Secularism and Islam: an unacknowledged kinship.
We usually view Islam and secularism sec·u·lar·ism
1. Religious skepticism or indifference.
2. The view that religious considerations should be excluded from civil affairs or public education. as two antagonistic systems of beliefs, one based on an alleged Revelation, the other on the refusal to admit of any such Revelation, one claiming total submission to God's will Noun 1. God's Will - the omnipotence of a divine being
omnipotence - the state of being omnipotent; having unlimited power , the other to reason's dictates. Yet what these two systems have in common is much more important than what separates them. They are in effect profoundly united in their common denial of any link between faith and reason. That is also what distinguishes them from Catholicism, which has always thought that reason is enlightened by faith, and vice-versa.
Secularism claims that religion is a strictly private affair and that God has no place in public life. This claim is based on the premise that there is no true knowledge other than scientific. Any statement not lending itself to the scientific method is deemed subjective, i.e., mere opinion. Thus, it is assumed that there is no moral law whose truthfulness is guaranteed by reason. In short, faith and morality lie outside the realm of reason.
There is an important body of evidence showing that Islam also believes in a total divorce between faith and reason. For example, according to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. French Islamist R. Arnaldez, whom Pope Benedict XVI Editing of this page by unregistered or newly registered users is currently disabled due to vandalism. referred to in his Regensburg speech, the 11th century Muslim philosopher Ibn Hazn thought that "God is not bound even by his own word, and that nothing would oblige him to reveal the truth to us."
Islam's move away from rationality was pushed further in the 11th century when Abu Hamid al-Ghazali, considered by some as the most important Muslim authority after Mohammed, lamented the influence of Greek philosophers. In a book entitled The Incoherence incoherence Not understandable; disordered; without logical connection. See Schizophrenia. of the Philosophers, he argued that God is not bound by reason, that "natural" links between causes and effects are illusory, and that there is no rationality in the universe, thus denying the very possibility of scientific investigation. Al-Ghazali also thought that reason was darkened dark·en
v. dark·ened, dark·en·ing, dark·ens
a. To make dark or darker.
b. To give a darker hue to.
2. To fill with sadness; make gloomy.
3. by passions and, hence, could not be trusted. Thus morality could be known solely through Revelation. "No obligations flow from reason but from the Shariah (the divinely ordained or·dain
tr.v. or·dained, or·dain·ing, or·dains
a. To invest with ministerial or priestly authority; confer holy orders on.
b. To authorize as a rabbi.
The upshot of it all is that both secularism and Islam deny any possible link between religion and reason, but for different reasons: the former because it denies reason's capacity to know anything other than what is captured by our senses, the second because it denies that God is constrained by reason.
This common denominator common denominator
1. Mathematics A quantity into which all the denominators of a set of fractions may be divided without a remainder.
2. A commonly shared theme or trait. helps to understand many other similarities between secularism and Islam. For example, both systems are incapable of admitting of a harmonious co-ordinated relationship between Church and State based on a distinction between their respective roles. What secularism calls separation of Church and State
natural law, law - a rule or body of rules of conduct inherent in human nature and essential to or binding upon human society , i.e. the Shariah, as interpreted by the mullahs. Thus, in both systems, there is subordination rather than coordination between State and religious authorities. In secularism, religious authorities are subordinated to State authorities. In Islam, it is the other way around.
Another similarity is that both systems are deterministic 1. (probability) deterministic - Describes a system whose time evolution can be predicted exactly.
2. (algorithm) deterministic - Describes an algorithm in which the correct next step depends only on the current state. , i.e., they deny the human capacity to make free choices. Because it admits of no true knowledge other than empirical, secularism assumes that human conduct can be explained solely by observable causes and ignores any other possible cause. Thus, any human action based on disinterestedness is associated with irrational or pathological behaviour. That is tantamount to denying free will and explains the emphasis of secularism on social controls rather than character formation. As for Islam, by asserting that what God wants is what he decides and that what he decides is what happens, it leaves no room for human choice either. Both systems thus deny free will, albeit for different reasons.
It is also clear that both systems are prone to legitimize le·git·i·mize
tr.v. le·git·i·mized, le·git·i·miz·ing, le·git·i·miz·es
le·git the use of violence to enforce beliefs. In the case of Islam, a quick look at the Mediterranean world from the 7th to the 17th centuries, at the end of which the Turks were stopped for the last time outside the gates of Vienna, shows that it was largely spread through the power of the sword. As for secularism, it has always been violent in all its forms, whether Marxist, Nazi, Maoist or (Western) "liberal" (the last admitting of the killing of unborn babies).
Secularism and Islam also share a common intolerance towards those who do not adhere to adhere to
verb 1. follow, keep, maintain, respect, observe, be true, fulfil, obey, heed, keep to, abide by, be loyal, mind, be constant, be faithful
2. their respective beliefs. In Islam, this translates into dhimmitude, i.e. the imposition of an inferior social and legal status for non-Muslims. In secularism, it translates into various forms of discrimination against all who refuse to exclude God from public life.
Thus, from the point of view of reason, Islam and secularism have important similarities: both admit of its use only in the pursuit of utilitarian purposes and reject it in the pursuit of philosophical or theological knowledge. Consequently, neither can explain rationally why open dialogue is preferable to violence in the search for such knowledge. For such an explanation, one must turn to the heritage of Saint Thomas Saint Thomas, island, Virgin Islands
Saint Thomas, island (2000 pop. 51,181), 32 sq mi (83 sq km), one of the U.S. Virgin Islands, West Indies. Charlotte Amalie, the capital of the U.S. Virgin Islands, and the Univ. of the Virgin Islands are on Saint Thomas. Aquinas.
Richard Bastien is the director of the Catholic Civil Rights League for the National Capital Area and a regular contributor to Egards, a French-language quarterly journal.