SParameters for digital designers: SParameter data can provide valuable information about the characteristics of a PCB interconnect.As multigigabit interfaces, like PCI Express A highspeed peripheral interconnect from Intel introduced in 2002. Note that although sometimes abbreviated "PCX," PCI Express is not the same as "PCIX" (see PCISIG and PCIX for comparison). As a result of the confusion, "PCIE" or "PCIe" is the accepted abbreviation. , have continued to advance in frequency for each generation (PCI (1) (Payment Card Industry) See PCI DSS. (2) (Peripheral Component Interconnect) The most widely used I/O bus (peripheral bus). Expression Generation 2 operates at 5 Gbps), digital designers are being pushed into the RF realm of microwave theory. Once only reserved in the toolbox See toolkit and toolbar. of RF engineers, SParameters are now being widely used on highspeed designs to analyze the passive interconnects in a system. SParameters are ideal for digital designers because they can be used as the behavioral model of a network, translated into terms of reflection and loss. For passive interconnect structures, like transmission lines and vias, as the frequency increases, so does the dependency on loss. Standard methods of analyzing and modeling these types of structures are based upon certain assumptions of Maxwell's equations Maxwell's equations Four equations, formulated by James Clerk Maxwell, that together form a complete description of the production and interrelation of electric and magnetic fields. that no longer hold true when considering a wide range of frequency dependent phenomena. The advantage of using SParameters is that they describe how the structure behaves in the frequency domain, since they contain data taken across a wide frequency range. Understanding how to properly generate SParameter data and use the data to represent a structure in simulations will provide designers with a new way to tackle highspeed designs. Basic SParameter Theory While using an impedance impedance, in electricity, measure in ohms of the degree to which an electric circuit resists the flow of electric current when a voltage is impressed across its terminals. matrix to define a network might be more intuitive, it is actually more difficult to get the proper measurements; therefore, SParameters are the choice of the digital designer. SParameters are based on network theory that states a linear system can be characterized by input and output ports without regard to the actual system. The SParameters can be used to describe the electrical characteristics of any passive interconnect in a system, over a wide bandwidth to account for frequency dependencies. SParameters characterize a network by measuring the transmitted and reflected power traveling waves at the defined ports. (1) A network can have any number of ports, but the focus here will be on a simple 2port network, as shown in FIGURE 1. Linear equations can be used to describe the network in terms of injected in·ject·ed adj. 1. Of or relating to a substance introduced into the body. 2. Of or relating to a blood vessel that is visibly distended with blood. injected 1. introduced by injection. 2. congested. and transmitted power waves, and once you have these liner equations, you can easily translate them to the timedomain, as well as convert them to other formats such as Y and ZParameters. [S.sub.11] = ratio of reflected to incident wave = Return Loss [S.sub.21] = ratio of transmitted to incident wave = Insertion Loss The amount of loss attributed to a particular device being used in (inserted into) the system. For example, a circuit added to filter out unwanted frequencies may reduce the output current by some amount. See injection loss. The Return Loss is sometimes referred to as the complex reflection coefficient reflection coefficient n. Symbol A measure of the relative permeability of a particular membrane to a particular solute. . Digital designers are familiar with reflection coefficients (from reflections of transmission lines in the time domain), and the Return Loss can be viewed as the reflection coefficient of the interconnect in the frequency domain. Return Loss represents how much of the signal is reflected back due to any impedance mismatch The difficulty of storing the manytomany relationships of an object model in a traditional relational database. See OR mapping. . The Insertion Loss represents how much of the signal is lost from transferring energy from one port to another; the loss is due to impedance discontinuities and resonance effects of the interconnect. [FIGURE 1 OMITTED] [FIGURE 2 OMITTED] Understanding Return Loss and Insertion Loss One of the more challenging aspects of dealing with SParameters is understanding how the Return Loss and Insertion Loss parameters relate back to the interconnect performance. We'll look at examples of each parameter to understand them better. We have already discussed how the Return Loss is really about understanding the impedance of the interconnect by representing the reflection coefficients. The magnitude of the Return Loss can be displayed on a rectangular XY plot, either in linear or log format across frequency (FIGURE 2). Since SParameters are frequency models, they will often be plotted on log format in decibels dB where: dB = 20log(p) and [rho] =  reflection coefficient I To make sense of the Return Loss data, we can apply a useful metric to the plot and state that we want our reflection coefficient to be less than 10% for our interconnect because that satisfies our noise margin budget for this interconnect. By looking at the Return Loss graph, we can see across frequency, where the interconnect is below 20 dB (a 10% reflection coefficient is [rho]=0.01 and dB=20). The smaller the reflection coefficient, the larger the Return Loss should be. If you know the bandwidth of the interconnect, the Return Loss data can be used to quickly decide if the interconnect impedance will be adequate across the desired frequency range. The Return Loss plot shows the reflection coefficient of the interconnect at different frequencies, the nulls seen in the plot are resonances due to impedance mismatches. The Return Loss can be used to calculate the impedance (determined by the magnitude) and the electrical delay (determined by the phase) of the interconnect. Useful information about the interconnect can be derived from the Return Loss data. The SParameter data can also be easily translated into different formats, such as Admittance Admittance The ratio of the current to the voltage in an alternatingcurrent circuit. In terms of complex current I and voltage V, the admittance of a circuit is given by Eq. (1), and is related to the impedance of the circuit Z by Eq. (2). YParameters that may be more intuitive when talking about impedance and delay. (2) [FIGURE 3 OMITTED] The Insertion Loss represents how much of the signal is degraded de·grad·ed adj. 1. Reduced in rank, dignity, or esteem. 2. Having been corrupted or depraved. 3. Having been reduced in quality or value. going through the interconnect. The magnitude of the Insertion Loss can be displayed on a rectangular XY plot, either in linear or log format across the frequency, as shown in FIGURE 3. We will talk about Insertion Loss in dB, since that is the more popular format. A perfect impedance matched interconnect will have a loss of 0 dB. Remember that Insertion Loss is the ratio of how much energy is transmitted, so if all the energy is transmitted, the ratio comes out to be a magnitude of 1 because there is no loss. (A magnitude of 1 in dB is 0 dB) To make sense of the Insertion Loss data, we can apply a useful metric to the plot and state that we want at least 70% of the signal to get transmitted through the interconnect to satisfy our noise budget for this interconnect. By looking at the graph, we can see across frequency, where the Insertion Loss is smaller than roughly 3 dB. (The 3 dB metric point is as common as the 50 Ohm transmission line across disciplines). Typically, you will see lower loss at low frequencies, and as the frequency increases, so does the attenuation Loss of signal power in a transmission. Attenuation The reduction in level of a transmitted quantity as a function of a parameter, usually distance. It is applied mainly to acoustic or electromagnetic waves and is expressed as the ratio of power densities. and loss. So far, we have only talked about the magnitudes of SParameters, but the phase can be useful as well. An ideal interconnect will have the same delay across all frequencies, but this isn't always the case, due to frequency dependencies in the material properties of interconnects. The Group Delay is the derivative of the phase shifts of S21 across frequency. What the Group Delay really detects is if the interconnect delay changes across frequency. When looking at a Group Delay plot, it should be flat across frequency; if not, it can show how much the delay shifts with frequency. Quality Checks for SParameter Models In order to understand an SParameter model better and do some basic quality checks, some type of SParameter data viewer is highly recommended, such as Mentor Graphics' HyperLynx TouchStone touchstone Black, silicacontaining stone used in assaying to determine the purity of gold and silver. The metal to be assayed is rubbed on the touchstone, and then a sample of metal of known purity is rubbed on the stone right next to it. Viewer, shown in FIGURE 4. Most commercial EDA (1) (Electronic Design Automation) Using the computer to design, lay out, verify and simulate the performance of electronic circuits on a chip or printed circuit board. tools, such as Synopsys Waveview Analyzer, also provide support for viewing and graphing SParameter model data. [FIGURE 4 OMITTED] The first quality check to perform on an SParameter model is a causality causality, in philosophy, the relationship between cause and effect. A distinction is often made between a cause that produces something new (e.g., a moth from a caterpillar) and one that produces a change in an existing substance (e.g. check. (3) The propagation delay The time it takes to transmit a signal from one place to another. Propagation delay is dependent solely on distance and two thirds the speed of light. Signals going through a wire or fiber generally travel at two thirds the speed of light. Contrast with nodal processing delay. of an SParameter model cannot be faster than the electromagnetic equations governing the material properties of the interconnect. Noncausal SParameter models will exhibit incorrect propagation delays for the interconnect structure being represented. Think of a microstrip transmission line that has a propagation The transmission (spreading) of signals from one place to another. of 10 ps/in., instead of a more reasonable 150 ps/in, for FR4 dielectric dielectric (dī'ĭlĕk`trĭk), material that does not conduct electricity readily, i.e., an insulator (see insulation). A good dielectric should also have other properties: It must resist breakdown under high voltages; it should not material. The best way to check for causality issues is to use a Polar Plot The method of locating a target or point on the map by means of polar coordinates. , a graph of the imaginary versus the real (FIGURE 5); a Smith Chart, a special case Polar Plot, can also be used. When viewing the SParameter data on a Polar Plot, the data should have a clockwise rotation Noun 1. clockwise rotation  rotation to the right dextrorotation gyration, revolution, rotation  a single complete turn (axial or orbital); "the plane made three rotations before it crashed"; "the revolution of the earth about the sun takes one year" , indicating a positive Group Delay. The resonances create the circles in the path. The data should also start and end on the real axis and be smooth with a lot of resolution. The second quality check to perform is a passivity check. A passive system does not generate energy, so there should be no energy generated between ports. A passivity check will look at the sum of the energy input to the network versus the sum of the energy output from the network, and if there is energy generated, an error is reported. The passivity check is performed on the entire SParameter model using all the ports, and most EDA tools can check the passivity for you and report any errors. SParameter Quality Review Checklist: * [S.sub.11] and [S.sub.12] magnitude < 1 (otherwise there would be negative impedance) * Poor Symmetry ([S.sub.12] [not equal to] [S.sub.21]) * Polar Plot [right arrow] clockwise rotation over frequency * Polar Plot [right arrow] smooth curve over frequency * Polar Plot [right arrow] enough data points * Passivity Check (available in most simulation tools) Many SParameter models need some editing before using in a simulation to smooth out data or correct minor passivity issues. Different tools will allow you to view both the original and the modified SParameter model. There is a work around for some tools. It involved running simulations using the original versus the modified SParameter model. These are completed using different test benches to validate that the changes are in line with what was expected. [FIGURE 5 OMITTED] Tips on Generating SParameter Models To avoid passivity and causality errors when generating SParameter models from either lab measurement or simulation, the following guidelines (4) should be adhered to: * A broad frequency range sweep should be used (good rule of thumb: 5th harmonic of fundamental frequency). * A "close to DC" point needs to be included. This is easier to do in simulation than in a lab measurement. Care needs to be taken to get as much resolution as possible, at the lowest frequency, when manually editing data to add the DC point. * A dense sampling of data points is necessary. Ideally, an adaptive type of sampling would be used to generate a step size of data points rather than a "one fits all" approach. Linear spacing may be needed depending on your simulation tool or use of model. * Provide high resolution with lots of data points. File size can be an issue, but whether an adaptive approach is used or not, there needs to be a lot of data points. * Measurement noise needs to be calibrated cal·i·brate tr.v. cal·i·brat·ed, cal·i·brat·ing, cal·i·brates 1. To check, adjust, or determine by comparison with a standard (the graduations of a quantitative measuring instrument): out or smoothed out in software. Simulating SParameters in the Time Domain While useful characteristics of the interconnect, like impedance, can be derived from the SParameters most of the time, the goal is to use the SParameter model in a time domain simulation to validate the interface. Since SParameters contain frequencybased data, the simulation tool needs to convert this data into the time domain. The most common approach is to do so using an Inverse (mathematics) inverse  Given a function, f : D > C, a function g : C > D is called a left inverse for f if for all d in D, g (f d) = d and a right inverse if, for all c in C, f (g c) = c and an inverse if both conditions hold. Fast Fouirier Transform (IFFT IFFT Inverse Fast Fourier Transform IFFT International Football Friendship Tournament (Saudi Arabia) ) and then use convolution convolution /con·vo·lu·tion/ (loo´shun) a tortuous irregularity or elevation caused by the infolding of a structure upon itself. to generate the transient response In electrical engineering and Mechanical Engineering, a transient response or natural response is the response of a system to a change from equilibrium. Specifically, transient response in Mechanical Engineering is the portion of the response that approaches zero after a . This approach has some disadvantages, though. It takes a lot of simulation time to do this conversion from the frequency to the time domain. Also, by using a direct convolution method, passivity and causality issues are sometimes either ignored or incorporated into the time domain result, causing simulation convergence issues. Some simulation tools require a linear spacing of the SParameter data to perform the IFFT, which with linear spaced data can lead to insufficient data points in the model. There are many different schools of thought on better methods to use SParameter data in time domain simulations. Many commercial EDA simulators offer different algorithm methods to simulate the data in the time domain. A popular method involves representing the SParameter data with polesresidues based on a curve that fits the data. (5) Since only stable poles are used, it can eliminate causality errors. This method also leads to efficient time domain simulation, since the polesresidues are represented with nonfrequency based functions or elements so no convolution is required. It is worthwhile for the digital designer to talk with the simulation vendor in order to understand the methods available for running efficient transient simulations. While there are different methods available to speed up simulation times and reduce convergence issues, there is always a tradeoff in accuracy and performance, so the right balance has to be found. Conclusion SParameters provide a new analysis tool for digital designers to add to their signal integrity toolbox. The SParameter data can be viewed and analyzed to obtain valuable information about the characteristics of the PCB PCB: see polychlorinated biphenyl. PCB in full polychlorinated biphenyl Any of a class of highly stable organic compounds prepared by the reaction of chlorine with biphenyl, a tworing compound. interconnect. If care is taken when generating SParameter data from measurement or simulation, headaches can be avoided later on. By understanding how the SParameter data is being used in time domain simulations, digital designers can ask the right questions to speed up simulations and avoid convergence issues. As technologies keep advancing, the SParameter format will continue to gain importance for all engineers. REFERENCES (1.) Test and Measurement, Application Note 951, Hewlett Packard. (2.) Digital Communications Transmitting text, voice and video in binary form. See communications. Test and Measurement, Dennis Derickson and Marcus Muller Mul·ler , Hermann Joseph 18901967. American geneticist. He won a 1946 Nobel Prize for the study of the hereditary effect of xrays on genes. Mül·ler , Johannes Peter 18011858. , Prentice Hall Prentice Hall is a leading educational publisher. It is an imprint of Pearson Education, Inc., based in Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, USA. Prentice Hall publishes print and digital content for the 612 and higher education market. History In 1913, law professor Dr. Signal Integrity Library, December 2007. (3.) P. Triverio, S. GrivetTalocia, M.S. Nakhla, F.G. Canavero, R. Achar, "Stability, causality, and passivity in electrical interconnect models" IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, www.ieee.org) A membership organization that includes engineers, scientists and students in electronics and allied fields. Trans. on Adv. Pack., v. 30, N4, p. 795808. (4.) "Rational Function Computing with Poles and Residues," Richard J. Fateman, Computer Science Division, University of California, Berkeley The University of California, Berkeley is a public research university located in Berkeley, California, United States. Commonly referred to as UC Berkeley, Berkeley and Cal , March 21, 2006. (5.) SParameter Model Quality, "How to Check and Improve SParameter Data" Vladimir DmitrievZdorov and Steve Kaufer, AppNote 10029, Mentor Graphics Mentor Graphics, Inc (NASDAQ: MENT) is a USbased multinational corporation dealing in electronic design automation (EDA) for electrical engineering and electronics, as of 2004, ranked third in the EDA industry it helped create. , 2006. TIMOTHY COYLE is principal consultant and owner at Signal Consulting Group LLC (Logical Link Control) See "LANs" under data link protocol. LLC  Logical Link Control ; tim.coyle@siconsultant.com. 

Reader Opinion