Securing cochlear implants to the skull: Two alternate methods.Abstract
In view of the various problems encountered with the traditional methods of securing cochlear cochlear
pertaining to or emanating from the cochlea.
the coiled portion of the membranous labyrinth located inside the cochlea; contains endolymph.
see Table 14. implants-including dural dural /du·ral/ (dur´'l) pertaining to the dura mater.
pertaining to the dura mater.
see dural ossification. tear and suture dissolution following infection-we devised two alternate methods of performing this procedure. We use a titanium mesh or a Gore-Tex patch secured with two 4-mm screws to fix the receiver to the skull. No patient who has undergone either of these procedures at our institution has experienced any of the complications that are associated with the older silk, nylon, and Dacron sutures. Moreover, our two alternate methods are less technically difficult and can be performed in a shorter period of time.
The incidence of electrode slippage in cochlear implants was described by Webb et al in their review of implant complications worldwide. They reviewed the outcomes of 4,969 nucleus implants in adults and children and identified complications in 70 (1.4%); 61 of these patients (1.2%) experienced electrode migration and nine (0.2%) experienced receiver migration. In a followup study, Hoffman and Cohen cohen
(Hebrew: “priest”) Jewish priest descended from Zadok (a descendant of Aaron), priest at the First Temple of Jerusalem. The biblical priesthood was hereditary and male. reported that 42 of these 70 patients (60%) required revision surgery. In our experience, the traditional methods of securing the implant receiver with silk ties or nylon sutures are not optimal. In two of 93 implant cases (2%) reviewed at our institution, wound infection led to an erosion of the ties and movement of the receiver under the scalp flap, necessitating reimplantation. In response to this problem, we devised two alternate methods-using a titanium mesh or a GoreTex patch-of securing the cochlear implant receiver.
Titanium mesh. A hockey stick-shaped incision is made in the postauricular area, and a mastoidectomy Mastoidectomy Definition
Mastoidectomy is a surgical procedure to remove an infected portion of the bone behind the ear when medical treatment is not effective. This surgery is rarely needed today because of the widespread use of antibiotics. via a facial recess approach is performed. The cochlear implant bed is then drilled in the skull by egg-shelling the middle fossa fossa /fos·sa/ (fos´ah) pl. fos´sae [L.] a trench or channel; in anatomy, a hollow or depressed area.
acetabular fossa a nonarticular area in the floor of the acetabulum. periosteum periosteum
Dense membrane over bones. The outer layer contains nerve fibres and many blood vessels, which supply cells in the bone. The bone-producing cells of the inner layer are most prominent in fetal life and early childhood, when bone formation is at its peak. . One hole each is made on the anterior and posterior aspects of the implant receiver with a 1.7-mm diameter cuffed 4-mm twist drill bit. A cochleostomy is then performed, and the electrode is threaded into the cochlea cochlea (kŏk`lēə): see ear. . Two 2.0 Leibinger 4-mm screws are used to hold a 5 x 5-cm, 0.3-mm-thick Leibinger titanium mesh over the cochlear implant and secure it in the depression made in the skull. The temporalis fascia fascia (făsh`ēə), fibrous tissue network located between the skin and the underlying structure of muscle and bone. Fascia is composed of two layers, a superficial layer and a deep layer. and skin are then closed in two layers (figure 1).
Gore-Tex patch. The implant is placed in a manner similar to the one described above. After preparing the implant bed in the skull, two monocortical holes are drilled-one anterior and one posterior to the implant- with a 2.0-mm-diameter cuffed straight 4-mm drill bit. A 3 x 6-cm, 0.4-mm-thick cardiovascular Gore-Tex patch is placed over the implant. While the patch is being stretched, holes are made in it over the screw sites with a Rosen needle. The patch is then secured to the skull with two 4-mm screws placed through the holes made with the needle. The stretching of the patch in effect holds the implant securely against the skull (figure 2).
The traditional methods of securing cochlear implants are associated with complications. Graham et al described a method of using silk or Dacron ties to secure implants. But in our experience, silk sutures eroded following infection in two patients. Furthermore, Dacron ties have been associated with necrosis of the overlying overlying
suffocation of piglets by the sow. The piglets may be weak from illness or malnutrition, the sow may be clumsy or ill, the pen may be inadequate in size or poorly designed so that piglets cannot escape. flap, stitch abscess, and granulation tissue, which have caused implant exposure and external meatal skin erosion.
These complications prompted efforts to develop a simpler method of securing implants that would cause fewer complications. Some of these methods concengery difficult.  Cohen and Kuzma reported on the use of a titanium clip that is fixed to the incus incus /in·cus/ (ing´kus) [L.] the middle of the three ossicles of the ear, which, with the stapes and malleus, serves to conduct vibrations from the tympanic membrane to the inner ear. Called also
Migration of the receiver also presents a problem. Different methods of preparing the receiver bed and securing the receiver have been described. Hoffman and Cohen have advocated creating a deep well down to the dura and leaving an "island" of bone to prevent receiver migration in some children.  However, this method can increase the risk of dural tear, especially when drilling holes in the surrounding diploic dip·lo·e
The spongy, porous, bony tissue between the hard outer and inner bone layers of the cranium.
[Greek diplo bone to allow for the passing of the securing sutures. Also, nearby bleeding could cause an epidural epidural /epi·du·ral/ (-dur´il) situated upon or outside the dura mater.
Located on or over the dura mater.
n. hematoma hematoma /he·ma·to·ma/ (he?mah-to´mah) a localized collection of extravasated blood, usually clotted, in an organ, space, or tissue. .
The two methods that we have described are different from those described by others. We have found that electrode migration can be prevented by securing the receiver and part of the proximal electrode with a titanium mesh or Gore-Tex patch. At our institution, 170 patients have undergone cochlear implantation in which the device was secured with a Gore-Tex patch, and 10 have received the mesh. During a mean followup of 12 months, we have found that electrode migration has not been a problem. Covering the implant with the titanium mesh or the Gore-Tex patch has not caused any difficulties in signal transmission to the receiver. Titanium and Gore-Tex have a long track record of successful use in humans by facial plastic surgeons. [10,11] Complications have been minimal. These materials are well tolerated by tissues, do not migrate or fail, and are not often infected or extruded. [10,11]
Another advantage of these two methods is that they carry a lower risk of dural tear and cerebrospinal fluid leakage. Using the cuffed drill bits and limiting penetration with the 4-mm screws, we have not experienced any cases of dural tears, subdural subdural /sub·du·ral/ (-door´al) between the dura mater and the arachnoid.
Located or occurring beneath the dura mater. or epidural hematomas, or cerebrospinal fluid leakage that were caused by the use of this technique. In addition, screw extrusion has not been a problem. Finally, the surgically simpler methods we have described require less time to perform than do the island-and-suture method. With the silk sutures, the average length of time from the completion of the implant-bed drilling to the securing of the device was 3 minutes and 35 seconds. With the Gore-Tex patch, the average time was 2 minutes. Overall, we prefer the Gore-Tex patch to the titanium mesh because it is easier to use and less expensive.
From the Department of Otolaryngology, University of Minnesota (body, education) University of Minnesota - The home of Gopher.
Address: Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA. Hospital and Clinics, Minneapolis.
Reprint requests: Samuel C. Levine, MD, Department of Otolaryngology, Box 396, UMHC UMHC University of Miami Hospitals and Clinics , 420 S.E. Delaware St., Minneapolis, MN 55455. Phone: (6i2) 626-0486; fax: (612) 625-2101; e-mail: levin001 @tc.umn.edu
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