School counseling for the 21st Century: challenges and opportunities.The history of school counselling as a specialty of the counselling professional has been well documented in the literature (Baker, 2000; Gysbers & Henderson, 2000; Herr, 2001; Myrick, 1997; Paisley Paisley (pāz`lē), town (1991 pop. 84,330), Renfrewshire, W Scotland, on the White Cart Water, a stream. It has a thriving textile industry and is an extremely large producer of thread. & Borders, 1995). The specialty was initially shaped by the social reform movement during the late 19th Century and has evolved from an early focus on career and moral development to today's comprehensive, developmental, and collaborative school counseling programs. During the intervening in·ter·vene
intr.v. in·ter·vened, in·ter·ven·ing, in·ter·venes
1. To come, appear, or lie between two things: You can't see the lake from there because the house intervenes.
2. years, school counseling programs and their particular areas of emphases have alternated based on the social, political, economic, and psychological issues facing schools, communities, families, children, and adolescents. At times, school counselors A school counselor is a counselor and educator who works in schools, and have historically been referred to as "guidance counselors" or "educational counselors," although "Professional School Counselor" is now the preferred term. have worked more exclusively in educational and career arenas while at other times, much more attention has been paid to the personal and social development of students.
Most recently, the National Standards for School Counseling Programs (Campbell & Dahir, 1997) adopted by the American School Counselor Association have outlined a balanced approach to school counseling, including support for student development in three domains: academic, career, and personal/social. Programs based on the National Standards employ several intervention A procedure used in a lawsuit by which the court allows a third person who was not originally a party to the suit to become a party, by joining with either the plaintiff or the defendant. strategies, including individual counseling; small group counseling; classroom interventions; consultation with parents, teachers, and outside agencies; and coordination of certain related whole-school activities. These strategies may be appropriate as crisis interventions crisis intervention Psychiatry The counseling of a person suffering from a stressful life event–eg, AIDS, cancer, death, divorce, by providing mental and moral support. See Hotline. or for remediation as well as for preventative purposes or to promote healthy development. In addition, programs based on the National Standards are clearly anchored in the mission and needs of the school, and school counselors in such programs serve as advocates for all students. School counselors working with the National Standards also understand the need to collaborate with all stakeholders Stakeholders
All parties that have an interest, financial or otherwise, in a firm-stockholders, creditors, bondholders, employees, customers, management, the community, and the government. in order to effectively meet the needs of school-aged children.
Currently, discussions concerning appropriate roles and areas of focus for school counseling are taking place in the professional literature, through conference presentations, and informally through professional collaboration Working together on a project. See collaborative software. . As the specialty continues to evolve, school counselors and school counselor educators and supervisors will need to continue to engage in these important discussions. As the 21st Century unfolds, there is a need to consider the context in which school counselors practice as well as the corresponding challenges and opportunities that this context presents. Some of these challenges and opportunities have been debated throughout the evolution of the specialty; others are new based on changes in society, educational expectations, and the issues facing schools, communities, families, and students. This article identifies a number of the challenges facing school counselors and school counseling programs, and attempts to respond to these challenges as opportunities to better meet the needs of students as well as to strengthen the professional specialty.
Challenge for school counselors and School Counseling Programs
School counseling programs are developed and implemented within school systems located within communities. Community members often have different expectations for the outcomes of school counseling programs. This means that school counselors often find themselves attempting to meet the demands of multiple stakeholders in an increasingly complex and political environment. Entering the 21st Century, counselors will need to address these challenges with commitment and creativity. First, however, professionals need to consider some of the challenges that need to be addressed.
Ambiguous Role Definition
Perhaps, the most significant challenge for school counselors rests in the ongoing debate over role definition. Although the current focus is on program rather than person or services (Gysbers & Henderson, 2001), individual counselors still struggle with priorities. As school counselors attempt to prioritize pri·or·i·tize
v. pri·or·i·tized, pri·or·i·tiz·ing, pri·or·i·tiz·es Usage Problem
To arrange or deal with in order of importance.
v.intr. , there have been simultaneous calls for reexamination re·ex·am·ine also re-ex·am·ine
tr.v. re·ex·am·ined, re·ex·am·in·ing, re·ex·am·ines
1. To examine again or anew; review.
2. Law To question (a witness) again after cross-examination. of both school counselor preparation and practice (Education Trust, 1996; Hayes, Dagley, & Horne, 1996; Keys, Bemak, & Lockhart, 1998). These calls for reexamination have ranged in motivation from the need for an active response to educational reform to concern for the neglected, yet extensive, needs of at-risk students The term at-risk students is used to describe students who are "at risk" of failing academically, for one or more of any several reasons. The term can be used to describe a wide variety of students, including,
Combining appropriate program and role, school counselors are asked to:
1. Provide individual and small group counseling sessions
2. Conduct classroom guidance interventions
3. Consult with parents, teachers, administrators, and community agency representatives
4. Advocate for all students to enhance educational experiences and outcomes
5. Build partnerships and teams within and outside of the school
6. Be a member of school leadership and policy-making pol·i·cy·mak·ing or pol·i·cy-mak·ing
High-level development of policy, especially official government policy.
Of, relating to, or involving the making of high-level policy: groups
7. Provide individualized in·di·vid·u·al·ize
tr.v. in·di·vid·u·al·ized, in·di·vid·u·al·iz·ing, in·di·vid·u·al·iz·es
1. To give individuality to.
2. To consider or treat individually; particularize.
3. , focused, and intensive interventions for at-risk students
8. Be the developmental specialist in the school setting
9. Be the mental health specialist in the school setting
10. Provide family counseling interventions
11. Coordinate school-wide programs including peer helping, peer mediation mediation, in law, type of intervention in which the disputing parties accept the offer of a third party to recommend a solution for their controversy. Mediation has long been a part of international law, frequently involving the use of an international commission, , conflict resolution, violence prevention, character education, and teacher advisory programs
12. Prevent suicides, pregnancies, dropouts, drug use, and general moral decay Moral decay may mean:
13. Maintain the necessary levels of expertise in all of the above areas to ensure quality in all interventions and programs.
Even with the most ideal counselor-to-student ratio, fulfilling all of these expectations would be incredibly difficult. In reality, the average ratio in the United States ranges The United States Range () is the most northern mountain range in the world and of the Arctic Cordillera. The range is located on the northeastern region of Ellesmere Island in Nunavut, Canada. from 1 to 313 in Vermont Vermont (vərmŏnt`) [Fr.,=green mountain], New England state of the NE United States. It is bordered by New Hampshire, across the Connecticut R. to 1 to 1,182 in California California (kăl'ĭfôr`nyə), most populous state in the United States, located in the Far West; bordered by Oregon (N), Nevada and, across the Colorado River, Arizona (E), Mexico (S), and the Pacific Ocean (W). (American Counseling Association The American Counseling Association (ACA) is a non-profit, professional organization that is dedicated to the counseling profession. ACA is the world's second largest association exclusively representing professional counselors. , 1999). Asking school counselors facing such student loads to perform the full range of associated and appropriate functions may be beyond the scope of what is possible. When these tasks are also layered with often-assigned yet professionally inappropriate roles, the ability to design and implement effective programs is even less likely.
Increasingly Diverse Student Populations
A second challenge facing school counselors involves the increasingly diverse student populations in the schools. The changing demographics The attributes of people in a particular geographic area. Used for marketing purposes, population, ethnic origins, religion, spoken language, income and age range are examples of demographic data. of society have been widely noted (e.g., Lee, 2001). As these changes are realized in school settings, counselors may find that psychological and educational theories and practices, developed largely from a Eurocentric perspective, may not represent the worldviews worldviews,
n.pl the implicit, organized belief systems that undergird our understanding of the world. See also sense of coherence. of or be the best approaches for their students and families (D'Andrea & Daniels, 2001; Lee, 2001; Murphy, DeEsch, & Strein; 1998; Skovholt, Cognetta, Ye, & King, 1997). Considerable progress has been made in the area of addressing multiculturalism multiculturalism or cultural pluralism, a term describing the coexistence of many cultures in a locality, without any one culture dominating the region. within schools, but statistics continue to show gaps in academic achievement along racial and ethnic lines (Education Trust, 1996) as well as differences in those individuals who actually seek counseling services (Sue & Sue, 1999).
An additional factor increasing the level of complexity of this issue is that diversity in schools today is not limited to race and ethnicity ethnicity Vox populi Racial status–ie, African American, Asian, Caucasian, Hispanic . The term diversity actually describes a far broader range including socioeconomic status socioeconomic status,
n the position of an individual on a socio-economic scale that measures such factors as education, income, type of occupation, place of residence, and in some populations, ethnicity and religion. , students with disabilities (Carpenter, King-Sears, & Keys, 1998; Scarborough & Deck, 1998; Tarver-Behring, Spagna, & Sullivan, 1998), urban/suburban lifestyle differences (Omizo, Omizo, & Honda honda
a quick release metal eyelet for the end of a lariat. When the restrained animal is no longer required it is not necessary to slacken off the loop and pull it over the head—a very great advantage when working with wild cattle or unbroken horses. , 1997), and sexual orientation sexual orientation
The direction of one's sexual interest toward members of the same, opposite, or both sexes, especially a direction seen to be dictated by physiologic rather than sociologic forces. (Cooley Coo·ley , Denton Arthur Born 1920.
American surgeon and educator who in 1969 performed the first artificial heart transplant on a human. , 1998; Lipkin, 1999; Marinoble, 1998). In fact, diversity can be used to describe any differences in the behavioral behavioral
pertaining to behavior.
see psychomotor seizure. styles, attitudinal orientations, and value systems of students (Lee, 2001).
School counselors will need to be culturally competent and culturally responsive (Lee, 2001) to a wide range of students in order to effectively attend to their needs. Unfortunately, however, the wide adoption of multicultural mul·ti·cul·tur·al
1. Of, relating to, or including several cultures.
2. Of or relating to a social or educational theory that encourages interest in many cultures within a society rather than in only a mainstream culture. counseling as a key part of school counselor preparation is fairly recent, and the effectiveness of the preparation is still being evaluated. The Multicultural Counseling Competencies and Standards (Sue, Arredondo, & McDairs, 1992), adopted by the Association for Multicultural Counseling and Development (AMCD AMCD Active Matrix Color Display
AMCD Association of Managed Care Dentists (formerly Association of Managed Care Providers)
AMCD Association for Multicultural Counseling and Development
AMCD Arthrogryposis Multiplex Congenita, Distal ), presents a model of a culturally skilled counselor in which three dimensions of counseling (belief, knowledge, and skill areas) are examined across three counselor characteristics (awareness of one's own assumptions, values, and biases; understanding the worldview world·view
n. In both senses also called Weltanschauung.
1. The overall perspective from which one sees and interprets the world.
2. A collection of beliefs about life and the universe held by an individual or a group. of culturally different clients; and developing appropriate intervention strategies and techniques). While the competencies and standards seem to be a key piece in the preparation of many school counselors, many preparation programs offer only one semester se·mes·ter
One of two divisions of 15 to 18 weeks each of an academic year.
[German, from Latin (cursus) s of a cross-cultural counseling course with few if any opportunities for continued development of skills. This limited exposure may well be inadequate both in time and scope to develop culturally competent counselors. In addition, many school counselors who have been practicing in the field for some time may have had no formal cross-cultural preparation. Thus, school counselors may feel inadequate in meeting the needs of the full range of students in their schools.
Increasing Reliance on Technology
A third challenge for school counselors involves the increasing reliance on technology. Technological advances provide a wide array of opportunities to make the world of work operate more efficiently and effectively, and there is ample opportunity for school counseling to take advantage of technology in delivery of preventative and developmental school counseling programs as well (Baker & Gerler, 2001). Yet while computers and the Internet Internet
Publicly accessible computer network connecting many smaller networks from around the world. It grew out of a U.S. Defense Department program called ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network), established in 1969 with connections between computers at the have the potential to be used to help a variety of counseling tasks, most counselors either have limited technology skills or, even with skills, only use their computers for basic duties such as recordkeeping, scheduling, and word processing word processing, use of a computer program or a dedicated hardware and software package to write, edit, format, and print a document. Text is most commonly entered using a keyboard similar to a typewriter's, although handwritten input (see pen-based computer) and (Owen & Weikel, 1999). Many practicing school counselors report a lack of comfort and expertise in working with computers and specifically the Internet (Owen & Weikel, 1999). In fact, preparation programs have only recently begun to require technology competence, and in-service in-service In-service training adjective Referring to any form of on-the-job training noun In-service training of an employee programs are rarely available focused specifically on school counseling applications.
The financial investment required for technological advances presents an additional challenge for using technology in school settings. Many school counselors report that the computers or the software provided to them by their school systems are inadequate (Owen & Weikel, 1999). Considering the price of computer systems and the rate at which technology becomes obsolete OBSOLETE. This term is applied to those laws which have lost their efficacy, without being repealed,
2. A positive statute, unrepealed, can never be repealed by non-user alone. 4 Yeates, Rep. 181; Id. 215; 1 Browne's Rep. Appx. 28; 13 Serg. & Rawle, 447. , attempting to update systems throughout a school in order to maintain currency regarding technology is a significant expense, and one that many schools simply cannot afford. Likewise, becoming dependent on technology for counseling services may further differentiate the "digital divide" which already separates families who can afford computers and Internet access See how to access the Internet. from those who cannot (Sampson & Bloom bloom
1. the general appearance of the surface. In carcass meat it is the glistening, transparent effect and the gentle pink color that gives a good bloom to the carcass. It is the result of proper tissue hydration coupled with the correct proportions of fat, connective tissue and , 2001).
In addition to financial concerns, there are a variety of ethical concerns regarding the use of technology for counseling services. One concern has to do with the effects technology could have on the personal relationship between counselor and student. In an era when so much is done without human interaction, the human interaction that a counselor models becomes even more important. There is not enough evidence yet to fully understand how technology affects developing counselor-client relationships, and until more is known, technology should be employed in such situations with caution (Sampson, 2000). Another concern is that counselors will allow students to take career exploration and other self-directed assessments without proper supervision or instruction (Sampson, 2000). Confidentiality is another important issue raised by reliance on technology. Storing and transmitting transmitting,
v to send and receive information, signals, and so on; allows a therapist to perceive a client's physical, emotional, and spiritual states. such important information electronically brings into question the degree to which the confidentiality of the information can be guaranteed (Owen & Weikel, 1999; Sampson & Bloom, 2001; Sampson, Kolodinsky, & Greeno, 1997).
Calls for Accountability within Educational Systems
School counselors are also being challenged to demonstrate in measurable terms the effectiveness of their work. Baker (2000) noted:
Accountability means demonstrating that something worthwhile is happening. In a public school setting, this principle may be manifested in procedures used to show the taxpayers that they are getting their money's worth. In such situations, counselors are challenged to develop evaluations of their efforts and of the opinions of their consumers while also being accountable for the use of their time. (p. 31)
Baker (2000) also noted some of the reasons counselors may be resistant to conducting program evaluation Program evaluation is a formalized approach to studying and assessing projects, policies and program and determining if they 'work'. Program evaluation is used in government and the private sector and it's taught in numerous universities. . These included the amount of time and money required for thorough evaluation, the belief that such data collection requires sophisticated statistical skills, and the lack of appropriate role models. Recent discussions in which the first author has been involved have also pointed to the lack of adequate frameworks for comprehensive accountability.
Conceptually, school counseling programs have historically been linked to desired student outcomes (Lapan, 2001). Today, as administrators, policymakers, and legislators require increased evidence that supports effectiveness of a variety of funded programs, counselors are not immune. Instead, they are being asked to show data that demonstrates positive student outcomes associated with the school mission. Increasingly this includes information related to grades, course-taking patterns, test scores, attendance, and behavior referrals.
Lapan (2001) suggested that "the continuing development of the profession depends upon the ability to improve answers to such questions as":
1. How can counselor roles, duties, functions, and interventions be transformed to be of greater benefit and impact for all students?
2. How can counselor time on task be redistributed re·dis·trib·ute
tr.v. re·dis·trib·ut·ed, re·dis·trib·ut·ing, re·dis·trib·utes
To distribute again in a different way; reallocate.
Adj. 1. to maximize benefits for all students?
3. How can a program be tailored to better meet the needs of each school?
4. How can the program become central to the overriding (programming) overriding - Redefining in a child class a method or function member defined in a parent class.
Not to be confused with "overloading". mission of each school?
5. How can better partnerships between school personnel, parents, and business and community leaders be established?
6. How can counselors better advocate for their programs with local, state, and national policymakers? (p. 291)
These are complex questions that challenge school counselors to develop their own plans for holding themselves and their programs accountable, not only for consumer satisfaction, but also for more effectively meeting the needs of students and enhancing and facilitating learning.
Reframing reframing (rē·frāˑ·ming),
n the revisiting and reconstruction of a patient's view of an experience to imbue it with a different usually more positive meaning in the Challenges as Opportunities
While the previous section on challenges does not provide an exhaustive list, it does indicate the complexity of issues facing school counselors in the 21st Century. These challenges, however, must not be allowed to overshadow o·ver·shad·ow
tr.v. o·ver·shad·owed, o·ver·shad·ow·ing, o·ver·shad·ows
1. To cast a shadow over; darken or obscure.
2. To make insignificant by comparison; dominate. the opportunities that these issues and this particular time in the profession's development provide. In reality, the history of school counseling In the United States, the school counseling profession began as a vocational guidance movement at the beginning of the 20th century. Jesse B. Davis is considered the first to provide a systematic school guidance program. provides a rich backdrop Backdrop may refer to:
Having organizational frameworks in place that anticipate and incorporate change also points to the potential for a bright future (Gysbers & Henderson, 2001). This hopefulness is echoed in a recent editorial in Professional School Counseling by Hughey (2001) in which he stated the following: "from my perspective, comprehensive guidance and counseling guidance and counseling, concept that institutions, especially schools, should promote the efficient and happy lives of individuals by helping them adjust to social realities. programs have provided a framework for more clearly defining such programs. While there continue to be challenges, positive movement has been and continues to be made" (p. ii).
By meeting the challenges, the school counseling profession has an opportunity to ensure that school counselors obtain the skills necessary to meet the changing needs of students, develop stronger professional identities, implement more appropriate school counseling programs, and become more accountable for their programs. Individual school counselors and the profession at large will need to face the challenges with confidence, optimism, commitment, and creativity in order to ensure school counselors continue to feel productive in their careers and to ensure that students develop the skills and acquire the knowledge they need to succeed in school and in life. Transforming these challenges into opportunities will require that school counselors and school counselor educators and supervisors collaborate in order to: (a) determine appropriate roles and areas of program focus, (b) design and engage in necessary professional development, and (c) demonstrate accountability for outcomes.
Determining Appropriate Roles and Areas of Program Focus
Professional school counseling has a rich history of recognizing societal so·ci·e·tal
Of or relating to the structure, organization, or functioning of society.
Adj. changes, assessing changing needs, and altering services to meet those perceived needs. There is no reason to believe this trend will change; rather, it seems that society is changing more rapidly than ever before. School counselors, then, must be ready to adapt their priorities and interventions to meet society's changing needs while maintaining the sound base of their purpose and mission (Herr, 2001). This means part of the school counselors' professional identity must accept that roles will change over the years, be aware of and responsive to the changing needs, and continue to grow as professionals in order to maintain quality programs. School counselors and school counselor educators must work collaboratively in order to effectively identify and respond to students' needs. Perhaps the greatest favor school counselors, counselor educators, and supervisors can do for the profession is to consider this collaboration a professional responsibility, and to embrace rather than struggle with the ongoing dialogue concerning the appropriate focus of school counseling programs.
Actually, today the profession has a rather stable yet flexible notion of what school counseling is. Currently, school counseling programs are increasingly anchored in proactive interventions associated with comprehensive, developmental, and collaborative approaches. These frameworks are broad enough to anticipate changes in content as well as emphasis, and flexible enough to incorporate variations in rationale rationale (rash´nal´),
n the fundamental reasons used as the basis for a decision or action. , assumptions, activities, procedures, and even use of counselor time (Gysbers & Henderson, 2001). The addition of the National Standards for School Counseling Programs (Campbell & Dahir, 1997) further strengthens the position that school counseling has a widely accepted agreement concerning program priorities. The standards, as well as other programmatic pro·gram·mat·ic
1. Of, relating to, or having a program.
2. Following an overall plan or schedule: a step-by-step, programmatic approach to problem solving.
3. efforts, at the very least, provide a common vocabulary across models to articulate articulate /ar·tic·u·late/ (ahr-tik´u-lat)
1. to pronounce clearly and distinctly.
2. to make speech sounds by manipulation of the vocal organs.
3. to express in coherent verbal form.
4. the purpose, content, and scope of school counseling for a variety of stakeholders.
Partnerships for change. In order to effectively determine priorities to meet the needs of today's students, collaborative efforts between school counselors and other stakeholders are a necessary component of school counseling programs. As school counselors shape their programs for the 21st Century, there will be many exciting, interesting and appropriate interventions and components that could be implemented. It will be critical, however, for school counselors to realize that they cannot do it all, and they can do very little of it alone. One of the most exciting aspects of current initiatives in school counseling has to do with the emphasis on partnerships for change (e.g., Fall & VanZandt, 1997; Hayes, Paisley, Phelps, Pearson, & Salter salt·er
1. One that manufactures or sells salt.
2. One that treats meat, fish, or other foods with salt.
Noun 1. , 1997; Murphy et al., 1998; Osborne & Collison, 1998; Walsh, Howard, & Buckley, 1999). Collaboration is not new to school counseling; however, it seems to have been vastly underutilized. School counselors, like many human service professionals, were prepared in isolation, with an emphasis on differences between professions and specialties (Osborne & Collison, 1998). While this artificial separation may help prospective counselors to conceptualize con·cep·tu·al·ize
v. con·cep·tu·al·ized, con·cep·tu·al·iz·ing, con·cep·tu·al·iz·es
To form a concept or concepts of, and especially to interpret in a conceptual way: differences, it is not a very efficient or effective practice in the real world.
With the ratios that school counselors face, most quickly recognize that they cannot do the work alone. In schools today, there are simply not enough school counselors to handle all the needs of the students (Walsh et al., 1999), and there is no reason to assume this trend will change in the near future. Through collaborative working relationships, school counselors can connect with other school personnel, counselor educators, parents, and community counselors and leaders so that they may combine their efforts and collectively meet the needs of the students.
Boundary setting. An additional consideration for school counselors in developing effective programs is the necessity of setting appropriate professional boundaries professional boundary Professional ethics An ill-defined psychosocial 'frontier' maintained between a professional and a Pt or client. See Dual relationship, Sexual misconduct, Slippery slope. within school systems. With the increasing demands placed on school counselors, it is crucial that school counselors focus their role within the school to effectively and efficiently meet the academic, career, and personal/social needs of students. This means school counselors must educate and reeducate re·ed·u·cate also re-ed·u·cate
tr.v. re·ed·u·cat·ed, re·ed·u·cat·ing, re·ed·u·cates
1. To instruct again, especially in order to change someone's behavior or beliefs.
2. those with whom they work concerning the appropriate and inappropriate roles and tasks of school counselors and be able to limit time spent performing noncounseling duties and participating in ineffective or inefficient interventions. As part of this educational process, school counselors must demonstrate to school administrators the cost effectiveness of spending more time performing duties related to counseling and student development. School counselors can utilize systematic and intentional in·ten·tion·al
1. Done deliberately; intended: an intentional slight. See Synonyms at voluntary.
2. Having to do with intention. program planning that is supported by data to help clarify those roles and priorities that best meet students' needs. In addition, school counselors will need their best human relations human relations npl → relaciones fpl humanas and assertiveness assertiveness /as·ser·tive·ness/ (ah-ser´tiv-nes) the quality or state of bold or confident self-expression, neither aggressive nor submissive. skills to maintain these professional boundaries within what is often a political environment.
A second critical component in transforming challenges into opportunities will be professional development for practicing school counselors. Professional development is not something that happens during graduate school; in fact, graduate school is just a beginning. Becoming a master school counselor is a lifelong process. Across disciplines, professional development is considered to be a process that continues after formal education as professionals identify with their jobs; yet, there has been little focus on post-graduate professional development either in the professional literature or in policy (Brott & Myers, 1999). In order for school counselors to continue to adapt to the needs of the community and to continue to develop professionally, school counselors must take part in two types of continuing education continuing education: see adult education.
or adult education
Any form of learning provided for adults. In the U.S. the University of Wisconsin was the first academic institution to offer such programs (1904). : specific skill development and supervision.
Professional skill development is necessary for school counselors to learn more about specific skills that will help them to more effectively meet the needs of students, but which they may not have acquired during their formal education. These skills may include counseling-related skills such as cultural competency COMPETENCY, evidence. The legal fitness or ability of a witness to be heard on the trial of a cause. This term is also applied to written or other evidence which may be legally given on such trial, as, depositions, letters, account-books, and the like.
2. training (D'Andrea & Daniels, 2001; Lee, 2001), understanding DSM-IV DSM-IV
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV). This reference book, published by the American Psychiatric Association, is the diagnostic standard for most mental health professionals in the United States. classifications (Hinkle Hin·kle , Beatrice Moses 1874-1953.
American psychiatrist who cofounded the first psychotherapy clinic in the United States (1908). , 1999), or updating their understanding of presenting issues such as sexual orientation (Marinoble, 1998). Preparation may also include skills that are not directly related to counseling but which may make their jobs easier. These may include utilizing technology (Hohenshil, 2000; Owen & Weikel, 1999) or building collaborative relationships with other educational service personnel (e.g., Murphy et al., 1998), with community counselors (Keys, Bemak, Carpenter, & King-Sears, 1998; Lockhart & Keys, 1998; Ponec, Poggi, & Dickel, 1999), or with counselor educators (Hayes et al., 1997). Although the American School Counselor Association encourages this type of continuing education, there is no effective means by which to ensure that such professional development is taking place (Crutchfield & Borders, 1997). In addition, the time demands on school counselors and the pressure from school administration for direct service hours may prevent school counselors from seeking opportunities for professional growth as often as they would like. The profession must encourage school counselors to seek opportunities for personal and professional growth, not just in areas of interest, but also in the areas in which counselors may need the most growth. School counselor educators and supervisors as well as seasoned school counselors can facilitate the process by helping administrators to see the value of such experiences and by providing formal opportunities for professional growth experiences (Brott & Myers, 1999).
Skill building alone will be inadequate, however. School counselors must also participate in continued clinical supervision in order to enhance their professional development. Receiving supervision in addition to participating in skill-building experiences can help reinforce new skills and help to generalize generalize /gen·er·al·ize/ (-iz)
1. to spread throughout the body, as when local disease becomes systemic.
2. to form a general principle; to reason inductively. the skills to school counselors' daily routines. Supervision can also help school counselors identify school-wide issues and develop plans to address these concerns (Brott & Myers, 1999). Further, by providing someone to listen to and understand school counselors' on-the-job concerns, supervision can help alleviate Alleviate
To make something easier to be endured.
Mentioned in: Kinesiology, Applied job stress and fight burnout Burnout
Depletion of a tax shelter's benefits. In the context of mortgage backed securities it refers to the percentage of the pool that has prepaid their mortgage. (Baker & Gerler, 2001). Finally, supervision can play an important role in the continued evolution of school counselors' professional identity (Brott & Myers, 1999).
In spite of in opposition to all efforts of; in defiance or contempt of; notwithstanding.
See also: Spite the advantages of clinical supervision, data show that school counselors, in general, do not participate in ongoing clinical supervision (Crutchfield & Borders, 1997). Reasons for the low number of school counselors in supervision may include limited funding, increasing concern about time spent in direct service (Crutchfield et al., 1997), or simply a lack of awareness of the benefits of supervision. Several models of supervision for school counselors have been developed with the financial and time concerns of school counselors in mind. Benshoff and Paisley (1996) developed a model of peer consultation for use with practicing school counselors as a method for providing supervisory feedback and support. Crutchfield et al. (1997) presented a model for group supervision of school counselors, which seems to be beneficial for supervisors as well as counselors. It provided camaraderie ca·ma·ra·der·ie
Goodwill and lighthearted rapport between or among friends; comradeship.
[French, from camarade, comrade, from Old French, roommate; see comrade. and shared experience that many school counselors reported as being helpful. While efforts to determine specific professional benefits of such supervision have yet to yield significant results, school counselors consistently report they feel the experience is helpful (Benshoff & Paisley, 1996; Crutchfield et al., 1997). Hopefully, future research will be conducted looking at effects after longer periods of supervision and at the effects of different models of supervision.
Professional development and supervision are necessary generally, yet can also be focused in particular areas of concern. Two such critical areas for specific education and supervision, which were previously identified as challenges, focus on cultural and technological competence.
Becoming a culturally responsive school counselor. In order for school counselors to work effectively, and ethically, with diverse populations, they will need to become culturally responsive (D'Andrea & Daniels, 2001; Lee, 2001), but many practicing school counselors need to enhance their cross-cultural skills and receive supervision regarding cultural competence cultural competence Social medicine The ability to understand, appreciate, and interact with persons from cultures and/or belief systems other than one's own . Given the diversity that exists across so many dimensions in students today, what steps can be taken to ensure that school counselors have the attitudes, knowledge, and skills to effectively work with their increasingly diverse populations and to provide leadership in creating culturally responsive schools? First, school counseling preparation programs must study the effectiveness of the current model of cross-cultural education to ensure that the school counselors entering the workforce meet or exceed the criteria outlined by the AMCD. In addition, school counselors in the field must motivate themselves to seek additional education and supervision in order to meet the needs of their diverse student population. Counselor educators can help this process by developing collaborative working relationships with school counselors.
Although skills specific to cultural competence are important in building an effective counseling relationship, a school counselor's job in the multicultural arena includes far more than counseling. As D'Andrea and Daniels (2001) stated, counselors must "contribute to the evolution of a more just, democratic, accepting, and respectful re·spect·ful
Showing or marked by proper respect.
re·spectful·ly adv. society" (p. 539). Nowhere is this more true than in schools, where school counselors must promote the development of all students and enhance the school climate to make the school a place where all children can and want to learn. Lee (2001) described the characteristics of a "culturally responsive school," as based on two fundamental premises: (a) all students can and want to learn, and (b) cultural differences are real and cannot be ignored. In addition, Lee described five essential functions of culturally responsive schools, including:
* Promoting the development of positive self-identification
* Facilitating the development of positive interpersonal relationships This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims.
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* Promoting academic achievement Promoting attitudes and skills necessary for school success
* Facilitating career exploration and choice process among young people
With appropriate pre-service and in-service professional development and ongoing supervision, school counselors can play a major role in the development and maintenance of culturally responsive schools by advocating for and leading the change process. Only through this model of acknowledging and celebrating both differences and similarities among students will schools begin to meet the academic, career, and social needs of its students (Lee, 2001).
Using technology to support the school counseling program. School counselors could also enhance their professional development by learning how to utilize technology within their school counseling programs. Although working with technology may be seen as a challenge for some school counselors, advances in technology also present an opportunity to meet the needs of students more efficiently and effectively. Using technology to build more effective and efficient school counseling programs will require extensive and specialized spe·cial·ize
v. spe·cial·ized, spe·cial·iz·ing, spe·cial·iz·es
1. To pursue a special activity, occupation, or field of study.
2. professional skill development and supervision. Such professional development activities will need to include a variety of topics such as:
* Using the Internet for assessment purposes and to gather information (Sampson, 2000)
* Becoming familiar with numerous software packages or Web sites that help streamline college and career counseling Noun 1. career counseling - counseling on career opportunities
counseling, counselling, guidance, counsel, direction - something that provides direction or advice as to a decision or course of action activities (Sampson, 2000; Schack, 1998)
* Accessing student information such as grades, test scores, attendance, and discipline referrals (Sampson et al., 1997)
* Analyzing school wide data such as graduation Graduation is the action of receiving or conferring an academic degree or the associated ceremony. The date of event is often called degree day. The event itself is also called commencement, convocation or invocation. rates, dropout (1) On magnetic media, a bit that has lost its strength due to a surface defect or recording malfunction. If the bit is in an audio or video file, it might be detected by the error correction circuitry and either corrected or not, but if not, it is often not noticed by the human rates, course-taking patterns, and discipline patterns (Stone & Turba, 1999)
* Using data to support counselor interventions with individual students and to advocate for all students at the system level (Hohenshil, 2000)
* Using all forms of technology to support counselor role in consultation with teachers, parents, and students and to network with other professionals (Sampson et al., 1997)
Professional development and supervision concerning the use of technology within school counseling programs will be necessary to provide support for using new skills and addressing related ethical issues. To maximize the impact that skill development and supervision can have on programs and student outcomes, school counselors will also need to advocate with their business and community partners to enhance opportunities for all students and their parents to have access to technology outside of the school setting.
Answering the Call for Accountability
As counselors refine their own professional identity and competence and as responsive programs are developed, outcomes will have to be evaluated. Many school counselors as well as the specialty at large have felt intimidated in·tim·i·date
tr.v. in·tim·i·dat·ed, in·tim·i·dat·ing, in·tim·i·dates
1. To make timid; fill with fear.
2. To coerce or inhibit by or as if by threats. or overwhelmed o·ver·whelm
tr.v. o·ver·whelmed, o·ver·whelm·ing, o·ver·whelms
1. To surge over and submerge; engulf: waves overwhelming the rocky shoreline.
a. by the recent focus on accountability. This focus, however, may provide the very opportunity needed for solidifying so·lid·i·fy
v. so·lid·i·fied, so·lid·i·fy·ing, so·lid·i·fies
1. To make solid, compact, or hard.
2. To make strong or united.
v.intr. the advancement of the profession. As Lapan (2001) suggested, clearly defining school counseling programs and assuming responsibility for student outcomes places school counselors in the position of shaping more effective school environments and providing students unique development-enhancing opportunities. For school counselors and school counselor educators and supervisors, developing accountability models and frameworks may also provide the most effective vehicle for clearly defining site-based school counseling programs and setting related boundaries.
Site-based accountability will require that school counselors, in collaboration with other stakeholders
* Clearly understand the needs of students within the school through review of qualitative and quantitative data
* Design the school counseling program based on those needs, the mission of the school, and student competencies
* Determine relevant factors (e.g., test scores, grades, attendance, course-taking patterns, satisfactions survey results, etc.) to be monitored
* Implement the program as intentionally in·ten·tion·al
1. Done deliberately; intended: an intentional slight. See Synonyms at voluntary.
2. Having to do with intention. designed
* Evaluate the program based on targeted factors
* Revise the program as needed as needed prn. See prn order. based on review of appropriate data
As noted by Baker (2000), accountability involves evaluating programs and demonstrating that something worthwhile is happening. At the state or national level, a clearinghouse clearinghouse
Institution established by firms engaged in similar activities to enable them to offset transactions with one another in order to limit payment settlements to net balances. for site-based program evaluation results could provide stronger support, through metaanalysis metaanalysis (meˈ·t-·naˑ·l , for school counseling programs and school counselor positions. More significantly, intentionally designing and evaluating programs and using those results to improve programming will likely improve the quality of experiences and outcomes for students.
A Snapshot (1) A saved copy of memory including the contents of all memory bytes, hardware registers and status indicators. It is periodically taken in order to restore the system in the event of failure.
(2) A saved copy of a file before it is updated. of the Ideal School Counselor: Personal Reflections
As former practicing school counselors who are now involved in graduate preparation, we have an ideal vision of the professional who will lead school counseling in the next stage of development. If we had a magic wand a wand used by a magician in performing feats of magic.
See also: Magic (something we wished for often as school counselors and still wish we had as counselor educators!), the description that follows would be the school counselors that would work with the children we love; in fact, all children.
They would have completed an extended program accredited accredited
recognition by an appropriate authority that the performance of a particular institution has satisfied a prestated set of criteria.
cattle herds which have achieved a low level of reactors to, e.g. by the Council for the Accreditation accreditation,
n a process of formal recognition of a school or institution attesting to the required ability and performance in an area of education, training, or practice. of Counseling and Related Educational Programs and be well versed Versed® Midazolam Pharmacology A preoperative sedative in the foundations of the field of counseling and the specialty of school counseling. They would also be familiar with content from the larger school community (e.g., educational leadership, motivation, learning styles). They would be committed to lifelong learning Lifelong learning is the concept that "It's never too soon or too late for learning", a philosophy that has taken root in a whole host of different organisations. Lifelong learning is attitudinal; that one can and should be open to new ideas, decisions, skills or behaviors. including personal and professional development. This commitment would be based on the understanding that graduate education is only a beginning to the professional journey. They would be employed in systems that encourage and provide opportunities for specific skill development and supervision.
They would be equally grounded in the three domains of student development: academic, career, and personal/social. In addition, they would resist the temptation Temptation
Terror (See HORROR.)
as fruit of the tree of knowledge in Eden, has come to epitomize temptation. [O.T.: Genesis 3:1–7; Br. Lit. to make one more important than the others. They would, in fact, reject false dichotomies in which attending to academic development means abandonment of personal/social. Or caring about personal issues means ignoring systemic systemic /sys·tem·ic/ (sis-tem´ik) pertaining to or affecting the body as a whole.
1. Of or relating to a system.
2. issues. These ideal counselors would have strong clinical skills as they are often the first experience the general public has with counselors of any description and the only one in the school setting with this type of expertise. They would understand both normal development and pathology pathology, study of the cause of disease and the modifications in cellular function and changes in cellular structure produced in any cell, organ, or part of the body by disease. .
They would understand individuals within their family, school community, and cultural context. They would be effective group leaders, understanding the principles of facilitating groups and classroom interventions for children and adolescents as well as team building and collaborating with the adults in children's lives. They would be advocates for all children and adolescents, not just some. They would be willing to step out of the counselor's office to be a part of school leadership and policy making to help create a just and effective learning environment. They would be committed to principles of social justice and educational equity.
As these ideal counselors design and implement school counseling programs, they would involve multiple stakeholders. In addition, they would clearly articulate their rationale, assumptions, mission, and program components. They would integrate the school counseling program with the mission and activities of the whole school. The program would be based upon the needs of the students in the specific school determined through assessment rather than assumption. They would use data to understand individual and system problems. These counselors would understand that the school counseling program belongs to the school and that it is not their responsibility alone. They would collaborate with other school personnel, parents, students, community representatives, and school counselor educators.
These school counselors would be both culturally and technologically competent and responsive. They would use their cross-cultural competency in challenging systems and in relating personally to a wide range of individuals. They would seek enhanced educational and personal experiences and outcomes for all students. They would use technology to streamline processes to minimize administrative duties and maximize time for students and for coordinating the program.
In sum, they would intentionally and collaboratively design responsive school counseling programs. They would hold themselves accountable rather than wait for someone else to. They would evaluate their programs and share the results with the school community, and use the results to enhance the programs to more effectively meet student needs and support student learning.
In the midst Adv. 1. in the midst - the middle or central part or point; "in the midst of the forest"; "could he walk out in the midst of his piece?"
midmost of all this, they would remember that they cannot do it all. They would also remember to laugh often and to take care of themselves. And even if they forget to take care of themselves, as long as they have been smart enough to build a collaborative network of counseling colleagues and professional associations, someone would remind them.
So are we being totally idealistic i·de·al·is·tic
Of, relating to, or having the nature of an idealist or idealism.
ide·al·is ? Perhaps, but we do not believe so. We believe that we work with school counselors who are already very much like these ideal practitioners, and we believe that we are currently teaching graduate students who have the potential of being better than anything we could imagine--even with our magic wands. We know the challenges are real and are often discouraging dis·cour·age
tr.v. dis·cour·aged, dis·cour·ag·ing, dis·cour·ag·es
1. To deprive of confidence, hope, or spirit.
2. To hamper by discouraging; deter.
3. , but we also know many counselors who, despite all difficulties, love what they do for a living. We also know that this is only a snapshot because the social, political, economic, and educational realities will shift and that school counselors, as the responsive professionals they are, will also adapt. As school counselors and school counselor educators, it is imperative to keep paying attention Noun 1. paying attention - paying particular notice (as to children or helpless people); "his attentiveness to her wishes"; "he spends without heed to the consequences"
attentiveness, heed, regard and continue to stay engaged in professional conversations in order to further the specialty and more effectively meet the needs of students.
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New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of : Merrill/Prentice Hall.
Baker, S. B., & Gerler, E. R., Jr. (2001). Counseling in schools. In D. C. Locke, J. E. Myers, & E. L. Herr (Eds.), The handbook
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Pamela O. Paisley, Ed.D., is a professor and coordinator of the School Counseling Program. H.
George McMahon George McMahon (born 20 September, 1985 in Dublin, Ireland) is an Irish actor.
He has performed in many stage roles, including pantomime. and is also a television actor, playing the role of Mondo O'Connell in RTÉ's Fair City. is a doctoral student. Both are in the Department of counseling and Human Development Services, University of Georgia Organization
The President of the University of Georgia (as of 2007, Michael F. Adams) is the head administrator and is appointed and overseen by the Georgia Board of Regents. , Athens. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org