STRUCTURE AND COMPOSITION OF GINN WOODS, AN OLD-GROWTH FOREST IN EAST-CENTRAL INDIANA.
Kemuel S. Badger badger, name for several related members of the weasel family. Most badgers are large, nocturnal, burrowing animals, with broad, heavy bodies, long snouts, large, sharp claws, and long, grizzled fur. 
ABSTRACT: The structure and composition of Ginn Woods, a deciduous deciduous /de·cid·u·ous/ (de-sid´u-us) falling off or shed at maturity, as the teeth of the first dentition.
1. forest community in east-central Indiana, was examined, and its status as an old-growth stand was evaluated. Woody Woody
Slang to describe when the market has a strong and quick upward movement.
For example, you'll hear "the market has a woody," when the market is performing well... seriously, we don't make this stuff up. stems [greater than or equal to] 10 cm dbh were sampled using the point-centered quarter method. Woody stems [less than] 10 cm dbh and at least 2 m tall were sampled using 0.01 ha circular plots. Data were collected from three areas having some differences in land-use history and soil moisture regimes. Shade-tolerant species dominate the understory un·der·sto·ry
An underlying layer of vegetation, especially the plants that grow beneath a forest's canopy. and overstory o·ver·sto·ry
The uppermost layer of foliage that forms a forest canopy. . Acer Acer
trees of the family Aceraceae.
ingestion of wilted or dries leaves of this tree causes acute hemolytic anemia characterized by red urine, jaundice, anemia and methemoglobinemia in horses. saccharum has the highest overstory density, understory density, and total basal area Basal area is the term used in forest management that defines the area of a given section of land that is occupied by the cross-section of tree trunks and stems at their base.
In most countries, this is usually a measurement taken at a person's breast height (1 - 1. of any species in all but the most poorly drained areas. Fagus grandifolia or Tilia americana rank second in most of these categories. Subdominant sub·dom·i·nant
The fourth tone of a diatonic scale, next below the dominant.
1. Zoology Less than dominant; ranking below one that is dominant: species at the site include: Aesculus glabra Aesculus glabra,
n See horse chestnut. , Celtis occidentalis, Fraxinus americana, Prunus serotina Prunus serotina,
n See wild cherry. , Quercus rubra, and Ulmus rubra Ulmus rubra,
n See slippery elm. . Acer saccharinum, Acer rubrum, Carya laciniosa, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Platanus occidentalis, and Populus deltoides are prominent in localized Translated into the spoken language of the country. See localization. areas, where soil drainage drainage, in agriculture
drainage, in agriculture, the removal of excess water from the soil, either by a system of surface ditches, or by underground conduits if required by soil conditions and land contour. is the poorest. Canopy recruitment reflects a history of natural windthrows with minimal impact from human activities. Shade tolerant dominants show a descending descending /des·cend·ing/ (de-send´ing) extending inferiorly. monotonic monotonic - In domain theory, a function f : D -> C is monotonic (or monotone) if
for all x,y in D, x <= y => f(x) <= f(y).
("<=" is written in LaTeX as \sqsubseteq). size-class distribution that is typical of uneven-aged stands that are replacing themselves. Shade-intolerant species show little or no recruitment, and their importance should continue to decease. Across the site, total canopy stem density (dbh [greater than or equal to] 10 cm) ranged from 282 to 339 stems/ha, and basal area ranged from 36 to 39 [m.sup.2]/ha. These data indicate that Ginn Woods is an old-growth forest. This 61-ha forest ranks as the second largest old-growth forest in Indiana.
KEYWORDS: Indiana, old-growth, beech-maple forest, plant community, succession.
A variety of definitions and criteria have been used to distinguish old-growth forests from less mature successional stands. Most definitions of old-growth forest are based on tree age, lack of human disturbance DISTURBANCE, torts. A wrong done to an incorporeal hereditament, by hindering or disquieting the owner in the enjoyment of it. Finch. L. 187; 3 Bl. Com. 235; 1 Swift's Dig. 522; Com. Dig. Action upon the case for a disturbance, Pleader, 3 I 6; 1 Serg. & Rawle, 298. , forest community structure, and successional stage of the forest. No consensus exists on old-growth criteria based on tree age and degree of anthropogenic an·thro·po·gen·ic
1. Of or relating to anthropogenesis.
2. Caused by humans: anthropogenic degradation of the environment. disturbance. Old-growth forests are more readily defined by community structural characteristics. On this basis, old-growth forests are generally dominated by old trees, contain a considerable amount of dead woody biomass, have multiple growth layers, have large trees for the growing conditions, have well-developed herbaceous her·ba·ceous
1. Relating to or characteristic of an herb as distinguished from a woody plant.
2. Green and leaflike in appearance or texture. layers, have a mosaic of variable-sized canopy gaps, and are dominated by late successional species (Leverett, 1996).
Strict quantitative criteria are difficult to use to define old-growth forests due to the variable effects of regional climate, local site conditions, and disturbance regime on community composition and structure. Typically, the criteria in a particular region are based on a variety of quantitative and qualitative forest parameters that combine functional, structural, and historical attributes. The criteria for identifying old-growth mesophytic mes·o·phyte
A land plant that grows in an environment having a moderate amount of moisture.
mes forests in Indiana and the surrounding sur·round
tr.v. sur·round·ed, sur·round·ing, sur·rounds
1. To extend on all sides of simultaneously; encircle.
2. To enclose or confine on all sides so as to bar escape or outside communication.
n. states have been summarized by Parker (1989) and Martin (1992). Their criteria can be used to evaluate beech-maple forests, but a lower diversity of canopy species should be expected for beech-maple forests than for other mesophytic forests in the region (Runkel, 1996).
Ginn Woods is one of the largest remaining tracts of old-growth forest in east-central Indiana (McClain, 1985; Ruch, et al., 2000). However, Ginn Woods has not been included in studies of the old-growth forests of Indiana (Parker, 1989; Brothers, 1993; Spetich, et al., 1997). No quantitative studies of the woody plant woody plant: see herbaceous plant. community in Ginn Woods have been published. In contrast, the DavisPurdue Research Forest, located only about 45 km from Ginn Woods, has been the subject of several published studies (Parker and Leopold, 1983; Parker, et al., 1985; Parker and Sherwood, 1986; Parker and Ward, 1987; Ward and Parker, 1989; Spetich and Parker, 1998). After a brief visit, Lindsey, et al. (1969) rated Ginn Woods as a high quality educational resource, but they did not recognize it as an old-growth forest. In this paper, we describe the distribution and abundance Abundance
See also Fertility.
horn horn of Zeus’s nurse-goat which became a cornucopia. [Gk. Myth.: Walsh Classical, 19]
conical receptacle which symbolizes abundance. [Rom. Myth. of woody plants within Ginn Woods and evaluate its status as an old-growth forest.
Ginn Woods is a 65-ha tract of woodland owned by Ball State University and managed by the Department of Biology. The site is located approximately 25 km north of Muncie, Indiana Muncie (IPA: [ˈmʌn.si]) is a city in Delaware County in east central Indiana, best known as the home of Ball State University and the birthplace of the Ball Corporation. (SW 1/4, Sec. 18, and NW 1/4, Sec. 19, T22N, R10E; Figure 1). Ginn Woods consists of three separately purchased tracts of land. The tract originally known as Ginn's Woods was purchased by John Ginn in 1832 as a United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. Land Grant shortly after Delaware County Delaware County is the name of six counties in the United States of America:
forest and lake region; setting for lumberjack legends. [Am. Lit.: Hart, 607]
See : Rusticity (approximately 25 ha) had a slightly different disturbance history from South Woods (approximately 20 ha). According to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. the Ginn family, North Woods (Figure 1) has been neither grazed graze 1
v. grazed, graz·ing, graz·es
1. To feed on growing grasses and herbage.
a. To eat a variety of appetizers as a full meal. nor burned and has not been logged since its acquisition. South Woods was not grazed but has been moderately disturbed. In 1924, some timber was removed for the construction of a house. In addition, a few white oaks were cut by a stave mill company, but, for some unknown reason, the logs were not removed. Ginn's Woods was designated a classified forest in December 1929. The State Forester at that time, Charles C. Deam, stated on the application form that the woods had no indication of insect or disease damage and no anthropogenic disturbance. Deam stated that Ginn's Woods was a virgin forest (McClain, 1985).
Ball State University purchased two other tracts of land shortly after the acquisition of the original Ginn's Woods. Nixon Woods (approximately 16 ha; Figure 1), which abuts the southern end of South Woods, was acquired in 1974. No record of past use has been found for Nixon Woods. However, in the 1971 proposal to purchase this tract, Nixon Woods was reported to have larger trees than those found in Ginn's Woods and little evidence of human disturbance (McClain, 1985). The evidence of fencing fencing, sport of dueling with foil, épée, and saber. Modern Fencing
The weapons and rules of modern fencing evolved from combat weapons and their usage. around Nixon Woods, which is absent from the rest of the study area, suggests that grazing grazing,
n See irregular feeding.
1. actions of herbivorous animals eating growing pasture or cereal crop.
2. area of pasture or cereal crop to be used as standing feed. See also pasture. may have occurred in Nixon Woods at some time. The third and final tract purchased was the Wesley Addition or Wesley Wet Area (Figure 1; Ruch, et al., 2000). This 4-ha former agricultural field was purchased to preserve the integrity of North Woods. These four tracts are now known collectively as Ginn Woods. Ginn Woods is managed as a research natural area.
Ginn Woods lies in the Bluffton Till Plain Section of the Central Till Plain Natural Region, an area formerly covered by an extensive beech-maple forest (Homoya, et al., 1985). The soils in Ginn Woods are derived from glacial gla·cial
a. Of, relating to, or derived from a glacier.
b. Suggesting the extreme slowness of a glacier: Work proceeded at a glacial pace.
a. parent material and vary from somewhat poorly drained to very poorly drained soils (Huffman, 1972). McClain (1985), who studied the soils in North Woods, described the dominant soils as Blount (Aeric Ochraqualfs, fine, illitic, mesic mes·ic
Of, characterized by, or adapted to a moderately moist habitat.
Relating or adapted to a moderately moist habitat. ), Glynwood (Aquic Hapludalfs, fine, illitic, mesic), and Lenawee Soils (Mollic Haplaquepts, fine, illitic, mesic). These soils comprise approximately 80%, 15%, and 5% of the study site, respectively. The poor internal drainage of these soils results in a seasonally high water table of less than 40 cm for most of the study area (McClain, 1985). Seasonal ponding typically occurs on the low-lying portions of the Blount Soils through early spring and on the Lenawee Soils through mid-summer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Overstory. The point-centered quarter method was used to sample the over-story trees (Cottam and Curtis, 1956). Systematic sampling was used to insure Insure can mean:
1. Orient The countries of Asia, especially of eastern Asia.
a. The luster characteristic of a pearl of high quality.
b. A pearl having exceptional luster.
3. from west to east. Sample points were located at 25 m intervals along the transects, and sampling began 25 m in from the edge. At each sample point, four quarters were defined using the direction of the measuring tape and an imaginary line In general, an imaginary line is any sort of line that has only an abstract definition, and does not exist in fact.
As a geographical concept, an imaginary line may serve as an arbitrary division (such as a border). extending perpendicular to the tape at each sampling point. In each quarter, the stem closest to the sampling point that was greater than or equal to 10 cm dbh (diameter at breast height Diameter at breast height, or DBH, is a standard method of expressing the diameter of the trunk of a tree.
The trunk is measured at the height of an adult's breast; this is defined differently in different situations, with foresters measuring the diameter at 1. , 1.4 m from the ground) was identified, and its dbh (to the nearest 0.1 cm) and distance from the sampling point (to the nearest 0.1 m) were recorded.
These data were summarized to obtain information on the woods' composition and structure. Stem density per hectare hectare (hĕk`târ, –tär), abbr. ha, unit of area in the metric system, equal to 10,000 sq m, or about 2.47 acres. , basal area (dominance) per hectare, and frequency per hectare were calculated for each species along each transect tran·sect
tr.v. tran·sect·ed, tran·sect·ing, tran·sects
To divide by cutting transversely.
[trans- + -sect. (Cottam and Curtis, 1956). Our initial analysis of the data from the individual transects indicated that species' composition and structure were very homogeneous The same. Contrast with heterogeneous.
homogeneous - (Or "homogenous") Of uniform nature, similar in kind.
1. In the context of distributed systems, middleware makes heterogeneous systems appear as a homogeneous entity. For example see: interoperable network. within each area of Ginn Woods (Schoultz, 1997). Therefore, the transect data were combined to give an overall value for each section of Ginn Woods. Species' importance values were calculated as the average of the sum the relative dominance, relative frequency, and relative density in each area of Ginn Woods (Barbour, et. al., 1987).
Stem density was calculated for the 5 most dominant species (based on importance value) in each section of Ginn Woods. Size-class densities of the remaining species were summed. The size-class distributions were used to infer whether or not a particular species was replacing itself. A species that is reproducing vigorously will often have a high density in its smaller size classes (Ziegler, 1995). Our size-class distributions were compared to the three basic size-structure curves: descending monotonic, multimodal Two or more modes of operation. The term is used to refer to a myriad of functions and conditions in which two or more different methods, processes or forms of delivery are used. On the Web, it refers to asking for something one way and receiving the answer another; for example requesting , and decreaser (Leak (programming) leak - With a qualifier, one of a class of resource-management bugs that occur when resources are not freed properly after operations on them are finished, so they effectively disappear (leak out). This leads to eventual exhaustion as new allocation requests come in. , 1964; Lorimer Lor´i`mer
n. 1. A maker of bits, spurs, and metal mounting for bridles and saddles; hence, a saddler. , 1985; Whipple and Dix, 1979; Ziegler, 1995). A descending monotonic curve, which has a higher density in the smaller size classes and a decrease in density with an increase in diameter, is typical of uneven-aged stands that are replacing themselves. A multimodal curve identifies a species that reproduces in pulses separated by periods of low/no reproduction. The decreaser curve is similar to the descending monotonic curve except that few to no stems are present in the smaller size classes due to the low recruitment rate of the species.
Understory. One hundred and fifty 0.01 ha circular plots (radius = 5.64 m) were randomly located along the transects. Fifty plots were located within each of the three regions of Ginn Woods. Within the circular plots, the number of woody stems of each species was recorded. The saplings were divided into two size classes; size class 1 contained woody plants [greater than or equal to] 2 meters in height and [less than] 5 cm dbh; and size class 2 contained woody plants 2 [greater than or equal to] meters in height with a dbh [greater than or equal to] 5cm but [less than] 10 cm. Understory plots were categorized cat·e·go·rize
tr.v. cat·e·go·rized, cat·e·go·riz·ing, cat·e·go·riz·es
To put into a category or categories; classify.
cat as either occurring in gaps or under a closed canopy. Plots were considered to be in canopy gaps when [greater than or equal to] 50% of the plot was under a canopy gap. Canopy gaps were defined as openings in the canopy created by the death of canopy species.
Nomenclature nomenclature /no·men·cla·ture/ (no´men-kla?cher) a classified system of names, as of anatomical structures, organisms, etc.
binomial nomenclature for all species follows Gleason and Cronquist (1991) with two exceptions. Due to the presence of several individuals exhibiting intermediate traits, Acer nigrum Acer nigrum (English Black Maple) is a species of maple closely related to the Sugar Maple (A. saccharum), and treated as a variety or subspecies of it by some authors. Identification can be confusing due to the tendency of the two species to form hybrids. and Acer saccharum were lumped together as Acer saccharum. Since Quercus shumardii Noun 1. Quercus shumardii - large deciduous red oak of southern and eastern United States having large seven-lobed to nine-lobed elliptical leaves, large acorns and medium hard coarse-grained wood
Shumard oak, Shumard red oak and Quercus rubra could not distinguished from each other on some of the transects, they were lumped together as Quercus rubra throughout the site.
Overstory. A total of 28 overstory species (dbh [greater than or equal to] 10 cm) were recorded in this study (Table 1) at 142, 85, and 67 sample points in North, South, and Nixon Woods, respectively. Acer saccharum ranked highest in all importance value categories and is clearly the most dominant species in Ginn Woods. Fagus grandifolia ranked second in all categories in North Woods. A distinct break in importance value occurred between F. grandifolia and A. saccharum and the remaining (subdominant) species in North Woods. Tilia americana ranked third in importance value (3.73%) followed by six species with values between 2.4% and 2.8% (Quercus rubra, Ulmus rubra, Celtis occidentalis, Carya ovata, Ulmus americana, and Fraxinus americana). No other species had an importance value above 2.0. Total overstory stem density was 304, 329, and 282 per ha in North, South, and Nixon Woods, respectively (Table 2).
North Woods has 24 overstory species. Acer saccharum had the highest density in all size-classes up to 70 cm dbh in North Woods (Figure 2). The density of Fagus grandifolia stems was roughly equal to that of all other species combined (with the exception of A. saccharum) up to 60 cm dbh. The high recruitment in the smaller size-classes indicates that A. saccharum and F. grandifolia are reproducing well and will replace themselves. Stems [greater than or equal to] 80 cm dbh are infrequent in·fre·quent
1. Not occurring regularly; occasional or rare: an infrequent guest.
2. . Tilia americana and Ulmus rubra have size-class distributions that approximate a multimodal curve (Figure 2). They have two or more peaks in density, which indicates that these species may reproduce re·pro·duce
1. To produce a counterpart, an image, or a copy of something.
2. To bring something to mind again.
3. To generate offspring by sexual or asexual means. in pulses. Quercus rubra peaks in the 70-80 cm dbh size class, and the absence of stems in the smaller size classes suggests that this species is not replacing itself and may eventually disappear from the study site (Figure 2). Only A. saccharum had stems [greater than or equal to] 90 cm dbh in North Woods.
South Woods has 26 overstory species and ranks highest in total basal area and total density (Table 1). Acer saccharum has a slightly lower density and basal area here than in North Woods. The importance of Fagus grandifolia is much lower in South Woods. Tilia americana, F. grandifolia, Populus deltoides, and Ulmus rubra all have importance values [greater than or equal to] 5.0. In South Woods, the elevation elevation, vertical distance from a datum plane, usually mean sea level to a point above the earth. Often used synonymously with altitude, elevation is the height on the earth's surface and altitude, the height in space above the surface. is slightly lower than in North Woods, and the overall soil moisture is higher. Where ponding remains the longest during the growing season growing season, period during which plant growth takes place. In temperate climates the growing season is limited by seasonal changes in temperature and is defined as the period between the last killing frost of spring and the first killing frost of autumn, at which , wet-site species such as Acer saccharinum, Acer rubrum, Carya laciniosa, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Platanus occidentalis, and Populus deltoides are locally dominant. In South Woods, the size-class distribution of A. saccharum (Figure 3) has higher recruitment in the smallest dbh size class and lower densities above 30 cm dbh than in North Woods (Figure 2). No stems [greater than or equal to] 90 cm dbh were sampled in South Woods.
The overstory of Nixon Woods consists of 18 tree species (Table 1). As in the other two sections of Ginn Woods, Acer saccharum is the most dominant species with an importance value approximately four times greater than that of Quercus rubra, the second ranking species. Quercus rubra only has stems in size classes [greater than or equal to] 30 cm dbh (Figure 4), and, despite a lower frequency and density than Tilia americana, its larger basal area gives it a higher importance value (Table 1). Quercus rubra is followed by T. americana, Fagus grandifolia, Fraxinus americana, and Aesculus glabra in importance value. Only Acer saccharum shows a strong descending monotonic curve; Fagus grandifolia, Fraxinus americana, and T. americana approximate a multimodal curve; Quercus rubra has a decreaser curve with no recruitment in the smaller size-classes. Acer saccharum has the highest density of any species [less than] 70 cm dbh and makes up approximately 50% of the total density in this dbh range (Figure 4). Quercus rubra is the predominant pre·dom·i·nant
1. Having greatest ascendancy, importance, influence, authority, or force. See Synonyms at dominant.
2. species above 70 cm dbh and the only species measured with a dbh [greater than] 90 cm.
Understory. The total stem density for size class 2 in Nixon Woods is approximately twice that of either North or South Woods, while the stem density in size class 1 is roughly equivalent in all three areas (Table 2). Shade-tolerant species are dominant throughout Ginn Woods in understory size classes 1 (Figure 5) and 2 (Figure 6). The higher stem density for size class 2 in Nixon Woods is due to the relatively high densities of Acer saccharum and Ulmus rubra (Figure 6). Acer saccharum makes up at least one-third of all the stems in size classes 1 and 2, except in size class 1 in Nixon Woods (Figures 5 and 6). Ulmus rubra and Aesculus glabra rank second in prominence prominence /prom·i·nence/ (prom´i-nins) a protrusion or projection.
frontonasal prominence in the understory (Figures 5 and 6) but are much less dominant in the overstory (Table 1). Asimina triloba and Lindera benzoin benzoin (bĕn`zoin, –zōĭn) or benzoinum (bĕnzoin`əm), balsamic resin, the dried exudation from the pierced bark of various species of the benzoin tree (Styrax are prominent components in size class 1, especially in Nixon Woods (Figure 5). Both are understory species that are not likely reach overstory status. Fagus grandifolia has its highest density in size class 2 in North Woods (Figure 6) and is found at low densities in size class 1 throughout Ginn Woods (Figure 5). Thirteen percent of all understory plots (20/150) were located in a canopy gap.
Overall, Ginn Woods is a maple-beech-basswood forest. Acer saccharum is the most dominant species throughout Ginn Woods in all understory and overstory size classes up to 60 cm dbh. Fagus grandifolia ranks second in North Woods and is supplanted by Tilia americana in South and Nixon Woods. Quercus rubra, Tilia americana, Liriodenderon tulipifera, Fraxinus americana, Ulmus rubra, Celtis occidentalis, and Prunus serotina are subdominants commonly found in beech-maple woods (Lindsey and Escobar, 1976). Acer saccharinum, Acer rubrum, Carya laciniosa, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Platanus occidentalis, and Populus deltoides are locally dominant where extended ponding occurs. The successional maturity of Ginn Woods is evident in the dominance of shade-tolerant species in the understory and overstory. Conversely con·verse 1
intr.v. con·versed, con·vers·ing, con·vers·es
1. To engage in a spoken exchange of thoughts, ideas, or feelings; talk. See Synonyms at speak.
2. , shade-intolerant species, such as Quercus rubra, show little regeneration Regeneration (biology)
The process by which an animal restores a lost part of its body. Broadly defined, the term can include wound healing, tissue repair, and many kinds of restorative activities. and should continue to decline in importance without large-scale disturbance.
Should Ginn Woods be considered an old-growth forest? The lack of many very large trees (as is common in other old-growth forests in Indiana) may have been the primary reason that Lindsey, et al. (1969) did not consider Ginn Woods to be an old-growth forest. Certainly, the lack of published studies on Ginn Woods would limit its consideration as an old-growth forest in regional studies (Parker, 1989; Brothers, 1993; Spetich, et al., 1997). Several criteria have been used to identify old-growth forests. Based on criteria adapted from Parker (1989), Martin (1992), and Runkle (1996), we believe that Ginn Woods has the structure, composition, and disturbance history that qualifies this stand as an old growth forest (Table 3).
Ginn Woods has a high diversity of woody and herbaceous species. Over 380 species of vascular plants (Bot.) plants composed in part of vascular tissue, as all flowering plants and the higher cryptogamous plants, or those of the class
See also: Vascular , including 72 species of woody plants, were documented for Ginn Woods (Ruch, et al., 2000). Late-successional plants dominate all size-class categories throughout Ginn Woods. The primary cause of disturbance in Ginn Woods is windfalls, and canopy gaps are fairly frequent. Our initial estimate of canopy gap coverage is 13%, but this feature requires further study. A mosaic of different-aged canopy gaps is found that are primarily populated pop·u·late
tr.v. pop·u·lat·ed, pop·u·lat·ing, pop·u·lates
1. To supply with inhabitants, as by colonization; people.
2. by shade-tolerant species. The amount of coarse woody debris
Coarse woody debris (CWD) is a term used in all English-speaking countries for the dead trees left standing or fallen, as well as the remains of branches on , while not quantified in this study, is relatively high compared to other old-growth forests in Indiana (pers. obs.). Limited tree harvest, such as those that occurred in South and possibly Nixon Woods, would not prevent these stands from being considered as old-growth in all but the strictest definitions of old-growth (Runkle, 1996)
1. Of or relating to soil, especially as it affects living organisms.
2. Influenced by the soil rather than by the climate. conditions may limit the maximum stem size of trees in Ginn Woods more severely than in other old-growth forests in Indiana. An examination of the root structure of windthrows in Ginn Woods revealed that most of these trees were shallowly rooted and toppled before reaching diameters in excess of 70 cm (Gedler, 1998). This growth pattern is probably the result of a seasonally high water table coupled with a soil structure that prevents the establishment of a deep root system. While trees in excess of 90 cm dbh are uncommon, the density of stems in Ginn Woods exceeds the criteria of [greater than or equal to] 7 stems [greater than or equal to] 75 cm dbh per hectare suggested by Runkle (1996). Overstory basal area and overstory density (Table 1) fall within expected levels for old-growth forests (Table 3). These structural characteristics, along with a documented history of minimal human disturbance, clearly verify (1) To prove the correctness of data.
(2) In data entry operations, to compare the keystrokes of a second operator with the data entered by the first operator to ensure that the data were typed in accurately. See validate. that Ginn Woods is an old-growth forest.
Studies at the Davis-Purdue Research Forest have provided important insights into old-growth forest community dynamics (Parker and Leopold, 1983; Parker, et al., 1985; Parker and Sherwood, 1986; Parker and Ward, 1987; Ward and Parker, 1989; Spetich and Parker, 1998). The proximity of Ginn Woods to the Davis-Purdue Research Forest invites comparison. All of the woody species listed from the Davis-Purdue Research Forest also occur in Ginn Woods (Ruch, et al., 2000). Considerable overlap occurs in the types of soils found between the two sites (McClain, 1985; Spetich and Parker, 1998), and shade-tolerant subdominants, such as Acer saccharum, have shown significant recruitment and growth over the last 60 years at the Davis-Purdue Research Forest (Ward and Parker, 1989).
Some interesting differences have also been found. The Davis-Purdue site has been classified as a lowland depressional forest (Lindsay and Schmelz, 1970). Quercus spp. form much of the overstory (Ward and Parker, 1989), and several years of cattle grazing may have had a strong influence on the development of the Davis-Purdue Research Forest. Future research is needed to determine how site specific factors, succession patterns, disturbance history, and landscape dynamics produced the similarities and differences between the Davis-Purdue Research Forest and Ginn Woods.
Ginn Woods is a valuable educational and scientific resource. Presettlement Indiana had about 8 million ha of forest (Jackson, 1997). Only about 800 ha of old-growth forest survives. The average size of old-growth stands in Indiana is only about 19 ha (Spetich, et al., 1997). According to the list of old-growth forests in Indiana compiled by Spetich, et al. (1997), the 65 ha of old-growth forest at Ginn Woods would make the site the second largest old-growth forest in Indiana. Future studies and the establishment of long-term monitoring plots would add more information to our understanding of plant community dynamics in old-growth forests.
The Ball State University Department of Biology and the Ball State University Office of Academic Research and Sponsored Programs provided support for this study. We thank Brenda Ruch and Diana Badger for their support throughout the study.
(1.) Author of correspondence: Kemuel S. Badger: firstname.lastname@example.org (e-mail), 765-285-8804 (Fax), or 765-285-8828 (phone).
LITERATURE CITED CITED Copyright in Transmitted Electronic Documents
CITEd Center for Implementing Technology in Education
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Gedler, M.S. 1998. Secondary succession secondary succession
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Stand table for overstory trees in the three sections of Ginn Woods. North Woods Species Frequency  Basal Area  Density  Acer negundo 0.5 0.0 0.9 Acer rubrum 0.3 0.2 0.6 Acer saccharinum 0.5 0.0 1.8 Acer saccharum 38.2 19.6 162.2 Aesculus glabra 2.4 0.6 4.9 Carpinus caroliniana 0.3 0.0 0.6 Carya glabra 1.4 0.6 2.7 Carya lacinioca 0.3 0.1 0.6 Carya ovata 3.2 0.9 7.1 Celtis occidentalis 3.7 0.8 6.5 Fagus grandifolia 23.4 6.2 62.5 Fraximus americana 3.8 0.4 7.3 Fraxinus nigra 0.7 0.0 1.2 Fraximus pennsylvanica 2.3 0.5 4.9 Gymnocladus djoica 0.3 0.0 0.4 Juglans nigra 0.8 0.2 1.6 Liriodendron tulipifera 0.0 0.0 0.0 Moms rubra 0.0 0.0 0.0 Plalanus occidentalis 0.0 0.0 0.0 Populus deltoides 0.0 0.0 0.0 Prunus serotina 2.0 0.3 4.2 Quercus alba 1.6 0.9 2.6 Quercus macrocarpa 0.6 0.4 1.0 Quercus muehlenbergii 0.4 0.2 0.5 Quercus rubra 2.3 1.8 5.0 Tilia americana 3.6 2.1 9.1 Ulmus americana 3.7 0.3 7.9 Ulmus rubra 3.4 0.5 8.7 Totals 100.0 37.0 305.0 South Woods Species IV  Frequency Basal Area Density IV Acer negundo 0.3 0.8 0.1 1.9 0.5 Acer rubrum 0.3 0.4 0.0 1.0 0.3 Acer saccharinum 0.9 2.4 3.3 8.7 4 Acer saccharum 48.3 32.5 16.3 145.0 40.6 Aesculus glabra 1.7 2.8 0.1 6.7 1.9 Carpinus caroliniana 0.2 0.4 0.0 1.0 0.3 Carya glabra 1.2 0.4 0.7 1.0 0.2 Carya lacinioca 0.3 1.3 0.0 2.9 1.3 Carya ovata 2.6 1.7 0.6 3.9 1.4 Celtis occidentalis 2.6 3.0 0.4 8.0 2.0 Fagus grandifolia 20.0 10.4 2.4 27.7 7.3 Fraximus americana 2.4 6.2 1.3 15.4 5.3 Fraxinus nigra 0.4 0.4 0.1 1.0 0.3 Fraximus pennsylvanica 1.7 1.7 0.4 4.8 1.4 Gymnocladus djoica 0.2 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 Juglans nigra 0.7 0.0 0.3 0.0 0.0 Liriodendron tulipifera 0.0 0.5 0.0 0.9 0.3 Moms rubra 0.0 0.4 0.1 1.0 0.3 Plalanus occidentalis 0.0 1.6 1.2 3.9 1.9 Populus deltoides 0.0 5.4 1.9 14.2 6.6 Prunus serotina 1.5 2.2 0.7 17.1 1.7 Quercus alba 1.6 0.8 0.9 2.0 1.1 Quercus macrocarpa 0.9 2.7 1.7 5.6 2.7 Quercus muehlenbergii 0.3 0.8 0.6 0.6 1.0 Quercus rubra 2.8 1.4 0.4 2.8 0.9 Tilia americana 3.7 12.0 4.0 35.9 11.4 Ulmus americana 2.5 1.7 0.3 5.0 1.2 Ulmus rubra 2.7 6.0 1.5 20.9 5.0 Totals 100.0 100.0 39.0 339.0 100.0 Nixon Woods Species Frequency Basal Area Density IV Acer negundo 0.6 0.0 0.9 0.4 Acer rubrum 1.2 0.0 1.9 1.9 Acer saccharinum 1.2 1.3 8 2.2 Acer saccharum 36.0 17.0 149.6 43.5 Aesculus glabra 6.3 0.5 11.2 4.3 Carpinus caroliniana 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Carya glabra 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Carya lacinioca 0.6 0.0 1.8 1.0 Carya ovata 3.8 0.4 6.7 2.6 Celtis occidentalis 3.9 0.3 7.9 2.7 Fagus grandifolia 7.4 1.6 17.1 6.1 Fraximus americana 5.6 1.9 12.1 4.9 Fraxinus nigra 0.6 0.0 1.0 0.3 Fraximus pennsylvanica 4.8 0.5 9.2 3.6 Gymnocladus djoica 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Juglans nigra 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Liriodendron tulipifera 0.6 0.2 1.0 0.4 Moms rubra 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Plalanus occidentalis 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Populus deltoides 2.0 3.2 3.9 2.3 Prunus serotina 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.0 Quercus alba 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Quercus macrocarpa 0.0 0.3 0.0 0.0 Quercus muehlenbergii 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Quercus rubra 7.9 4.2 17.9 11.4 Tilia americana 10.4 3.6 20.8 9.2 Ulmus americana 3.1 0.1 8 1.7 Ulmus rubra 4.2 0.3 9.2 2.6 Totals 100.0 36.0 282.0 100.0
(1.) Frequency = ((the number of samples in which the species occurred)/(the total number of samples))* 100.
(2.) Basal Area = [m.sup.2]/ha.
(3.) Density = The number of stems/ha.
(4.) Importance Value = IV = (relative basal area + relative frequency + relative density)/3.
Stem density (number/ha) for the woody plants in the understory and over-story in the three sections of Ginn Woods. Size Class North Woods South Woods Understory [greater than or equal to] 2 m tall and [less than] 5 cm dbh (Class I) 2336 2672 [greater than or equal to] 2 m tall and 5 cm dbh [less than] 10 cm 130 160 (Class 2) Totals 2466 2832 Overstory 10.0 - 19.9 cm 72.0 116.1 20.0 - 29.9 cm 59.1 57.1 30.0 - 39.9 cm 57.0 56.1 40.0 - 49.9 cm 51.6 37.7 50.0 - 59.9 cm 36.5 30.9 60.0 - 69.9 cm 16.0 21.3 70.0 - 79.9 cm 8.6 8.7 80.0 - 89.9 cm 2.7 1.0 [greater than] 90.0 cm 0.5 0.0 Totals 304.0 328.8 Size Class Nixon Woods Understory [greater than or equal to] 2 m tall and [less than] 5 cm dbh (Class I) 2688 [greater than or equal to] 2 m tall and 5 cm dbh [less than] 10 cm 316 (Class 2) Totals 3004 Overstory 10.0 - 19.9 cm 73.6 20.0 - 29.9 cm 55.7 30.0 - 39.9 cm 57.8 40.0 - 49.9 cm 41.0 50.0 - 59.9 cm 21.0 60.0 - 69.9 cm 20.0 70.0 - 79.9 cm 7.4 80.0 - 89.9 cm 2.1 [greater than] 90.0 cm 3.2 Totals 281.8
Old growth characteristics for each section of Ginn Woods based on criteria adapted from Parker (1989), Martin (1992), and Runkle (1996). A check mark indicates that the characteristic was found in that section of Ginn Woods. A question mark indicates that no data were available for that variable.
Old-Growth North South Nixon Characteristic Explanation Woods Woods Woods High diversity Both woody and herbaceous * * * plants Old-growth plants Late successional species * * * prominent All aged structure Many size classes; major * * * disturbance rare Mosaic of canopy gaps Gaps of all ages * ? ? Deadwood biomass Relatively high ? Large trees [greater than] 80 cm dbh * * * Old trees [greater than] l50 years ? ? ? Overstory basal area 25 [m.sup.2]/ha * * * Overstory density [sim] 250 trees/ha * * * Little human disturbance Last 80 to 100 years * * ?