Serum lipid profiles including non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in Turkish school-children / Turk okul cocuklarinda serum lipid profili ve non-HDL kolesterol duzeyleri.ABSTRACT
Objective: Early detection of dyslipidemia and long-term prevention of atherosclerosis atherosclerosis (ăth'ərōsklərō`sĭs): see arteriosclerosis.
or hardening of the arteries by controlling risk factors should begin in childhood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of dyslipidemia according to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. non-high density lipoprotein lipoprotein (lĭp'əprō`tēn), any organic compound that is composed of both protein and the various fatty substances classed as lipids, including fatty acids and steroids such as cholesterol. cholesterol (non-HDL-C) levels in children and also evaluate serum non-HDL-C levels according to age groups, gender difference and living areas.
Methods: Overall, 2896 children (1467 girls, 1429 boys) aged between 7-18 years, residing in urban and rural parts of Eskisehir, Turkey, were enrolled in this randomized ran·dom·ize
tr.v. ran·dom·ized, ran·dom·iz·ing, ran·dom·iz·es
To make random in arrangement, especially in order to control the variables in an experiment. cross-sectional study cross-sectional study
See synchronic study.
n the scientific method for the analysis of data gathered from two or more samples at one point in time. . Serum non-HDL-C, total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels were assessed in all participants of the study. Statistical analysis was performed Student's independent-samples T test for comparison of lipid lipid
Any of a diverse class of organic compounds, found in all living things, that are greasy and insoluble in water. One of the three large classes of substances in foods and living cells, lipids contain more than twice as much energy (calories) per unit of weight as the parameters and relations between lipid parameters and age, anthropometric measurements anthropometric measurements (anˈ·thrō·p , body fat percentage were evaluated by Pearson correlation test.
Results: Serum non-HDL-C levels were significantly higher in girls (115.5 [+ or -] 31.5mg/dl) than boys (106.7 [+ or -] 30.2 mg/Dl) (p<0.001). For girls, serum non-HDL-C levels were higher in 7-10 year age group than in 11-14-year and 15-18-year age groups (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively). For boys serum non-HDL-C levels of 7-10 year age group were significantly higher than in 11-14-year and 15-18-year age groups (p<0.001 for both). Serum non-HDL-C, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels were higher in girls than in boys especially in the 7-10-year-old age group. Serum TC, LDL-C LDL-C low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol , and HDL-C HDL-C high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol. levels were higher in urban area residents, while serum TG levels were higher in rural area residents (p<0.001). Serum non-HDL-C levels were similar in residents of different living areas (p>0.05). In both sexes, non-HDL-C levels positively correlated cor·re·late
v. cor·re·lat·ed, cor·re·lat·ing, cor·re·lates
1. To put or bring into causal, complementary, parallel, or reciprocal relation.
2. with age and lipid parameters except HDL-C levels and also negatively correlated with HDL-C levels. In boys, non-HDL-C levels also correlated with total body fat percentage, weight, height. The prevalence of dyslipidemia according to non-HDL-C levels was higher (13.2%) in girls than boys (8.9%) (p<0.001). The prevalence of elevated non-HDL-C levels was higher in urban area residents than in rural area residents (p<0.05). The dyslipidemia prevalence according to non-HDL-C levels was similar with dyslipidemia prevalence according to serum LDL-C levels.
Conclusion: Our results are indicative of the prevalence of dyslipidemia in children is considerably common in our population. Serum non-HDL-C levels could be used as an appropriate tool for detecting dyslipidemia in childhood. (Anadolu Kardiyol Derg 2007; 7: 415-20)
Key words: Children, lipid, lipoprotein, non-HDL, Turkey
Amac: Dislipidemin erken donemde saptanmasi ve uzun sureli korumada ateroskleroz icin tanimlanmis risk faktorlerinin erken donemde kontrolunun cocukluk yas grubunda baslanmasi onerilmektedir. Bu calismada cocuklarda serum yuksek dansiteli lipoprotein disi kolesterol (non-HDL-K) duzeylerine gore dislipidemi prevalansinin belirlenmesi ve serum non-HDL-K duzeylerinin yas gruplari, cinsiyet ve yasam alanina gore degerlendirilmesi planlandi.
Yontemler: Eskisehir kent ve kirsal bolgesinde yasayan 7-18 yaslari arasinda 2896 cocuk (1467 kiz, 1429 erkek) bu randomize ran·dom·ize
tr.v. ran·dom·ized, ran·dom·iz·ing, ran·dom·iz·es
To make random in arrangement, especially in order to control the variables in an experiment. kros-seksiyonel calismaya alindi. Tum cocuklarda serum non-HDL-K, total kolesterol (TK) and trigliserid (TG) duzeyleri olculdu. Istatistiksel analizde lipid parametrelerin karsilastirmasi Student bagimsiz orneklem T testi ile yapildi. Lipid parametrelerin yas, antropometrik olcumleri, total vucut yag yuzdesi ile iliskileri Pearson korelasyon testi ile incelendi.
Bulgular: Serum non HDL-K duzeyleri kiz cocuklarinda (115.5 [+ or -] 31.5 mg/dl) erkek cocuklarina (106.7 [+ or -] 30.2mg/dl) gore yuksek olarak saptandi (p<0.001). Yedi-10 yas grubundaki kiz cocuklarinda serum non-HDL-K duzeyleri 11-14 yas ve 15-18 yas grubundaki kiz cocuklarindan yuksek olarak saptandi (sirasiyla p<0.01, p<0.05). Yedi-10 yas grubundaki erkek cocuklarinda serum non-HDL-K duzeyleri, 11-14 yas ve 15-18 yas grubundaki erkek cocuklarindan yuksek olarak saptandi (her iki grup icin de p<0.001). Serum non-HDL-K, total kolesterol ve trigliserid duzeyleri 7-10 yas grubunda, kiz cocuklarinda erkek cocuklarindan yuksek olarak saptandi. Serum total kolesterol, LDL-K ve HDL-K duzeyleri kentlerde yasayan cocuklarda yuksek olarak saptanirken, serum trigliserid duzeyleri kirsal alanda yasayan cocuklarda yuksek olarak saptandi (p<0.001). Serum non-HDL-K duzeyleri icin kentsel ve kirsal alanda yasayan cocuklarda fark saptanmadi (p>0.05). Her iki cinsiyette de serum non-HDL-K duzeyleri yas ve HDL-K disindaki diger lipid parametreleri ile pozitif, serum HDL-K duzeyleri ile negatif korelasyon saptandi. Erkek cocuklarinda, serum non-HDL-K duzeyleri ayni zamanda total vucut yag yuzdesi, vucut agirligi ve boy ile korelasyon saptandi. Serum non-HDL-K duzeylerine gore dislipidemi prevalansi kiz cocuklarinda (%13.2) erkek cocuklarina (%8.9) gore yuksek olarak saptandi (p<0.001). Serum non-HDL-K duzeylerine gore dislipidemi prevalansi kentte yasayan cocuklarda kirsal alanda yasayan cocuklara gore yuksek olarak saptandi (p<0.05). Cocuklarda serum non-HDL-K duzeylerine gore dislipidemi prevalansi serum LDL-K duzeylerine gore dislipidemi prevalansi ile benzerdi.
Sonuc: Calismamizin sonunda cocuklarda dislipidemi prevalansi beklenenden yuksek olarak saptandi. Ayrica cocukluk caginda dislipideminin saptanmasinda serum non-HDL-K duzeylerinin kullanilabilecegi sonucuna varildi. (Anadolu Kardiyol Derg 2007; 7: 415-20)
Anahtar kelimeler: Cocuk, lipid, lipoprotein, non-HDL, Turkiye
Coronary heart disease coronary heart disease: see coronary artery disease.
coronary heart disease
or ischemic heart disease
Progressive reduction of blood supply to the heart muscle due to narrowing or blocking of a coronary artery (see atherosclerosis). (CHD CHD coronary heart disease.
Latin Chirurgiae Doctor (Doctor of Surgery)
n.pr See disease, coronary heart.
canine hip dysplasia. ) is a leading cause of death in worldwide. Because of the atherosclerotic atherosclerotic
pertaining to atherosclerosis. process begins in childhood before clinical symptoms, it seems prudent to minimize adult coronary risk factors in younger as well as in adults (1-4). For this reason, some authors recommended that routine screening program for blood lipid levels to be performed in all children and have provided guidelines guidelines,
n.pl a set of standards, criteria, or specifications to be used or followed in the performance of certain tasks. to identify and treat children who are at risk for the development of accelerated atherosclerosis in early adult life (4-5). While serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (lōˈ-denˑ·s (LDL-C) levels were considered as the gold standard for determination of coronary risk factors and dyslipidemia, limitations of the use were recently reported (6-7). Srinivasan et al. (7) reported that non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) levels could be useful for determination of lipoprotein related risk assessment. Measurement of non-HDL has been proposed for screening program because of non-HDL-C includes both cholesterol-rich and triglyceride rich atherogenic ath·er·o·gen·ic
Initiating, increasing, or accelerating atherogenesis.
atherogenic adjective Referring to the ability to initiate or accelerate atherogenesis—the deposition of atheromas, lipids, and apolipoprotein-B containing lipoproteins Lipoproteins
The packages in which cholesterol and triglycerides travel throughout the body.
Mentioned in: Lipoproteins Test
n. and the measurement do not require overnight fasting (7).
This cross-sectional study was designed to measure plasma lipids lipids, a broad class of organic products found in living systems. Most are insoluble in water but soluble in nonpolar solvents. The definition excludes the mineral oils and other petroleum products obtained from fossil material. and lipoprotein levels, to evaluate the prevalence of dyslipidemia according to non-HDL-C levels and evaluate serum non-HDL-C levels according to age groups, gender difference and living areas in school-children aged between 7 to 18 years in Eskisehir, Turkey.
As a part of our previously published study (8), 2896 schoolchildren schoolchildren school npl → écoliers mpl;
(at secondary school) → collégiens mpl; lycéens mpl
schoolchildren school (1467 girls, 1429 boys) aged between 7 to 18 years, who were randomly selected from the students attending 11 schools located in the different regions of Eskisehir city center (urban area) and Cifteler county (rural area) in Turkey, were included in this randomized cross-sectional study.
Eskisehir, which is one of the big cities of Turkey with population of 500.000 is an industrial and commercial center and has two universities. Cifteler county is located 64 km from Eskisehir city center and has population of 11.000, who maintain their living mainly by agriculture.
The selected schools were socio-economically representative of the region. The eligible population included all school age children living in the study area after written parental content. Study group was divided into three different subgroups for both sexes consisting of age 7-10, 11-14, and 15-18 years age groups.
Permission for the study was requested from schools, parents and children themselves. The study protocol was approved by the Local Ethical Committee of Eskisehir Osmangazi University. Before the study day, the students were informed about the aim and the design of the study and a written message was sent to their families for instructing at least 12 hours fasting before blood sampling.
A study team consisting of pediatricians, research assistants and interns This article or section is written like an .
Please help [ rewrite this article] from a neutral point of view.
Mark blatant advertising for , using . of pediatrics who were previously trained regarding the study, visited the schools during morning hours. The questionnaire forms included the demographic data, smoking status and self-reported daily physical activity degree.
The children were classified into 3 physical activity groups according to-their self-reporting information: 1) children who make only activities that do not require physical effort such as reading, watching TV, etc. and go to school by motor-vehicles without walking; 2) children who go to school by walking and make some mild physical activities such as walking, riding bicycle or etc.; 3) children who make some heavy physical activities such as joining competitive sports, making severe training regularly or doing heavy garden works. Those children in the lowest of the three physical activity groups were considered to be at risk as sedentary sedentary /sed·en·tary/ (sed´en-tar?e)
1. sitting habitually; of inactive habits.
2. pertaining to a sitting posture.
of inactive habits; pertaining to a fat, castrated or confined animal. life-style (9).
Height and weight of children was measured with wearing minimum indoor clothing, without shoes, using scales calibrated cal·i·brate
tr.v. cal·i·brat·ed, cal·i·brat·ing, cal·i·brates
1. To check, adjust, or determine by comparison with a standard (the graduations of a quantitative measuring instrument): several times during the day. Body mass index (BMI BMI body mass index.
body mass index
Body mass index (BMI)
A measurement that has replaced weight as the preferred determinant of obesity. ) was estimated by the formula of weight (kg) / height ([m.sup.2]). Skinfold skinfold /skin·fold/ (skin´fold) the layer of skin and subcutaneous fat raised by pinching the skin and letting the underlying muscle fall back to the bone; used to estimate the percentage of body fat. thickness was obtained from four sites (over triceps triceps, any muscle having three heads, or points of attachment, but especially the triceps brachii at the back of the upper arm. One head originates on the shoulder blade and two on the upper-arm bone, or humerus. , biceps, subscapular subscapular /sub·scap·u·lar/ (-skap´u-ler) below the scapula.
below the scapula. and suprailiac regions) by skinfold caliper caliper
Instrument that consists of two adjustable legs or jaws for measuring the dimensions of material parts. Spring calipers have an adjusting screw and nut; firm-joint calipers use friction at the joint to hold the legs unmoving. for estimation of total body fat percentage according to the method of Durnin and Rahaman (10). Blood pressure (BP) was measured twice from the right arm by sphygmomanometer sphygmomanometer /sphyg·mo·ma·nom·e·ter/ (sfig?mo-mah-nom´e-ter) an instrument for measuring arterial blood pressure.
sphyg·mo·ma·nom·e·ter or sphyg·mom·e·ter
n. using a cuff of appropriate size, while the subject sitting quietly for at least 5 minutes. The mean of the two measurements was recorded (11).
Approximately 5 ml venous blood venous blood
n. Abbr. v
Blood that has passed through the capillaries of various tissues other than the lungs, is found in the veins, in the right chambers of the heart, and in pulmonary arteries, and is usually dark red as a result of a samples were obtained from the antecubital veins and centrifuged within 1.5-2 hours. Serum total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) concentrations were analyzed an·a·lyze
tr.v. an·a·lyzed, an·a·lyz·ing, an·a·lyz·es
1. To examine methodically by separating into parts and studying their interrelations.
2. Chemistry To make a chemical analysis of.
3. in a BM-Hitachi-747 auto analyzer analyzer /ana·ly·zer/ (an´ah-li?zer)
1. a Nicol prism attached to a polarizing apparatus which extinguishes the ray of light polarized by the polarizer.
2. (Boehringer Mannheim GmbH, Mannheim, Germany) by enzymaticcolorimetric methods using original kits. Serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol high-density lipoprotein cholesterol See HDL-cholesterol. (HDL-C) levels were analyzed by enzymatic method after precipitating pre·cip·i·tate
v. pre·cip·i·tat·ed, pre·cip·i·tat·ing, pre·cip·i·tates
1. To throw from or as if from a great height; hurl downward: serum reagents Serum reagents
Serum is fluid, or the fluid portion of the blood retained after removal of the blood cells and fibrin clot. Reagents are substances added to the serum to produce a chemical reaction.
Mentioned in: Coagulation Disorders with phosphotungstic acid phosphotungstic acid (PTA),
n a mixture of phosphoric and tungstic acids used with hematoxylin for staining muscle tissue and cell nuclei. It is also used as a negative stain of collagen in electron microscopy. and magnesium magnesium (măgnē`zēəm, –zhəm), metallic chemical element; symbol Mg; at. no. 12; at. wt. 24.305; m.p. about 648.8°C;; b.p. about 1,090°C;; sp. gr. 1.738 at 20°C;; valence +2. . Serum LDL-C and very low low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C VLDL-C Very Low Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol ) values were estimated by the formula of Friedewald et al (12). Non-HDL levels were calculated by the formula of "total cholesterol minus HDL-C" (7).
For determining dyslipidemia, serum TC level of >200 mg/dl, LDL-C of >130 mg/dl, and TG level of >140 mg/dl, which were determined as the 95th percentile percentile,
n the number in a frequency distribution below which a certain percentage of fees will fall. E.g., the ninetieth percentile is the number that divides the distribution of fees into the lower 90% and the upper 10%, or that fee level values and serum HDL-C level of <35 mg/dl, determined as the 10th percentile value for children and adolescents, were accepted as the risk thresholds (13). Unfavorable lipid profile lipid profile,
n a series of tests used to gauge a person's risk for coro-nary heart conditions. Blood levels examined in a lipid profile include those for total cholesterol, LDL- and HDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides. according to non-HDL-C levels were described as above 150 mg/dl (4).
The sample size was calculated according with the results of our previous study (8) with power of the study of 80% and significance level of 5%.
All statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS A statistical package from SPSS, Inc., Chicago (www.spss.com) that runs on PCs, most mainframes and minis and is used extensively in marketing research. It provides over 50 statistical processes, including regression analysis, correlation and analysis of variance. version 10.0 (Statistical Package for Social Sciences, Chicago, IL, USA). Lipid parameters values are expressed as mean [+ or -] SD for nonskewed distributed data, the comparison of the data was performed using Student's independent-samples T test and categorical That which is unqualified or unconditional.
A categorical imperative is a rule, command, or moral obligation that is absolutely and universally binding.
Categorical is also used to describe programs limited to or designed for certain classes of people. variables were analyzed by Chi-square test chi-square test: see statistics. . Relations between lipid parameters and age, anthropometric measurements, body fat percentage were evaluated by Pearson correlation test was used for correlations. P values of <0.05 were considered significant.
Mean serum lipid serum lipid Any major lipid in the circulation–total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, TGs. See Cholesterol, Triglyceride. and lipoprotein levels and percentile values of our study population (Tables 1, 2) and their levels according to sex and living areas are shown in Table 3. Serum non-HDL-C levels were significantly higher in girls (115.5 [+ or -] 31.5 mg/dl) than in boys (106.7 [+ or -] 30.2 mg/dl) (p<0.001) and they were higher in girls than in boys for each age group (p<0.01, p<0.01 and p<0.0001 respectively). For girls, serum non-HDL-C levels were higher in 7-10-year age group than 11-14-year age group and 15-18-year age group (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively). For boys serum non-HDL-C levels of 7-10- year age group were significantly higher than in 11-14-year age group and 15-18-year age group (p<0.001 for both).
Serum TC and HDL (Hardware Description Language) A language used to describe the functions of an electronic circuit for documentation, simulation or logic synthesis (or all three). Although many proprietary HDLs have been developed, Verilog and VHDL are the major standards. levels were higher in children living in urban area than those of children living in rural area (p<0.001). Serum TG levels were higher in children living in rural area than in those of children living in urban area (p<0.001). Serum LDL-C levels were higher in children living in urban area than in those residing in rural without statistically significant difference (p>0.05). Serum non-HDL-C levels were similar in residents of different living areas (p>0.05).
Serum non-HDL-C levels correlated with serum TC, TG, HDL, LDL LDL - ["LDL: A Logic-Based Data-Language", S. Tsur et al, Proc VLDB 1986, Kyoto Japan, Aug 1986, pp.33-41]. and VLDL VLDL very-low-density lipoprotein.
ß-VLDL , beta VLDL a mixture of lipoproteins with diffuse electrophoretic mobility approximately that of ß-lipoproteins but having lower density; they are remnants derived from levels in both sexes especially significantly with serum LDL-C levels (r=0.970, p<0.001 for girls and r=0.959, p<0.001 for boys). While in boys, serum non-HDL-C levels positively correlated with age, weight, height (p<0.001, p<0.001, p0.001 consecutively), in girls, serum non-HDL-C levels positively correlated with age (p<0.05) and did not correlate with height and weight. Serum non-HDL-C levels positively correlated total body fat percentage in boys (r=0.139, p<0.001) unlike girls. Serum non-HDL-C levels were not correlated with BMI and physical activity status for both sexes.
Prevalence of dyslipidemia for both sexes are shown in Table 4. The proportion of the children with hypercholesterolemia Hypercholesterolemia Definition
Hypercholesterolemia refers to levels of cholesterol in the blood that are higher than normal.
Cholesterol circulates in the blood stream. It is an essential molecule for the human body. , with LDL-C levels and non-HDL-C levels above the 95th percentile values in girls were higher than in boys (p<0.001 for both). The prevalence of dyslipidemia according to non-HDL-C levels was 13.2% in girls and 8.9% in boys (p<0.0001). The prevalence of dyslipidemia in girls was significantly higher than in boys in 15-18 years age group (p<0.001). In 7-10 years age group, the proportion of the girls who had serum non-HDL-C levels above the 95th percentile value was higher than in those of 11-14 years age group (p<0.05).
For boys, hypercholesterolemia, elevated LDL-C and non-HDL-C levels were common in 7-10 years age group than in other age groups (p<0.001). The proportion of the boys with decreased HDL-C levels in 7-10 years and 15-18 years age groups were significantly higher than in those of 11-14 years age group (Table 4).
The prevalence of dyslipidemia for living areas is shown in Table 4. In spite of hypercholesterolemia was common in urban area (p<0.001), hypertriglyceridemia was commonly observed in rural area (p<0.05). The prevalence of elevated LDL-C levels and decreased HDL-C levels were not different in urban and rural areas (p>0.05). The prevalence of elevated non-HDL-C levels were higher in urban area than in rural area (p<0.05).
In our study the prevalence of dyslipidemia according to LDL-C and non-HDL-C levels were similar for both sexes. These findings may support opinion that non-HDL-C levels may be used for determining dyslipidemia in children. Non HDL-C has been proposed as a better screening tool for coronary artery disease coronary artery disease, condition that results when the coronary arteries are narrowed or occluded, most commonly by atherosclerotic deposits of fibrous and fatty tissue. risk assessment and treatment with the rationale being that non-HDL-C includes both cholesterol-rich and TG-rich atherogenic apolipoprotein apolipoprotein /apo·lipo·pro·tein/ (ap?o-lip?o-pro´ten) any of the protein constituents of lipoproteins, grouped by function in four classes, A, B, C, and E.
n. -B containing lipoproteins (VLDL, IDL (1) (Interface Definition Language) A language used to describe the interface to a routine or function. For example, objects in the CORBA distributed object environment are defined by an IDL, which describes the services performed by the object and how the data , LDL, lipoprotein-a) and the measurement does not require overnight fasting (7). In adult's elevated non-HDL-C concentration are associated with advanced atherosclerotic lesions and increased risk of clinically manifested atherosclerotic disease Atherosclerotic disease
The progressive narrowing and hardening of the arteries over time.
Mentioned in: Retinal Artery Occlusion (14-15). In a recent study carried out in young persons, fatty streaks Fatty streak, though composed of macrophage white blood cells, not fat, is the term generally given to the earliest stages of atheroma, as viewed at autopsy, looking at the inner surface of arteries, without magnification. and raised lesions in the right coronary artery coronary artery
1. An artery with origin in the right aortic sinus; with distribution to the right side of the heart in the coronary sulcus, and with branches to the right atrium and ventricle, including the atrioventricular branches and and in the abdominal aorta abdominal aorta Anatomy The portion of the aorta that begins below the diaphragm, extends to the bifurcation of the iliac arteries, and supplies blood to the abdominal viscera, pelvic organs and legs Branches Inferior phrenic, lumbar, celiac trunk, superior were associated with increased non-HDL-C concentration, hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) is a pre-diabetic state of dysglycemia, that is associated with insulin resistance and increased risk of cardiovascular pathology. IGT may precede type 2 diabetes mellitus by many years. IGT is also a risk factor for mortality. , obesity obesity, condition resulting from excessive storage of fat in the body. Obesity has been defined as a weight more than 20% above what is considered normal according to standard age, height, and weight tables, or by a complex formula known as the body mass index. and low HDL-C (4). Interestingly the 95th percentile values of our children were higher than in those of Bogalusa Heart Study's population (7). In our study serum non-HDL-C levels were positively correlated with other lipid parameters for both sexes and also were correlated with weight and total body fat percentage in boys unlike girls. Dyslipidemia prevalence for non-HDL-C levels was higher in girls than in boys and similar with the dyslipidemia prevalence according to serum LDL-C levels.
In our study, serum non-HDL-C levels were higher before puberty puberty (py`bərtē), period during which the onset of sexual maturity occurs. and significantly decreased after 10 years age up to 16 years age. This decline may be explained with decrease of TC levels and increased HDL-C levels during puberty in girls. In boys, this decline was not statistically significant.
Mean serum TC levels tended to be steady during prepubertal prepubertal /pre·pu·ber·tal/ (-pu´ber-tal) before puberty; pertaining to the period of accelerated growth preceding gonadal maturity. years, dropped during puberty in both sexes being more pronounced in boys, and then rise again during adolescence adolescence, time of life from onset of puberty to full adulthood. The exact period of adolescence, which varies from person to person, falls approximately between the ages 12 and 20 and encompasses both physiological and psychological changes. after maturation maturation /mat·u·ra·tion/ (mach-u-ra´shun)
1. the process of becoming mature.
2. attainment of emotional and intellectual maturity.
3. is completed (16). In our study, serum TC levels showed a more pronounced decline starting from 9 years of age until 15 years of age, and then started to rise at 17 years of age. Recent studies reported different prevalence of dyslipidemia according to TC levels among the countries (3, 5, 13, 16-17). The prevalence of hypercholesterolemia of our study population was 11.8% and mean TC levels of our study was 169 mg/dl in girls and 159 mg/dl in boys, being similar with some reports from different countries (3, 13, 16-17). Mean TC values of Muscatine study (5) and Boreham et al.'s (18) study were higher, 181 mg/dl and 178 mg/dl respectively, than our study values. Yavuz and Bayraktaroglu (19) reported that mean TC of their study population were 131 mg/dl and prevalence of hypercholesterolemia was 2.5% in their region, in Turkey. These differences may be explained with study design, genetic and nutritional factors such as low intake of animal foods or high fiber and carbohydrate carbohydrate, any member of a large class of chemical compounds that includes sugars, starches, cellulose, and related compounds. These compounds are produced naturally by green plants from carbon dioxide and water (see photosynthesis). consumption (19-20). Serum LDL-C levels showed a similar trend to that of TC levels by age in our population, as reported in the literature (21-22).
Navarra and Muscatine studies (5, 21) reported that serum TG levels increased with age in children and serum TG levels were lower in girls than in boys after 13 years age. In our study, in girls, serum TG levels were stable except a slight increase during puberty (11-13 years) and after 17 years age. In boys, younger than 15 years age, serum TG levels were higher than in girls of the same age, but after 15 years, serum TG levels were slightly higher in girls than in boys.
Reports from Turkey demonstrated that serum HDL-C levels were typically 10-15 mg/dl lower in Turkish adults than in European and North Americans North American
named after North America.
North American blastomycosis
see North American blastomycosis.
North American cattle tick
see boophilusannulatus. and lower level of HDL-C appears to be largely of genetic origin (23-25). In our study, mean HDL-C levels for each age in both sexes, were above 45 mg/dl. Mean serum HDL-C level was 57.1 mg/dl at 10 years of age, but it decreased to 45 mg/dl at 18 years of age. Mahley et al. (24) reported a greater decrease in HDL-C levels of Turkish children after puberty, which was significantly pronounced in boys than in girls, like our study. High levels of hepatic lipase Hepatic lipase is a form of lipase.
Hepatic Lipase Deficiency is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder that results in elevated high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol due to a mutation in the hepatic lipase gene. activity and protein mass are characteristics of Turkish people For other uses of "Turkish", see Turk (disambiguation).
“Turkishness” redirects here. For Turkish law against the public denigration of Turkishness, see Article 301 (Turkish penal code). and may explain their low HDL-C levels (26). However, recent large cohort cohort /co·hort/ (ko´hort)
1. in epidemiology, a group of individuals sharing a common characteristic and observed over time in the group.
2. performed in adults for the determination of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome metabolic syndrome
See syndrome X.
A group of risk factors for heart disease, diabetes, and stroke. in our Turkey showed that 47.64% of the women had HDL-C levels above the 50 mg/dl and 58.42% of the man had serum HDL-C levels above the 40 mg/dl. Overall, 44.1% of the total study population had lower serum HDL-C levels (27). The difference of frequency between the studies may be explained with the laboratory technique as precipitation precipitation, in chemistry
precipitation, in chemistry, a process in which a solid is separated from a suspension, sol, or solution. In a suspension such as sand in water the solid spontaneously precipitates (settles out) on standing. or direct method.
In conclusion, age, sex and living areas, such as urban or rural area are important factors for serum lipid and lipoprotein levels in Turkish children. The prevalence of dyslipidemia in children is considerably common in our region. Non-HDL-C level may be an appropriate tool for detecting dyslipidemia in childhood. Early detection of dyslipidemia and long-term prevention of atherosclerosis by controlling the risk factors including elevated non-HDL-C level should begin in childhood.
We thank to research assistants and interns of pediatrics for their assistance in the survey and the research assistants and technicians of biochemistry biochemistry, science concerned chiefly with the chemistry of biological processes; it attempts to utilize the tools and concepts of chemistry, particularly organic and physical chemistry, for elucidation of the living system. for their assistance in lipid analyses. We also thank the head teachers, teachers, and children of the schools who participated in the study for their help and cooperation. This study was supported by grants from TUBITAK TUBITAK Türkiye Bilimsel ve Teknik Araþtýrma Kurumu (The Scientific and Technical Research Council of Turkey; SBAG-1438) and Osmangazi University Research Fund (95/20).
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Birsen Ucar, Zubeyir Kilic, Ener Cagri Dinleyici *, Omer Colak**, Erdogan Gunes *
Department of Pediatric Cardiology cardiology
Medical specialty dealing with heart diseases and disorders. It began with the 1749 publication by Jean Baptiste de Sénac of contemporary knowledge of the heart. Diagnostic methods improved in the 19th century, and in 1905 the electrocardiograph was invented. , Pediatrics *, and Biochemistry **, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Faculty of Medicine, Eskisehir, Turkey
Address for Correspondence/Yazisma Adresi: Ener Cagri Dinleyici, MD, Department of Pediatrics Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Faculty of Medicine TR-26480 Eskisehir, Turkey Phone: +90 222 229 00 64 E-mail: email@example.com
Table 1. Mean and percentile (5th, 50th and 95th) values of serum lipid and lipoprotein levels in girls Age, TC, mg/dl years Mean [+ or -] SD 5 50 95 7 171.7 [+ or -] 31.3 122 168 225 8 171.4 [+ or -] 29.4 121 175 213 9 173.1 [+ or -] 37.3 121 167 234 10 165.5 [+ or -] 29.7 115 166 215 11 168.3 [+ or -] 28.0 120 168 220 12 168.4 [+ or -] 26.0 132 168 213 13 167.8 [+ or -] 27.7 126 166 215 14 163.5 [+ or -] 30.0 119 159 221 15 167.5 [+ or -] 29.4 121 164 219 16 167.9 [+ or -] 32.5 121 168 219 17 177.7 [+ or -] 34.6 126 178 249 18 176.5 [+ or -] 37.9 103 181 244 TOTAL 169.1 [+ or -] 30.8 122 167 222 Age, TO, mg/dl years Mean [+ or -] SD 5 50 95 7 83.6 [+ or -] 34.4 30 79 158 8 85.2 [+ or -] 39.5 29 82 163 9 88.5 [+ or -] 36.4 34 84 159 10 90.7 [+ or -] 37.5 42 83 166 11 104.4 [+ or -] 40.2 50 97 199 12 103.4 [+ or -] 41.5 52 97 175 13 102.7 [+ or -] 35.5 53 97 177 14 90.0 [+ or -] 38.6 46 82 155 15 88.4 [+ or -] 42.5 44 80 158 16 78.2 [+ or -] 29.5 41 75 135 17 83.8 [+ or -] 26.0 28 72 127 18 88.2 [+ or -] 23.6 20 70 144 TOTAL 89.6 [+ or -] 28.5 41 83 161 Age, LDL-C, mg/dl years Mean [+ or -] SD 5 50 95 7 105.3 [+ or -] 31.2 60 103 160 8 105.2 [+ or -] 32.5 53 106 150 9 101.8 [+ or -] 39.1 42 97 168 10 89.6 [+ or -] 25.6 43 92 136 11 94.4 [+ or -] 27.8 51 96 140 12 92.0 [+ or -] 26.6 46 93 139 13 94.0 [+ or -] 27.1 56 93 143 14 92.9 [+ or -] 29.9 45 92 145 15 97.2 [+ or -] 27.8 51 98 148 16 97.8 [+ or -] 29.5 56 96 150 17 103.6 [+ or -] 33.4 52 104 155 18 106.2 [+ or -] 36.4 57 108 160 TOTAL 97.6 [+ or -] 30.4 51 96 149 Age, HDL-C, mg/dl years Mean [+ or -] SD 5 50 95 7 48.9 [+ or -] 14.2 32 47 80 8 48.7 [+ or -] 13.3 30 46 78 9 52.7 [+ or -] 13.2 34 52 77 10 53.4 [+ or -] 13.8 35 51 85 11 54.0 [+ or -] 15.1 35 51 90 12 55.2 [+ or -] 15.4 35 53 87 13 52.9 [+ or -] 13.3 33 53 78 14 52.5 [+ or -] 13.7 34 50 81 15 52.7 [+ or -] 12.8 35 51 77 16 54.9 [+ or -] 15.2 36 53 79 17 60.3 [+ or -] 24.0 37 55 99 18 54.7 [+ or -] 15.8 32 56 92 TOTAL 53.3 [+ or -] 15.1 34 51 81 Age, Non-HDL-C, mg/dl years Mean [+ or -] SD 5 50 95 7 121.7 [+ or -] 32.3 75 118 184 8 122.3 [+ or -] 33.1 61 120 171 9 119.5 [+ or -] 39.7 59 114 191 10 106.9 [+ or -] 26.9 64 106 152 11 115.0 [+ or -] 28.9 67 113 160 12 112.7 [+ or -] 27.4 66 111 159 13 114.6 [+ or -] 27.9 72 112 165 14 110.9 [+ or -] 32.1 61 109 169 15 115.1 [+ or -] 29.2 72 115 167 16 113.3 [+ or -] 31.1 69 110 168 17 118.3 [+ or -] 34.8 65 117 176 18 122.6 [+ or -] 38.7 37 121 189 TOTAL 115.5 [+ or -] 31.5 67 113 169 Data presented are Mean [+ or -] standard deviation for continuous variables. HDL-C- high density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C- low density lipoprotein cholesterol, non-HDL-C- non high density lipoprotein cholesterol, TC-total cholesterol, TG- triglyceride Table 2. Mean and percentile (5th, 50th and 95th) values of serum lipid and lipoprotein levels in boys Age, TC, mg/dl years Mean [+ or -] SD 5 50 95 7 163.6 [+ or -] 26.0 124 159 222 8 163.0 [+ or -] 29.0 125 161 215 9 172.9 [+ or -] 36.3 125 168 241 10 170.3 [+ or -] 33.2 122 163 236 11 166.4 [+ or -] 31.2 123 161 224 12 166.7 [+ or -] 30.1 118 165 216 13 160.0 [+ or -] 28.5 114 159 208 14 153.9 [+ or -] 26.5 109 151 206 15 149.7 [+ or -] 25.1 114 147 196 16 151.5 [+ or -] 32.2 103 148 224 17 149.7 [+ or -] 27.8 104 148 207 18 153.6 [+ or -] 30.6 113 149 258 TOTAL 159.2 [+ or -] 30.5 115 155 214 Age, TG, mg/dl years Mean [+ or -] SD 5 5D 95 7 75.7 [+ or -] 32.1 32 68 161 8 78.8 [+ or -] 38.8 30 75 156 9 85.2 [+ or -] 33.5 37 82 150 10 85.8 [+ or -] 36.3 39 77 152 11 90.2 [+ or -] 42.2 43 81 184 12 93.2 [+ or -] 41.0 45 85 182 13 86.3 [+ or -] 41.7 39 81 180 14 85.9 [+ or -] 35.2 44 79 154 15 87.7 [+ or -] 38.5 45 79 169 16 84.2 [+ or -] 43.7 38 73 147 17 87.3 [+ or -] 36.5 41 83 171 18 99.0 [+ or -] 43.5 39 97 179 TOTAL 86.7 [+ or -] 38.9 41 80 163 Age, LDL-C, mg/dl years Mean [+ or -] SD 5 50 95 7 96.9 [+ or -] 29.8 49 92 147 8 95.9 [+ or -] 28.9 54 92 144 9 103.1 [+ or -] 34.1 51 101 164 10 85.7 [+ or -] 28.0 42 82 139 11 96.2 [+ or -] 30.3 55 93 150 12 94.9 [+ or -] 27.6 52 94 144 13 90.4 [+ or -] 27.7 49 90 145 14 83.5 [+ or -] 24.0 45 82 128 15 83.1 [+ or -] 25.2 49 79 130 16 86.3 [+ or -] 31.6 45 81 148 17 83.8 [+ or -] 26.0 37 82 131 18 88.2 [+ or -] 23.6 47 85 161 TOTAL 89.6 [+ or -] 285 49 86 141 Age, HDL-C, mg/dl years Mean [+ or -] SD 5 50 95 7 51.9 [+ or -] 14.9 32 49 77 8 50.7 [+ or -] 15.5 32 49 83 9 52.2 [+ or -] 14.3 34 51 83 10 57.1 [+ or -] 13.2 37 56 83 11 52.2 [+ or -] 11.1 35 52 74 12 53.2 [+ or -] 13.9 35 50 81 13 52.1 [+ or -] 12.2 32 51 74 14 52.8 [+ or -] 13.0 35 52 76 15 49.1 [+ or -] 12.4 29 48 71 16 48.2 [+ or -] 13.6 30 46 78 17 48.2 [+ or -] 14.5 32 45 80 18 45.0 [+ or -] 12.5 30 43 83 TOTAL 51.1 [+ or -] 13.5 32 49 76 Age, Non-HDL-C, mg/dl years Mean [+ or -] SD 5 5D 95 7 111.2 [+ or -] 29.7 67 107 173 8 111.2 [+ or -] 29.6 68 106 161 9 120.1 [+ or -] 37.0 66 117 191 10 101.0 [+ or -] 28.7 58 96 152 11 114.1 [+ or -] 33.7 68 108 183 12 113.5 [+ or -] 29.5 67 113 159 13 107.6 [+ or -] 30.2 65 106 159 14 100.6 [+ or -] 25.2 60 98 146 15 100.7 [+ or -] 25.9 65 96 150 16 103.3 [+ or -] 33.4 56 99 170 17 101.0 [+ or -] 27.5 57 101 152 18 107.1 [+ or -] 26.5 68 105 186 TOTAL 106.7 [+ or -] 30.2 65 103 159 HDL-C- high density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C- low density lipoprotein cholesterol, non-HDL-C- non high density lipoprotein cholesterol, TC- total cholesterol, ~ TG- triglyceride Table 3. Serum lipid and lipoprotein levels according to sex and living areas * TC, mg/dl Girls (n=1467) 169.1 [+ or -] 30.8 7-10 years (n=420) 170.7 [+ or -] 32.3 (a) 11-14 years (n=538) 166.8 [+ or -] 28.0 (f) 15-18 years (n=509) 170.1 [+ or -] 32.1 Boys (n=1429) 159.2 [+ or -] 30.5 7-10 years (n=349) 168.5 [+ or -] 32.6 (h,j) 11-14 years (n=591) 160.8 [+ or -] 29.2 (e) 15-18 years (n=489) 150.5 [+ or -] 28.3 p1 <0.001 Urban area (n=2230) 165.3 [+ or -] 31.6 Rural area (n=666) 160.5 [+ or -] 28.8 p2 <0.001 TG, mg/dl Girls (n=1467) 89.7 [+ or -] 38.5 7-10 years (n=420) 86.8 [+ or -] 36.9 (b,c) 11-14 years (n=538) 99.5 [+ or -] 39.5 (g) 15-18 years (n=509) 81.9 [+ or -] 36.6 Boys (n=1429) 86.7 [+ or -] 38.9 7-10 years (n=349) 82.6 [+ or -] 35.5 (j) 11-14 years (n=591) 88.4 [+ or -] 39.8 15-18 years (n=489) 87.6 [+ or -] 39.8 p1 <0.05 Urban area (n=2230) 87.2 [+ or -] 37.3 Rural area (n=666) 91.7 [+ or -] 43.0 p2 <0.001 LDL-C, mg/dl Girls (n=1467) 97.6 [+ or -] 30.4 7-10 years (n=420) 102.0 [+ or -] 33.5 (b) 11-14 years (n=538) 93.2 [+ or -] 27.9 (f) 15-18 years (n=509) 99.0 [+ or -] 30.0 Boys (n=1429) 89.6 [+ or -] 28.5 7-10 years (n=349) 96.5 [+ or -] 31.4 (i,k) 11-14 years (n=591) 90.3 [+ or -] 27.4 (l) 15-18 years (n=489) 84.5 [+ or -] 27.0 p1 <0.001 Urban area (n=2230) 94.3 [+ or -] 30.2 Rural area (n=666) 91.8 [+ or -] 28.3 p2 ns HDL-C, mg/dl Girls (n=1467) 53.3 [+ or -] 15.1 7-10 years (n=420) 50.6 [+ or -] 13.7 (d,e) 11-14 years (n=538) 53.6 [+ or -] 14.3 15-18 years (n=509) 55.0 [+ or -] 16.7 Boys (n=1429) 51.1 [+ or -] 13.5 7-10 years (n=349) 52.9 [+ or -] 14.6 (i) 11-14 years (n=591) 52.6 [+ or -] 12.7 (1) 15-18 years (n=489) 48.3 [+ or -] 13.3 p1 <0.001 Urban area (n=2230) 52.8 [+ or -] 15.1 Rural area (n=666) 50.3 [+ or -] 11.6 p2 <0.001 Non-HDL-C, mg/dl Girls (n=1467) 115.5 [+ or -] 31.5 7-10 years (n=420) 119.1 [+ or -] 34.3 (c,d) 11-14 years (n=538) 113.0 [+ or -] 29.3 15-18 years (n=509) 115.4 [+ or -] 31.4 Boys (n=1429) 106.7 [+ or -] 30.2 7-10 years (n=349) 112.2 [+ or -] 32.9 (h,j) 11-14 years (n=591) 107.9 [+ or -] 29.7 (1) 15-18 years (n=489) 101.9 [+ or -] 28.3 p1 p<0.0001 Urban area (n=2230) 111.5 [+ or -] 31.7 Rural area (n=666) 110.2 [+ or -] 29.4 p2 ns Data presented are Mean [+ or -] standard deviation for continuous variables. p1- unpaired Student t test comparisons between girls and boys p2- unpaired Student t test comparisons between urban and rural area Age groups comparisons- unpaired Student t test For girls; (a) 7-10 years group and 11-14 years group, (p<0.05) (b) 7-10 years group and11-14 years group, (p<0.001) (c) 7-10 years group and 15-18 years group, (p<0.05) (d) 7-10 years group and11-14 years group, (p<0.01) (e) 7-10 years group and15-18 years group, (p<0.001) (f) 11-14 years group and 15-18 years group, (p<0.01) (g) 11-14 years group and15-18 years group, (p<0.001) For boys (h) 7-10 years group and11-14 years group, (p<0.001) (i) 7-10 years group and15-18 years group, (p<0.001) (j) 7-10 years group and 11-14 years group, (p<0.05) (k) 7-10 years group and 11-14 years group, (p<0.01) (l) 11-14 years group and 15-18 years group and (p<0.001) HDL-C-high density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C-low density lipoprotein cholesterol, non-HDL-C-non high density lipoprotein cholesterol, ns-not significant, TC-total cholesterol, TG-triglyceride Table 4. Prevalence of dyslipidemia according to age groups in both sexes and living areas Hypercholesterolemia n % Girls (n=1467) 207 14.1 7-10 years (n=420) 73 17.4 (a) 11-14 years (n=538) 53 9.91 15-18 years (n=509) 81 15.9 Boys (n=1429) 136 9.5 7-10 years (n=349) 56 16.0 (a,b) 11-14 years (n=591) 52 8.8 15-18 years (n=489) 28 5.7 Total (n=2896) 343 11.8 p1 <0.001 Urban Area (n=2230) 293 13.1 Rural Area (n=666) 50 7.5 Total (n=2896) 343 11.8 p2 <0.001 Hyperhiglyceridemia n % Girls (n=1467) 130 8.9 7-10 years (n=420) 40 9.5 (b) 11-14 years (n=538) 66 12.3 (g) 15-18 years (n=509) 24 4.7 Boys (n=1429) 116 8.1 7-10 years (n=349) 23 6.6 11-14 years (n=591) 48 8.1 15-18 years (n=489) 45 9.2 Total (n=2896) 246 7.5 p1 ns Urban Area (n=2230) 177 7.9 Rural Area (n=666) 69 10.4 Total (n=2896) 246 7.5 p2 <0.05 Elevated LDL-C n % Girls (n=1467) 202 14.5 7-10 years (n=420) 78 21.1 (b,c) 11-14 years (n=538) 53 10.2 15-18 years (n=509) 71 14.2 Boys (n=1429) 123 9.1 7-10 years (n=349) 47 16.2 (b,c) 11-14 years (n=591) 46 8.0 15-18 years (n=489) 30 6.2 Total (n=2896) 325 11.9 p1 <0.001 Urban Area (n=2230) 257 12.4 Rural Area (n=666) 68 10.2 Total (n=2896) 325 11.9 p2 ns Decreased HDL-C n % Girls (n=1467) 77 5.5 7-10 years (n=420) 31 8.4 (d) 11-14 years (n=538) 27 5.2 15-18 years (n=509) 19 3.8 Boys (n=1429) 104 7.7 7-10 years (n=349) 27 9.3 (a) 11-14 years (n=591) 25 4.3 (d) 15-18 years (n=489) 52 10.8 Total (n=2896) 181 6.6 p1 <0.05 Urban Area (n=2230) 143 6.9 Rural Area (n=666) 38 5.7 Total (n=2896) 181 6.6 p2 ns Elevated non-HDL-C n % Girls (n=1467) 183 13.2 7-10 years (n=420) 66 15.7d (a,e) 11-14 years (n=538) 60 11.1 15-18 years (n=509) 57 11.1 Boys (n=1429) 119 8.9 7-10 years (n=349) 40 11.4 (c) 11-14 years (n=591) 51 8.6 (d) 15-18 years (n=489) 28 5.2 Total (n=2896) 302 10.4 p1 <0.0001 Urban Area (n=2230) 243 10.9 Rural Area (n=666) 59 8.9 Total (n=2896) 302 10.4 p2 <0.05 Data presented are the number and % of patients for categorical variables. * p1-Chi-square test for comparison between girls and total boys p2- Chi-square test for comparisons between rural and urban areas Age groups comparisons- Chi-square test For girls (a) 7-10 years group and 11-14 years group, (p<0.011 (b) 7-10 years group and 15-18 years group, (p<0.011 (c) 7-10 years group and11-14 years group, (p<0.001) (d) 7-10 years group and 15-18 years group (p<0.01 (e) 7-10 years group and 11-14 years group (p<0.05) (f) 11-14 years group and 15-18 years group (p<0.01) (g) 11-14 years group and 15-18 years group (p<0.001) For boys (a) 7-10 years group and 11-14 years group, (p<0.011 (b) 7-10 years group and15-18 years group, (p<0.001) (c) 7-10 years group and11-14 years group, (p<0.001) (d) 11-14 years group and 15-18 years group, (p<0.001) HDL-C- high density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C- low density lipoprotein cholesterol, non-HDL-C- non high density lipoprotein cholesterol, ns-not significant, TC-total cholesterol, TG-triglyceride