Rogues, Thieves and the Rule of Law: The problem of law enforcement in northeast England. (Reviews).
Rogues, Thieves and the Rule of Law: The Problem of Law Enforcement in Northeast England. By Gwenda Morgan and Peter Rushton (London: University College London “UCL” redirects here. For other uses, see UCL (disambiguation).
University College London, commonly known as UCL, is the oldest multi-faculty constituent college of the University of London, one of the two original founding colleges, and the first British Press, 1998. xiii plus 287pp. [pounds sterling]55 hb.).
The social history of crime is a vibrant area of intellectual enquiry, which since the 1960s has generated a proliferation of monographs and essays on a diversity of issues. There has been, however, a dearth of enquiry into criminal activity and law enforcement in northeast England. Gwenda Morgan and Peter Rushton's contribution is an ambitious attempt to readdress Re`ad`dress´
v. t. 1. To address a second time; - often used reflexively.
He readdressed himself to her.
- Boyle. this imbalance. Rogues, Thieves and the Rule of Law is the first large-scale investigation into gendered criminality and law enforcement in the old counties of northeast England, (Durham, Northumberland and Newcastle upon Tyne Newcastle upon Tyne, city (1991 pop. 199,064) and metropolitan district, NE England, on the Tyne River. The city is an important shipping and trade center. The famous coal-shipping industry began in the 13th cent. ), between the years of the 1718 Transportation Act and the early nineteenth-century. This historical period is one of the most symbolic in criminal justice history for the foundations of the modern legal system were being laid. Morgan and Rushton's meticulous attention to source material, however, illustrates the unique, yet diverse, character of criminal and civil law that persisted across these three northeastern administra tive units into the nineteenth-century. Significantly this did not preclude justices co-operating with colleagues both within the region and in the capital on penal policy. Local justices, for instance, collaborated with Bow Street Bow Street is a thoroughfare in Covent Garden, Westminster London. It features as one of the streets on the standard London Monopoly board.
The area around Bow Street was developed by the Francis Russell, 4th Earl of Bedford in the 1630s. under Sir John Fielding This article is about the London magistrate. For the soldier, see John Williams (VC).
Sir John Fielding (1721 – 4 September 1780) was a notable English magistrate and social reformer of the 18th century. in the 1760s to apprehend criminals in their environs and some years later supported his initiative for a national criminal register. Local officials were prolific too in petitioning central government for pardons and reprieves for the condemned.
Morgan and Rushton succeed admirably in restoring women to their rightful place in histories of crime whilst also overcoming the difficulties that blight comparisons of rural and urban crime during the eighteenth-century. In so doing they nuance the genders' differential experience of socio-economic conditions prevailing in countryside and town and how that affected their patterns of offending and the prosecution process. This is possible because the authors' innovative step of embracing a feminist perspective to analyse a wide range of judicial records elucidates both males and females in their multiple roles as victims and perpetrators of a whole gamut of criminal activity. Such an epistemological approach to crime and penology penology
Branch of criminology dealing with prison management and the treatment of offenders. Penological studies have sought to clarify the ethical bases of punishment, along with the motives and purposes of society in inflicting it; differences throughout history and is undoubtedly one of the study's major strengths. For although historians such as John Beattie John Beattie may refer to:
Scrutiny of the overall pattern of crime and social disorder History:
Social Disorder is a NY Hardcore/Metalcore band which was formed in 1986 by Nicholas Vignapiano, Michael Trzesinski and Saul Colon. Joining the band soon after the initial grouping was Ritchie Gianonne, and later Steven Sallas completed the quintet. across the northeastern landscape reveals that it was blatantly at odds with the wild and uncivilised reputation of its people. Instead the crime rate corresponds to national trends in that much of the courts' criminal business comprised minor property offences, interspersed with the odd crime considered serious such as violent robbery or homicide. The authors reveal that law enforcers faced an urban concentration of crime that was decidedly female in composition, with its increase accompanied by a decline in rural crime throughout the century. This, in part, is attributed to the rise of consumerism and the higher levels of poverty prevailing in the towns. Newcastle, the metropolis of the northeast, was the most violent environ with higher rates of homicides and assaults than either Durham or Northumberland. Its machinery of law enforcement also encountered rates of property offences that exceeded local levels, although its pattern of minor thefts, such as picking pockets or the theft of cloth, were similarly rife in neighbouring urban communities.
The courts' overall pattern of prosecuting thieves parallel John Beattie and Robert Shoemaker's findings for Essex, Sussex and Surrey in that the number of persons proceeded against reached a peak in the 1780s and by the end of the century the figure was double that for the 1720s or 1730s. The aggregate figure of roughly 4,400 prosecutions, however, for 1718-1800 is much lower than found in London or its surrounding counties. Women were accused of 38 percent of thefts reported in the region, but behind this rather bland figure lie some interesting geographical variations in the sex ratios of the accused. Women were statistically more likely than men to be convicted of property crimes in Newcastle and Berwick's quarter sessions QUARTER SESSIONS. A court bearing this name, mostly invested with the trial of criminals. It takes its name from sitting quarterly or once in three months.
2. The English courts of quarter sessions were erected during the reign of Edward III. Vide Stat. , whereas in Durham and Northumberland's rural communities they were in the substantial minority. The authors' speculation that women's higher conviction rate stemmed form men's greater experience of the law in their communities accords much with the reviewer's research into personal vio lence in Sunderland after 1840.
The reader also gains a vivid insight into the changing repertoire of punishments inflicted on wrongdoers by northeastern courts in early modern society. The death penalty, which was reserved for the few, had a paradoxical application across the region for although women were rarely sent to the gallows GALLOWS. An erection on which to bang criminals condemned to death. , they were more likely than men to suffer the additional degradation of having their bodies dissected dis·sect·ed
1. Botany Divided into many deep, narrow segments: dissected leaves.
2. Geology Cut by irregular valleys and hills.
Adj. 1. . London judges were swift to introduce new policies of punishments, such as transportation, but it was primarily the lower courts that developed innovative variations in punishments. Particularly striking is the quarter sessions sentencing policy as it reveals women's pattern of offending exerted an uncanny influence over innovations in punishment, most notably imprisonment Imprisonment
See also Isolation.
former federal maximum security penitentiary, near San Francisco; “escapeproof.” [Am. Hist.: Flexner, 218]
German prison ship in World War II. [Br. Hist. . The justices' use of medieval punishments hand-in-hand with modern penal practices also challenges much earlier writing on the history of crime and its adherence to simplistic sim·plism
The tendency to oversimplify an issue or a problem by ignoring complexities or complications.
[French simplisme, from simple, simple, from Old French; see simple linear models of developments in penalogical theory and practice in the eighteenth-century. The authors demonstrate that the pillory PILLORY, punishment. wooden machine in which the neck of the culprit is inserted.
2. This punishment has been superseded by the adoption of the penitentiary system in most of the states. Vide 1 Chit. Cr. Law, 797. underwent a revival after 1750 to punish sexual assault, homosexuality and deceit, while the stocks were still used in Berwick until the mid nineteenth-century. The notebook of Edmund Tew, Rector of Boldon and JP for Durham, most lucidly illustrates the informal methods used to uphold local definitions of the law without recourse A phrase used by an endorser (a signer other than the original maker) of a negotiable instrument (for example, a check or promissory note) to mean that if payment of the instrument is refused, the endorser will not be responsible. to the courts.
A large-scale regional study of crime and penalogy cannot dedicate equal resources to pursue all legal narratives. The theme of gender and violence is particularly under explored for it leaves many questions unanswered on how the law, both official and extra-legal, regulated inter-personal violence. This is a minor criticism, however, of a study that has achieved notable advances over recent scholarship in the social history of crime and contributed much to regional history. As this seminal study is also written with the clarity and simplicity that one expects from, but rarely finds, in specialist texts on criminal justice history, undergraduate students and non-specialists need not be intimidated nor deterred from consulting it. This leads me onto a moot point moot point n. 1) a legal question which no court has decided, so it is still debatable or unsettled. 2) an issue only of academic interest. (See: moot) however; available only in hardback and retailing at around [pounds sterling]55 means that this potentially large audience is unlikely to benefit from the book's publication.