Secularism and Islam: an unacknowledged kinship.
Secularism claims that religion is a strictly private affair and that God has no place in public life. This claim is based on the premise that there is no true knowledge other than scientific. Any statement not lending itself to the scientific method is deemed subjective, i.e., mere opinion. Thus, it is assumed that there is no moral law whose truthfulness is guaranteed by reason. In short, faith and morality lie outside the realm of reason.
There is an important body of evidence showing that Islam also believes in a total divorce between faith and reason. For example, according to French Islamist R. Arnaldez, whom Pope Benedict XVI referred to in his Regensburg speech, the 11th century Muslim philosopher Ibn Hazn thought that "God is not bound even by his own word, and that nothing would oblige him to reveal the truth to us."
Islam's move away from rationality was pushed further in the 11th century when Abu Hamid al-Ghazali, considered by some as the most important Muslim authority after Mohammed, lamented the influence of Greek philosophers. In a book entitled The Incoherence of the Philosophers, he argued that God is not bound by reason, that "natural" links between causes and effects are illusory, and that there is no rationality in the universe, thus denying the very possibility of scientific investigation. Al-Ghazali also thought that reason was darkened by passions and, hence, could not be trusted. Thus morality could be known solely through Revelation. "No obligations flow from reason but from the Shariah (the divinely ordained path)."
The upshot of it all is that both secularism and Islam deny any possible link between religion and reason, but for different reasons: the former because it denies reason's capacity to know anything other than what is captured by our senses, the second because it denies that God is constrained by reason.
This common denominator helps to understand many other similarities between secularism and Islam. For example, both systems are incapable of admitting of a harmonious co-ordinated relationship between Church and State based on a distinction between their respective roles. What secularism calls separation of Church and State is, in effect, subordination of the former to the latter. The Church is only one other interest group amongst many others. In the case of Islam, the State's role is to enforce the divine law, i.e. the Shariah, as interpreted by the mullahs. Thus, in both systems, there is subordination rather than coordination between State and religious authorities. In secularism, religious authorities are subordinated to State authorities. In Islam, it is the other way around.
Another similarity is that both systems are deterministic, i.e., they deny the human capacity to make free choices. Because it admits of no true knowledge other than empirical, secularism assumes that human conduct can be explained solely by observable causes and ignores any other possible cause. Thus, any human action based on disinterestedness is associated with irrational or pathological behaviour. That is tantamount to denying free will and explains the emphasis of secularism on social controls rather than character formation. As for Islam, by asserting that what God wants is what he decides and that what he decides is what happens, it leaves no room for human choice either. Both systems thus deny free will, albeit for different reasons.
It is also clear that both systems are prone to legitimize the use of violence to enforce beliefs. In the case of Islam, a quick look at the Mediterranean world from the 7th to the 17th centuries, at the end of which the Turks were stopped for the last time outside the gates of Vienna, shows that it was largely spread through the power of the sword. As for secularism, it has always been violent in all its forms, whether Marxist, Nazi, Maoist or (Western) "liberal" (the last admitting of the killing of unborn babies).
Secularism and Islam also share a common intolerance towards those who do not adhere to their respective beliefs. In Islam, this translates into dhimmitude, i.e. the imposition of an inferior social and legal status for non-Muslims. In secularism, it translates into various forms of discrimination against all who refuse to exclude God from public life.
Thus, from the point of view of reason, Islam and secularism have important similarities: both admit of its use only in the pursuit of utilitarian purposes and reject it in the pursuit of philosophical or theological knowledge. Consequently, neither can explain rationally why open dialogue is preferable to violence in the search for such knowledge. For such an explanation, one must turn to the heritage of Saint Thomas Aquinas.
Richard Bastien is the director of the Catholic Civil Rights League for the National Capital Area and a regular contributor to Egards, a French-language quarterly journal.