specific procedures and
                   treatment is      preparation
                   based on bed
                   availability;
                   individual
                   counseling may
                   be mandatory or
                   voluntary.

MISSISSIPPI        Treatment or      No
                   special
                   interventions
                   are not
                   available.

MISSOURI           Xs are used       Yes, with emphasis on victim
                   to indicate       empathy
                   that all the
                   services are
                   available but
                   were not
                   specified as
                   M or V.

MONTANA                              Unknown

NEBRASKA                             No

NEVADA                               No

NEW HAMPSHIRE                        Coordinated by Victim Services

NEW JERSEY         Treatment is      Yes, as indicated in the New
                   mandatory if      Jersey footnote
                   mandated by the
                   court; if the
                   treatment is
                   rejected by the
                   offender,
                   he/she may be
                   transferred to
                   an optional
                   facility for
                   possible
                   treatment.

NEW MEXICO                             No response

NEW YORK                             Administered by the Office of
                                     Court Administration

NORTH CAROLINA                       No

NORTH DAKOTA       The "mandatory"   No
                   services are
                   defined as
                   staff
                   recommended or
                   court ordered.

OHIO                                 Part of program offered through
                                     Victim Services, but not
                                     separate for sex offenders

OKLAHOMA                             No

OREGON                                 No response

PENNSYLVANIA       While             The Office of the Victim Advocate
                   voluntary, if     uses a mediation program
                   offenders
                   do not
                   successfully
                   complete the
                   program they
                   will not be
                   eligible for
                   parole.

RHODE ISLAND                         Actual mediation is handled by a
                                     local community victim services
                                     office, if the victim contacts
                                     the prison or the parole board.

SOUTH CAROLINA                       No

SOUTH DAKOTA                         No

TENNESSEE                            No

TEXAS                                The victim-offender
                                     mediation/dialogue program
                                     is more a restorative justice
                                     program that can provide a
                                     form of healing.

UTAH                                   No response

VERMONT            The Vermont       Available for the victims if
                   Treatment         they request it
                   Program for
                   Sexual
                   Aggression uses
                   a cognitive-
                   behavioral
                   approach in a
                   therapeutic
                   setting.

VIRGINIA           While             No
                   voluntary,
                   offenders who
                   opt out of the
                   program, by
                   Virginia Code,
                   will lose the
                   ability to earn
                   good time.

WASHINGTON                           No

WEST VIRGINIA                        No

WISCONSIN          Programs are      Victim-offender dialogue is not
                   mandatory in      considered a reconciliation
                   the community     program but is available for all
                   and voluntary     offenders, not restricted by type
                   in the            of crime; only the victim can
                   institutions.     request a meeting.

WYOMING            While             Under development at the present
                   voluntary,        time
                   failure to take
                   a recommended
                   program may
                   result in a
                   loss of
                   privileges or
                   lengthening of
                   sentence.

CANADIAN SYSTEMS

NOVA SCOTIA        All programs      No
                   are provided
                   under community
                   supervision.

ONTARIO            Mandatory in      No
                   the community
                   and voluntary
                   in the
                   institution

M = Mandatory

V = Voluntary

(1) NEW JERSEY: Specific treatment programs are provided for: anger
management, arousal reconditioning, clear thinking, emotional
regulation, personal victimization, relapse prevention, sex
education, social skills/relationship group, stress management and
victim empathy. Medical treatment is voluntary except for in cases
of tuberculosis, hunger strikes (when the inmate's life is at
immediate risk) and mental health treatment when on a forced
medication regime.

(2) RHODE ISLAND: As a long-term, open-ended program designed to
identify and address the contributing factors to sexual violence,
offenders are provided a variety of core groups and skill-building
classes, such as personal accountability, relapse prevention,
cognitive distortion, relationships and communication skills. A
treatment contract is required and all who participate must admit
their offenses and sign a waiver of confidentiality.

(3) SOUTH DAKOTA: The STOP program consists of different steps of
therapy, educational treatment and relapse prevention, including
Family History, Sexual Terminology, Sexual Anatomy and Diagramming,
Disclosure Assignment (History of Pornography, Observed Sexual
Behaviors, Masturbation, Sexual Perpetration), and Sexual History
Polygraph Booklet.

(4) TEXAS: The programs are mandatory when the offender is placed
in one of them. Medical treatment, however, is available for all
offenders, except when directed at impacting sex-offending behavior;
the only medical intervention specifically for sex offenders is
surgical castration, which is voluntary for those offenders who
statutorily qualify.

SEX OFFENDERS--TABLE 3: RELEASE PROVISIONS

                    ALL SEX
                   OFFENDERS
                    ELIGIBLE
SYSTEM             FOR PAROLE                  COMMENTS

ALABAMA               Yes

ALASKA                                 No response

ARIZONA                No       For offenses prior to Jan. 1, 1994,
                                unless sentenced to flat time, or
                                for all sex offenders after Jan. 1,
                                1994

ARKANSAS               No       A two-strikes rule applies for
                                certain sex offenses.

CALIFORNIA            Yes

COLORADO               No       Class 1 felony offenders serve a life
                                sentence with no parole eligibility
                                or a death sentence.

CONNECTICUT           Yes

DELAWARE               No

FLORIDA                No       Abolished in 1983 but an option for
                                very old offenses

GEORGIA                No       Determined on a case-by-case basis

HAWAII                Yes

IDAHO               Unknown

ILLINOIS                               No response

INDIANA               Yes

IOWA                   No       Life sentences are mandatory.

KANSAS                 No       After July 1, 2006, aggravated
                                habitual offenders are sentenced to
                                life without parole if convicted of
                                a sexually violent crime with at
                                least two prior same convictions.

KENTUCKY              Yes

LOUISIANA                              No response

MAINE                  No       Parole has been abolished.

MARYLAND               No       Eligible if crime was committed prior
                                to Oct. 1, 2007

MASSACHUSETTS          No       First-degree lifers are not eligible.

MICHIGAN               No       Offenders who also committed
                                first-degree murder are not eligible

MINNESOTA              No       Sex offenders sentenced to life
                                without parole are not eligible.

MISSISSIPPI            No       Eligible if convicted prior to 1995
                                and required to serve a mandatory
                                sentence. (1)
MISSOURI              Yes

MONTANA                No       When so ordered by the sentencing judge

NEBRASKA              Yes

NEVADA                 No       Offenders with an additional murder
                                conviction are not eligible

NEW HAMPSHIRE       Yes, but    Must complete the sex offender
                   restricted   treatment program; not eligible if
                                sentenced to life without parole

NEW JERSEY             No       Determined by the sentence imposed
                                by the court

NEW MEXICO                             No response

NEW YORK               No       Offenders sentenced to an
                                indeterminate term are eligible for
                                discretionary release. (2)

NORTH CAROLINA         No       Parole was abolished for all crimes
                                committed on or after Oct. 1, 1994;
                                sex offenders are therefore eligible,
                                depending on the date of their crime.

NORTH DAKOTA           No       Gross sexual imposition with force is
                                an 87% truth-in-sentencing case and
                                not parole eligible.

OHIO                   No       Two types of sentences apply: those
                                who receive flat sentences with
                                supervision and those who appear
                                before the parole board.

OKLAHOMA              Yes

OREGON                                 No response

PENNSYLVANIA           No       Offenders given life sentences are
                                not eligible.

RHODE ISLAND           No       Offenders serving life sentences
                                are not eligible.

SOUTH CAROLINA         No       Eligible for crimes committed on
                                or after January 1996 (4)

SOUTH DAKOTA           No       Lifers are not eligible; a new
                                no-parole provision may apply for
                                certain sex offenders, if warranted.

TENNESSEE              No       Certain serious offenses are
                                precluded by statute.

TEXAS                 Yes

UTAH                                   No response

VERMONT                No       Offenders serving mandatory life
                                sentences with no parole are not
                                eligible.

VIRGINIA               No       Eligible for crimes committed on or
                                before Jan. 1, 1995, when parole was
                                abolished

WASHINGTON            Yes

WEST VIRGINIA         Yes

WISCONSIN              No       Eligible for crimes committed prior
                                to Jan. 1, 2000, on a discretionary
                                basis; others are under
                                truth-in-sentencing guidelines

WYOMING                No       Offenders serving life sentences
                                are not eligible

CANADIAN SYSTEMS

NOVA SCOTIA           Yes

ONTARIO               Yes

SYSTEM                         SPECIAL RELEASE PROVISIONS

ALABAMA            Sex offender notification and restrictions on where
                   they may live or areas they may be around

ALASKA                                 No response

ARIZONA            No residing or associating with anyone under age
                   18 without a parent, guardian or responsible adult
                   present; no loitering around areas where the
                   targeted clientele is under 18; register with the
                   sheriff (Maricopa County) within 72 hours and
                   report changes of address; participate in sex
                   offender counseling; and have no contact with the
                   victim

ARKANSAS           Increased supervision applies.

CALIFORNIA         Agreement to a 14-point listing of special
                   conditions that identify factors of drug/alcohol
                   abuse, treatment, contact with minors,
                   associations, residence, travel and movement,
                   possessions and activities

COLORADO           Yes, but unspecified

CONNECTICUT        Registration that includes physical address, e-mail
                   addresses and instant messaging screen name; most
                   sex offenders must attend special sex offender
                   treatment programs; and most are GPS monitored

DELAWARE           None

FLORIDA            Florida Parole Commission special conditions apply.

GEORGIA            Restrictions on residence and employment and on
                   computer use and contact with minors

HAWAII             Must participate in weekly group or individual
                   sessions, be polygraphed at regular intervals, and
                   a for behavior modification as needed for treatment

IDAHO              Unknown

ILLINOIS                               No response

INDIANA            Yes, but unspecified

IOWA               No visitations with minor victims and community
                   treatment is required

KANSAS             Thirteen potential restrictions are imposed, based
                   on the individual sex offender's risks and needs
                   and may include treatment, restricted or limited
                   contact with minors, residence restrictions,
                   limitations on computer use/access, etc.

KENTUCKY           Must enter and successfully complete treatment
                   programs in the community

LOUISIANA                              No response

MAINE

MARYLAND           Offenders must complete the mandatory-minimum
                   sentence if the victim (after Oct. 1, 2007) was
                   under age 13; no employment involving children; no
                   contact with victims or youth organizations; and
                   no possession of child pornography

MASSACHUSETTS      Conditions rest with the parole board, a separate
                   state agency.

MICHIGAN           Numerous standard and special conditions can be
                   imposed on a case-by-case basis when deemed
                   applicable.

MINNESOTA          An entire set of conditions is applied, including
                   additional conditions specific to the offender's
                   offense type and offense characteristics/
                   circumstances.

MISSISSIPPI        Registration with the Mississippi Department of
                   Public Safety and must report monthly and abide
                   by all provisions set forth by statute

MISSOURI           Required to register and continue treatment within
                   the community

MONTANA            Special conditions, if any, may be dictated by
                   court order.

NEBRASKA           Vary on a case-by-case basis but usually include
                   electronic monitoring

NEVADA             Usually subjected to a program of lifetime
                   supervision and subject to community registration,
                   depending on the tier of their offense

NEW HAMPSHIRE      Standard stipulations apply and offenders are
                   required to register.

NEW JERSEY         General conditions are determined by the state
                   parole board depending on the sentencing terms,
                   such as community supervision for life or parole
                   supervision for life.

NEW MEXICO                             No response

NEW YORK           Numerous special conditions can be applied over
                   and above the standard conditions, and the Division
                   of Parole is responsible for establishing the
                   individualized conditions of release.

NORTH CAROLINA     Specially trained parole officers are used and
                   parole restrictions apply; selected offenders may
                   be placed on GPS monitoring depending on the crime
                   dynamics and some for life.

NORTH DAKOTA       Seventeen special conditions have been added
                   to standard conditions of parole that include
                   restrictions on residence, treatment, suitable
                   employment, loitering, purchase or possession of
                   sexually stimulating materials, use of a 900 phone
                   number, etc.

OHIO               Subject to special sex offender conditions of
                   supervision as well as complying with parole
                   board conditions

OKLAHOMA           Specific rules and conditions pertain to
                   registration and residency restrictions, treatment
                   and polygraph requirements

OREGON                                 No response

PENNSYLVANIA       Often restricted to residency locations and access
                   to computers; when the victim(s) include minors,
                   interaction restrictions may be applied; possession
                   of pornography is prohibited; treatment is
                   typically required in virtually all cases
                   including polygraph testing

RHODE ISLAND       Standard parole conditions apply, as well as
                   special conditions; treatment is mandatory and
                   other conditions may apply, such as unsupervised
                   contact with minors, substance abuse or mental
                   health treatment, and no contact with victim.

SOUTH CAROLINA     All sex offenders must report to local law
                   enforcement and register on the state's sex
                   offender registry database. For crimes committed
                   before 1996, parole supervision applies; community
                   release offenders are subject to two years of
                   community supervision; offenders completing their
                   sentence for crimes committed before 1996 do not
                   have community supervision, but must register.

SOUTH DAKOTA       Must comply with sex offender registry
                   requirements, and treatment may apply to some.

TENNESSEE          Electronic monitoring if required by statute;
                   proximity restrictions; or subject to certain
                   restrictions on conduct imposed b the Board of
                   Probation and Parole

TEXAS              Special conditions are imposed on most sex
                   offenders consisting of seven mandatory components
                   that include treatment, no victim contact, certain
                   occupations, attendance at an institution of
                   higher learning without board approval, viewing
                   pornography and polygraph testing, plus three
                   additional conditions if the crime was on a child
                   and six other discretionary conditions.

UTAH                                   No response

VERMONT            Numerous conditions apply per the parole board and
                   the department.

VIRGINIA           When returning to certain districts, special
                   conditions may be imposed by the district
                   officials.

WASHINGTON         Special conditions may apply as well as lifetime
                   supervision in some cases.

WEST VIRGINIA      Registration and restrictions on proximity to
                   minors, schools, etc.

WISCONSIN          Assigned parole agents set special conditions after
                   release such as electronic monitoring, residency
                   requirements, no contact requirements, etc.;
                   mandatory GPS tracking for certain serious sex
                   offenders is slated to take effect in the near
                   future.

WYOMING            A 30-subject listing of special conditions is
                   applicable.

CANADIAN SYSTEMS

NOVA SCOTIA        Special conditions may be applied per the
                   discretion of the National Parole Board.

ONTARIO            Special conditions may be applied on a case-by-case
                   basis dependent on conditional sentence/probation
                   order.

SYSTEM             RECIDIVISM TRACKING

ALABAMA            All inmates returning into the system are tracked.

ALASKA                                 No response

ARIZONA            Yes, including recording applicable data

ARKANSAS           No

CALIFORNIA         No

COLORADO           Unknown

CONNECTICUT        No

DELAWARE           No

FLORIDA            Yes, as with all releasees

GEORGIA            Statistical monitoring of those returned to prison
                   for new offense and technical violations

HAWAII             Yes, for all releasees for life (the state has a
                   20-year record)

IDAHO              Unknown

ILLINOIS                               No response

INDIANA            Yes, a rate for sex offenders is computed as well
                   as for the general population.

IOWA               Three-year tracking

KANSAS             Yes, via a contracted provider for one to three
                   years

KENTUCKY           No

LOUISIANA                              No response

MAINE              No

MARYLAND           No, sex offender parolees are so few (2.2%) that
                   the need is not considered vital.

MASSACHUSETTS      Yes, and broken down to first-, second- and
                   third-year figures

MICHIGAN           Yes, routine analyses for each annual release
                   cohort

MINNESOTA          Yes, including separation by offense type, is a
                   part of the biennial performance report, with
                   additional research reports specifically on sex
                   offenders

MISSISSIPPI        No

MISSOURI           Yes, focusing on those who complete treatment or
                   do not complete treatment and the reasons for the
                   failure

MONTANA            Yes, tracked for violations and returns to prison

NEBRASKA           Tracked on a three-year basis for technical
                   violations and new crimes committed

NEVADA             Yes, and are considered part of the department's
                   population until the expire

NEW HAMPSHIRE      Yes, for those released from or returned to the
                   state prison

NEW JERSEY         Requirement to study all releasees from the Adult
                   Diagnostic and Treatment Center to measure program
                   effectiveness to repetitive and compulsive
                   offenders

NEW MEXICO                             No response

NEW YORK           Yes, a three-year post-release follow-up

NORTH CAROLINA     No

NORTH DAKOTA       No

OHIO               Yes, a 10-year study by the Bureau of Research
                   and a follow-up study

OKLAHOMA           No, but parole and the department have the
                   capability

OREGON                                 No response

PENNSYLVANIA       No, due to staffing resources, but has the
                   capability to do so

RHODE ISLAND       Yes, periodic retrospective studies are
                   conducted. (3)

SOUTH CAROLINA     Tracking is completed for all releasees who return
                   to prison but individual follow-up is not
                   conducted by the department.

SOUTH DAKOTA       No

TENNESSEE          No

TEXAS              Tracked by the Texas Legislative Budget Board but
                   not specifically rated for sex offenders

UTAH                                   No response

VERMONT            Yes, based on the "Outcome of a Treatment Program
                   for Adult Sex Offenders" (Journal of Interpersonal
                   Violence, 2003)

VIRGINIA           Yes, for a period of three years, with plans for
                   a five-year study

WASHINGTON         Yes, for a five-year period measured as a new
                   commitment that results in a return to prison

WEST VIRGINIA      Yes, periodic studies

WISCONSIN          Yes, baseline studies covering periods from 1980
                   through 2002 involving 480,000 offenders have been
                   conducted as well as other baseline studies

WYOMING            Yes, for those whose crimes were committed within
                   the state

CANADIAN SYSTEMS

NOVA SCOTIA        No

ONTARIO            No

(1) MISSISSIPPI: Offenders convicted after 1995 are required to
serve 85 percent of their sentences; capital rape may receive death
sentence by injection or a life sentence that now requires serving
until age 65; if they are age 55 or older upon conviction, they must
serve 12 years.

(2) NEW YORK: When sentenced to determinate terms, offenders may
earn good time; however, such offenders are not eligible for
discretionary release. A person convicted as a second violent felony
offender on or after Oct. l, 1995; as a violent felony offender on or
after Sept. 1, 1998; or any felony sex offense on or after April 13,
2007, is sentenced to a determinate term of imprisonment and a period
of post-release supervision.

(3) RHODE ISLAND: The studies provide data for sex offenders released
on parole with a specific release cohort, but the department does
not aggregate recidivism statistics for any group of offenders in
real-time.

(4) SOUTH CAROLINA: Truth-in-sentencing legislation passed in 1995
designated most sex offenses as no-parole; therefore, sex offenders
who committed crimes on or after January 1996 must serve 85% of their
sentence before release and be supervised in the community for two
years.

SEX OFFENDERS--TABLE 4: LEGISLATIVE ACTIONS (WITHIN THE PAST TWO
YEARS)

SYSTEM                             LEGISLATIVE ACTIONS

ALABAMA            Amended the Sex Offender Community Notification
                   statute

ALASKA             No response

ARIZONA            Convicted homeless sex offenders must register as
                   transients; Motor Vehicles must update addresses
                   annually; monitored with a GPS system if convicted
                   of dangerous crimes against children; those who
                   fail to register must be sentenced to either
                   lifetime probation or imprisonment for not less
                   than the presumptive sentences authorized by law;
                   statements made while undergoing sex offender
                   treatment are not admissible in a criminal
                   proceeding unless a new violation has been
                   determined; Level 3 sex offenders (against
                   children) prohibited from living within 1,000 feet
                   of a school or child care facility; and registered
                   sex offenders must notify local county sheriff of
                   e-mail addresses or other online identifiers

ARKANSAS           None

CALIFORNIA         Five separate legislative actions

COLORADO           Revisions to sex offender registration and
                   community notification, including sexual violent
                   predator provisions

CONNECTICUT        Updated registry rules; a Risk Assessment Board was
                   established; the department must ensure registry;
                   e-mail addresses and instant message screen names
                   must be registered; special treatment is required
                   as a condition of probation or conditional
                   discharge; and a DNA test is required before
                   release

DELAWARE           Provided a two-year window during which victims
                   can bring forth a civil action; amended the
                   existing Megan's Law to conform to recent federal
                   legislative changes required under the Adam Walsh
                   Act; created a Sex Offender Management Board;
                   created explicit protections for children in civil
                   custody matters; provided GPS tracking for tier
                   III sex offenders; allowed for the use of digital
                   outdoor advertising technology; expanded the
                   definition of sexual offenses; expanded coverage
                   of the Child Safe School Zone Act; mandated a life
                   sentence by the Superior Court if convicted of a
                   class A or B felony sex offense against a child;
                   increased the visibility and content of the sex
                   offender Web site; and required the court to make
                   specific findings of fact prior to a visitation
                   order where a child must be brought to a
                   correctional facility

FLORIDA            Amended Jessica's Law

GEORGIA            Increased mandatory minimums for certain sex
                   offenses, proximity restrictions and lifetime
                   registration

HAWAII             None

IDAHO              Increased the maximum terms for a number of sex
                   crimes, such as murder during perpetration;
                   increased mandatory-minimum sentences for certain
                   repeat offenders; the statute of limitations was
                   eliminated for certain sex crimes against children;
                   and proximity to schools was restricted

ILLINOIS           No response

INDIANA            Oversight of registration was moved to the
                   department; applied more restrictions; loss of
                   credit time if treatment is refused; and enhanced
                   sexually violent predator statute

IOWA               Established either 10-ear or lifetime supervision
                   for most sex offenders

KANSAS             Increased penalties for sex offenses against
                   children (Jessica's Law); increased registration
                   requirements; established a Sex Offender Policy
                   Council to review key sex offender issues during
                   the next two years, addressed registration issues
                   in compliance with the federal Adam Walsh Act, and
                   extended the residential restriction moratorium to
                   June 30, 2009

KENTUCKY           Required registration of e-mail, instant messaging,
                   chat and other internet communications identities;
                   extensive changes relative to sex offenses and
                   punishment

LOUISIANA          No response

MAINE              Unknown

MARYLAND           Mandatory 25-year sentences for sex offenses
                   against a child under 13; extended sex offender
                   parole supervision for life; notification by local
                   law enforcement to local communities into which a
                   sex offender moves; and established a Sex Offender
                   Advisory Board and sex offender management teams,
                   staffed by the Division of Parole and Probation

MASSACHUSETTS      Increased the statute of limitations for sexual
                   crimes against children; registration requirements
                   must be completed within five days by custodial
                   agencies, which includes anticipated future
                   residence and anticipated secondary addresses,
                   offense history, documentation of any treatment
                   received for a mental abnormality, official version
                   of any sex offenses, prior incarceration history,
                   and the projected maximum release date and earliest
                   possible release date; and must provide all
                   information on offender transfers to the board
                   within 10 days

MICHIGAN           Changes to registration act; and revised
                   legislative sentencing guidelines scoring for
                   selected sex offenses and characteristics

MINNESOTA          Provided mandatory life sentences without parole
                   for certain egregious first-time sex offenders and
                   repeat offenders; placed a mandatory conditional
                   release supervision time from five to 10 years
                   for sex offenders, unless receiving lifetime
                   supervision; and an amendment to include a
                   screening committee and independent legal counsel
                   within the screening process conducted b the
                   department prior to release of sex offenders

MISSISSIPPI        Made a stalking violation by a registered sex
                   offender a felony, criminalized eluding
                   registration; authorized electronic monitoring;
                   began participation in federal DNA Indexing
                   System; and revised registration law to conform
                   to federal Adam Walsh Act

MISSOURI           Created "attempted" statutory rape and sodomy child
                   molestation with previous conviction; school
                   proximity restrictions within 500 feet; and
                   requirements for failure to register

MONTANA            Established guidelines for sex offenses against
                   children 12 or under

NEBRASKA           Enhanced penalties and enacted lifetime sex
                   offender monitoring

NEVADA             Enhanced sentencing; tightened parole conditions
                   and enforcement of community registration; and
                   required all sex offenders to be registered prior
                   to release from custody

NEW HAMPSHIRE      Passed a Sexual Predatory Act that increases the
                   length of sentence and allows for five-year civil
                   commitment following incarceration in specifically
                   identified circumstances

NEW JERSEY         Municipal not state legislation restricting
                   residences

NEW MEXICO         No response

NEW YORK           Amended Sex Offender Management and Treatment Act
                   providing determinate sentencing for all felony
                   sex offenders; increased period of post-release
                   supervision; enhanced treatment while incarcerated;
                   provided a comprehensive system for reviewing sex
                   offenders upon release, parole or post-release
                   supervision; and designated agencies with
                   jurisdiction to determine whether a detained sex
                   offender has a mental abnormality that may lead to
                   confinement in a secure treatment facility operated
                   by the Office of Mental Health

NORTH CAROLINA     GPS monitoring for some offenders and strict
                   registration laws in compliance to the federal
                   Adam Walsh Law

NORTH DAKOTA       Restricted proximity to schools; mandatory
                   sentencing; mandatory probation supervision; and
                   statute involving civil commitments

OHIO               Two bills (unspecified)

OKLAHOMA           Lengthened minimum sentences for some sex crimes;
                   requirements for longer periods of registration,
                   risk assessment and residence restrictions; and
                   mandatory obtainment of an annual driver's license
                   designating them as a sex offender

OREGON             No response

PENNSYLVANIA       Increased mandatory-minimum sentences for certain
                   offenses from 25 to 50 years, including for an
                   offense involving a child 13 or under; registration
                   for any resident convicted of a crime in another
                   state; GPS monitoring for life; established an
                   online location map accessible to the public on
                   location of sex offenders; established a new
                   chapter in the Crimes Code that included failure to
                   comply with registration requirements of Megan's
                   Law; places on the Sex Offender Assessment Board
                   certain requirements for written description of the
                   offense; required data inclusion of a physical
                   description of the offender; and requires employers
                   to perform background checks on all potential
                   employees who would have regular contact with
                   children

RHODE ISLAND       Assigns penalties for child molestation,
                   first-degree sexual assault (Jessica's Law)

SOUTH CAROLINA     Unknown

SOUTH DAKOTA       Enhanced registration requirements; increased
                   penalties for failure to register; created
                   community safety zones involving loitering or
                   residency; a mandatory requirement for state
                   participation in the national Sex Offender
                   Registry; created a statewide Sex Offender
                   registry and Internet access; required risk
                   assessments prior to sentencing; increased
                   penalties for recidivist sex offenders with young
                   victims; created new felony offenses for harboring
                   sex offenders or for threats to commit another
                   offense; enhanced the felony for out-of-state
                   offenders failing to register their move to the
                   state; and applying no-parole provisions for
                   certain sex offenders if warranted, based on
                   history and assessments

TENNESSEE          Toughened penalties for sex offenders; heightened
                   scrutiny of released offenders; and laced
                   restrictions on offenders released into the
                   community

TEXAS              Six Senate and House bills were provided impacting
                   major changes in current legislation [] far too
                   extensive to delineate in this survey, but refer
                   to the department for detailed information

UTAH               No response

VERMONT            Numerous revisions to statutes concerning
                   sentencing serious sex offenders, including
                   mandatory-minimum, life maximums and higher
                   minimums

VIRGINIA           Mandatory GPS monitoring for offenders failing to
                   register; enactment of a narrow proximity law; and
                   a prohibition for offenders convicted of certain
                   offenses from entering school property

WASHINGTON         Not available at resent time

WEST VIRGINIA      A Child Protection Act that included a wide range
                   of implications for sentencing and sex offender
                   management

WISCONSIN          Registration requirements for sex offenders based
                   upon a juvenile delinquency adjudication; lifetime
                   imprisonment for certain sex offenders; provided
                   penalties for sexual contact or intercourse
                   involving a 16- or 17-year-old by a person who
                   works or interacts with him/her through an
                   occupation or volunteer position; DNA testing;
                   mandatory confinement terms for certain child sex
                   offenses; GPS monitoring; registry changes to
                   include residency and Web site information; defined
                   a sexually violent person; defined sexual contact
                   and provided penalties; provided penalties for
                   sexual intercourse or contact with a person under
                   the influence of alcohol; and provided penalties
                   for sexual assault of a child

WYOMING            Possible life imprisonment for sex offenders with
                   two or more sex convictions

CANADIAN SYSTEMS

NOVA SCOTIA        None

ONTARIO            None

SEX OFFENDERS--TABLE 5: POLICY CHANGES (WITHIN THE PAST TWO YEARS)

                      POLICY CHANGES IN          POLICY CHANGES IN
SYSTEM                    SENTENCING                CORRECTIONS

ALABAMA            Not available              No changes

ALASKA                                 No response

ARIZONA            No change                  Increased program
                                              funding for Sex Offender
                                              Education and Treatment,
                                              an evidence-based
                                              program offered to both
                                              male and female
                                              offenders.

ARKANSAS           Increased sentencing       Pro-active policy to
                   felony level for           eliminate rape in prison
                   incorrect address on IDs
                   when registering; living
                   near a victim, a school
                   or a day care center;
                   entering a school
                   campus; indecent
                   exposure; transporting
                   a minor for prohibited
                   sexual conduct; and
                   sexual indecency with a
                   child

CALIFORNIA         No change                  No change

COLORADO           No major change            No major change

CONNECTICUT        No change                  No change

DELAWARE           No change                  No change

FLORIDA            Jessica Lunsford Act,      Numerous local
                   requiring use of GPS       ordinances restricting
                   monitoring for some sex    residences (proximity to
                   offenders not sentenced    schools, etc.) affect
                   to prison                  placement of released
                                              inmates.

GEORGIA            Mandatory minimums         A procedure to ensure
                   increased on most sex      that all offenders are
                   offenders but not for      registered prior to
                   first-time sex             release
                   offenders.

HAWAII             No change                  No change

IDAHO              No change                  No change

ILLINOIS                               No response

INDIANA            Revisions to the Indiana   Registration oversight
                   Code that increased        was moved to the
                   registration length and    Indiana Department of
                   frequency                  Corrections, and all sex
                                              offenders are housed at
                                              two specific treatment
                                              facilities.

IOWA               No particular changes      GPS monitoring has been
                                              implemented in the
                                              community.

KANSAS             Parole eligibility as      A new parole unit was
                   noted on Table 3           formed as a pilot
                                              project to manage and
                                              supervise a select group
                                              of higher-risk sex
                                              offenders using a GPS
                                              monitoring system.

KENTUCKY           Harsher penalties for      Sex offenders are
                   most felon sex offenders   moved to specialized
                                              supervision officers.

LOUISIANA                              No response

MAINE              No change                  No change

MARYLAND           Parole and probation       No change
                   guidelines have changed
                   somewhat

MASSACHUSETTS      No change                  No change

MICHIGAN           Sentencing reform that     A partnership with
                   could affect all offense   Kalamazoo County on its
                   types still under          federal Comprehensive
                   consideration              Approaches to Sex
                                              Offender Management
                                              (CASOM) grant to pilot
                                              comprehensive approaches
                                              to sex offender
                                              management

MINNESOTA          No change                  Enhancement of the
                                              department's sexual
                                              psychopathic
                                              personality/sexual
                                              dangerous person policy,
                                              a screening process by
                                              adding independent legal
                                              counsel

MISSISSIPPI        No change                  A revision of
                                              departmental policies
                                              and standard operating
                                              procedures

MISSOURI           Probation and parole now   No change
                   has access to search sex
                   offenders' home
                   computers.

MONTANA            No change                  No change

NEBRASKA           Enhanced penalties         Based on a new category
                                              for civil commitment
                                              (dangerous sex
                                              offender), the
                                              department has the
                                              responsibility for
                                              evaluating certain sex
                                              offenders prior to
                                              their discharge and
                                              has implemented a new
                                              treatment model that
                                              includes three levels
                                              of treatment using the
                                              health lives model.

NEVADA             Increased enforcement      Enhanced conditions for
                   and compliance with        parole
                   community registration

NEW HAMPSHIRE      Increased sentences and    Adopted a detailed
                   requirement to identify    Prison Rape Elimination
                   convicted sex offenders    Act policy
                   who are eligible for a
                   new five-year civil
                   commitment

NEW JERSEY         No change                  No change

NEW MEXICO                             No response

NEW YORK           No change                  Having helped negotiate
                                              new legislation,
                                              the department has
                                              significantly enhanced
                                              its capacity to provide
                                              sex offender treatment,
                                              in essence doubling the
                                              treatment capacity, and
                                              introduced a more
                                              comprehensive treatment
                                              program for moderate-and
                                              high-risk offenders.

NORTH CAROLINA     Unknown                    Reduced the numbers
                                              eligible for
                                              community-based programs
                                              such as work release

NORTH DAKOTA       Yes, but not specified     Significant changes,
                                              including school
                                              property prohibitions,
                                              mandatory sentences,
                                              mandatory supervision
                                              on probation, civil
                                              commitment statute
                                              changes and more

OHIO               No change                  No change

OKLAHOMA           Lengthened minimum         Requirement for longer
                   sentences for some sex     periods of registration,
                   crimes                     risk assessment and
                                              stricter residency
                                              restrictions, and
                                              requiring offenders to
                                              obtain an annual drivers
                                              license designating
                                              them as a sex offender

OREGON                                 No response

PENNSYLVANIA       Based on legislation       A policy issued in
                   noted on Table 4           December 2005 was the
                                              first standardized
                                              change in assessment/
                                              treatment of adult sex
                                              offenders.

RHODE ISLAND       No policies in effect      No policies in effect
                                              for management of
                                              incarcerated sex
                                              offenders except for
                                              notifying offenders of
                                              their duty to register
                                              with law enforcement
                                              agencies and procedures
                                              for notification

SOUTH CAROLINA     No change                  No change

SOUTH DAKOTA       No change                  Registration requirement
                                              for incarcerated sex
                                              offenders

TENNESSEE          Unknown as these are       No change
                   determined by the courts

TEXAS              As noted on Table 4        No change

UTAH                                   No response

VERMONT            Many revisions, as noted   Supervision and release
                   on Table 4                 criteria and designation
                                              of high-risk,
                                              noncompliant sex
                                              offender status

VIRGINIA           No change                  Policy decisions have
                                              revolved around new
                                              legislation noted on
                                              Table 4

WASHINGTON         Additional offenses        Release strategies and
                   require registration;      the need for approved
                   new crimes have been       addresses for all
                   added as registerable,     current sex offenders;
                   such as criminal           return of offenders to
                   trespass against a         the county of their
                   child; failure to          first conviction in the
                   register now is a          state of Washington;
                   felony; and there is       and reentry programming
                   increased law              available to all
                   enforcement verification   offenders
                   of level II and level
                   III offenders.

WEST VIRGINIA      No changes were            No change
                   specified

WISCONSIN          No change                  Mandatory GPS monitoring
                                              in the community for
                                              certain sex offenders is
                                              scheduled to take effect
                                              in the near future;
                                              day-to-day instruction
                                              available to probation
                                              and parole agents to
                                              incorporate new
                                              legislation due to
                                              having no written
                                              materials available;
                                              elimination of Sex
                                              Offenders Treatment
                                              Deniers program; only
                                              one opportunity to
                                              participate in treatment
                                              due to available bed
                                              space; and allowed
                                              minimum custody on a
                                              more limited basis

WYOMING            No change                  Implemented a sex
                                              offender risk assessment
                                              tool and contracted for
                                              sex offender treatment

CANADIAN SYSTEMS

NOVA SCOTIA        No change                  No change

ONTARIO            Risk assessments must be   Risk assessment
                   reported in presentence    supervision of offenders
                   reports for the court.     in the community is
                                              reported.
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Title Annotation:Survey Summary
Publication:Corrections Compendium
Article Type:Table
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Mar 1, 2008
Words:7910
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