Sex and STI/HIV education.BACKGROUND: The advent of the AIDS epidemic epidemic, outbreak of disease that affects a much greater number of people than is usual for the locality or that spreads to regions where it is ordinarily not present. in the 1980s spurred states to reevaluate Verb 1. reevaluate - revise or renew one's assessment
appraise, assess, evaluate, valuate, value, measure - evaluate or estimate the nature, quality, ability, extent, or significance of; "I will have the family jewels appraised by a professional"; their sex education policies and, in some cases, expand their requirements. Most states require that public schools teach some form of sex or STI/HIV education. Most states, including some that do not mandate the instruction itself, also place requirements on how abstine or contraception contraception: see birth control.
Birth control by prevention of conception or impregnation. The most common method is sterilization. The most effective temporary methods are nearly 99% effective if used consistently and correctly. should be handled when included in a school district's curriculum. This guidance is heavily weighted toward stressing abstinence abstinence: see fasting; temperance movements. ; in contrast, while many states allow or require that contraception be covered, none requires that it be stressed. Further affecting whether students receive instruction on sex or STIs/HIV are parental consent requirements or the more frequent "opt-out" clauses, which allow parents to remove students from instruction the parents find objectionable.
* 20 states and the District of Columbia District of Columbia, federal district (2000 pop. 572,059, a 5.7% decrease in population since the 1990 census), 69 sq mi (179 sq km), on the east bank of the Potomac River, coextensive with the city of Washington, D.C. (the capital of the United States). mandate that public schools teach sex education; many states, including several that do not mandate sex education, place requirements on how abstinence and contraception are treated when taught.
* 23 states require that abstinence be stressed when taught as part of sex education; 10 states require simply that it be covered during instruction.
* 14 states and the District of Columbia require that sex education programs cover contraception; no state requires that it be stressed.
* 35 states and the District of Columbia require the provision of STI/HIV education; many place requirements on how abstinence and contraception are treated.
* 26 states require that abstinence be stressed when taught as part of STD/HIV education; 11 require that it be covered.
* 17 states require that STI/HIV programs cover contraception; no state requires that it be stressed.
* 38 states and the District of Columbia require school districts to permit parental involvement in sexuality and STI/HIV education.
* 3 states require parental consent in order for students to participate in sex or STI/HIV education.
* 36 states and the District of Columbia allow parents to remove their children from instruction.
FOR MORE INFORMATION:
For information on state legislative and policy activity click on Guttmacher's Monthly State Update and for state level information and data on reproductive health Within the framework of WHO's definition of health as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, reproductive health, or sexual health/hygiene issues, click on Guttmacher's State Center.
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Masters NT et al., The opposite of sex? adolescents' thoughts about abstinence and sex, and their sexual behavior sexual behavior A person's sexual practices–ie, whether he/she engages in heterosexual or homosexual activity. See Sex life, Sexual life. , Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 2008, 40(2):87-93.
Boonstra HD, Matter of faith: support for comprehensive sex education among faith-based In the United States of America, the term faith-based is used to describe organizations that are religious in nature and distinguish those organizations from government, public or private secular organizations. organizations, Guttmacher Policy Review, 2008, 11(1):17-22.
Constantine Constantine, city, Algeria
Constantine (kŏn`stəntēn), ancient Cirta, city (1998 pop. 462,187), capital of Constantine dept., NE Algeria, on the gorge of the Rhumel River. NA, Jerman P and Huang Huang (Chinese: 黃) is a Chinese surname. While Huang is the pinyin romanisation of the word, it may also be romanised as Wong, Vong, Bong, Ng, Uy, Wee, Oi, Oei or Ooi, Ong, Hwang, or Ung due to pronunciations of the word in AX, California California (kăl'ĭfôr`nyə), most populous state in the United States, located in the Far West; bordered by Oregon (N), Nevada and, across the Colorado River, Arizona (E), Mexico (S), and the Pacific Ocean (W). parents' preferences and beliefs regarding school-based sex education policy, Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 2007, 39(3):167-175.
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Dailard C, Legislating leg·is·late
v. leg·is·lat·ed, leg·is·lat·ing, leg·is·lates
To create or pass laws.
To create or bring about by or as if by legislation. against arousal arousal /arous·al/ (ah-rou´z'l)
1. a state of responsiveness to sensory stimulation or excitability.
2. the act or state of waking from or as if from sleep.
3. : the growing divide between federal policy and teenage sexual behavior, Guttmacher Policy Review, 2006, 9(3):12-16.
Yarber WL et al., Public Opinion About Condoms for HIV HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus), either of two closely related retroviruses that invade T-helper lymphocytes and are responsible for AIDS. There are two types of HIV: HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is responsible for the vast majority of AIDS in the United States. and STD (Subscriber Trunk Dialing) Long distance dialing outside of the U.S. that does not require operator intervention. STD prefix codes are required and billing is based on call units, which are a fixed amount of money in the currency of that country. Prevention: A Midwestern State Telephone Survey, Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 2005, 37(3):148-154.
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The Alan Guttmacher Alan Frank Guttmacher (1898-1974) was an American physician.
He served as president of Planned Parenthood and vice-president of the American Eugenics Society, founded the Association for the Study of Abortion in 1964, was a member of the Association for Voluntary Institute (AGI (Artificial General Intelligence) A machine intelligence that resembles that of a human being. Considered impossible by many, most artificial intelligence (AI) research, projects and products deal with specific applications such as industrial robots, playing chess, ), Sex Education: Needs, Programs and Policies, New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of : AGI, 2003.
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Use of measures designed to regulate the number and spacing of children within a family, largely to curb population growth and ensure each family’s access to limited resources. Perspectives, 2001, 33(4):166-171.
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American physician. He shared a 1956 Nobel Prize for developing cardiac catheterization. CL, Abstinence promotion and the provision of information in public school district sexuality education policies, Family Planning Perspectives, 1999, 31(6):280-286.
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STATE SEX AND STI/HIV EDUCATION POLICY SEX EDUCATION If Taught, Content Required STATE Mandated Abstinence Contraception Alabama Stress Cover Arizona Stress Arkansas Stress California Cover Cover Colorado Stress Cover Connecticut Cover Delaware X Cover Cover Dist. of Columbia X Cover Florida X Cover Georgia X Cover Hawaii X Stress Cover Idaho Illinois Stress ([double dagger]) Indiana Stress Iowa X Kansas X Kentucky X Cover Louisiana Stress Maine X Stress Cover Maryland X Cover Cover Massachusetts Michigan Stress Minnesota X Mississippi ([OMEGA]) Stress Missouri Stress Montana X Cover Nevada X New Hampshire New Jersey X New Mexico New York North Carolina X Stress Ohio Oklahoma Stress Oregon X Stress Cover Pennsylvania Rhode Island X Stress Cover South Carolina X Stress Cover South Dakota ([PHI]) Tennessee X Stress Texas Stress Utah ([??]) X Stress Vermont X Cover Cover Virginia Cover Cover Washington Stress Cover West Virginia Stress Cover Wisconsin Stress TOTAL 20 +DC STI/HIV EDUCATION If Taught, Content Required STATE Mandated Abstinence Contraception Alabama X Stress Cover Arizona Stress Arkansas Stress California X Cover Cover Colorado Stress Connecticut X Delaware X Cover Cover Dist. of Columbia X Florida X Georgia X Cover Hawaii X Stress Cover Idaho Illinois Stress Cover ([double dagger]) ([double dagger]) Indiana X Stress Iowa X Kansas X Kentucky X Cover Louisiana Stress Maine X Stress Cover Maryland X Cover Cover Massachusetts Michigan X Stress Minnesota X Cover Mississippi ([OMEGA]) Stress Missouri X Stress Montana X Cover Nevada X New Hampshire X Cover New Jersey X New Mexico X Stress Cover New York X Stress Cover North Carolina X Stress Ohio X Stress Oklahoma X Cover Cover Oregon X Stress Cover Pennsylvania X Stress Rhode Island X Stress Cover South Carolina X Stress Cover South Dakota ([PHI]) Tennessee X Stress Texas Stress Utah ([??]) X Stress Vermont X Cover Cover Virginia Cover Cover Washington X Stress Cover West Virginia X Stress Cover Wisconsin X Stress TOTAL 35+DC PARENTAL ROLE Consent Opt-out STATE Required Permitted Alabama X * Arizona X ([dagger]) X ([dagger]) Arkansas California X Colorado X Connecticut X Delaware Dist. of Columbia X Florida X Georgia X Hawaii Idaho X Illinois X Indiana Iowa X Kansas X Kentucky Louisiana X Maine X Maryland X Massachusetts X * Michigan X Minnesota X Mississippi ([OMEGA]) X Missouri X Montana X ([dagger]) Nevada X New Hampshire X New Jersey X * New Mexico New York X ([dagger]) North Carolina Ohio X Oklahoma X Oregon X Pennsylvania X *, ([dagger]) Rhode Island X South Carolina X South Dakota ([PHI]) Tennessee X Texas X Utah ([??]) X Vermont X * Virginia X Washington X West Virginia X Wisconsin X TOTAL 3 36+DC * Parents' removal of student must be based on religious or moral beliefs. ([dagger]) In AZ, MT, NY and PA, opt-out is only permitted for STI education, including instruction on HIV; in AZ, parental consent is required only for sex education. ([double dagger]) IL has a broad set of laws mandating general health education, including abstinence; a more specific second law requires a school district that provides sex education to stress abstinence and to provide statistics on the efficacy of condoms as HIV/STI prevention. ([OMEGA]) Localities may override state requirements for sex education topics, including abstinence; state prohibits including material that "contradicts the required components." ([PHI]) Abstinence is taught within state-mandated character education. ([??]) State prohibits teachers from responding to students' spontaneous questions in ways that conflict with the law's requirements.