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Revisiting gender bias in doctoral programs in economics.

INTRODUCTION

The percentage of doctorate degrees earned by women in economics increased from 5 percent in 1966 to 28.3 percent in 2001 (Source: American Sociological so·ci·ol·o·gy  
n.
1. The study of human social behavior, especially the study of the origins, organization, institutions, and development of human society.

2.
 Association; http://www.asanet.org See .org.

(networking) org - The top-level domain for organisations or individuals that don't fit any other top-level domain (national, com, edu, or gov). Though many have .org domains, it was never intended to be limited to non-profit organisations.

RFC 1591.
). In comparison to other disciplines, including sociology sociology, scientific study of human social behavior. As the study of humans in their collective aspect, sociology is concerned with all group activities—economic, social, political, and religious. , political science, psychology, and biology economics has the smallest share of women earning doctoral degrees. Why is there such a low concentration of women in economics relative to other fields? Do women face an unfriendly environment in their doctoral programs? Do economics doctoral programs favor male learning styles and encourage male candidates more than females? Is there gender bias in doctoral programs? The purpose of this study is to find the answers to these questions by surveying persons earning doctoral degrees in economics.

This study follows up on an earlier study by Shelburn and Lewellyn (1995). It is designed to test and update work on gender bias in doctoral programs in economics. The authors extended Shelburn and Lewellyn's (1995) time period and obtained responses from a new set of subjects. In order to investigate the issue of bias in doctoral programs in economics, a survey instrument was mailed to individuals who hold a Ph.D. in economics. Based on the responses from the survey, this study tests several hypothesis and finds new issues that need to be addressed. In general, the findings of the current study support Shelburn and Lewellyn's findings and highlight the importance to further examines the issue of gender bias in doctoral programs in economics.

PREVIOUS LITERATURE

As stated earlier, this study is an extension of the 1995 research conducted by Shelburn and Lewellyn. Unfortunately, there is no extensive literature on gender bias in doctoral programs in economics; therefore, the authors relied on previous literature that dealt with the gender bias issue in general. Some of the earlier research suggests that a negative attitude toward female graduate students (Berg & Ferber, 1983) and problematic peer relations (Follett Follett can refer to: People
  • Barbara Follett, English politician
  • David Follett, director of the London Science Museum
  • James Follett, author/screenwriter
  • Ken Follett, author
  • Mary Parker Follett, management and political theorist
, Andberg & Hendel Hendel is a surname, and may refer to:
  • Friedrich Georg Hendel (1874-1936), Austrian high school director and entomologist mainly interested in Diptera
  • Geerd Hendel (1903-1998), naval architect and native of Germany
  • Nechama Hendel (1936-1998), Israeli singer
, 1982) result in fewer female students obtaining their post graduate degrees. Given that gender bias in doctoral programs results in fewer doctorate degrees earned by women in economics, this issue is essential to educators This is a list of educators. See also: Education, List of education topics.
External link:

General
Category:
, as well as employers.

In addition, Jansen Jan·sen   , Cornelis 1585-1638.

Dutch theologian and founder of the Jansenist movement, whose adherents included Antoine Arnauld, Blaise Pascal, and Jean Racine.

Noun 1.
 and Owen (2000) suggest that the mainstream economics curriculum excludes topics and methodology of interest to women. This particular study provides a basis for recommending improvements in doctoral programs in economics and in general. Furthermore, Colander and Holmes (2007) investigate the level of women's integration in their economic programs based on the quality of mentoring. They conclude that many women are discouraged dis·cour·age  
tr.v. dis·cour·aged, dis·cour·ag·ing, dis·cour·ag·es
1. To deprive of confidence, hope, or spirit.

2. To hamper by discouraging; deter.

3.
 from continuing in economics because of the schools' focus on theoretical studies in early core courses. Finally, several investigators addressed the issue of the sex gap in pay (England England, the largest and most populous portion of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (1991 pop. 46,382,050), 50,334 sq mi (130,365 sq km). It is bounded by Wales and the Irish Sea on the west and Scotland on the north. , 1992; Bellas, 1997). The results obtained by this study , as well as by England (1992) and Bellas (1997), might be useful to economists studying the labor market labor market A place where labor is exchanged for wages; an LM is defined by geography, education and technical expertise, occupation, licensure or certification requirements, and job experience  and wage differentials, given that fewer female students studying economics will directly result in less women economist This article is about the profession. For the news publication, see The Economist.

An economist is an expert in the social science of economics.[1]
 and thus broaden the sex gap in pay.

METHODOLOGY AND BACKGROUND

For the current study, the authors emailed a survey instrument to persons with PhD's in economics (the Instrument will be provided upon a request). The survey was sent to every tenth member in the AEA listing of the American Economic Association, provided he or she had an email address See Internet address. . If not, the next person was selected as a subject. The current research reports gender-based differences suggested by the responses received from twenty percent of the overall sample (433 men and women with doctorates in economics).

SPSS A statistical package from SPSS, Inc., Chicago (www.spss.com) that runs on PCs, most mainframes and minis and is used extensively in marketing research. It provides over 50 statistical processes, including regression analysis, correlation and analysis of variance.  was used to analyze an·a·lyze
v.
1. To examine methodically by separating into parts and studying their interrelations.

2. To separate a chemical substance into its constituent elements to determine their nature or proportions.

3.
 the data, originally entered into an Excel A full-featured spreadsheet for Windows and the Macintosh from Microsoft. It can link many spreadsheets for consolidation and provides a wide variety of business graphics and charts for creating presentation materials.  spreadsheet spreadsheet

Computer software that allows the user to enter columns and rows of numbers in a ledgerlike format. Any cell of the ledger may contain either data or a formula that describes the value that should be inserted therein based on the values in other cells.
. For ratio data, male-female differences are tested for statistical significance using the t-test. For ordinal (mathematics) ordinal - An isomorphism class of well-ordered sets.  data, male-female differences are tested using the Mann Whitney U test, where the sample size is large enough for U to be approximately ap·prox·i·mate  
adj.
1. Almost exact or correct: the approximate time of the accident.

2.
 normally distributed. Where the percentage of males giving a particular response is to be compared with the percentage of females giving that response, the Chi-squared test is used to determine whether the male-female discrepancy DISCREPANCY. A difference between one thing and another, between one writing and another; a variance. (q.v.)
     2. Discrepancies are material and immaterial.
 is statistically significant.

Background data provided by the respondents In the context of marketing research, a representative sample drawn from a larger population of people from whom information is collected and used to develop or confirm marketing strategy.  include date of entry into the doctoral program, date Ph.D. was granted, undergraduate and graduate grade point average, marital status marital status,
n the legal standing of a person in regard to his or her marriage state.
 during doctoral program, ages of children, and gender. The earliest entry into the doctoral program was in 1946 while the earliest data Ph.D. was granted was in 1948. The latest entry into the doctoral program was in 1999, while the latest date Ph.D. was granted was in 2003. Female graduate students had a higher undergraduate and graduate grade point average than men. Women's undergraduate grade point average was 3.64 (men's was 3.58) while graduate grade point average was 3.72 (men's was 3.53). With respect to their marital status, fewer women were married at the time of their entry into the doctoral program than men (37.5 percent versus 50 percent). This probably reflects a tendency for women to postpone post·pone  
tr.v. post·poned, post·pon·ing, post·pones
1. To delay until a future time; put off. See Synonyms at defer1.

2. To place after in importance; subordinate.
 marriage and family plans while in graduate program. On the other hand, a slightly higher percentage of women than men entering graduate school had dependent children.

FINDINGS OF THIS STUDY

Personal and Professional Relationships with Graduate Faculty

In the first section of the survey, the respondents are asked about their relationships with doctoral faculty and peers, about the personality characteristics related to success/failure in their doctoral programs, the support systems provided by their institutions to doctoral students, and the nature of their employment since receiving their degrees. The obtained data are separated by gender to identify differential gender impacts on the doctoral experience. Some of the survey questions are objective, simply asking the number of times that the graduate student went to professional meetings, worked with faculty on research grants/proposals, or participated in sporting/social events with faculty. Other questions are subjective, asking about the doctoral student's perceptions of his/her faculty relationships. The authors also included questions to investigate possible gender-based differences in relationships among graduate students themselves. That is, did female graduate students form equally as supportive peer relationships as did their male counterparts; why or why not? Based on the previous studies that investigate the level of women's integration in their economic programs based on the quality of mentoring (Colander & Holmes, 2007), this study also investigates the mentoring issue for both male and female students.

Table 1 reports responses regarding the Student-Faculty Relationship. In Shelburn and Lewellyn (1995), women respondents reported that 4.18 % of their teachers were female, while men reported that 2.68 % of their instructors were female. Women in this study did not report more female teachers (6 %) than did men (6.0 %). As for the structure of the faculty, both men and women reported that only a small percentage of the faculty were female. Females constituted 9% of the faculty according to according to
prep.
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.

2. In keeping with: according to instructions.

3.
 males and 5% according to female students. These reports are consistent with the findings of Shelburn and Lewellyn (1995) and with Jansen and Owen (2000) who suggest that the mainstream economics curriculum excludes topics and methodology of interest to women. Furthermore, on average, women in our study reported fewer friends on the faculty (1.96 percent) than did men (2.43 percent), but the discrepancy is not statistically significant. Shelburn and Lewellyn (1995) found both women and men averaging approximately 2.6 percent friendships with faculty.)

Table 1 reports gives some highlight on the graduate economic environment that students face. Based on the obtained responses, male graduate economics student finds more support from the faculty than do female peers. Looking first at the significant gender-based differences, female students attended fewer professional meetings during graduate school. In particular, they used professional meetings less often for job hunting. The reasons for these gender-specific discrepancies are not entirely clear, but surely fewer dissertation-related papers with faculty contribute to fewer presentations by female students at conferences. In addition, one might suspect stricter financial constraints CONSTRAINTS - A language for solving constraints using value inference.

["CONSTRAINTS: A Language for Expressing Almost-Hierarchical Descriptions", G.J. Sussman et al, Artif Intell 14(1):1-39 (Aug 1980)].
 and lack of encouragement from a predominantly pre·dom·i·nant  
adj.
1. Having greatest ascendancy, importance, influence, authority, or force. See Synonyms at dominant.

2.
 male faculty. Additional research might clarify (company) Clarify - A software vendor, specialising in Customer Relationship Management software. Nortel Networks sold Clarify to Amdocs in 2002.

http://amdocsclarify.com/.
 the contributing factors. It is interesting that female students reporting similar levels of recognition for academic performance would still report fewer papers with faculty.

Question 11 reveals that the predominantly male faculty is significantly less likely to invite female students to parties. In a society where sexual harassment sexual harassment, in law, verbal or physical behavior of a sexual nature, aimed at a particular person or group of people, especially in the workplace or in academic or other institutional settings, that is actionable, as in tort or under equal-opportunity statutes.  is sometimes alleged, it is hardly surprising that a male faculty member would exercise caution in inviting a female student to a party. Nonetheless, partying only with same-gender students results in a bias toward relationship-building between male students and the predominantly male faculty. Other gender-based discrepancies in responses to Question 11 are not statistically significant, but it is worth noting for future research purposes that females reported fewer invitations for every kind of faculty-student interaction listed. While such social interaction as dining or playing baseball is not directly relevant to success in a graduate program, such interactions certainly enhance a student's opportunities to build a relationship of mutual respect and concern with a professor.

University Policies, Procedures, and Support Services support services Psychology Non-health care-related ancillary services–eg, transportation, financial aid, support groups, homemaker services, respite services, and other services  

Question 12 (Table 2) was designed to explore the extent of personal relationships with faculty. This question is closely related to the question regarding friendships between students and faculty, so the responses obtained for question 12 shed light on why women reported fewer friends on their faculty. Shelburn and Lewellyn (1995) suggested that more women lacked a faculty member with whom they could comfortably discuss personal issues. In this study, 38.5% women answered "no" to this question versus 27.3% of men. Similarly, when asked whether they had a faculty member with whom they could discuss career goals, 19.2% of women answered "no" compared to 14.5% of men. Likewise, more women than men felt uncomfortable discussing unfair treatment from professors (31.0% versus 22.65), discrimination (30.8% versus 23.65), sexual harassment (34.6% versus 17.65) or an incompetent incompetent adj. 1) referring to a person who is not able to manage his/her affairs due to mental deficiency (lack of I.Q., deterioration, illness or psychosis) or sometimes physical disability.  professor (30.85 versus 23.65%). The above results suggest that more female students felt uncomfortable discussing issues regarding their well-being with faculty members than the male students. This could be a reason for the previous finding which suggested that women averaged fewer friends among the faculty than men.

Furthermore, participants' responses to question 12 revealed important differences in perceived accessibility of faculty by women and men for various academic and professional purposes. When asked about discussing personal issues or inadequacy of facilities, more men than women were uncertain about their answers and replied "do not know" (31.0% versus 11.5% and 17.0% versus 8.0% respectively). This finding is consistent with Shelburn and Lewellyn (1995) suggesting that the males' uncertainty about these issues may reflect their belief that it is inappropriate to discuss such emotional or "intangible" issues. Similarly, when asked about discrimination or unfair treatment from professors, more men were uncertain about these issues than women (52.7% versus 19.2% and 37.7% versus 19.2%, respectively). Once again, our results are consistent with Shelburn and Lewellyn (1995) who suggested that men could not imagine that discrimination or unfair treatment from professors might arise or exist.

More men than women were questioned by faculty about marriage and family plans and their social life, but the difference was not significant. Similarly, only slightly more females reported comments from faculty about their appearance. This is a difference from the Shelburn and Lewellyn 1995 study. Furthermore, the questions regarding research, publishing and the number of consulting jobs conducted with graduate faculty reveal slightly different results than the ones obtained by Shelburn and Lewellyn (1995).

Relationships with Peers and Progress in the Graduate Program

When they examined personal and professional relationships with peers, Shelburn and Lewellyn (1995) asked questions about the number of close friendships and satisfaction with various peer-related elements during the graduate school tenure. This study have closely followed Shelburn and Lewellyn (1995) and examined the same issues. The responses to questions regarding the number of close friendships and satisfaction with peer-related experiences are reported in Table 3a and Table 3b.

What do we learn from Table 3a and Table 3b? The literature suggests that female graduate students are not so well satisfied with their peer relationships as male graduate students (Follett, Andberg, & Hendel, 1982). Part a of Table 3a produces no significant differences between the satisfaction levels reported by the two gender groups with the different aspects of their experiences. Nonetheless, male satisfaction levels are generally higher and larger sample sizes might produce significant differences. This is consistent with the fact that women also report more thought to dropping out of the graduate program; again large sample sizes might or might not render (1) To make visible; to draw. The term comes from the graphics world where a rendering is an artist's drawing of what a new structure would look like. In computer-aided design (CAD), a rendering is a particular view of a 3D model that has been converted into a realistic image.  the gap significant.

However, there is a significant difference between the numbers of male friends that women and men students report among their peers. Yet, that difference does not hold for the numbers of female friends reported. While it is not clear why the significance does not hold for females, the result does indicate that the total number of friends reported by male students would be somewhat higher. This is consistent with Montgomery Montgomery, city, United States
Montgomery, city (1990 pop. 187,106), state capital and seat of Montgomery co., E central Ala., near the head of navigation on the Alabama River just below the confluence of the Coosa and Tallapoosa rivers, and in the rich
 and Anderson Anderson, river, Canada
Anderson, river, c.465 mi (750 km) long, rising in several lakes in N central Northwest Territories, Canada. It meanders north and west before receiving the Carnwath River and flowing north to Liverpool Bay, an arm of the Arctic
 (2007) who suggest that because of the unfriendly environment that women face in MBA programs, more of them are likely to drop-off from the graduate program.

Perhaps the most interesting findings from Table 3 are those related to the characteristics deemed necessary to succeed in the doctoral program. Before looking at the individual characteristics associated with success, it is interesting that males tended to assign lower importance scores to the listed characteristics overall. Is this because the men thought success was easier or more likely than did females? Or do men simply assign lower scores to the same degree of importance? This study cannot determine which explains the difference, but personal interviews with males versus females might investigate this further.

Looking at the individual characteristics, what is noteworthy is that women deem four characteristics significantly more essential (at a 5% a-level) to success than do males: being politically astute as·tute  
adj.
Having or showing shrewdness and discernment, especially with respect to one's own concerns. See Synonyms at shrewd.



[Latin ast
, motivated mo·ti·vate  
tr.v. mo·ti·vat·ed, mo·ti·vat·ing, mo·ti·vates
To provide with an incentive; move to action; impel.



mo
, enthusiastic, and assertive as·ser·tive  
adj.
Inclined to bold or confident assertion; aggressively self-assured.



as·sertive·ly adv.
. Being attractive and extroverted ex·tro·vert·ed also ex·tra·vert·ed  
adj.
Marked by interest in and behavior directed toward others or the environment as opposed to or to the exclusion of self; gregarious or outgoing:
 would gain significance at a 10%a-level. These characteristics are personality attributes generally associated with moving forward in the face of opposition and obstacles. Intelligence is notably absent from the list. This suggests that women associate success with an ability to deal with the graduate school relationships or interpersonal communication Interpersonal communication is the process of sending and receiving information between two or more people. Types of Interpersonal Communication
This kind of communication is subdivided into dyadic communication, Public speaking, and small-group communication.
 rather than ability.

Stress Levels Caused by Factors from Out-of-Classroom

The data obtained by this study indicates no gender-based differences in the availability of financial support to graduate students. These results are consistent with Shelburn and Lewellyn (1995) who reported a similar distribution of assistantships and fellowships to graduate students. As a result, respondent In Equity practice, the party who answers a bill or other proceeding in equity. The party against whom an appeal or motion, an application for a court order, is instituted and who is required to answer in order to protect his or her interests.  reported very similar living standards living standards nplnivel msg de vida

living standards living nplniveau m de vie

living standards living npl
, whether male or female. Table 4 presents these results.

Table 4 shows only two significant differences in the responses of males and females. Both have to do with gender discrimination and both are consistent with the Shelburn and Lewellyn findings. Women were more likely than men to report the lack of a faculty member with whom they could discuss gender bias or harassment Ask a Lawyer

Question
Country: United States of America
State: Nevada

I recently moved to nev.from abut have been going back to ca. every 2 to 3 weeks for med.
 if the issue arose. Men were more likely to say they could find faculty to discuss it with or they didn't did·n't  

Contraction of did not.


didn't did not
didn't do
 know if they could or not. These results probably reflect both the high percentage of male faculty and the lack of as many close faculty relationships among female students. Another interesting observation about Table 4 is that, for eight of the ten topics, a higher percentage of female (than male) students reported that they would have no faculty member to talk with. This is consistent with the perception that females are less likely to have mentors among graduate faculty than do their male peers. Future studies might investigate further the nature of mentoring roles among graduate students and the role of mentoring in student success.

The Academic Experience and Career

Differences in preparation during their doctoral program were perhaps responsible for differences in the jobs that men and women obtained after their graduate work. Consistent with Shelburn and Lewellyn (1995), our findings indicate that 51.9% of men work for Ph.D.-granting institutions versus 37.5% of women. Reskin (1998) suggested that gender bias in graduate programs resulted in gender bias in the labor force. The results obtained by the current study support Reskin's argument. Even though women were more likely than men to be at "other" granting institutions (such as Master's and Bachelor's bach·e·lor's  
n.
A bachelor's degree.
) and even hold non-academic jobs, they were still earning less money than men. For instance, if they held nine-month positions men earned up to eleven percent more than women (Table 5). Similarly, if men held twelve-month positions, on average they earned thirty-nine percent more than women. These findings are consistent with England (1992) and Bellas (1997) who suggested that the earnings disparity dis·par·i·ty  
n. pl. dis·par·i·ties
1. The condition or fact of being unequal, as in age, rank, or degree; difference: "narrow the economic disparities among regions and industries" 
 between men and women results from discrimination against female in certain occupations, such as economics, that are disproportionately dis·pro·por·tion·ate  
adj.
Out of proportion, as in size, shape, or amount.



dispro·por
 filled by men.

Furthermore, the female perception of poorer career preparation is consistent with the smaller number of proceedings (1.52% versus 6.40%) and refereed journals (5.84% versus 18.30%) for women relative to men. More homogeneous The same. Contrast with heterogeneous.

homogeneous - (Or "homogenous") Of uniform nature, similar in kind.

1. In the context of distributed systems, middleware makes heterogeneous systems appear as a homogeneous entity. For example see: interoperable network.
 answers were obtained for men and women when they were asked about their workday. Both reported the desire to increase the percentage of their workday devoted to research--women would prefer 43% research to current 31%; men would prefer 57% to current 41%. Similarly, both men and women wanted to spend less time doing administrative work--women would prefer 15% instead of 25%; men would prefer 9% instead of 11.3%.

Therefore, gender differences in graduate economics programs are probably to blame for some of the career discrepancies indicated by the responses reported in Table 5. Females with Ph.D.'s in economics in this study did earn significantly less than their male counterparts and they have published significantly less. In these regards, the results from this study mirror both the facts of academic life for female economists and the results from Shelburn and Lewellyn(1995), Booth, Frank, and Blackaby (2002), Ginther and Kahn Kahn   , Louis Isadore 1901-1974.

Estonian-born American architect whose bold monumental designs include the Yale University Art Gallery (1954) and the Kimbell Art Museum in Fort Worth, Texas (1972).

Noun 1.
 (2004).

LIMITATIONS OF THIS STUDY

For this study, a questionnaire questionnaire,
n a series of questions used to gather information.

questionnaire,
n a form usually filled out by patients that provides data concerning their dental and general health.
 was emailed to 433 individuals who

have successfully completed their graduate work in economics. The electronic approach was chosen with the aim of achieving a higher response rate than that of the Shelburn and Lewellyn (1995) study with its mailed instrument. However, the response rate was disappointing at 20%, so that the possibility of non-respondent bias still cannot be ruled out. Thus, the results reported here are suggestive sug·ges·tive  
adj.
1.
a. Tending to suggest; evocative: artifacts suggestive of an ancient society.

b.
 rather than definitive.

RECOMMENDATION FOR FUTURE RESEARCH

This study can be extended in several ways. Given that gender bias in doctoral programs results in fewer doctorate degrees earned by women in economics, the issue is essential to educators. Analysis of survey results provides a basis for recommending improvements in doctoral programs in general. In addition, the results obtained by this study identify actions that would be particularly helpful in increasing female success in doctoral programs in economics. Therefore, the future research might be useful to economists studying the labor market and wage differentials, given that fewer female students studying economics will directly result in less women economist and thus broaden the sex gap in pay (England, 1992; Bellas, 1997).

This study shows no significant difference between the financial support provided to male and female graduate students, so the current study reaches no conclusions in that regard. Further investigation might look at gender differences in the nature of funding, as the survey responses suggest that females are perhaps more likely to be inadequately funded, more worried about their finances, and given teaching or research assistantships rather than fellowships requiring no work. What we can determine is that females indicate a significantly higher overall stress level than their male peers and that physical safety is one of the components of their stress. Given that large Ph.D. institutions are often in large cities that require students to commute TO COMMUTE. To substitute one punishment in the place of another. For example, if a man be sentenced to be hung, the executive may, in some states, commute his punishment to that of imprisonment.  or to park at significant distances from campus, this is hardly surprising. Studying and using library/computer facilities are areas where female respondents indicate that safety issues more strongly impact their graduate experiences.

Furthermore, it is worth noting, for future research purposes, that females reported fewer invitations for every kind of faculty-student interaction listed. While such social interaction as dining or playing baseball is not directly relevant to success in a graduate program, such interactions certainly enhance a student's opportunities to build a relationship of mutual respect and concern with a professor.

CONCLUSION

The reported responses support previous findings suggesting gender-based differences in graduate programs in economics. For instance, women reported fewer friends on the faculty with whom they could comfortably discuss personal issues, career goals, unfair treatment from professors, sexual harassment or incompetent professors. Men still played sports more often with graduate faculty than women. Professors' comments regarding marriage/family, physical appearance and social life were more addressed toward female than their male counterparts. Similarly, in terms of satisfaction with peer relationships, once again, women reported lower satisfactory level. With respect to their academic experience, women reported less satisfaction with their "readiness" to conduct or publish research. As a result, females tend to be at non-Ph.D. granting institutions and they are being paid less than their male counterparts. This deserves further investigation.

Even though women reported higher degree of research publications and consulting jobs, only few of them felt recognized as junior colleagues. Women also reported greater concerns about finances, job prospects, family/marital status and physical safety. At the same time, they knew more about the availability of childcare facilities and maternity/paternity leave policies.

Based on the current findings, as well as on Shelburn and Lewellyn's work, several relevant policies and programs can be implemented in order to improve gender-friendliness in graduate programs in economics. Both, male and female faculty should improve the learning environment in order to accommodate different learning styles of men and women. Programs that educate both students and faculty about the potential gender-biased should be implemented. Efforts should be made in order to make academic experience more satisfying for male and female students.

REFERENCES

Berg, H. M., & Ferber, M. A. (1983). Men and Women Graduate Students" Journal of Higher Education, 54(6): 629-48.

Bellas, M. L. (1997). Disciplinary Differences in Faculty Salaries: Does Gender Bias Play a Role?" Journal of Higher Education, 68(3).

Booth, L. A., Frank, J., & Blackaby, D. (2002). Outside Offers and the General Pay Gap: Empirical em·pir·i·cal
adj.
1. Relying on or derived from observation or experiment.

2. Verifiable or provable by means of observation or experiment.

3.
 Evidence from the UK Academic Labour Market. University of Essex The University of Essex is a British plate glass university. It received its Royal Charter in 1965. The university's main campus is located at Wivenhoe Park on the outskirts of Colchester (the oldest recorded town in Britain) in the English county of Essex, less than a mile from  Working Paper (16). Abstract Retrieved October October: see month.  3, 2003.

Colander, D., & Holmes, J. (2007). Gender and Graduate Economics Education in the US. Feminist Economics Feminist economics broadly refers to a developing branch of economics that applies feminist insights and critiques to economics. Research under this heading is often interdisciplinary, critical, or heterodox. , 13 (2): 95-116.

England, P. (1992). Comparable Worth: Theories and Evidence Aldine Al´dine

a. 1. (Bibliog.) An epithet applied to editions (chiefly of the classics) which proceeded from the press of Aldus
 De Gruyter, Hawthorne Hawthorne.

1 City (1990 pop. 71,349), Los Angeles co., S Calif., a suburb of Los Angeles; inc. 1922. Located in an oil- and gas-producing area, Hawthorne manufactures navigation systems, solar panels, electronic components, silicon instruments, and
, NY.

Follett, C., Andberg W., & Hendel, D. (1982). Perceptions of the College Environment by Men and Women Students. Journal of College Student Personnel College Student Personnel (CSP) is an academic discipline offered at the master’s and above level at several universities. A degree in this field often leads to a career in Student Affairs or Enrollment Management. , 525-31.

Ginther, D.K., & Shulamit, K. (2004). Women in Economics: Moving up or Falling off the Academic Ladder ladder

walking under one can bring only misfortune. [Western Folklore: Leach, 598]

See : Luck, Bad


ladder

stood upon by Joseph to remove nails holding Christ to the cross.
? Journal of Economic Perspectives, 18, (3): 193-214.

Jensen Noun 1. Jensen - modernistic Danish writer (1873-1950)
Johannes Vilhelm Jensen
, E.J., & Owen, A.L. (2000). Why Are Women Such Reluctant Economists? Evidence from Liberal Arts Colleges It may never be fully completed or, depending on its its nature, it may be that it can never be completed. However, new and revised entries in the list are always welcome.

Liberal arts colleges
. American Economic Review, 90 (2): 466-470.

Montgomery, M., & Anderson, K. (2007). Best laid plans: Gender and the MBA competition rates of GMAT GMAT
abbr.
1. Graduate Management Admission Test

2. Greenwich Mean Astronomical Time

GMAT n abbr (US) (= Graduate Management Admissions Test) →
 registrants. The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, 47, 175-191

Reskin, B.F. (1998). Bringing the Men Back in: Sex Differentiation differentiation, in biology, series of changes that occur in cells and tissues during development, resulting in their specialization. This, in turn, permits a greater variety of organisms.  and the Devaluation devaluation, decreasing the value of one nation's currency relative to gold or the currencies of other nations. It is usually undertaken as a means of correcting a deficit in the balance of payments.  of Women's Work. Gender and Society, 2, 58-81.

Shelburn, M., & Lewellyn, P. (1995). Gender Bias in Doctoral Programs in Economics" The Journal of Economic Literature, 26, (24)

About the Authors:

Sanela Porca is an associate professor of economics at the University of South Carolina Aiken The University of South Carolina Aiken is a four-year, public coeducational university in Aiken, South Carolina. The school offers undergraduate degree programs as well as master's degrees in elementary education, educational technology and applied clinical psychology. . Her research interests are in economic development and state and local taxation. Dr. Porca strongly believes in power of education and she spends numerous hours working with her students.

Marsha R. Shelburn is retired professor of economics from the University of South Carolina Aiken. She spent three decades as an educator and faculty member of the University of South Carolina Aiken. These days she enjoys painting, swimming, and spending time with her family.

Sanela Porca

Marsha R. Shelburn

University of South Carolina Aiken
Table 1
Student-Faculty Relationship

                                   Mean
                                                               Signif.
(Answers in form of ratio data)    Males  Females t-statistic    .05

1. Number of times faculty         1.37    0.93      1.35
   actively sought your
   involvement with research

2. Number of faculty who become    2.43    1.96      1.08
   your friends

3. Percentage of time you were     0.26    0.17      1.47
   treated as a junior colleague

4. Number of times traveled to
   professional meeting
   Total                           3.47    1.59      2.96        Yes
   To job hunt                     1.48    0.78      2.42        Yes
   To present paper with faculty   0.28    0.19      0.61
   To present paper alone or       0.67    0.33      1.83
     with peer

5. Percentage of graduate faculty  0.09    0.05      -1.80
   that were women

6. Percentage of your teachers     0.06    0.06
   who were women

7. Number of consulting jobs from  0.28    0.22      0.434
   faculty referrals during your
   doctoral program

8. Number of papers published
   with doctoral faculty
   Related to dissertation         0.39    0.04      2.91        Yes
   Unrelated to dissertation       0.44    0.41      0.116

9. Number of faculty who
   questioned
   Your plans regarding            1.11    0.63      1.65
     marriage/family
   Your physical appearance        0.25    0.33      0.42
   Your social life                0.71    0.44      1.01

10. How often did faculty recognize you as a good students?
(Mann Whitney Z = -1.26)

         Never   Rarely     Sometimes   Often       Always
         (%)     (%)        (%)         (%)         (%)        Total

Male     3 (5)   9 (15.8)   17 (29.8)   26 (45.6)   2 (3.5)    57
Female   0 (0)   2 (7.4)    12 (44.4)   8 (29.6)    5 (18.5)   27

                Mann    Signif.
11. How often  Whitney   at 5%
did faculty       Z     [alpha]-
invite you      Stat.    level?   Gender  Never  Rarely  Often  Total

To play a       -0.87               M      36      14      5     55
sport?                                    (66%)  (26%)   (9%)
                                    F      18      5       2     25
                                          (72%)  (20%)   (8%)

For a meal or   -1.76               M      11      29     14     54
drink?                                    (20%)  (54%)   (26%)
                                    F      11      10      5     26
                                          (42%)  (38%)   (19%)

To a party?     -1.96     Yes       M       8      39      7     54
                                          (15%)  (72%)   (13%)
                                    F       9      15      2     26
                                          (35%)  (58%)   (8%)

To visit in     -1.60               M       8      41      6     55
faculty home?                             (15%)  (75%)   (11%)
                                    F       6      17      2     25
                                          (24%)  (68%)   (8%)

To visit        -1.20               M       4      14     38     56
office?                                   (7%)   (25%)   (68%)
                                    F       2      9      15     26
                                          (8%)   (35%)   (58%)

Table 2
University Policies, Procedures, and Support Services

                                                               Don't
                                          Yes %       No %     Know %

Childcare available?                M     1.81        52.7      45.5
                                    F      3.8        30.8      61.5

Maternity/Paternity Leave?          M     1.81         51       47.3
                                    F      3.8         27       69.2

Was there a faculty member with whom you could have discussed

Which courses to register for?      M     87.3        3.6       9.1
                                    F     88.5        7.7       3.8

How to achieve career goals?        M      80         14.5      3.6
                                    F     69.2        19.2      11.5

An incompetent professor?           M     45.4        23.6       29
                                    F     57.7        30.8      11.5

Discrimination against you?         M      35         7.3       52.7
                                    F     46.2        30.8      19.2

Sexual harassment by a professor?   M      59         17.6      22.4
                                    F     42.3        34.6      23.1

Unreasonable delays by a comm.      M     60.4         17       22.6
member?                             F      76          16        8

Problem forming dissertation        M      81         7.7       11.5
committee?                          F      64          16        20

Inadequacy of facilities?           M     60.4        22.6       17
                                    F      80          12        8

Unfair treatment from professor?    M     39.6        22.6      37.7
                                    F      50          31       19.2

Personal issues?                    M     41.8        27.3       31
                                    F      50         38.5      11.5

                                                    Signif.
                                                     at 5%
                                                    [alpha]-
                                        [X.sup.2]    level?

Childcare available?                M     5.89       0.053
                                    F

Maternity/Paternity Leave?          M     4.40       0.111
                                    F

Was there a faculty member with whom you could have discussed

Which courses to register for?      M     1.25        0.54
                                    F

How to achieve career goals?        M     2.14        0.34
                                    F

An incompetent professor?           M     3.92        0.14
                                    F

Discrimination against you?         M     8.06       0.045
                                    F                 Yes

Sexual harassment by a professor?   M     13.52      0.004
                                    F                 Yes

Unreasonable delays by a comm.      M     3.87       0.276
member?                             F

Problem forming dissertation        M     2.92       0.405
committee?                          F

Inadequacy of facilities?           M     3.91        0.27
                                    F

Unfair treatment from professor?    M     3.95        0.27
                                    F

Personal issues?                    M     3.76        0.15
                                    F

Table 3a and Table 3b (combined)
Relationships with Peers During Graduate School

                              1 = very         2 =
a. Satisfaction Level       dissatisfied   Dissatisfied   3 = Neutral

'Intellectual contact   M        2              2              7
                        F        0              4              3

Social contact          M        1              2              9
                        F        0              4              6

Respect for your        M        0              2              8
abilities               F        1              0              4

Office space assigned   M        5              6              8
                        F        1              6              3

Oppor. to participate   M        1              2              5
in class discuss.       F        0              3              2

Oppor. to ask ques.     M        0              0              5
in class                F        0              1              5

Importance of
characteristic in
graduate program              1 = Not
success                      Important          2              3

a) Assertive            M        4              6              18
                        F        2              0              5

b) Aggressive           M        12             14             13
                        F        5              4              8

c) Honest               M        7              15             14
                        F        3              2              12

d) Intelligent          M        0              0              6
                        F        0              0              1

e) Politically          M        13             13             13
Astute                  F        2              2              9

f) Intense              M        6              14             17
                        F        2              5              5

g) Motivated            M        0              2              1
                        F        1              0              0

h) Enthusiastic         M        4              8              18
                        F        2              0              7

i) Extroverted          M        11             18             17
                        F        6              4              7

j) Optimistic           M        5              13             18
                        F        2              4              11

k) Physically Fit       M     36 (68%)          10             6
                        F     15 (56%)          6              3

l) Attractive           M     35 (67%)          11             6
                        F     14 (54%)          7              2

Did you ever                   Never               Occasionally
consider dropping       M     37 (65%)                  16
out?                    F     14 (51%)                  10

                                4 =          5 = Very
a. Satisfaction Level        Satisfied      Satisfied

'Intellectual contact   M        21          25 (44%)
                        F        9           10 (38%)

Social contact          M        25          20 (35%)
                        F        9           7 (27%)

Respect for your        M        24          23 (40%)
abilities               F        11          9 (36%)

Office space assigned   M        23          13 (24%)
                        F        6           11 (41%)

Oppor. to participate   M        30          19 (33%)
in class discuss.       F        9           13 (48%)

Oppor. to ask ques.     M        30          22 (39%)
in class                F        9           12 (44%)

Importance of
characteristic in
graduate program
success                          4         5 = Crucial

a) Assertive            M        18          5 (10%)
                        F        10          10 (37%)

b) Aggressive           M        10           2 (4%)
                        F        3           6 (22%)

c) Honest               M        11          8 (15%)
                        F        4           6 (22%)

d) Intelligent          M        19          28 (53%)
                        F        9           17 (6%)

e) Politically          M        10           3 (6%)
Astute                  F        6           8 (30%)

f) Intense              M        10          6 (22%)
                        F        9           5 (19%)

g) Motivated            M        21          29 (54%)
                        F        4           22 (82%)

h) Enthusiastic         M        18           5 (9%)
                        F        5           13 (52%)

i) Extroverted          M        4            3 (6%)
                        F        7           3 (11%)

j) Optimistic           M        11          6 (11%)
                        F        7           3 (11%)

k) Physically Fit       M        1              0
                        F        3              0

l) Attractive           M        0              0
                        F        3              0

Did you ever                         Frequently
consider dropping       M                4
out?                    F                3

                                Mann
                              Whitney
a. Satisfaction Level         Z stat.         Signif

'Intellectual contact   M      -0.713
                        F

Social contact          M      -1.441
                        F

Respect for your        M      -0.692
abilities               F

Office space assigned   M      -1.172
                        F

Oppor. to participate   M      -0.751
in class discuss.       F

Oppor. to ask ques.     M      -0.263
in class                F

Importance of
characteristic in               Mann
graduate program              Whitney
success                       Z stat.         Signif

a) Assertive            M      -3.18           Yes
                        F

b) Aggressive           M      -1.296
                        F

c) Honest               M      -1.19
                        F

d) Intelligent          M      -1.17
                        F

e) Politically          M      -3.37           Yes
Astute                  F

f) Intense              M      -1.43
                        F

g) Motivated            M      -2.35           Yes
                        F

h) Enthusiastic         M      -3.11           Yes
                        F

i) Extroverted          M      -1.69
                        F

j) Optimistic           M      -0.90
                        F

k) Physically Fit       M      -1.38
                        F

l) Attractive           M      -1.825
                        F

Did you ever
consider dropping       M      -1.15
out?                    F

Table 3b Relationships with Peers During Graduate School

                                               95% CI for
b. The number of                            ([[micro].sub.M]-   Signif.
close friendships   By Males   By Females   [[micro].sub.F])    at 5%?

With male peers        4          2.73        0.009 to 2.4        Yes
With female peers     1.27        2.23       -1.77 to 0.044
Total                 5.27        4.96

TABLE 4
Financial Support and Circumstances

                                              t-statistic
                                             for difference
                                              between %'s
For what percentage of          Mean            (none is
doctoral studies did                          significant)
you receive                   M       F

A teaching assistantship     37%     44%         -0.79
A research assistantship     16%     19%         -0.57
A fellowship                 47%     39%          0.95
No university support         9%      7%          0 28

Your
standard
of living
during
graduate       1 =                              4 =    Mann Whitney
school     impoverished     2         3      affluent  Z Statistic

Males         2 (4%)     23 (40%)  32 (56%)   0 (0%)
Females       2 (7%)     12 (44%)  12 (44%)   1 (4%)      -0.64

Your mental/
emotional          1 =                                   5 =     Mann
state during      never                                always   Whitney
grad. school     worried     2         3         4     worried     Z

Overall       M  7 (13%)  17 (30%)  24 (43%)  5 (9%)      3      -3.3
              F  3 (11%)   3 (11%)  14 (52%)  5 (19%)     2     Signif

Concern       M     7        17        24        5        3      -1.71
about         F     3         3        14        5        2
finances

Concern re.   M  36 (64%) 12 (21%)  6 (11%)   2 (4%)      0     -2.08
physical      F  12 (44%)  6 (22%)  4 (15%)   5 (19%)     0     Signif
safety

Concern       M     7         5        24       16        4     -1.16
about job     F     1         4         9        9        4
prospects

Concern re.   M    22        16        10        6        2     -0.41
marital       F    12         6         7        2        0
status

Concern       M    26        16        10        3        1     -1.27
about family  F    10         6         7        3        1

                                 [chi square]
                                for difference
                                in % of Males
Which of the following did       and Females     p-value   Significance
your safety concerns dictate?     responses

Hrs. of library/computer use        17.60         0.000        Yes
Places of study                     14.18         0.000        Yes
Study schedule                       7.85         0.005        Yes
Course schedule                      2.22         0.136
Course location                      1.81         0.179
Living quarters                      1.33         0.249
No safety concerns                   4.00         0.046        Yes

Table 5
Academic Experience and Career

                                               95%
                                            Confidence
                                           Interval for
                                            difference
                                             between
                        Male     Female     Males and
Career                  Mean      Mean       Females      Significance

Current salary        $100,166   $72,409    $5,174 to         Yes
                                             $50,340
Number of
Publications

In proceedings          6.29      1.48     1.55 to 8.07       Yes

In refereed journals   14.69      5.76       2 to 15          Yes

                                             Men (%)       Women (%)

Type of institution of current employer

Ph. D. granting                                51.9           37.5
Master's granting                              7.4            16.6
Bachelor's granting                            16.6           20.8
Nonacademic                                    24.1            25

Percentage of workday for

Research                                        41             31
Teaching                                        27             32
Administration                                  20             25
Other                                          11.3            12

Percentage of your preferred workday

Research                                        57             43
Teaching                                        27             31
Administration                                  9              15
Other                                           6              10
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Author:Porca, Sanela; Shelburn, Marsha R.
Publication:International Journal of Education Research (IJER)
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Jan 1, 2010
Words:5888
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