Sea creatures get non-toxic brush-off.
Barnacles, mollusks, and other forms of sea life that take up residence on ship hulls can slow vessels by several knots, hike fuel consumption by as much as 40%, and cause corrosion. These marine animals also foul fishing nets, harbor construction, and power plant water-intake pipes. Traditional organotin or cuprous cuprous (ky`prəs), copper in the +1 valence state. oxide paints used to battle this fouling are effective, but toxic.
The ultimate goal in the field is to develop self-cleaning coatings that shuck off foulants as a ship glides through water, notes Judith Stein Stein , William Howard 1911-1980.
American biochemist. He shared a 1972 Nobel Prize for pioneering studies of ribonuclease. of the General Electric Research and Development Center, Schenectady, N.Y., but that could be a long way off. For now, scientists are working on ways to prevent marine organisms from attaching to hulls in the first place or to make them easier to remove.
One source of these anti-foulant compounds could be the sea itself. For example, many marine sponges produce anti-fouling substances, such as nitroalkanes (which are made up of nitrogen, carbon, and hydrogen) isolated from the Okinawan sponge of the genus genus, in taxonomy: see classification.
Biological classification. It ranks below family and above species, consisting of structurally or phylogenetically (see Theonella. Since these compounds are naturally occurring, they could be environmentally friendly Environmentally friendly, also referred to as nature friendly, is a term used to refer to goods and services considered to inflict minimal harm on the environment. .
Taking another tack to fight the marine pests, GE researchers are working on silicone-based coatings that prevent the organisms' firm attachment and thus make ship hulls and other underwater Underwater
1. The condition a call option is in when its strike price is higher than the market price of the underlying stock.
2. The condition a put option is in when its strike price is lower than the market price of the underlying stock. surfaces easy to clean. Stein says the beauty of these compounds is that, unlike conventional anti-foulants (which are biocides that kill organisms), they simply act as a non-toxic, slick See SLC. surface that can be cleaned off with a brush, sponge, or hose.