Scientists create non-expanding metal.California Institute of Technology California Institute of Technology, at Pasadena, Calif.; originally for men, became coeducational in 1970; founded 1891 as Throop Polytechnic Institute; called Throop College of Technology, 1913–20. (Caltech), using high pressure, have created a material that does not expand when heated, and acts like a metal with an entirely different chemical composition. For creating this material, the scientists had to squeeze a typical metal alloy at pressures hundreds of thousands of times greater than normal atmospheric pressure atmospheric pressure
or barometric pressure
Force per unit area exerted by the air above the surface of the Earth. Standard sea-level pressure, by definition, equals 1 atmosphere (atm), or 29.92 in. (760 mm) of mercury, 14.70 lbs per square in., or 101. , Health News reported. The discovery offers insight into the exotic behaviour of materials existing at high pressures, which represent some 90 percent of the matter in our solar system solar system, the sun and the surrounding planets, natural satellites, dwarf planets, asteroids, meteoroids, and comets that are bound by its gravity. The sun is by far the most massive part of the solar system, containing almost 99.9% of the system's total mass. . Zero-expanding metal alloys were discovered in 1896 by Swiss physicist Charles Eduard Guillaume, who worked at the International Bureau of Weights and Measures The International Bureau of Weights and Measures is the English translation of the name of the Bureau international des poids et mesures (BIPM), a standards organisation, one of the three organisations established to maintain the International System of Units (SI) in France. While attempting to develop an inexpensive international standard for the meter, the metric unit Noun 1. metric unit - a decimal unit of measurement of the metric system (based on meters and kilograms and seconds); "convert all the measurements to metric units"; "it is easier to work in metric"
metric of length, Guillaume hit upon an inexpensive iron-nickel alloy that expands very little when heated. He dubbed the material an Invar alloy-because the metals are invariant (programming) invariant - A rule, such as the ordering of an ordered list or heap, that applies throughout the life of a data structure or procedure. Each change to the data structure must maintain the correctness of the invariant. when heated, such that the length of a piece of Invar metal does not change as its temperature is increased, as do normal metals. Because of their unresponsiveness to temperature change, Invar alloys have been used in devices ranging from watches, toasters, light bulbs, and engine parts to computer and television screens, satellites, lasers, and scientific instruments. Caltech graduate student Michael Winterrose, and his colleagues examined the effect of pressure on the alloy of palladium (Pd) and iron (Fe) called Pd3Fe, where three of every four atoms are palladium, and one is an iron atom. The Fe and Pd atoms (in the alloy) have very different sizes, and we expected to see some interesting effects from this size difference when we put Pd3Fe under pressure and measured its volume, Winterrose explained. To test this, the scientists squeezed a small sample of the material between two diamond anvils, generating pressures inside the sample that were 326,000 times greater than standard atmospheric pressure. Our initial results from these studies showed that the alloy stiffened under pressure, but far more than we expected, they added. To figure out the cause, the scientists simulated the quantum mechanical behaviour of the electrons in the alloy under pressure.
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|Publication:||Balochistan Times (Baluchistan Province, Pakistan)|
|Date:||Jun 19, 2009|
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