SHOULD THOSE IN VEGETATIVE STATE BE DECLARED DEAD, DENIED CARE?
Byline: Linda Carroll Medical Tribune News Service
As life-prolonging technology improves, society is being forced to confront a very basic question: When, exactly, does life end?
While there is almost universal agreement that complete loss of brain function is equivalent to death, a debate rages among doctors - and the general public alike - when it comes to patients in the persistent vegetative state persistent vegetative state: see under coma, in medicine. (PVS PVS 1 Persistent vegetative state, see there 2. Pulmonary valve stenosis ).
Some argue that the definition of death should be changed from a whole-brain criterion to a higher-brain criterion. Under the latter, patients in a persistent vegetative state would be classified as dead.
A recent survey of neurologists and nursing-home medical directors published in the July 15 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine Annals of Internal Medicine (Ann Intern Med) is an academic medical journal published by the American College of Physicians (ACP). It publishes research articles and reviews in the area of internal medicine. Its current editor is Harold C. Sox. found that the vast majority - over 90 percent - believed that these patients would be better off dead.
A smaller proportion, 54 percent of medical directors and 44 percent of neurologists, said that patients in the persistent vegetative state should be considered dead, the survey showed.
All this alarms Dr. Kenneth Prager, an associate professor of medicine and chair of the medical ethics medical ethics The moral construct focused on the medical issues of individual Pts and medical practitioners. See Baby Doe, Brouphy, Conran, Jefferson, Kevorkian, Quinlan, Roe v Wade, Webster decision. committee at the Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center in New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of . ``It's a very slippery slope 'slippery slope' Medical ethics An ethical continuum or 'slope,' the impact of which has been incompletely explored, and which itself raises moral questions that are even more on the ethical 'edge' than the original issue ,'' he said. ``Who is to say that the definition of death might not then be stretched to someone who is conscious, but is blind and unable to talk?''
Even if a doctor agrees that PVS is equivalent to death, he has to be very sure of his diagnosis, Prager pointed out.
A study published in the July issue of the British Medical Journal The British Medical Journal, or BMJ, is one of the most popular and widely-read peer-reviewed general medical journals in the world. It is published by the BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (owned by the British Medical Association), whose other highlights the difficulties in arriving at an accurate diagnosis, he added.
The study looked at the medical records of 40 patients admitted over a three-year period to a unit specializing in rehabilitating patients with chronic brain damage.
More than 40 percent of the patients had been misdiagnosed as vegetative vegetative /veg·e·ta·tive/ (vej?e-ta?tiv)
1. of, pertaining to, or characteristic of plants.
2. concerned with growth and nutrition, as opposed to reproduction.
3. , the study found. All these people were eventually able to communicate with doctors either through eye pointing or through a sensitive touch buzzer system, it showed.
The survey in the Annals of Internal Medicine found strong consistency when doctors were questioned about rationing treatment for PVS patients. More than 90 percent said they believed it was ethical to withhold or withdraw cardiopulmonary resuscitation, dialysis, antibiotic therapy or transfusions. Most would not screen for cancer or high blood pressure.
Nevertheless, ethicists say, it's not up to the doctor to determine how much care a patient should receive.
Physicians may feel they know better than others how limited life in PVS is, but ``ultimately, it's a value judgment,'' said Dr. Peter Terry, a professor of medicine in the division of pulmonary and critical-care medicine and a member of the Johns Hopkins Bioethics bioethics, in philosophy, a branch of ethics concerned with issues surrounding health care and the biological sciences. These issues include the morality of abortion, euthanasia, in vitro fertilization, and organ transplants (see transplantation, medical). Institute in Baltimore.
``When it comes to putting a value on that form of life, the man on the street is just as qualified as the physician,'' he said.
The doctor can advise family members and other surrogates about the futility of therapies, but should still offer the treatments, according to Terry.
The best approach is to discuss future treatment options with surrogates as soon as a diagnosis of PVS is reached, said Dr. Ronald Cranford, a neurologist and medical ethicist eth·i·cist also e·thi·cian
A specialist in ethics.
Noun 1. ethicist - a philosopher who specializes in ethics
philosopher - a specialist in philosophy at Hennepin County Medical Center Hennepin County Medical Center (HCMC) is a Level I trauma center based in Minneapolis, Minnesota, the county seat of Hennepin County. The primary 422-bed facility is located on five city blocks across the street from the Hubert H. in Minneapolis.
``What I do is sit down with the family,'' he said. ``We talk about all the possibilities. I say, `These are some of the things that could occur. This is what we can do. How do you want us to respond?' ''
Once family members understand that a patient can be unconscious with his eyes open, they generally agree not to treat aggressively, according to Cranford.
However, some families never accept the diagnosis of PVS. ``Then you have a substantial ethical dilemma,'' Cranford said. ``On the one hand, you're being asked to provide futile treatment. And on the other hand, as a general rule, we defer to families. Do we override the family? So far, the courts have said, `No.' ''