Self-Regulation, Goal Orientation, Self-Efficacy, Worry, and High-Stakes Math Achievement for Mathematically Gifted High School Students(1,2).
Our study used a structural equation modeling Structural equation modeling (SEM) is a statistical technique for testing and estimating causal relationships using a combination of statistical data and qualitative causal assumptions. framework to investigate the effects of gender, self-efficacy, learning goal orientation, self-regulation, and worry on high-stakes mathematics achievement in a sample of mathematically gifted, primarily Asian American A·sian A·mer·i·can also A·sian-A·mer·i·can
A U.S. citizen or resident of Asian descent. See Usage Note at Amerasian.
A , high school students. It is one of the few studies that investigated the joint effect of such variables in a high-stakes environment (i.e., an Advanced Placement calculus calculus, branch of mathematics that studies continuously changing quantities. The calculus is characterized by the use of infinite processes, involving passage to a limit—the notion of tending toward, or approaching, an ultimate value. exam). Our analyses showed that self-efficacy is positively related to math achievement, is moderately and positively related to self-regulation, and is highly and negatively related to worry, and that learning goal orientation (or intrinsic value Intrinsic Value
1. The value of a company or an asset based on an underlying perception of the value.
2. For call options, this is the difference between the underlying stock's price and the strike price. ) is positively related to self-regulation and worry but is not related to self-efficacy or high-stakes mathematics achievement. With respect to gender, young men were less worried and had higher self-efficacy for math than young women. Finally, self-regulation was negatively related to worry, but surprisingly, was not related to high-stakes mathematics achievement.
Although different theoretical orientations of researchers have often caused differing operational definitions, the common conceptualization con·cep·tu·al·ize
v. con·cep·tu·al·ized, con·cep·tu·al·iz·ing, con·cep·tu·al·iz·es
To form a concept or concepts of, and especially to interpret in a conceptual way: of self-regulating learners is that they are active participants in their own learning (Zimmerman, 1990). The research agrees on at least two major findings with respect to self-regulation and academic achievement: self-regulated learning The term self-regulated can be used to describe learning that is guided by metacognition, strategic action (planning, monitoring, and evaluating personal progress against a standard), and motivation to learn is comprised of several components, such as cognitive strategies and effort (Miller, Behrens, Greene, & Newman, 1993) or metacognition Metacognition refers to thinking about cognition (memory, perception, calculation, association, etc.) itself or to think/reason about one's own thinking. Types of knowledge and effort (Pintrich & De Groot; 1990; Yap, 1993), although the specific components were not always identical; and students who employ metacognition and exert effort perform more successfully (Pintrich & De Groot, 1990; Zimmerman, 1986; Zimmerman & Martinez-Pons, 1986, 1988). To summarize sum·ma·rize
intr. & tr.v. sum·ma·rized, sum·ma·riz·ing, sum·ma·riz·es
To make a summary or make a summary of.
sum , the key feature in most definitions of self-regulated learning is the systematic use of metacognitive, motivational, and/or behavioral strategies. Moreover, self-regulated learners are distinguished by both awareness of the relationship between strategic regulatory processes and learning outcomes, and the use of these strategies to achieve academic goals (Zimmerman, 1990).
Although there have been numerous theoretical and empirical articles about self-regulated learning (Garcia, 1995; Garcia & Pintrich, 1991, 1994, 1995; Pintrich & Garcia, 1991; Schunk & Zimmerman, 1994; Zimmerman, 1994), few have explicitly linked the components of self-regulated learning to academic achievement in mathematically-gifted students and to each other. In those studies that have explicitly investigated these components, the correlational relationships tend to be small (e.g., Pintrich & De Groot, 1990, Yap, 1993). In this study, self-regulated learning conjoins two major constructs: (a) metacognition, consisting of awareness (consciousness), planning (goal setting), self-checking (monitoring), and the cognitive strategies students use to learn, remember, and understand; and (b) management and control of effort. This study additionally investigated the relationship of learning goal orientation, self-efficacy, and worry to high-stakes mathematics achievement and with each other. Each of the study's variables are discussed in greater detail.
Metacognition is defined as the conscious awareness and frequent self-checking to determine if one's learning goal has been achieved and, as necessary, selecting a more appropriate strategy to achieve that goal (O'Neil & Abedi, 1996). Metacognition involves knowledge of cognitive states Noun 1. cognitive state - the state of a person's cognitive processes
state of mind
interestedness - the state of being interested
amnesia, memory loss, blackout - partial or total loss of memory; "he has a total blackout for events of the evening" and abilities, and the affective affective /af·fec·tive/ (ah-fek´tiv) pertaining to affect.
1. Concerned with or arousing feelings or emotions; emotional.
2. and motivational characteristics of thinking (Paris & Winograd, 1990). Metacognition is essentially thinking about thinking and is an important countenance of academic performance, problem solving problem solving
Process involved in finding a solution to a problem. Many animals routinely solve problems of locomotion, food finding, and shelter through trial and error. , and student learning (Corno & Mandinach, 1983). State metacognition (i.e., varying in intensity and fluctuating fluc·tu·ate
v. fluc·tu·at·ed, fluc·tu·at·ing, fluc·tu·ates
1. To vary irregularly. See Synonyms at swing.
2. To rise and fall in or as if in waves; undulate.
v. over time depending on the learning situation) consists of awareness (being aware of one's thoughts), planning (formulating a goal, then determining the method or procedure to successfully attain that goal), self-checking (monitoring one's work), and the use of task-relevant cognitive strategies (O'Neil & Abedi, 1996; O'Neil, Sugrue, Abedi, Baker, & Golan, 1992).
In their review of the research, Alexander, Carr, and Schwanenflugel (1995) found that gifted children possessed greater metacognition than the general cohort cohort /co·hort/ (ko´hort)
1. in epidemiology, a group of individuals sharing a common characteristic and observed over time in the group.
2. . Schwanenflugel, Moore Stevens, and Carr (1997) also found that children who made causal metacognitive comments were likely to be more strategic in their cognitive processing. "Express" [gifted] pupils employed effective retention strategies more frequently than "normal" students (Chang, 1989).
Although metacognition is thought to differ from other cognitive learning strategies such as rehearsal, elaboration, and organization, there is mixed evidence about the extent to which respondents can actually distinguish their use of metacognitive and cognitive strategies. According to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. Boufard-Bouchard, Parent, and Larivee (1993), gifted learners monitor comprehension more effectively than non-gifted students. They also use more strategies in a flexible manner. Some researchers found distinct cognitive and metacognitive factors using exploratory factor analyses Verb 1. factor analyse - to perform a factor analysis of correlational data
analyse, analyze - break down into components or essential features; "analyze today's financial market" (Pokay & Blumenfeld, 1990; Pintrich & De Groot, 1990). However, the correlations between the scales measuring these factors were high (r = .60 and r = .83) in these two studies respectively, and neither correlation was corrected for measurement error, thus raising concerns about the extent to which students can accurately distinguish their use of the various strategies. Further, Yap (1993) found that a composite index Composite Index
A grouping of equities, indexes or other factors combined in a standardized way, providing a useful statistical measure of overall market or sector performance over time. Also known simply as a "composite". of cognitive strategies correlated cor·re·late
v. cor·re·lat·ed, cor·re·lat·ing, cor·re·lates
1. To put or bring into causal, complementary, parallel, or reciprocal relation.
2. very high with three commonly used indices of metacognitive strategies, awareness (.97), planning (.95), and self-checking (.96). The present study sheds further light on this debate.
With respect to effort, both Bandura ban`dur´a
n. 1. A traditional Ukrainian stringed musical instrument shaped like a lute, having many strings. (1993) and Schunk (1984) see effort as both being directly influenced by self-efficacy and directly affecting skill or performance. Bandura (1993) suggested that self-regulatory skills are meaningless if students cannot apply themselves in a persistent manner in the face of difficulties, distractions, and stress, and that "self-directed learning requires motivation as well as cognitive and metacognitive strategies" (p. 136). Zimmerman (1990) also observed that self-regulated learners display extraordinary effort and persistence during learning and report high self-efficacy, self-attributions, and intrinsic motivation. Additionally, Bandura (1993) posited that "self-efficacy beliefs contribute to motivation in several ways: They determine the goals people set for themselves, how much effort they expend ex·pend
tr.v. ex·pend·ed, ex·pend·ing, ex·pends
1. To lay out; spend: expending tax revenues on government operations. See Synonyms at spend.
2. , how long they persevere per·se·vere
intr.v. per·se·vered, per·se·ver·ing, per·se·veres
To persist in or remain constant to a purpose, idea, or task in the face of obstacles or discouragement. in the face of difficulties, and their resilience resilience (r·zilˑ·yens),
n to failures" (p. 131).
There is some debate in the literature concerning the distinction between effort and metacognition. Although conceptually it makes sense to distinguish a generalized gen·er·al·ized
1. Involving an entire organ, as when an epileptic seizure involves all parts of the brain.
2. Not specifically adapted to a particular environment or function; not specialized.
3. motivational disposition (i.e., effort) from more specific metacognitive strategies (e.g., planning, self-checking, awareness), there is some evidence that individuals themselves cannot distinguish these strategies through self-report. In their correlational study of self-regulation in 7th-graders, Pintrich and De Groot (1990) originally intended to treat effort management and self-regulation as separate constructs, but a preliminary exploratory factor analysis did not support the construction of two separate scales. Along the same lines, Yap (1993) used a confirmatory factor analysis In statistics, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) is a special form of factor analysis. It is used to assess the the number of factors and the loadings of variables. to examine the effort/metacognition distinction in a diverse sample of 640 12th-grade students and found that self-report scales for effort and metacognition lacked discriminant validity Discriminant validity describes the degree to which the operationalization is not similar to (diverges from) other operationalizations that it theoretically should not be similar to. . In contrast, Pokay and Blumenfeld (1990) report a small zero-order correlation between effort management and metacognitive strategy use early (r = .34) and late (r = .39) in the semester se·mes·ter
One of two divisions of 15 to 18 weeks each of an academic year.
[German, from Latin (cursus) s in a sample of 283 high school students. This study posits that self-regulation is comprised of effort and metacognition, and one of its goals is to further examine the effort/ metacognition distinction.
Chang (1989) found that gifted students expressed greater enjoyment in learning a subject than normal students. The question is whether these students become gifted because they enjoyed learning in that particular domain. Determining cause and effect on questions such as these will have interesting and profound implications for practitioners in this field. According to Dweck (1986, 1990), children who believe in intelligence as a fixed trait trait (trat)
1. any genetically determined characteristic; also, the condition prevailing in the heterozygous state of a recessive disorder, as the sickle cell trait.
2. a distinctive behavior pattern. or entity tend to orient o·ri·ent
1. To locate or place in a particular relation to the points of the compass.
2. To align or position with respect to a point or system of reference.
3. towards performance goals, whereas those who believe intelligence is incremental Additional or increased growth, bulk, quantity, number, or value; enlarged.
Incremental cost is additional or increased cost of an item or service apart from its actual cost. and malleable malleable /mal·le·a·ble/ (mal´e-ah-b'l) susceptible of being beaten out into a thin plate.
1. Capable of being shaped or formed, as by hammering or pressure. tend to orient towards learning goals. Her research indicated that when seeking performance type goals, children based their task choice and pursuit process around ability. With learning goals, however, the choice and pursuit process was focused on progress and mastery through effort.
Low performing students believed that ability is a fixed trait, whereas gifted students were more likely to believe that ability to learn can be improved (Schommer & Dunnell, 1997). Students who adopted a learning or mastery orientation increased perceptions of self-confidence (self-efficacy) and success in their courses (Dweck & Leggett, 1988). A number of studies clearly show that students demonstrate high levels of self-regulated learning when they are oriented o·ri·ent
1. Orient The countries of Asia, especially of eastern Asia.
a. The luster characteristic of a pearl of high quality.
b. A pearl having exceptional luster.
3. toward learning goals (e.g., Meece, 1994; Schunk, 1994). Weiner (1986) found that children with low perceived ability were still mastery-oriented when their goal was to learn rather than to perform. Bandura (1993) emphasized that learning environments that accept ability as a skill that may be acquired and de-emphasize competition and social comparison are well suited for building self-efficacy and promoting academic achievement. Furthermore, Dweck's (1986) research indicated that students whose focus is based on ability judgments tend to withdraw from challenges, "whereas a focus on progress through effort creates a tendency to seek and be energized by challenge" (p. 1041). The adaptive motivational pattern studied by Dweck (1986) "is characterized by challenge seeking and high, effective persistence in the face of obstacles" (p 1040). Dweck contended that children with learning goals use these obstacles as a cue to increase their effort or to analyze and vary their strategies. Based on the assumption that gifted students will be more learning-goal-oriented for this study, it was hypothesized that the results will agree with those of Dweck (1986) and Schunk (1994); that is, learning goal orientation would be positively related to self-regulated learning and self-efficacy.
Bandura (1986) defined self-efficacy as "people's judgments of their capabilities to organize and execute courses of action required to attain designated types of performance" (p. 391). Implicitly, self-efficacy refers to people's specific beliefs about their capability to perform certain actions or to bring about intended outcomes in a domain or to otherwise exert control over their lives (Bandura, 1986, 1993; Boekaerts, 1992; Schunk, 1990). Data on self-efficacy were collected in this study to determine the relationship between the proposed factors of self-regulation and their relationship with worry and high-stakes math achievement for a gifted sample. The focus was test performance. Collins (1984) and Pintrich and Schrauben (1992) noted that more efficacious ef·fi·ca·cious
Producing or capable of producing a desired effect. See Synonyms at effective.
[From Latin effic students monitored their performance and applied more effort than students who were low in self-efficacy. Bandura (1993) said that people with high self-efficacy "heighten height·en
v. height·ened, height·en·ing, height·ens
1. To raise or increase the quantity or degree of; intensify.
2. To make high or higher; raise.
v.intr. and sustain their efforts in the face of failure. They attribute failure to insufficient effort or deficient de·fi·cient
1. Lacking an essential quality or element.
2. Inadequate in amount or degree; insufficient.
a state of being in deficit. knowledge and skills that are acquirable" (p. 144). An excellent review of self-efficacy research is provided by Pajares (1996b). Research of the gifted (Bogie bo·gie 1 also bo·gy
n. pl. bo·gies
1. One of several wheels or supporting and aligning rollers inside the tread of a tractor or tank.
2. & Buckholt, 1987; Chan, 1988; Feldhusen & Nimlos-Hippen, 1992; Vallerand, Gagne, Senecal, & Pelletier, 1994; Zimmerman & Martinez-Pons, 1990) examined self-perceptions of competence in gifted students. In general, these studies indicated "that gifted students perceive themselves as more competent and are more intrinsically motivated toward school tasks" (Chan, 1996, p. 184) than their peers.
In their path model, Zimmerman, Bandura, and Martinez-Pons (1992) showed that self-efficacy for self-regulated learning influenced self-efficacy for academic achievement; self-efficacy for academic achievement then influenced final grades via student goals for their grades. The combined direct and indirect effect of self-efficacy for academic achievement on final grades was ([Beta] = .37, p [is less than] .05). Zimmerman and Bandura (1994) found essentially the same results in their study ([Beta] = .38). In their path model, Garcia and Pintrich (1991) found that intrinsic motivation (comparable to learning goal orientation in this study) had a substantial effect on self-efficacy ([Beta] = .36), and that both intrinsic motivation and self-efficacy had moderate effects on self-regulated learning ([Beta] = .24 and [Beta] = .26, respectively). This study did not investigate the role of these motivational effects on academic achievement, but did posit that self-efficacy will be strongly and positively related to self-regulated learning and mathematics achievement.
Most research has shown that high worry is associated with low cognitive performance (Hembree, 1988, 1990; Pajares & Urdan, 1996; Seipp, 1991). However, a few studies showed no relationship (e.g., Wigfield & Meece, 1988). Anxiety, on the other hand, may be differentiated into two components: worry (cognitive) and emotionality (physiological/affective) (Hembree, 1988; Hong, 1998, O'Neil & Fukumura, 1992). In several studies, worry has had a stronger negative correlation Noun 1. negative correlation - a correlation in which large values of one variable are associated with small values of the other; the correlation coefficient is between 0 and -1
indirect correlation with achievement than emotionality; in response, Seipp (1991) recommended that studies predicting academic achievement would be better served by using only the worry component. Hence, this study focused on worry, not emotionality, and specifically on state worry as opposed to trait worry. It was hypothesized that worry would be negatively related to self-regulation, self-efficacy, learning goal orientation, and high-stakes mathematics achievement.
The research on certain types of mathematics continues to support gender differences in favor of males (Fennema & Carpenter, 1998), although there is evidence indicating "that females' achievement is similar to males in all but the most advanced levels of mathematics" (National Science Foundation, 1996, pp. 1-6). According to Seegers and Boekaerts (1996), there have been, and continue to be, significant gender differences in performance on complex mathematical tasks (Fennema & Carpenter, 1998). This study used the Advanced Placement Exam In the U.S., incoming freshmen usually take one or more placement tests on various subjects to determine which class should be taken in the fall. Placement exams are also administered to fifth graders entering middle school. in calculus as the performance indicator. It was hypothesized that males would outperform Outperform
An analyst recommendation meaning a stock is expected to do slightly better than the market return.
Exact definitions vary by brokerage, but in general this rating is better than neutral and worse than buy or strong buy. females.
In summary, self-regulated learners are students who plan and check their work, are aware of their thought processes This is a list of thinking styles, methods of thinking (thinking skills), and types of thought. See also the List of thinking-related topic lists, the List of philosophies and the . , use cognitive strategies to achieve their goals, and exert effort. This study investigated self-regulated learning and the effects of self-efficacy, learning goal orientation, and worry on achievement in a sample of mathematically gifted high school students in an Advanced Placement Program course in mathematics. The study's objectives were to extend the theoretical and empirical research Noun 1. empirical research - an empirical search for knowledge
inquiry, research, enquiry - a search for knowledge; "their pottery deserves more research than it has received" on goal orientation, self-efficacy, and self-regulated learning by determining whether learning goal orientation and self-efficacy are related to self-regulated learning, documenting their relationships to worry and high-stakes mathematics achievement, and controlling for the effects of gender.
Our hypothesized structural path model is shown in Figure 1. Gender, an exogenous variable Exogenous variable
A variable whose value is determined outside the model in which it is used. Related: Endogenous variable , is not shown, but the indirect and direct effects of gender were analyzed an·a·lyze
tr.v. an·a·lyzed, an·a·lyz·ing, an·a·lyz·es
1. To examine methodically by separating into parts and studying their interrelations.
2. Chemistry To make a chemical analysis of.
3. . The model is an inductive inductive
1. eliciting a reaction within an organism.
a form of radiofrequency hyperthermia that selectively heats muscle, blood and proteinaceous tissue, sparing fat and air-containing tissues. conceptual framework For the concept in aesthetics and art criticism, see .
A conceptual framework is used in research to outline possible courses of action or to present a preferred approach to a system analysis project. that stems from the extant literature Extant literature refers to texts that have survived from the past to the present time. Extant literature can be divided into extant original manuscripts, copies of original manuscripts, quotations and paraphrases of passages of non-extant texts contained in other works, on self-regulation, goal orientation, self-efficacy, worry, and achievement. Pluses and minuses are used to depict de·pict
tr.v. de·pict·ed, de·pict·ing, de·picts
1. To represent in a picture or sculpture.
2. To represent in words; describe. See Synonyms at represent. hypothesized relationships that stem from already-reported findings. Dashed lines are used to depict possible relationships that will be analyzed even though the literature is unclear about the expected findings. Most of the relationships shown in Figure 1 have been studied previously, but this is one of the few studies that includes such a large number of cognitive and motivational variables in the same study. To our knowledge, no one has ever investigated all of these relationships simultaneously for gifted students. Our analytic strategy, path analysis with latent variables In statistics, Latent variables (as opposed to observable variables), are variables that are not directly observed but are rather inferred (through a mathematical model) from other variables that are observed and directly measured. , allows for certain statistical advantages over the more simple bivariate bi·var·i·ate
Mathematics Having two variables: bivariate binomial distribution.
Adj. 1. analysis of measured variables that predominate the literature. The high-achieving sample studied is also unique. Except for self-regulation (which is comprised of both metacognition and effort), the definition and operationalization of all variables analyzed is highly consistent with those reported in the literature.
[Figure 1 ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]
The sample consisted of 144 students (78 young men and 66 young women) in grades 10-12 from six public high schools in Southern California Southern California, also colloquially known as SoCal, is the southern portion of the U.S. state of California. Centered on the cities of Los Angeles and San Diego, Southern California is home to nearly 24 million people and is the nation's second most populated region, . The median age was 18.0 years; 134 students were seniors, nine were juniors, and one was a sophomore. More than half of the students were Asian Americans This page is a list of Asian Americans. Politics
In the sample of convenience, the gifted students differed from students in most samples used in social cognitive theory Social Cognitive Theory utilized both in Psychology and Communications posits that portions of an individual's knowledge acquisition can be directly related to observing others within the context of social interactions, experiences, and outside media influences. research in several important respects: we considered our participants mathematically gifted in that each student had completed all available mathematics courses and were assigned to Advanced Placement calculus for four semesters; the sample incorporated 60% Asian Americans and only 35% Whites; and the criterion variable, the Advanced Placement exam, represented a high-stakes environment; that is, if completed satisfactorily, it would give students college credit or placement for their endeavor in over 1,200 institutions. Therefore, the reader is cautioned that comparisons of this study to similar research using a representative classroom environment, a majority of White participants, and grade point average as the criterion variable may not be clear-cut (e.g., see Stevenson & Lee, 1990, and Whang & Hancock, 1994).
Measures and Instruments
State measures of each of the four latent variables (self-regulated learning [consisting of awareness, self-checking, planning, cognitive strategy use, and effort], self-efficacy, learning goal orientation, and worry) were obtained from 144 students within one to two days after their Advanced Placement calculus exam. An example item from each scale is provided in Table 1. Students were required to review two calculus problems similar to those on the Advanced Placement exam and were instructed to indicate how they thought or felt during the calculus exam. The state measurement instrument was a modified version of O'Neil et al.'s (1992) questionnaire, with added scales for self-efficacy and learning goal orientation that were developed specifically for the study. Three items of the Self-Efficacy scale were adapted from Pintrich and DeGroot (1990), the remainder were developed for the study. Likewise, three items on the Learning Goal scale were adapted from Miller et al. (1993), while two items were adapted from Pintrich and DeGroot's (1990) Intrinsic Value scale. O'Neil et al. (1992) used Spielberger's (1975) trait-state anxiety theory to formulate a set of domain-independent state measures for key constructs in this questionnaire. Because, according to O'Neil and Abedi (1996), "states" vary in intensity and fluctuate depending on the situation, the state responses used for this study were rated on an intensity dimension with the following responses: not at all, somewhat, moderately so, and very much so.
Sample Items from the Self-Assessment Questionnaire Awareness I was aware of the need to plan my course of action. Cognitive strategy I used multiple thinking techniques or strategies to solve the exam question. Effort I kept working, even on difficult questions. Learning goal orientation One of my primary goals on this exam was to improve my knowledge. Planning I made sure I understood just what had to be done and how to do it. Self-checking I checked my work while I was doing it. Self-efficacy I think I will receive a good score on this exam. Worry I wasn't happy with my performance.
Note. The complete questionnaire is available from Harold F. O'Neil, Jr.
Initially a confirmatory model that included separate factors for self-checking, awareness, planning, cognitive strategy use, and effort was generated and examined. Although large and significant loadings suggested that each of these factors was well-defined in the confirmatory factor analysis, the large magnitude of median correlations among the factors, ranging from .85 for self-checking to .97 for cognitive strategy use, suggested that a strong underlying general factor could more parsimoniously explain the observed correlations from the self-regulation items. Thus, all subsequent analyses included a general factor, labeled self-regulation, that was defined by self-checking, awareness, planning, cognitive strategy use, and effort. (See Malpass, 1994, for details on scale development and modification.)
Advanced Placement exam in calculus (APX APX Approximately
APX ascorbate peroxidase
APX Amsterdam Power Exchange
APX Automated Power Exchange
APX Alt Preset Extreme (MP3 encoding preset)
APX Average Page Exposure
APX Ateliers de Puteaux
APX Airborne Radar Transponder ). High-stakes math achievement was measured by a single test score: the results of the Advanced Placement exam in calculus. The Educational Testing Service The Educational Testing Service (or ETS) is the world's largest private educational testing and measurement organization, operating on an annual budget of approximately $1.1 billion on a proforma basis in 2007. confirmed the internal consistency In statistics and research, internal consistency is a measure based on the correlations between different items on the same test (or the same subscale on a larger test). It measures whether several items that propose to measure the same general construct produce similar scores. of the Advanced Placement exam in calculus to be [Alpha] = .91 (L. Jones, personal communication, October 1994). Advanced Placement exams
Advanced Placement examinations are taken each May by students at participating Canadian, American, and international educational institutions. The tests are the culmination of year-long AP courses. are administered annually to registered sophomore, junior, and senior students in the Advanced Placement Program. Test scores range from 1 to 5, where 5 is the highest score (for more information, refer to the Advanced Placement Course Description, 1984). In this study, the mean was 3.514 (SD = 1.333) indicating that there is sufficient variation on this outcome measure. This exam is considered to be a high-stakes event because a satisfactory score (3, 4, or 5) may be important to the students for obtaining admission to the college of their choice and for validation of college credit. A satisfactory score also may mean one less college course to take. As is customary, the Advanced Placement Examination was scored by Educational Testing Service, and the results were provided to the students some time after the experiment.
The EQS EQS Elite Qualifying Segments (United Airlines Mileage Plus)
EQS Environmental Quality Standard
EQS Environmental Quality Systems
EQS Entangled Quantum State
EQS Event Query Service
EQS Equalizer System [TM] structural equation modeling software (Bentler, 1995b) was used to conduct the structural equation model (SEM) analyses. First, the internal consistencies of the scales were verified. (Information on the refinement of the scales, and the means, standard deviations In statistics, the average amount a number varies from the average number in a series of numbers.
(statistics) standard deviation - (SD) A measure of the range of values in a set of numbers. , and intercorrelations of variables used in this study are provided by Malpass, 1994.) Then a confirmatory factor analysis was conducted. This first-order confirmatory factor analysis model was used as the framework for all subsequent analyses to investigate the theoretical relationships of the components of self-regulated learning. All scales had Cronbach coefficient alpha reliabilities above .65 (see Table 2).
Items Means and Standard Deviations and Scale Reliabilities No. of Item Item Scale items mean SD Alpha Awareness 5 2.90 .58 .74 Cognitive strategy use 7 2.56 .37 .73 Effort 6 3.49 .58 .76 Planning 6 2.88 .48 .74 Self-checking 5 2.79 .47 .66 Self-efficacy 3 2.30 .11 .80 Learning goal orientation 4 2.46 .19 .81 Worry 4 2.39 .19 .86
A confirmatory factor analysis was performed on the measured variable intercorrelations, and post hoc post hoc
adv. & adj.
In or of the form of an argument in which one event is asserted to be the cause of a later event simply by virtue of having happened earlier: model modifications were used, consisting of Wald Test The Wald test is a statistical test, typically used to test whether an effect exists or not. In other words, it tests whether an independent variable has a statistically significant relationship with a dependent variable. recommendations, to eliminate non-significant paths (for a more extensive discussion, see Malpass, 1994). All factor loading were significant intercorrelations. Even though Mardia's (1970) Normalized Coefficient was 2.357, indicating multivariately normal data, we used the Satorra-Bentler (S-B S-B Stoer-Bulirsch (sampling algorithm) ) robust scaled statistic statistic,
n a value or number that describes a series of quantitative observations or measures; a value calculated from a sample.
a numerical value calculated from a number of observations in order to summarize them. to err on the safe side: S-[Beta] [chi square chi square (kī),
n a nonparametric statistic used with discrete data in the form of frequency count (nominal data) or percentages or proportions that can be reduced to frequencies. ] (140, N = 143) = 195.399. Fit indices, showing an acceptable model fit, are as follows: Comparative Fit Index (CFI CFI
cost, freight, and insurance ) = .931, Adjusted CFI = .938, Bentler-Bonett Nonnormed Fit Index (NNFI NNFI Non-Normed Fit Index (statistics) ) = .917, and Root Mean Square Error of Approximation approximation /ap·prox·i·ma·tion/ (ah-prok?si-ma´shun)
1. the act or process of bringing into proximity or apposition.
2. a numerical value of limited accuracy. (RMSEA RMSEA Root Mean Square Error of Approximation [Epsilon 1. (language) EPSILON - A macro language with high level features including strings and lists, developed by A.P. Ershov at Novosibirsk in 1967. EPSILON was used to implement ALGOL 68 on the M-220. ]) = .065, with a 90% confidence interval confidence interval,
n a statistical device used to determine the range within which an acceptable datum would fall. Confidence intervals are usually expressed in percentages, typically 95% or 99%. of .048 [is less than] [Epsilon] [is less than] .081. These fit indices collectively indicated that most of the correlations among measures were explained by the model, and that its formulation was psychometrically quite acceptable (Huba, Wingard, & Bentler, 1981).
Results of the confirmatory factor analysis showed that at p [is less than] .05, (a) self-efficacy was highly related to high-stakes mathematics achievement (r = .569), highly (negatively) related to worry (r = -.711), but only moderately related to self-regulated learning (r =.236), and not influenced by learning goal orientation; (b) worry had a moderate negative effect on high-stakes mathematics achievement (r = -.491), and a smaller negative effect on self-regulation (r= -.251); (c) learning goal orientation was moderately related to self-regulation (r= .456); and (d) self-regulation (similar to Pintrich and De Groot, 1990, and Yap, 1993) positively, but moderately, affected mathematics achievement (r = .260). Gender (coded: young women = 2, young men =1) had two significant correlations with worry and self-efficacy: Young women worried more than young men (r =.203), and young men had more self-efficacy than young women (r = -.344).
Path Analytic Model
Once there was substantive confidence in the confirmatory factor analytic Adj. 1. factor analytic - of or relating to or the product of factor analysis
factor analytical model, our hypotheses were evaluated using path analysis. Path analysis allows us to measure both the direct and indirect effects of the hypothesized self-regulated learning factors in our model, controlling for gender. It provides statistical evidence, in one single analysis, of the empirical reality of the theory (see Figure 1). The path total effects (standardized values Standardized value
Also called the normal deviate, the distance of one data point from the mean, divided by the standard deviation of the distribution. ) are shown in Figure 2.
[Figure 2 ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]
1. Not significant.
2. Having, producing, or being a value obtained from a statistical test that lies within the limits for being of random occurrence. paths were deleted (t [is less than] .96, p [is greater than] .05), and once again, the fit of our model was acceptable: S-[Beta] [chi square] (122, N = 143) = 191.401; CFI = .930; Adjusted CFI = .938, NNFI = .913, and RMSEA = .067, with a 90% confidence interval of .049 [is less than] [Epsilon] [is less than] .083. As in the confirmatory factor analysis model, there were no significant gender effects on math achievement; moreover, for the path model, the only gender difference was for self-efficacy (not worry) ([Beta] = -.386). Our path analysis revealed that self-efficacy was significantly and positively related to self-regulation ([Beta] = .282) and to high-stakes math achievement ([Beta] =.641), and negatively related to worry ([Beta] = -.725). Learning goal orientation was significantly and positively related to self-regulation ([Beta] = .448) and worry ([Beta] = .216)-but not related to self-efficacy or math achievement. These latter relationships with learning goal orientation were somewhat surprising, as we expected a negative relationship with worry and a positive relationship with both self-efficacy and mathematics achievement. Finally, self-regulation was significantly and negatively related to worry ([Beta] = -.211).
For this study, "self-efficacy" was measured immediately after the Advanced Placement exam in calculus using a typical math word problem and a typical math multiple-choice question to remind the students of their frame of mind during the exam. Researchers normally assess mathematics self-efficacy by showing students the questions to solve and then ask them to rate their capability to solve each of the problems on a scale from 1 to 100 (Pintrich & Schunk, 1996). In this situation, that type of measurement on a high-stakes, national standardized standardized
pertaining to data that have been submitted to standardization procedures.
standardized morbidity rate
see morbidity rate.
standardized mortality rate
see mortality rate. exam was not feasible. In this study, "self-efficacy" could be called "expectancy for success" or "self-evaluation" (Meece, Wigfield, & Eccles, 1990; F. Pajares, personal communication, February 1996; Schunk, 1995). This is not redefining the construct. In fact, because Schunk (1995) found a significant relationship between self-evaluation and self-efficacy, and because, as Schunk has previously stated (1984), in achievement situations, there may be less of a distinction between expectancy and efficacy judgments, it was decided to retain the construct of self-efficacy, focusing on test performance. The findings agree with much of the goal orientation and self-efficacy literature, (e.g., Bandura, 1993; Dweck, 1986) as well as the self-efficacy findings of Brackney and Karabenick (1995), Pajares and Kranzler (1995), Pajares and Miller (1994, 1995), and Schunk (1995).
A methodology issue regarding measurement of the state variables needs to be addressed. When measuring states of cognition cognition
Act or process of knowing. Cognition includes every mental process that may be described as an experience of knowing (including perceiving, recognizing, conceiving, and reasoning), as distinguished from an experience of feeling or of willing. or affect, one expects these states to vary in intensity and change over time (i.e., this is true definitionally). Thus, one might expect a state to be different before, during, and after a high-stakes test. However, one must consider that measurement during the test may change test performance, particularly by interrupting the performance, and would be most likely negative. Interruption leading to a poorer test score is particularly serious in high-stakes applications. Thus, measurement during a high-stakes test is seldom feasible. Measurement afterward af·ter·ward also af·ter·wards
At a later time; subsequently.
Adv. 1. afterward - happening at a time subsequent to a reference time; "he apologized subsequently"; "he's going to the store but he'll be back here with retrospective state instructions (i.e., tell how you thought or felt during the test) makes more sense because it does not interrupt test performance and essentially asks students to provide an average view of their cognition/affect during the test.
The path model not only statistically fit the data, but also explained virtually all the covariances among measures. Browne and Cudeck (1993) and MacCallum, Browne, and Sugawara (1996) suggested that values of Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) between .05 to .08 indicate a "fair" fit. For this study it is important to recognize that the hypotheses tested were not hypotheses of "exact" fit; rather, a model was tested that realistically approximated real-world relationships and effects (MacCallum et al., 1996). MacCallum et al. believe, as we do, that a test of exact fit is not particularly useful in practice "because the hypothesis being tested is implausible im·plau·si·ble
Difficult to believe; not plausible.
im·plausi·bil and is not empirically interesting" (p. 132). To determine the statistical power of these findings, we chose our effect size to be [[Epsilon].sub.0] = .05 AND [[Epsilon].sub.a] =.08, to test the probability of rejecting a "fair" fit when the true fit of the model was poor. Even though our sample size was small (N = 144), the power estimate for our model was greater than .85. We therefore concluded that our model was a realistic approximation.
In the path analysis, a non-significant relationship between self-regulation and high-stakes mathematics achievement was found, although we had expected self-regulation would act as a mediator mediator n. a person who conducts mediation. A mediator is usually a lawyer, or retired judge, but can be a non-attorney specialist in the subject matter (like child custody) who tries to bring people and their disputes to early resolution through a conference. between both self-efficacy and math achievement and learning goal orientation and math achievement. A possible explanation of this non-significant finding may be due to the issue at the operational level of whether our measurement of self-regulation is appropriate. There is little consensus among researchers as to how self-regulation should be reported when self-report scales are used, i.e., should some sort of total score be used such as the combination of the components (e.g., planning, self-assessment, effort, etc.) or should the components be reported separately. In this study, items measuring metacognition (e.g., awareness, cognitive strategy use, self-checking, and planning) were combined with effort into a single, higher order self-regulation factor. By definition, these constructs are distinct, and a rationale for combining them is needed. The rationale used is empirical: Our exploratory factor analysis called for a single factor, and in this and other studies (Pintrich & DeGroot, 1990; Yap, 1993), the correlations between metacognition, cognitive strategy use, and effort have been very high, suggesting that the utility of distinguishing these concepts empirically for some measurement purposes is low. Nevertheless, the issue of non-significance of the effect of self-regulation on math achievement is perplexing per·plex
tr.v. per·plexed, per·plex·ing, per·plex·es
1. To confuse or trouble with uncertainty or doubt. See Synonyms at puzzle.
2. To make confusedly intricate; complicate. , no matter how one measures self-regulation. Perhaps this finding is due to the sample of gifted young men and women and their apparent use of cognitive strategies, self-checking, planning, and/or awareness. Further studies with gifted students are needed for a better understanding of this phenomenon.
In the confirmatory factor analysis, worry had a slightly higher correlation with achievement in this study than in Yap's (1993), but this difference should be expected in a high-stakes environment. However, the reader should note that in the path analysis (see Figure 2), the relationship between worry and math achievement was not significant. We suspect the reason that a total effect (e.g., a correlation in a confirmatory factor analysis) is often greater than a unique effect (a beta in a path analysis) is either that total effects are partitioned par·ti·tion
a. The act or process of dividing something into parts.
b. The state of being so divided.
a. into indirect and direct effects, or that a total effect is partly inflated through its association with other independent variables. In this case, the association of worry with Advanced Placement exam score was much smaller in the path analysis because in the path analysis, self-regulated learning, self-efficacy, and other variables (e.g., gender) were held constant when the path from worry to Advanced Placement exam score was computed, thus reducing the magnitude of the relationship. There are other theoretical similarities and differences between our study and other analogous studies that require additional elaboration.
Theoretical Similarities and Differences
Pintrich and De Groot (1990) found that although self-efficacy facilitated cognitive engagement, the cognitive engagement variables were more directly tied to performance. They also found a negative relationship between worry and self-efficacy but no significant relationship of test anxiety (worry) with self-regulation. In this study, self-efficacy was more tied to performance than were self-regulation and its concomitant variables concomitant variable
see concomitant variable. , and that worry had a significant negative relationship with both self-efficacy and self-regulation. Using the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ MSLQ Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire
MSLQ Medical Science Liaison Quarterly ), Pintrich and De Groot (1990) found that students with higher self-efficacy, intrinsic value (learning goal orientation), cognitive strategy use, and use of self-regulating strategies (metacognition/effort) had significantly higher grades, better seatwork seat·work
Lessons assigned to be done by students at their desks in the classroom. , and better scores in exams/quizzes and essays/reports. Even though our methodologies and criterion variables were different, many of our results were comparable; in particular, we both found empirical evidence "for the importance of considering both motivational and self-regulated learning components in our models of classroom academic performance" (p. 38).
Schunk (1984) determined that self-efficacy had both a direct and indirect (as mediated me·di·ate
v. me·di·at·ed, me·di·at·ing, me·di·ates
1. To resolve or settle (differences) by working with all the conflicting parties: by persistence) path of influence to cognitive skill cognitive skill Psychology Any of a number of acquired skills that reflect an individual's ability to think; CSs include verbal and spatial abilities, and have a significant hereditary component development. Emphasizing that the goal was to learn to solve problems (rather than simply completing them) can raise self-efficacy for learning and increase self-regulation and persistence in 4th-grade children (Schunk, 1995). In 1994, Schunk posited that "students who adopt a learning goal are apt to experience a sense of self-efficacy for skill improvement and engage in activities they believe enhance learning (e.g., expend effort, persist, use effective strategies)" (p. 89). However, we found a non-significant relationship between learning goal orientation and self-efficacy. All of our other findings, with this one exception, were comparable to Schunk's (1995).
With a group of high school students, Pajares and Kranzler (1995) found significant positive direct paths from self-efficacy to mathematics performance and a significant negative path to anxiety. Pajares and Kranzler found no gender effects for these students, either on self-efficacy or performance. A significant correlation between mathematics self-efficacy and problem-solving performance was indicated in college students (Pajares & Miller, 1994, 1995). Pajares and Miller (1994) found a gender effect favoring the mathematics self-efficacy of male undergraduates but found no gender effect on problem-solving performance.
In a recent study of math self-efficacy in 8th-grade students, Pajares (1996a) found a direct effect of gender on self-efficacy for regular education students but no direct effect of gender on performance (boys had higher self-efficacy). For gifted students, there was a direct effect of self-efficacy and gender on performance (girls had higher performance), but no gender effect on self-efficacy. Pysher (1996) also found no significant gender differences in math test scores, goals, or self-efficacy. Our findings with mathematically-gifted students generally agree with these authors: A significant direct path was indicated both from self-efficacy to mathematics performance and from self-efficacy to worry; and whereas no significant gender effects on performance were found, there was a significant effect on self-efficacy.
It should be noted that because the sample size was small to moderate (N = 144), the majority of participants were Asian American (60%), and the mathematical achievement was in a high-stakes environment for gifted students, we recommend that this study should be replicated with larger, more diverse samples.
In summary, for our gifted sample, both learning goal orientation and self-efficacy positively affected self-regulated learning. Self-regulated learning had a negative effect on worry, and interestingly, no other significant relationship. Self-efficacy had a small positive effect on self-regulated learning, a large negative effect on worry, and a large positive affect on the Advanced Placement exam. Learning goal orientation had a small, positive effect on worry. Finally, with respect to gender, young men had significantly more self-efficacy and less worry than young women. It is clear from this study that self-efficacy plays an important role in achievement for the gifted. From a practical viewpoint, efforts to stimulate self-efficacy for gifted children would have a large payoff.
(1) This article is based on a doctoral dissertation dis·ser·ta·tion
A lengthy, formal treatise, especially one written by a candidate for the doctoral degree at a university; a thesis.
1. submitted to the faculty at University of Southern California The U.S. News & World Report ranked USC 27th among all universities in the United States in its 2008 ranking of "America's Best Colleges", also designating it as one of the "most selective universities" for admitting 8,634 of the almost 34,000 who applied for freshman admission by John R. Malpass. Harold F. O'Neil, Jr., directed the work.
(2) The work reported herein was supported in part under the Educational Research and Development Center Program, cooperative agreement number R117G10027 and CFDA CFDA Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance
CFDA Council of Fashion Designers of America (New York, New York, USA)
CFDA California Funeral Directors Association
CFDA Community Futures Development Association catalog catalog, descriptive list, on cards or in a book, of the contents of a library. Assurbanipal's library at Nineveh was cataloged on shelves of slate. The first known subject catalog was compiled by Callimachus at the Alexandrian Library in the 3d cent. B.C. number 84.117G, as administered by the Office of Educational Research and Development, U.S. Department of Education. The findings and opinions expressed in this work do not reflect the position or policies of the Office of Educational Research and Improvement or the U.S. Department of Education.
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Manuscript submitted June, 1998.
Revision accepted March, 1999.
John Malpass is Director of Operations and Lead Instructional Designer at Becker Multimedia, Inc., in Atlanta, GA. He plans and manages computer or web-based training courses and increases training transfer by embedding 1. (mathematics) embedding - One instance of some mathematical object contained with in another instance, e.g. a group which is a subgroup.
2. (theory) embedding - (domain theory) A complete partial order F in [X -> Y] is an embedding if cognitive and metacognitive learning strategies within these multimedia products. He also teaches business and education distance learning courses. Harold F. O'Neil, Jr. is Professor of Educational Psychology at the Department of Learning and Instruction, Rossier School of Education, University of Southern California. His research interests include measurement, teaching of self-regulation, problem solving, and teamskills. Dennis Hocevar, is Professor of Educational Psychology, Department of Learning and Instruction, Rossier School of Education, University of Southern California. His research interests include measurement, assessment, and evaluation.