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Revised checklist of the vertebrates of Indiana.

ABSTRACT. The vertebrate fauna of Indiana recorded since the time of European settlement numbers 208 fish, 38 amphibian, 54 reptilian, 401 avian, and 68 mammalian species. Currently, 19 fish, 9 amphibian, 16 reptilian, 44 avian, and 13 mammalian species within the political boundaries of Indiana require protection due to man's impact. Within the last 200 years, 26 native vertebrate species in Indiana have become extinct or extirpated. These include 6 fish, 1 reptilian, 8 avian, and 11 mammalian species. The present vertebrate fauna of Indiana has 203 fish, 38 amphibian, 53 reptilian, 393 avian, and 57 mammalian species.

Keywords: Indiana, fishes, reptiles, amphibians, mammals, birds

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The current listing is intended to provide a record of the extant and extirpated vertebrates of Indiana over the last two centuries. The list was first published by Simon et al. (1993) and is updated here. It includes new information and taxonomic changes. This is the first step in the efforts of the Biological Survey Committee of the Indiana Academy of Science to compile a listing of all the known species of biota in Indiana. The taxonomic and nomenclatural sources used for the various taxa include: Fish: American Fisheries Society (1991), Burr & Warren (1986), Mayden (1989), and Etnier & Starnes (1993); Amphibians and reptiles: Minton (1972, 2001), Collins (1990), and Conant & Collins (1991); Birds: American Ornithologists' Union (1998); Mammals: Wilson & Reeder (1993) and Mumford & Whitaker (1982).

The following codes were established to facilitate documentation of the vertebrates of the state (Tables 1, 2). The general range in Indiana is indicated as: statewide (I), north (N), south (S), west (W), east (E), central (C), and various combinations of these regions. Relative abundance refers to the general population levels of the species within the state. Depending on local and seasonal conditions, the population levels will vary. Relative abundance is broken down into four categories: A = abundant, C = common, O = occasional, and R = rare. Abundance categories vary based on size of the animal. Extirpated species (Ex) are listed along with the estimated date of disappearance. In some cases, this date refers to the last time a voucher record of the species was collected (Whitaker & Gammon 1988). The status of the species refers to the conservation designations of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Services Office of Endangered Species, Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants (USOFR 1996) and of the Indiana Department of Natural Resources summarized in Rare Animals of Indiana (Indiana Department of Natural Resources 1999). Federally endangered species are denoted as FE, threatened as FT, and candidates for federal listing as FC. State endangered species will be represented by three codes: state endangered (SE), state threatened (ST), and special concern in need of further study (SC). An additional designation, exotic (X), is included for accidentally or deliberately released species. One additional code is included for birds (Table 2) to indicate main seasonal occurrence: S = summer resident, W = winter resident, R = year-round resident, M migrant, A = accidental, H = hypothetical, and * = breeder and [*] = former breeders. The listing of birds has been greatly improved due to the establishment and work of the Indiana Bird Records Committee of the Indiana Audubon Society.

DISCUSSION

The vertebrate fauna of Indiana recorded from the time of European settlement numbers 203 fish, 38 amphibian, 54 reptilian, 401 avian, and 68 mammalian species. Species first described as new from Indiana include 34 fish, 3 amphibians, 6 reptiles, and 2 mammals. Within the last 200 years, 26 native vertebrate species in Indiana have become extinct or extirpated. Of those lost, 6 species were fish; 1 was a reptile; 8 were birds; and 11 were mammals. Another 18 bird species (13 not including extirpated species) no longer nest in the state. Through accidental or deliberate release, 21 species of fish and 9 additional bird species have become established, although one of these bird species has been recently lost. Currently, 19 fish, 9 amphibian, 16 reptilian, 44 avian, and 13 mammalian species within the political boundaries of Indiana require protection due to man's impact. An additional 6 amphibian, 3 reptilian, 30 avian, and 2 mammalian species are considered hypothetical in occurrence in the state because spe cimens have not been collected. The present faunal list for Indiana includes 203 fish, 38 amphibian, 53 reptile, 393 bird, and 57 mammal species.
Table 1

Checklist of the fish, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals of Indiana.
Range is indicated as statewide (I), north (N), south (S), west (W),
east (E), central (C), and various combi-nations. General abundance is
listed roughly as abundant (A), common (C), occasional (O), and rare
(R). Extirpated species (Ex) are given with approximate date of
extirpation. Status is listed as federally endangered (FE), federally
threatened (FT), and candidates for federal listing (FC). State
desig-nations are endangered (SE), threatened (ST), and special concern
(SC). Exotic or or introduced species are indicated by "X."

 Range


CLASS OSTEICHTHYES

 Order Petromyzontiformes
 (lampreys)
 Family Petromyzontidae (lamprey)
 Ichthyomyzon bdellium (Jordon), W, S
 Ohio lamprey
 I. castaneus Girard, chestnut SW
 lamprey
 I. fossor Reighard & Cummins, NE
 northern brook lamprey
 I. unicuspis Hubbs & Trautman, W, S
 silver lamprey
 Lampetra aepyptera (Abbott), SW
 least brook lamprey
 L. appendix (DeKay), American NW
 brook lamprey
 Petromyzon marinus Linnaeus, sea NW
 lamprey
 Order Acipenseriformes
 (paddlefish, strugeons)
 Family Acipenseridae (sturgeon)
 Acipenser fulvescens Rafinesque, W, S
 lake surgeon
 Scaphirhynchus platorynchus W, SE
 (Rafinesque), shovelnose
 sturgeon
 Family Polyodontidae (paddlefish)
 Polyodon spathula (Walbaum), W, SE
 paddlefish
 Order Lepisosteiformes (gars)
 Family Lepisosteidae (gars)
 Lepisosteus oculatus Winchell, NE, SW
 spotted gar
 L. osseus Linnaeus, longnose gar I
 L. platostomus Rafinesque, W, S
 shortnose gar
 Order Amiiformes (bowfin)
 Family Amiidae (bowfin)
 Amia calva Linnaeus, bowfin N, S
 Order Osteoglossiformes (mooneye)
 Family Hiodontidae (mooneye)
 Hiodon alosoides (Rafinesque), S
 goldeye
 H. tergisus LeSueur, mooneye W, S
 Order Anguilliformes (eels)
 Family Anguillidae (eel)
 Anguilla rostrata (LeSueur), W, S
 American eel
 Order Clupeiformes (herring, shad)
 Family Clupeidae (herring)
 Alosa chrysochloris W, S
 (Rafinesque), skipjack herring
 A. pseudoharengus (Wilson), NW
 alewife
 Dorosoma cepedianum (LeSueur), I
 gizzard shad
 D. petenense (Gunther), S
 threadfin shad
 Order Cypriniformes (carps and minnows)
 Family Cyprinidae (carps and
 (minnows)
 Campostoma anomalum
 (Rafinesque), stoneroller I
 C. oligolepis Hubbs & Greene, N
 largescale stoneroller
 Carassius auratus (Linnaeus), I
 goldfish
 Clinostomus elongatus E
 (Kirtland), redside dace
 Couesius plumbeus (Agassiz), NW
 lake chub
 Ctenopharyngodon idella NW, C
 (Valenciennes), grass carp
 Cyprinella lutrensis (Baird & NW
 Girard), red shiner
 C. spiloptera (Cope), spotfin I
 shiner
 C. whipplei Giard, steelcolor C, S
 shiner
 Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, carp I
 Ericymba buccata Cope, I
 silverjaw minnow
 Erimystax dissimilis NW
 (Kirtland), streamline chub
 E. x-punctatus (Hubbs & Crow), W
 gravel chub
 Hybognathus hayi Jordan, SW
 cypress minnow
 H. nuchalis Agassiz, SC, SW
 Mississippi silvery minnow
 Hybopsis amblops (Rafinesque), NW
 bigeye chub
 H. amnis (Hubbs & Greene), W
 pallid shiner
 Hypophthalmichthys molitrix SE, SW
 (Valenciennes), silver carp
 H. nobilis (Richardson), SW
 bighead carp
 Luxilus chrysocephalus I
 Rafinesque, striped shiner
 L. cornutus (Mitchill), common N
 shiner
 Lythrurus fasciolaris SE
 (Gilbert), scarlet shiner
 L. fumeus (Evermann), ribbon SW
 shiner
 L. umbratilis (Girard), redfin W, C
 shiner
 Macrhybopsis hyostoma W, S
 (Gilbert), shoal chub
 M. storeriana (Kirtland), W
 silver chub
 Nocomis biguttatus (Kirtland), N
 hornyhead chub
 N. micropogon (Cope), river NE, C
 chub
 Notemigonus crysoleucas (Mitchill) I
 golden shiner
 Notropis atherinoides Rafinesque, I
 emerald shiner
 N. blennius (Girard), river shiner W, S
 N. boops Gilbert, bigeye shiner C
 N. buchanani Meek, ghost shiner NW, S
 N. chalybaeus (Cope), ironcolor NW
 shiner
 N. dorsalis (Agassiz), bigmouth NW
 shiner
 N. heterodon (Cope), blackchin N
 shiner
 N. heterolepis Eigenmann & N
 Eigenmann, blacknose shiner
 N. hudsonius (Clinton), spottail NW
 shiner
 N. photogenis (Cope), silver C, SE
 shiner
 N. rubellus (Agassiz), rosyface N, C
 shiner
 N. shumardi (Girard), silverband SW
 shiner
 N. straminens (Girard), sand I
 Shiner
 N. texanus (Girard), weed shiner NW
 N. valucellus (Cope), mimic shiner E, C, S
 N. wickliffi Trautman, channel S
 shiner
 Opsopoeodus emiliae Hay, pugnose N, SW
 minnow
 Phenacobius mirabilis (Girard), C, S
 suckermouth minnow
 Phoxinus erythrogaster NW, C
 (Rafinesque), southern redbelly
 dace
 Pimephales notatus (Rafinesque), I
 bluntnose minnow
 P. promelas Rafinesque, fathead N, SE
 minnow
 P. vigilax (Baird & Girard), W, S
 bullhead minow
 Rhinichthys atratulus (Hermann), NW, C, SE
 blacknose dace
 R. cataractae (Valenciennes), N
 longnose dace
 Semotilus atromaculatus (Mitchill) I
 creek chub
 Scardinius erythrophthalmus NW
 (Linnaeus), rudd
 Family Catostomidae (suckers and
 buffallo)
 Carpiodes carpio (Rafinesque), W, S
 river carpsucker
 C. cyprinus (LeSueur), quillback I
 C. velifer (Rafinesque), highfin W, S
 carpsucker
 Catostomus catostomus (Forster), NW
 longnose sucker
 C. commersoni (Lacepede), white I
 sucker
 Cycleptus elongatus (LeSueur), C, S
 blue sucker
 Erimyzon oblongus (Mitchill), NW, C, SW
 creek chubsucker
 E. sucetta (Lacepede), lake N
 chubsucker
 Hypentelium nigricans (LeSueur), N, C
 northern hogsucker
 Ictiobus bubalus (Rafinesque), W, S
 smallmouth buffalo
 I. cpribellus (Valenciennes), W, S
 bigmouth buffalo
 I. niger (Rafinesque), black NW, S
 buffalo
 Minytrema melanops (Rafinesque), NE, C
 spotted sucker
 Moxostoma anisurum (Rafinesque), N, C
 silver redhorse
 M. carinatum (Cope), river C
 redhorse
 M. duquesnei (LeSueur), black C
 redhorse
 M. erythrurum (Rafinesque), golden I
 redhorse
 M. macrolepidotum (LeSueur), I
 shorthead redhorse
 M. valenciennesi Jordan, greater N
 redhorse
 Order Siluriformes (bullhead and
 catfish)
 Family Ictaluridae (bullhead and
 catfish)
 Ameriurus catus (Linnaeus), white S
 catfish
 A. melas (Rafinesque), black I
 bullhead
 A. natalis (LeSueur), yellow I
 bullhead
 A. nebulosus (LeSueur), brown S
 bullhead
 Ictalurus furcatus (LeSueur), S
 blue catfish
 I. punctatus (Rafinesque), I
 channel catfish
 Norturus eleutherus Jordan, W, C
 mountain madtom
 N. flavus Rafinesque, stonecat I
 N. gyrinus (Mitchill), tadpole I
 madtom
 N. miurus Jordan, brindled madtom C
 N. nocturnus Jordan & Gilbert, W
 frecled madtom
 N. stigmosus Taylor, northern WC
 madtom
 Pylodictis olivaris (Rafinesque), I
 flathead catfish
 Order Salmoniformes (trout, slamon,
 whitefish)
 Family Esocidae (pikes)
 Esox americanus Gmelin, grass pickerel
 E. lucius Linnaeus, northern pike N
 E. masquinongy Mitchill, S
 muskellunge
 Family Umbridae (mudminnows)
 Umbra limi (Kirtland), central N
 mudminnow
 Family Osmeridae (smelt)
 Osmerus mordax (Mitchill), NW
 rainbow smelt
 Family Salmonidate (salmon
 and whitefish)
 Coregonus artedi LeSueur,
 cisco or lake herring NW
 C. clupeaformis (Mitchill),
 lake whitefish NW
 C. hoyi (Milner), bloater NW
 C. kiyi (Koelz), kiyi NW
 C. zenithicus (Jordan & Evermann
 shortjaw cisco NW
 Oncorhynchus kisutch (Walbaum),
 coho salmon NW
 O. mykiss (Walbaum), rainbow N
 trout
 O. Ishawytscha (Walbaum),
 chinook salmon NW
 Salmo salar Linnaeus,
 Atlantic salmon NW
 trout
 (pirate perch)
 Aphredoderus sayanus
 (Gilliams), pirate perch N, SW
 Family Amblyopsidae
 (cavefish)
 Amblyopsis spelaea (DeKay),
 northern cavefish S
 Typhilchthys subterraneus
 Girard, southern cavefish S
 Order Percopsiformes
 Family Percopsidae
 (trout-perch)
 Percopsis omiscomaycus
 (Walbaum), trout-perch NW, S
 Order Gadiformes (cod)
 Family Lotidae (freshwater
 cod)
 Lota lota (Linnaeus), burbot NW, WE
 Order Cyprinodonitiformes
 (topminnows, silversides)
 Family Fundulidae (topminnows)
 Fundulus catenatus (Storer),
 northern studfish C
 F. diaphanus (LeSuer),
 banded killifish N
 F. dispar (Agassiz), northern
 starhead topminnow NW
 F. notatus (Rafinesque),
 blackstripe topminnow I
 F. olivaceus (Storer),
 blackspotted topminnow W, NE
 Family Poeciliidae (live-bearing fishes)
 Gambusia affinis
 (Baird & Girard), mosquitofish W
 Order Atheriniformes
 Family Atherinidae (silversides)
 Labidesthes sicculus (Cope), I
 brook silverside
 Menida beryllina (Cope), inland S
 silverside
 Order Mugiliformes
 Family Mugilidae
 Mugil cephalus Linnaeus, striped S
 mullet
 Order Gasterosteiformers S
 (sticklebacks)
 Family Gasterosteidae
 (sticklebacks)
 Culaea inconstans (Kirtland), N, SE
 brook stickleback
 Gasterosteus aculeatus, NW
 Linnaeus, threespine stickleback
 Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus), NW
 ninespine stickleback
 Order Scorpaeniformes
 Family Cottidae (sculpins)
 Cottus bairdi (Girard, mottled I
 sculpin
 C. carolinae (Gill), banded SC
 sculpin
 C. cognatus Richardson, slimy NW
 sculpin
 Myoxocephalus thompsoni (Girard), NW
 deepwater sculpin
 Order Perciformes (basses, sunfish,
 perch, darters, gobies)
 Family Moronidae (temperate
 basses)
 Morone americana (Gmelin), white NW
 perch
 M. chrysops (Rafinesque), white W
 bass
 M. mississippiensis Jordan & W, S
 Eigenmann, yellow bass
 M. saxatilis (Walbaum), striped S
 bass
 Family Elassomatidae (pygmy
 sunfish)
 Elassoma zonatum Jordan, banded SW
 pygmy sunfish
 Family Centrarchidae (black bass
 and sunfish)
 Ambloplites rupestris I
 (Rafinesque), rock bass
 Centrarchus macropterus SW
 (Lacepede) flier
 Lepomis cyanellus Ralinesque, I
 green sunfish
 L. gibbosus (Linnacus), I
 pumpkinseed
 L. gulosus (Cuvier), warmouth N
 L. humilis (Girard), N
 orangespotted sunfish
 L. macrochirus Rafinesque, I
 bluegill
 L. megalotis (Rafinesque), I
 longear sunfish
 L. microlphus (Gunther), N, S
 redear sunfish
 L. miniatus Jordan, redspotted SW
 sunfish
 L. symmetricus Forbes, bantam W
 sunfish
 Micropterus dolomien Lacepede, I
 smallmouth bass
 M. punctulatus (Rafinesque), S
 spotted bass
 M. salmoides (Lacepede), I
 largemouth bass
 pomoxis annularis Rafinesque, I
 white crappie
 P. nigromaculatus (LeSueur), I
 black crappie
 Family Percidae
 (perch and darters)
 Ammocrypta clara Jordan & NW, S
 Meek, western sand darter
 A. pellucida (Agassiz), C, SW
 eastern sand darter
 Etheostoma asprigene (Forbes), S
 mud darter
 E. blennioides Rafinesque, C, E
 greenside darter
 E. caeruleum Storer, N, C
 rainbow darter
 E. camurum (Cope), C
 bluebreast darter
 E. chlorosoma (Hay), W
 bluntnose darter
 E. exile (Girard), lowa darter N
 E. Flabellare Rafinesque, E, C
 fantail darter
 E. gracile (Girard), SW
 slough darter
 E. histrio Jordan & Gilbert, S
 harlequin darter
 E. maculatum Kirtland, C
 spotted darter
 E. microperca Jordan & Gilbert, N
 least darter
 E. nigrum Rafinesque, I
 johnny darter
 E. proeliare (Hay), S
 cypress darter
 E. spectabile (Agassiz), C
 orangethroat darter
 E. squamiceps Jordan, SW
 spottail darter
 E. tippecanoe Jordan & Evermann, C
 Tippecanoe darter
 E. variatum Kirtland, SW
 variegate darter
 E. zonale (Cope), banded darter NW, SE
 Perca flavescens (Mitcheill), N
 yelow perch
 Percina caprodes (Rafinesque), I
 logperch
 P. copelandi (Jordan), C
 channel darter
 P. evides (Jordan & Copeland), C
 gilt darter
 P. maculata (Girard), blackside darter I
 P. phoxocephala (Nelson), slenderhead darter C
 P. Sciera (Swain), dusky darter C
 P. Shumardi (Girard), river darter C, S
 P. vigil (Hay), saddleback darter SW
 Sander canadense (Griffith & Smith), sauger W, S
 S. vitreus (Mitchill), walleye I
 Family Sciaenidae (drum)
 Aplodinotus grunniens Rafinesque, freshwater drum I
 Family Gobiidae
 Neogobius melanostomus (Pallas), round goby NW
Extirpated:
 Atractosteus spatula (Lacepede), alligator gar S
 Alosa alabamae Jordan & Evermann, Alabama shad SW
 Notropis anogenus Forbes, pugnose shiner NE
 N. ariommus (Cope), popeye shiner WC
 Coregonus nigripinnis (Gill), blackfin cisco NW
 C. reighardi (Koelz), shortnose cisco NW
 Esox masquinongy Mitchill, Great Lakes muskellunge N
 Esox masquinongy from the Great Lakes is extirpated,
 but another Ohio River form of
 questionable status exists.
 Lagochila lacera Jordan & Brayton, harelip sucker C
 Crystallaria asprella Jordan, crystal darter S
 Percina uranidea (Jordan & Gilbert), stargazing SW
 darter
 Despite past confusion between the two species
 Percina uranidea and P. vigil, the two species did
 occur in Indiana (but are now extirpated; C. Gilbert,
 pers. comm.). Thompson & Cashner (1980) showed two
 records for P. uranidea from Indiana and a
 single record for P. vigil (as former name P.
 ouachitae) in the 1980 Atlas of North
 American Freshwater Fishes (Lee at al. 1980).

CLASS AMPHIBIA

 Order Caudata (salamanders)
 Family Cryptobranchidae (hellbenders)
 Crytobranchus alleganiensis (Daudin) hellbender S
 Family Proteidae (mudpuppies)
 Necturus macidosus (Rafinesque), mudpuppy I
 Family Ambystomatidae (mole salamanders)
 Ambystoma barbouri Kraus & Petranka, streamside SE
 salamander
 A. jeffersonianum (Green), Jefferson's salamander SC
 A. laterale Hallowell, blue-spotted salamander N
 A. maculatum (Shaw), spotted salamander I
 A. opacum (Gravenhorst), marbled salamander C, S
 A. texanum (Matthes), smallmouth salamander I
 A. tigrinum (Green), tiger salamander I
 Family Salamandridae (newts)
 Notophthalmus viridescens (Rafinesque), eastern new I
 Family Plethodontidae (lungless salamanders)
 Aneides aeneus (Cope & Packard), green salamander SE
 Desmognathus fuscus (Green), northern SE
 dusky salamander
 Eurycea cirrigera (Green), two-lined salamander C, S
 E.longicauda (Green), longtail salamander S
 E.lucifuga Rafinesque, cave salamander S
 Hemidactylium scutatum (Schlegel), four-toed N, C
 salamander
 Plethodon cinereus (Green), redback salamander I
 P. dorsails Cope, zigzag salamander C,S
 P. glutinosus (Green), slimy salamander S,C
 P. richmondi Netting & Mittleman, ravine SE
 salamander
 Pseudotriton ruber (Sonnini), northern red SC
 salamander
 Family Sirenidae (sirens)
 Siren intermedia LeConte, lesser siren W
 Order Anura (toads and frogs)
 Family Pelobatidae (spadefoot toads)
 Scaphiopus holbrookii (Harlan), eastern spadefoot S
 Family Bufonidae (toads)
 Bufo americanus Holbrook, American toad N,C,SE
 B. fowleri Hinkley, Fowler's toad I
 Family Hylidae (tree frogs)
 Acris crepitans Baird, cricket frog I
 Hyla claysoscelis Cope, Cope's gray tree frog I
 H. versicolor LeConte, eastern gray treefrog I
 Pseudacris crucifer Wied, I
 spring peeper
 P. triseriata (Wied), western I
 chorus frog
 Family Ranidae (true frogs)
 Rana areolata Baird & Girard, W
 crawfish frog
 R. blairi Mecham et al., plains W
 leopard frog
 R. clamitans Latreille, green I
 frog
 R. catesbeiana Shaw, bullfrog I
 R. pipiens Schreber, northern N, E
 leopard frog
 R. palustris LeConte, pickerel E, C, WC
 frog
 R. utricularia Harlan, southern S, C
 leopard frog
 R. sylvatica LeConte, wood frog I
Hypothetical
 Gyrinophilus porphyriticus
 (Green), spring salamander
 Pseudacris brachyphona (Cope),
 mountain chorus frog
 Pseudotriton montanus Baird,
 mud salamander
 Gastrophryne carolinensis
 (Holbrook), eastern
 narrowmouth toad
 Hyla cinerea (Schneider), green
 treefrog
 H. avivoca Viosca, bird-voiced
 treefrog

CLASS REPTILIA

 Order Testudines (turtles)
 Family Chelydridae (snapping
 turtles)
 Chelydra serpentina Linnaeus, I
 common snapping turtle
 Macroclemys temminckii SW
 (Troost), alligator snapping
 turtle
 Family Kinosternidae (musk and
 mud turtles)
 Kinosternon subrubrum NW, SW
 (Lacepede), eastern mud
 turtle)
 Sternotherus odoratus I
 (Latreille), common musk
 turtle
 Family Emydidae (box and water
 turtles)
 Chrysemys picts (Schneider), I
 painted turtle
 Clemmsys guttata (Schneider), N
 spotted turtle
 Emydoidea blandingii N
 (Holbrook), Blanding's turtle
 Graptemys geographica I
 (LeSueur), map turtle
 G. pseudogeographica (Gray), W, S
 false map turtle
 G. ouachitensis Cagle,
 Ouachita map turtle
 Pseudemys concinna (LeConte), SW
 river cooter
 Terrapene carolina (Linnaeus), I
 eastern box turtle
 T. ornata (Agassiz), ornate NW, SW
 box turtle
 Trachemys scripta (Schoepff), S, W
 red-eared turtle
 Family Trionychidae (softshell turtles)
 Apalone mutica LeSueur, smooth softshell W, S
 A. spinifera (LeSueur), spiny softshell I
 Order Squamata (lizards and snakes)
 Family Iguanidae (iguanids)
 Sceloporus undulatus Latreille, eastern S
 fence lizard
 Family Anguidae (glass lizards)
 Ophisaurus attenuatus Cope, NW
 slender glass lizard
 Family Teiidae (whiptails)
 Cnemidophorus sexlineatus NW, SW
 (Linnaeus), six-lined racerunner
 Family Scincidae (skinks)
 Eumeces fasciatus (Linnaeus), I
 five-lined skink
 E. laticeps (Schneider), broad- C, S
 headed skink
 Scincella lateralis (Say), ground skink S
 Family Colubridae (common snakes)
 Carphophis amoenus (Say), worm snake S
 Cemophora coccinea (Blumenbach), scarlet S
 snake
 Coluber constrictor Linnaeus, black racer I
 Clonophis kirtlandii (Kennicott), N, C, SE
 Kirtland's snake
 Diadophis punctatus (Linnaeus), S
 northern ringneck snake
 Elaphe obsoleta (Say), black rat snake I
 E. vulpina (Baird & Girard), NW
 western fox snake
 Heterodon platirhinos Latreille, I
 eastern hognose snake
 Lampropeltis calligaster W
 (Harlan), prairie kingsnake
 L. getulus (Linnaeus), common kingsnake S
 L. triangulum (Lacepede), eastern I
 milksnake
 Nerodia erythrogaster (Forster), SW, NE, SC
 northern copperbelly
 N. rhombifer (Hallowell), SW
 diamondback water snake
 N. sipedon (Linnaeus), banded water snake I
 Opheodrys aestivas (Linnaeus), S
 rough green snake
 O. vernalis (Harlan), smooth green snake NW
 Pituophis catenifer (Blainville), NW, SW
 bull snake
 Regina septemvittata (Say), queen snake
 Storeria dekayi (Holbrook), brown snake I
 S. occipitomaculata (Storer), I
 red-bellied snake
 Tantilla coronata (Baird & Girard), S
 crowned snake
 Thamnophis butleri (Cope), Butler's NE, C
 garter snake
 T. proximus (Say), western ribbon snake NW, SW
 T. radix (Baird & Girard), plains NW
 garter snake
 T. sauritus (Linnaeus), eastern I
 ribbon snake
 T. sirtalis (Linnaeus), common I
 garter snake
 Virginia valeriae Baird & Girard, S
 western earth snake
 Family Crotalidae (pit vipers)
 Agkistrodon controtrix S, WC
 (Linnaeus), northern copperhead
 A. piscivorus Lacepede, cottonmouth S
 Crotalus horridus Linnaeus, timber S
 rattlesnake
 Sistrurus catenatus (Rafinesque), N
 eastern massasauga
 Hypothetical:
 Eumeces anthracinus (Baird), coal skink
 Regina grahami Baird & Girard,
 Graham's water snake
 Tropidoclonian lineatum
 (Hallowell), lined snake
 Extirpated:
 Farancia abacura (Holbrook), mud snake X

CLASS MAMMALIA

 Order Didelphimorphia (American opossums)
 Family Didelphidae (opossums)
 Didelphis virginiana Kerr, opossum I
 Order Insectivora (shrews and moles)
 Family Soricidae (shrews)
 Blarina brevicauda (Say), short-tailed I
 shrew
 Cryptotis parva (Say), least shrew I
 Sorex cinereus Kerr, masked shrew N
 S. fumeus Miller, smoky shrew SC
 S. hoyi Baird, pygmy shrew SC
 S. longirostris Bachman, southeastern SC
 shrew
 Family Talpidae (moles) S
 Condylura cristata (Rafinesque) NE
 star-nosed mole
 Scalopus aquaticus (Linnaeus), I
 eastern mole
 Order Chiroptera (bats)
 Family Vespertilionidae
 (vespertilionid bats)
 Eptesicus fuscus (Beauvois), big I
 brown bat
 Lasionycteris noctivagans I
 (LeConte), silver-haired bat
 Lasiurus borealis (Muller), red bat I
 L. cinereus (Beauvois), hoary bat I
 Myotis austroriparius (Rhoads), SC
 southeastern myotis
 M. grisescens (Howell), gray myotis S
 M. lucifugus (LeConte), little I
 brown myotis
 M. septentrionalis Trouessart, I
 Northern myotis
 M. sodalis Miller & Allen, I
 Indiana myotis
 Nycticeius humeralis S
 (Rafinesque), evening bat
 Pipistrellus subflavus (Cuvier), S
 eastern pipistrelle
 Corynorhinus rafinesquii SC
 (Lesson), Rafinesque's big-eared bat
 Order Lagomorpha (rabbits, hares, and pikas)
 Family Leporidae (rabbits and hares)
 Sylvilagus aquaticus (Bachman), SW
 swamp rabbit
 S. floridanus (Allen), cottontail rabbit I
 Order Rodentia (rodents)
 Family Sciuridae (squirrels)
 Glaucomys volans (Linnaeus), I
 southern flying squirrel
 Marmota monax (Linnaeus), woodchuck I
 Sciurus carolinensis Gmelin, gray I
 squirrel
 S. niger Linnaeus, for squirrel I
 Spermophilus franklinii (Sabine), NW
 Franklin's ground squirrel
 S. tridecemlineatus (Mitchill), N
 thirteen-lined ground squirrel
 Tamias striatus (Linneaus), I
 eastern chipmunk
 Tamiasciurus hudsonicus N
 (Erxleben), red squirrel
 Family Geomyidae (pocket gophers)
 Geomys bursarius (Shaw), plains NW
 pocket gopher
 Family Castoridae (beavers)
 Castor canadensis Kuhl, beaver I
 The beaver was extirpated by
 1900 but was reintroduced.
 Family Muridae (rats, voles, and mice)
 Subfamily Sigmodontinae
 Neotoma magister (Baird), SC
 Allegheny woodrat
 Peromyscus leucopus I
 (Rafinesque), white-footed mouse
 P. maniculatus (Wagner), deer mouse I
 Reithrodontomys megalotis I
 (Baird), western harvestmouse
 Subfamily Arvicolinae
 Microtus ochroguster (Wagner), I
 prairie vole
 M. pennsylvanicus (Ord), meadow vole I
 M. pinetorum (LeConte), woodland vole I
 Ondatra ziethicus (Linnaeus), muskrat I
 Synaptomys cooperi Baird, I
 southern bog lemming
 Subfamily Murinae
 Mus musculus Linnaeus, house mouse I
 Rattus norvegicus (Berkenhout), I
 Norway rat
 The black rat, Rattus rattus,
 was extirpated about 1845 but
 is not included above because
 it was not native.
 Family Dipodidae (Zapodinae) (jumping mice)
 Zapus hudsonius (Zimmermann), I
 meadow jumping mouse
 Order Carnivora (canids)
 Family Canidae (canids)
 Canis latrans Say, coyote I
 Urocyon cinereoargenteus I
 (Schreber), gray fox
 Vulpes vulpes (Linnaeus), red fox I
 Family Procyonidae (raccoons and allies)
 Procyon lotor (Linnaeus), raccoon I
 Family Mustelidae (weasels, badger, otter)
 Lutra canadensis (Schrebder), river otter I
 The river otter became extirpated in
 1942, but was reintroduced between
 1995 and 1999.
 Mustela frenata Lichtenstein, I
 long-tailed weasel
 M. nivalis (Linnaeus), least weasel N
 M. vison Schreber, mink I
 Taxidea taxus (Schreber), badger I
 Family Mephitidae (skunks) I
 Mephitis mephitis (Schreber),
 striped skunk
 Family Felidae (cat)
 Lynx rufus (Schreber), bobcat I
 Order Artiodactyla
 Family Cervidae (deer)
 Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann), I
 white-tailed deer
 The white-tailed deer was extirpated
 by 1900 but was reintroduced
Hypothetical
 Myotis leibi (Audubon &
 Bachman), Leib's bat
 Reithrodontomys humulis
 (Audubon & Bachman), eastern harvest
 mouse
Extirpated
 Bison bison (Linnaeus), bison Ex (1830)
 Canis lupus Linnacus, timber (gray) wolf Ex (1908)
 C. rufus (Audubon & Bachman), red wolf Ex (1832)
 Cervus elaphus Linnaeus, elk (wapiti) Ex (1839)
 Erethizon dorsatwn (Linnaeus), porcupine Ex (1918)
 Felis concolor Linnacus, mountain lion Ex (1851)
 Galo galo (Linnacus), wolverine Ex (1852)
 Lynx lynx Kerr, lynx Ex (1832?)
 Martes pennanti (Erxleben), fisher Ex (1859)
 Spilogale putorius (Linnaeus), eastern Ex (1920?)
 spotted skunk
 Ursus americanus Pallas, black bear Ex (1850)

 Relative
 abundance

CLASS OSTEICHTHYES

 Order Petromyzontiformes
 (lampreys)
 Family Petromyzontidae (lamprey)
 Ichthyomyzon bdellium (Jordon), R
 Ohio lamprey
 I. castaneus Girard, chestnut O
 lamprey
 I. fossor Reighard & Cummins, R
 northern brook lamprey
 I. unicuspis Hubbs & Trautman, O
 silver lamprey
 Lampetra aepyptera (Abbott), R
 least brook lamprey
 L. appendix (DeKay), American O
 brook lamprey
 Petromyzon marinus Linnaeus, sea O
 lamprey
 Order Acipenseriformes
 (paddlefish, strugeons)
 Family Acipenseridae (sturgeon)
 Acipenser fulvescens Rafinesque, R
 lake surgeon
 Scaphirhynchus platorynchus O
 (Rafinesque), shovelnose
 sturgeon
 Family Polyodontidae (paddlefish)
 Polyodon spathula (Walbaum), O
 paddlefish
 Order Lepisosteiformes (gars)
 Family Lepisosteidae (gars)
 Lepisosteus oculatus Winchell, O
 spotted gar
 L. osseus Linnaeus, longnose gar C
 L. platostomus Rafinesque, O
 shortnose gar
 Order Amiiformes (bowfin)
 Family Amiidae (bowfin)
 Amia calva Linnaeus, bowfin O
 Order Osteoglossiformes (mooneye)
 Family Hiodontidae (mooneye)
 Hiodon alosoides (Rafinesque), O
 goldeye
 H. tergisus LeSueur, mooneye O
 Order Anguilliformes (eels)
 Family Anguillidae (eel)
 Anguilla rostrata (LeSueur), R
 American eel
 Order Clupeiformes (herring, shad)
 Family Clupeidae (herring)
 Alosa chrysochloris C
 (Rafinesque), skipjack herring
 A. pseudoharengus (Wilson), A
 alewife
 Dorosoma cepedianum (LeSueur), A
 gizzard shad
 D. petenense (Gunther), C
 threadfin shad
 Order Cypriniformes (carps and minnows)
 Family Cyprinidae (carps and
 (minnows)
 Campostoma anomalum
 (Rafinesque), stoneroller A
 C. oligolepis Hubbs & Greene, A
 largescale stoneroller
 Carassius auratus (Linnaeus), C
 goldfish
 Clinostomus elongatus R
 (Kirtland), redside dace
 Couesius plumbeus (Agassiz), R
 lake chub
 Ctenopharyngodon idella O
 (Valenciennes), grass carp
 Cyprinella lutrensis (Baird & O
 Girard), red shiner
 C. spiloptera (Cope), spotfin A
 shiner
 C. whipplei Giard, steelcolor C
 shiner
 Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, carp A
 Ericymba buccata Cope, C
 silverjaw minnow
 Erimystax dissimilis R
 (Kirtland), streamline chub
 E. x-punctatus (Hubbs & Crow), R
 gravel chub
 Hybognathus hayi Jordan, R
 cypress minnow
 H. nuchalis Agassiz, C
 Mississippi silvery minnow
 Hybopsis amblops (Rafinesque), C
 bigeye chub
 H. amnis (Hubbs & Greene), R
 pallid shiner
 Hypophthalmichthys molitrix R
 (Valenciennes), silver carp
 H. nobilis (Richardson), O
 bighead carp
 Luxilus chrysocephalus A
 Rafinesque, striped shiner
 L. cornutus (Mitchill), common O
 shiner
 Lythrurus fasciolaris C
 (Gilbert), scarlet shiner
 L. fumeus (Evermann), ribbon R
 shiner
 L. umbratilis (Girard), redfin C
 shiner
 Macrhybopsis hyostoma O
 (Gilbert), shoal chub
 M. storeriana (Kirtland), C
 silver chub
 Nocomis biguttatus (Kirtland), C
 hornyhead chub
 N. micropogon (Cope), river C
 chub
 Notemigonus crysoleucas (Mitchill) C
 golden shiner
 Notropis atherinoides Rafinesque, A
 emerald shiner
 N. blennius (Girard), river shiner C
 N. boops Gilbert, bigeye shiner C
 N. buchanani Meek, ghost shiner O
 N. chalybaeus (Cope), ironcolor O
 shiner
 N. dorsalis (Agassiz), bigmouth R
 shiner
 N. heterodon (Cope), blackchin R
 shiner
 N. heterolepis Eigenmann & R
 Eigenmann, blacknose shiner
 N. hudsonius (Clinton), spottail A
 shiner
 N. photogenis (Cope), silver O
 shiner
 N. rubellus (Agassiz), rosyface C
 shiner
 N. shumardi (Girard), silverband C
 shiner
 N. straminens (Girard), sand A
 Shiner
 N. texanus (Girard), weed shiner R
 N. valucellus (Cope), mimic shiner O
 N. wickliffi Trautman, channel C
 shiner
 Opsopoeodus emiliae Hay, pugnose R
 minnow
 Phenacobius mirabilis (Girard), C
 suckermouth minnow
 Phoxinus erythrogaster O
 (Rafinesque), southern redbelly
 dace
 Pimephales notatus (Rafinesque), A
 bluntnose minnow
 P. promelas Rafinesque, fathead C
 minnow
 P. vigilax (Baird & Girard), O
 bullhead minow
 Rhinichthys atratulus (Hermann), C
 blacknose dace
 R. cataractae (Valenciennes), O
 longnose dace
 Semotilus atromaculatus (Mitchill) A
 creek chub
 Scardinius erythrophthalmus R
 (Linnaeus), rudd
 Family Catostomidae (suckers and
 buffallo)
 Carpiodes carpio (Rafinesque), C
 river carpsucker
 C. cyprinus (LeSueur), quillback C
 C. velifer (Rafinesque), highfin O
 carpsucker
 Catostomus catostomus (Forster), R
 longnose sucker
 C. commersoni (Lacepede), white A
 sucker
 Cycleptus elongatus (LeSueur), O
 blue sucker
 Erimyzon oblongus (Mitchill), O
 creek chubsucker
 E. sucetta (Lacepede), lake O
 chubsucker
 Hypentelium nigricans (LeSueur), C
 northern hogsucker
 Ictiobus bubalus (Rafinesque), C
 smallmouth buffalo
 I. cpribellus (Valenciennes), O
 bigmouth buffalo
 I. niger (Rafinesque), black R
 buffalo
 Minytrema melanops (Rafinesque), C
 spotted sucker
 Moxostoma anisurum (Rafinesque), C
 silver redhorse
 M. carinatum (Cope), river O
 redhorse
 M. duquesnei (LeSueur), black C
 redhorse
 M. erythrurum (Rafinesque), golden A
 redhorse
 M. macrolepidotum (LeSueur), A
 shorthead redhorse
 M. valenciennesi Jordan, greater R
 redhorse
 Order Siluriformes (bullhead and
 catfish)
 Family Ictaluridae (bullhead and
 catfish)
 Ameriurus catus (Linnaeus), white O
 catfish
 A. melas (Rafinesque), black A
 bullhead
 A. natalis (LeSueur), yellow A
 bullhead
 A. nebulosus (LeSueur), brown C
 bullhead
 Ictalurus furcatus (LeSueur), O
 blue catfish
 I. punctatus (Rafinesque), C
 channel catfish
 Norturus eleutherus Jordan, O
 mountain madtom
 N. flavus Rafinesque, stonecat C
 N. gyrinus (Mitchill), tadpole C
 madtom
 N. miurus Jordan, brindled madtom O
 N. nocturnus Jordan & Gilbert, O
 frecled madtom
 N. stigmosus Taylor, northern R
 madtom
 Pylodictis olivaris (Rafinesque), C
 flathead catfish
 Order Salmoniformes (trout, slamon,
 whitefish)
 Family Esocidae (pikes)
 Esox americanus Gmelin, grass pickerel C
 E. lucius Linnaeus, northern pike O
 E. masquinongy Mitchill, O
 muskellunge
 Family Umbridae (mudminnows)
 Umbra limi (Kirtland), central A
 mudminnow
 Family Osmeridae (smelt)
 Osmerus mordax (Mitchill), C
 rainbow smelt
 Family Salmonidate (salmon
 and whitefish)
 Coregonus artedi LeSueur,
 cisco or lake herring R
 C. clupeaformis (Mitchill),
 lake whitefish C
 C. hoyi (Milner), bloater R
 C. kiyi (Koelz), kiyi R
 C. zenithicus (Jordan & Evermann
 shortjaw cisco R
 Oncorhynchus kisutch (Walbaum),
 coho salmon C
 O. mykiss (Walbaum), rainbow C
 trout
 O. Ishawytscha (Walbaum),
 chinook salmon C
 Salmo salar Linnaeus,
 Atlantic salmon O
 trout
 (pirate perch)
 Aphredoderus sayanus
 (Gilliams), pirate perch C
 Family Amblyopsidae
 (cavefish)
 Amblyopsis spelaea (DeKay),
 northern cavefish R
 Typhilchthys subterraneus
 Girard, southern cavefish R
 Order Percopsiformes
 Family Percopsidae
 (trout-perch)
 Percopsis omiscomaycus
 (Walbaum), trout-perch R
 Order Gadiformes (cod)
 Family Lotidae (freshwater
 cod)
 Lota lota (Linnaeus), burbot O
 Order Cyprinodonitiformes
 (topminnows, silversides)
 Family Fundulidae (topminnows)
 Fundulus catenatus (Storer),
 northern studfish C
 F. diaphanus (LeSuer),
 banded killifish C
 F. dispar (Agassiz), northern
 starhead topminnow C
 F. notatus (Rafinesque),
 blackstripe topminnow A
 F. olivaceus (Storer),
 blackspotted topminnow R
 Family Poeciliidae (live-bearing fishes)
 Gambusia affinis
 (Baird & Girard), mosquitofish O
 Order Atheriniformes
 Family Atherinidae (silversides)
 Labidesthes sicculus (Cope), C
 brook silverside
 Menida beryllina (Cope), inland R
 silverside
 Order Mugiliformes
 Family Mugilidae
 Mugil cephalus Linnaeus, striped R
 mullet
 Order Gasterosteiformers R
 (sticklebacks)
 Family Gasterosteidae
 (sticklebacks)
 Culaea inconstans (Kirtland), C
 brook stickleback
 Gasterosteus aculeatus, O
 Linnaeus, threespine stickleback
 Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus), O
 ninespine stickleback
 Order Scorpaeniformes
 Family Cottidae (sculpins)
 Cottus bairdi (Girard, mottled C
 sculpin
 C. carolinae (Gill), banded O
 sculpin
 C. cognatus Richardson, slimy R
 sculpin
 Myoxocephalus thompsoni (Girard), R
 deepwater sculpin
 Order Perciformes (basses, sunfish,
 perch, darters, gobies)
 Family Moronidae (temperate
 basses)
 Morone americana (Gmelin), white R
 perch
 M. chrysops (Rafinesque), white C
 bass
 M. mississippiensis Jordan & O
 Eigenmann, yellow bass
 M. saxatilis (Walbaum), striped O
 bass
 Family Elassomatidae (pygmy
 sunfish)
 Elassoma zonatum Jordan, banded R
 pygmy sunfish
 Family Centrarchidae (black bass
 and sunfish)
 Ambloplites rupestris C
 (Rafinesque), rock bass
 Centrarchus macropterus O
 (Lacepede) flier
 Lepomis cyanellus Ralinesque, A
 green sunfish
 L. gibbosus (Linnacus), C
 pumpkinseed
 L. gulosus (Cuvier), warmouth C
 L. humilis (Girard), O
 orangespotted sunfish
 L. macrochirus Rafinesque, A
 bluegill
 L. megalotis (Rafinesque), A
 longear sunfish
 L. microlphus (Gunther), C
 redear sunfish
 L. miniatus Jordan, redspotted R
 sunfish
 L. symmetricus Forbes, bantam R
 sunfish
 Micropterus dolomien Lacepede, A
 smallmouth bass
 M. punctulatus (Rafinesque), A
 spotted bass
 M. salmoides (Lacepede), A
 largemouth bass
 pomoxis annularis Rafinesque, C
 white crappie
 P. nigromaculatus (LeSueur), C
 black crappie
 Family Percidae
 (perch and darters)
 Ammocrypta clara Jordan & O
 Meek, western sand darter
 A. pellucida (Agassiz), O
 eastern sand darter
 Etheostoma asprigene (Forbes), C
 mud darter
 E. blennioides Rafinesque, C
 greenside darter
 E. caeruleum Storer, C
 rainbow darter
 E. camurum (Cope), R
 bluebreast darter
 E. chlorosoma (Hay), R
 bluntnose darter
 E. exile (Girard), lowa darter O
 E. Flabellare Rafinesque, C
 fantail darter
 E. gracile (Girard), O
 slough darter
 E. histrio Jordan & Gilbert, R
 harlequin darter
 E. maculatum Kirtland, R
 spotted darter
 E. microperca Jordan & Gilbert, C
 least darter
 E. nigrum Rafinesque, A
 johnny darter
 E. proeliare (Hay), R
 cypress darter
 E. spectabile (Agassiz), A
 orangethroat darter
 E. squamiceps Jordan, R
 spottail darter
 E. tippecanoe Jordan & Evermann, R
 Tippecanoe darter
 E. variatum Kirtland, R
 variegate darter
 E. zonale (Cope), banded darter C
 Perca flavescens (Mitcheill), C
 yelow perch
 Percina caprodes (Rafinesque), C
 logperch
 P. copelandi (Jordan), R
 channel darter
 P. evides (Jordan & Copeland), O
 gilt darter
 P. maculata (Girard), blackside darter C
 P. phoxocephala (Nelson), slenderhead darter C
 P. Sciera (Swain), dusky darter C
 P. Shumardi (Girard), river darter O
 P. vigil (Hay), saddleback darter R
 Sander canadense (Griffith & Smith), sauger C
 S. vitreus (Mitchill), walleye C
 Family Sciaenidae (drum)
 Aplodinotus grunniens Rafinesque, freshwater drum C
 Family Gobiidae
 Neogobius melanostomus (Pallas), round goby A
Extirpated:
 Atractosteus spatula (Lacepede), alligator gar 1976
 Alosa alabamae Jordan & Evermann, Alabama shad 1902
 Notropis anogenus Forbes, pugnose shiner 1945
 N. ariommus (Cope), popeye shiner 1894
 Coregonus nigripinnis (Gill), blackfin cisco ?
 C. reighardi (Koelz), shortnose cisco 1972
 Esox masquinongy Mitchill, Great Lakes muskellunge 1910
 Esox masquinongy from the Great Lakes is extirpated,
 but another Ohio River form of
 questionable status exists.
 Lagochila lacera Jordan & Brayton, harelip sucker 1893
 Crystallaria asprella Jordan, crystal darter 1892-95
 Percina uranidea (Jordan & Gilbert), stargazing 1920
 darter
 Despite past confusion between the two species
 Percina uranidea and P. vigil, the two species did
 occur in Indiana (but are now extirpated; C. Gilbert,
 pers. comm.). Thompson & Cashner (1980) showed two
 records for P. uranidea from Indiana and a
 single record for P. vigil (as former name P.
 ouachitae) in the 1980 Atlas of North
 American Freshwater Fishes (Lee at al. 1980).

CLASS AMPHIBIA

 Order Caudata (salamanders)
 Family Cryptobranchidae (hellbenders)
 Crytobranchus alleganiensis (Daudin) hellbender R
 Family Proteidae (mudpuppies)
 Necturus macidosus (Rafinesque), mudpuppy O
 Family Ambystomatidae (mole salamanders)
 Ambystoma barbouri Kraus & Petranka, streamside C
 salamander
 A. jeffersonianum (Green), Jefferson's salamander O
 A. laterale Hallowell, blue-spotted salamander O
 A. maculatum (Shaw), spotted salamander C
 A. opacum (Gravenhorst), marbled salamander C
 A. texanum (Matthes), smallmouth salamander A
 A. tigrinum (Green), tiger salamander C
 Family Salamandridae (newts)
 Notophthalmus viridescens (Rafinesque), eastern new O
 Family Plethodontidae (lungless salamanders)
 Aneides aeneus (Cope & Packard), green salamander R
 Desmognathus fuscus (Green), northern O
 dusky salamander
 Eurycea cirrigera (Green), two-lined salamander A
 E.longicauda (Green), longtail salamander C
 E.lucifuga Rafinesque, cave salamander C
 Hemidactylium scutatum (Schlegel), four-toed R
 salamander
 Plethodon cinereus (Green), redback salamander A
 P. dorsails Cope, zigzag salamander C
 P. glutinosus (Green), slimy salamander C
 P. richmondi Netting & Mittleman, ravine O
 salamander
 Pseudotriton ruber (Sonnini), northern red R
 salamander
 Family Sirenidae (sirens)
 Siren intermedia LeConte, lesser siren O
 Order Anura (toads and frogs)
 Family Pelobatidae (spadefoot toads)
 Scaphiopus holbrookii (Harlan), eastern spadefoot O
 Family Bufonidae (toads)
 Bufo americanus Holbrook, American toad C
 B. fowleri Hinkley, Fowler's toad C
 Family Hylidae (tree frogs)
 Acris crepitans Baird, cricket frog C
 Hyla claysoscelis Cope, Cope's gray tree frog A
 H. versicolor LeConte, eastern gray treefrog A
 Pseudacris crucifer Wied, C
 spring peeper
 P. triseriata (Wied), western A
 chorus frog
 Family Ranidae (true frogs)
 Rana areolata Baird & Girard, O
 crawfish frog
 R. blairi Mecham et al., plains R
 leopard frog
 R. clamitans Latreille, green C
 frog
 R. catesbeiana Shaw, bullfrog A
 R. pipiens Schreber, northern C
 leopard frog
 R. palustris LeConte, pickerel O
 frog
 R. utricularia Harlan, southern C
 leopard frog
 R. sylvatica LeConte, wood frog O
Hypothetical
 Gyrinophilus porphyriticus
 (Green), spring salamander
 Pseudacris brachyphona (Cope),
 mountain chorus frog
 Pseudotriton montanus Baird,
 mud salamander
 Gastrophryne carolinensis
 (Holbrook), eastern
 narrowmouth toad
 Hyla cinerea (Schneider), green
 treefrog
 H. avivoca Viosca, bird-voiced
 treefrog

CLASS REPTILIA

 Order Testudines (turtles)
 Family Chelydridae (snapping
 turtles)
 Chelydra serpentina Linnaeus, A
 common snapping turtle
 Macroclemys temminckii R
 (Troost), alligator snapping
 turtle
 Family Kinosternidae (musk and
 mud turtles)
 Kinosternon subrubrum R
 (Lacepede), eastern mud
 turtle)
 Sternotherus odoratus A
 (Latreille), common musk
 turtle
 Family Emydidae (box and water
 turtles)
 Chrysemys picts (Schneider), A
 painted turtle
 Clemmsys guttata (Schneider), O
 spotted turtle
 Emydoidea blandingii O
 (Holbrook), Blanding's turtle
 Graptemys geographica C
 (LeSueur), map turtle
 G. pseudogeographica (Gray), O
 false map turtle
 G. ouachitensis Cagle,
 Ouachita map turtle
 Pseudemys concinna (LeConte), 1950
 river cooter
 Terrapene carolina (Linnaeus), C
 eastern box turtle
 T. ornata (Agassiz), ornate O
 box turtle
 Trachemys scripta (Schoepff), C
 red-eared turtle
 Family Trionychidae (softshell turtles)
 Apalone mutica LeSueur, smooth softshell O
 A. spinifera (LeSueur), spiny softshell C
 Order Squamata (lizards and snakes)
 Family Iguanidae (iguanids)
 Sceloporus undulatus Latreille, eastern C
 fence lizard
 Family Anguidae (glass lizards)
 Ophisaurus attenuatus Cope, R
 slender glass lizard
 Family Teiidae (whiptails)
 Cnemidophorus sexlineatus O
 (Linnaeus), six-lined racerunner
 Family Scincidae (skinks)
 Eumeces fasciatus (Linnaeus), C
 five-lined skink
 E. laticeps (Schneider), broad- O
 headed skink
 Scincella lateralis (Say), ground skink O
 Family Colubridae (common snakes)
 Carphophis amoenus (Say), worm snake O
 Cemophora coccinea (Blumenbach), scarlet R
 snake
 Coluber constrictor Linnaeus, black racer C
 Clonophis kirtlandii (Kennicott), O
 Kirtland's snake
 Diadophis punctatus (Linnaeus), O
 northern ringneck snake
 Elaphe obsoleta (Say), black rat snake C
 E. vulpina (Baird & Girard), C
 western fox snake
 Heterodon platirhinos Latreille, C
 eastern hognose snake
 Lampropeltis calligaster O
 (Harlan), prairie kingsnake
 L. getulus (Linnaeus), common kingsnake O
 L. triangulum (Lacepede), eastern C
 milksnake
 Nerodia erythrogaster (Forster), O
 northern copperbelly
 N. rhombifer (Hallowell), O
 diamondback water snake
 N. sipedon (Linnaeus), banded water snake A
 Opheodrys aestivas (Linnaeus), O
 rough green snake
 O. vernalis (Harlan), smooth green snake R
 Pituophis catenifer (Blainville), O
 bull snake
 Regina septemvittata (Say), queen snake
 Storeria dekayi (Holbrook), brown snake C
 S. occipitomaculata (Storer), O
 red-bellied snake
 Tantilla coronata (Baird & Girard), R
 crowned snake
 Thamnophis butleri (Cope), Butler's R
 garter snake
 T. proximus (Say), western ribbon snake O
 T. radix (Baird & Girard), plains O
 garter snake
 T. sauritus (Linnaeus), eastern O
 ribbon snake
 T. sirtalis (Linnaeus), common A
 garter snake
 Virginia valeriae Baird & Girard, O
 western earth snake
 Family Crotalidae (pit vipers)
 Agkistrodon controtrix O
 (Linnaeus), northern copperhead
 A. piscivorus Lacepede, cottonmouth R
 Crotalus horridus Linnaeus, timber R
 rattlesnake
 Sistrurus catenatus (Rafinesque), R
 eastern massasauga
 Hypothetical:
 Eumeces anthracinus (Baird), coal skink
 Regina grahami Baird & Girard,
 Graham's water snake
 Tropidoclonian lineatum
 (Hallowell), lined snake
 Extirpated:
 Farancia abacura (Holbrook), mud snake 1984

CLASS MAMMALIA

 Order Didelphimorphia (American opossums)
 Family Didelphidae (opossums)
 Didelphis virginiana Kerr, opossum A
 Order Insectivora (shrews and moles)
 Family Soricidae (shrews)
 Blarina brevicauda (Say), short-tailed A
 shrew
 Cryptotis parva (Say), least shrew O
 Sorex cinereus Kerr, masked shrew C
 S. fumeus Miller, smoky shrew O
 S. hoyi Baird, pygmy shrew O
 S. longirostris Bachman, southeastern O
 shrew
 Family Talpidae (moles) O
 Condylura cristata (Rafinesque) R
 star-nosed mole
 Scalopus aquaticus (Linnaeus), A
 eastern mole
 Order Chiroptera (bats)
 Family Vespertilionidae
 (vespertilionid bats)
 Eptesicus fuscus (Beauvois), big A
 brown bat
 Lasionycteris noctivagans O
 (LeConte), silver-haired bat
 Lasiurus borealis (Muller), red bat A
 L. cinereus (Beauvois), hoary bat O
 Myotis austroriparius (Rhoads), R
 southeastern myotis
 M. grisescens (Howell), gray myotis R
 M. lucifugus (LeConte), little C
 brown myotis
 M. septentrionalis Trouessart, C
 Northern myotis
 M. sodalis Miller & Allen, O
 Indiana myotis
 Nycticeius humeralis O
 (Rafinesque), evening bat
 Pipistrellus subflavus (Cuvier), C
 eastern pipistrelle
 Corynorhinus rafinesquii R
 (Lesson), Rafinesque's big-eared bat
 Order Lagomorpha (rabbits, hares, and pikas)
 Family Leporidae (rabbits and hares)
 Sylvilagus aquaticus (Bachman), R
 swamp rabbit
 S. floridanus (Allen), cottontail rabbit A
 Order Rodentia (rodents)
 Family Sciuridae (squirrels)
 Glaucomys volans (Linnaeus), C
 southern flying squirrel
 Marmota monax (Linnaeus), woodchuck C
 Sciurus carolinensis Gmelin, gray C
 squirrel
 S. niger Linnaeus, for squirrel A
 Spermophilus franklinii (Sabine), R
 Franklin's ground squirrel
 S. tridecemlineatus (Mitchill), C
 thirteen-lined ground squirrel
 Tamias striatus (Linneaus), A
 eastern chipmunk
 Tamiasciurus hudsonicus C
 (Erxleben), red squirrel
 Family Geomyidae (pocket gophers)
 Geomys bursarius (Shaw), plains C
 pocket gopher
 Family Castoridae (beavers)
 Castor canadensis Kuhl, beaver C
 The beaver was extirpated by
 1900 but was reintroduced.
 Family Muridae (rats, voles, and mice)
 Subfamily Sigmodontinae
 Neotoma magister (Baird), R
 Allegheny woodrat
 Peromyscus leucopus A
 (Rafinesque), white-footed mouse
 P. maniculatus (Wagner), deer mouse C
 Reithrodontomys megalotis C
 (Baird), western harvestmouse
 Subfamily Arvicolinae
 Microtus ochroguster (Wagner), C
 prairie vole
 M. pennsylvanicus (Ord), meadow vole C
 M. pinetorum (LeConte), woodland vole O
 Ondatra ziethicus (Linnaeus), muskrat A
 Synaptomys cooperi Baird, O
 southern bog lemming
 Subfamily Murinae
 Mus musculus Linnaeus, house mouse A
 Rattus norvegicus (Berkenhout), A
 Norway rat
 The black rat, Rattus rattus,
 was extirpated about 1845 but
 is not included above because
 it was not native.
 Family Dipodidae (Zapodinae) (jumping mice)
 Zapus hudsonius (Zimmermann), O
 meadow jumping mouse
 Order Carnivora (canids)
 Family Canidae (canids)
 Canis latrans Say, coyote C
 Urocyon cinereoargenteus O
 (Schreber), gray fox
 Vulpes vulpes (Linnaeus), red fox O
 Family Procyonidae (raccoons and allies)
 Procyon lotor (Linnaeus), raccoon A
 Family Mustelidae (weasels, badger, otter)
 Lutra canadensis (Schrebder), river otter R
 The river otter became extirpated in
 1942, but was reintroduced between
 1995 and 1999.
 Mustela frenata Lichtenstein, O
 long-tailed weasel
 M. nivalis (Linnaeus), least weasel R
 M. vison Schreber, mink O
 Taxidea taxus (Schreber), badger R
 Family Mephitidae (skunks)
 Mephitis mephitis (Schreber), C
 striped skunk
 Family Felidae (cat)
 Lynx rufus (Schreber), bobcat R
 Order Artiodactyla
 Family Cervidae (deer)
 Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann), A
 white-tailed deer
 The white-tailed deer was extirpated
 by 1900 but was reintroduced
Hypothetical
 Myotis leibi (Audubon &
 Bachman), Leib's bat
 Reithrodontomys humulis
 (Audubon & Bachman), eastern harvest
 mouse
Extirpated
 Bison bison (Linnaeus), bison
 Canis lupus Linnacus, timber (gray) wolf
 C. rufus (Audubon & Bachman), red wolf
 Cervus elaphus Linnaeus, elk (wapiti)
 Erethizon dorsatwn (Linnaeus), porcupine
 Felis concolor Linnacus, mountain lion
 Galo galo (Linnacus), wolverine
 Lynx lynx Kerr, lynx
 Martes pennanti (Erxleben), fisher
 Spilogale putorius (Linnaeus), eastern
 spotted skunk
 Ursus americanus Pallas, black bear

 Status


CLASS OSTEICHTHYES

 Order Petromyzontiformes
 (lampreys)
 Family Petromyzontidae (lamprey)
 Ichthyomyzon bdellium (Jordon),
 Ohio lamprey
 I. castaneus Girard, chestnut
 lamprey
 I. fossor Reighard & Cummins,
 northern brook lamprey
 I. unicuspis Hubbs & Trautman,
 silver lamprey
 Lampetra aepyptera (Abbott),
 least brook lamprey
 L. appendix (DeKay), American
 brook lamprey
 Petromyzon marinus Linnaeus, sea X
 lamprey
 Order Acipenseriformes
 (paddlefish, strugeons)
 Family Acipenseridae (sturgeon)
 Acipenser fulvescens Rafinesque, SE
 lake surgeon
 Scaphirhynchus platorynchus
 (Rafinesque), shovelnose
 sturgeon
 Family Polyodontidae (paddlefish)
 Polyodon spathula (Walbaum),
 paddlefish
 Order Lepisosteiformes (gars)
 Family Lepisosteidae (gars)
 Lepisosteus oculatus Winchell,
 spotted gar
 L. osseus Linnaeus, longnose gar
 L. platostomus Rafinesque,
 shortnose gar
 Order Amiiformes (bowfin)
 Family Amiidae (bowfin)
 Amia calva Linnaeus, bowfin
 Order Osteoglossiformes (mooneye)
 Family Hiodontidae (mooneye)
 Hiodon alosoides (Rafinesque),
 goldeye
 H. tergisus LeSueur, mooneye
 Order Anguilliformes (eels)
 Family Anguillidae (eel)
 Anguilla rostrata (LeSueur),
 American eel
 Order Clupeiformes (herring, shad)
 Family Clupeidae (herring)
 Alosa chrysochloris
 (Rafinesque), skipjack herring
 A. pseudoharengus (Wilson), X
 alewife
 Dorosoma cepedianum (LeSueur),
 gizzard shad
 D. petenense (Gunther), X
 threadfin shad
 Order Cypriniformes (carps and minnows)
 Family Cyprinidae (carps and
 (minnows)
 Campostoma anomalum
 (Rafinesque), stoneroller
 C. oligolepis Hubbs & Greene,
 largescale stoneroller
 Carassius auratus (Linnaeus), X
 goldfish
 Clinostomus elongatus ST
 (Kirtland), redside dace
 Couesius plumbeus (Agassiz),
 lake chub
 Ctenopharyngodon idella X
 (Valenciennes), grass carp
 Cyprinella lutrensis (Baird & X
 Girard), red shiner
 C. spiloptera (Cope), spotfin
 shiner
 C. whipplei Giard, steelcolor
 shiner
 Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, carp X
 Ericymba buccata Cope,
 silverjaw minnow
 Erimystax dissimilis
 (Kirtland), streamline chub
 E. x-punctatus (Hubbs & Crow),
 gravel chub
 Hybognathus hayi Jordan,
 cypress minnow
 H. nuchalis Agassiz,
 Mississippi silvery minnow
 Hybopsis amblops (Rafinesque),
 bigeye chub
 H. amnis (Hubbs & Greene), SE
 pallid shiner
 Hypophthalmichthys molitrix X
 (Valenciennes), silver carp
 H. nobilis (Richardson), X
 bighead carp
 Luxilus chrysocephalus
 Rafinesque, striped shiner
 L. cornutus (Mitchill), common
 shiner
 Lythrurus fasciolaris
 (Gilbert), scarlet shiner
 L. fumeus (Evermann), ribbon
 shiner
 L. umbratilis (Girard), redfin
 shiner
 Macrhybopsis hyostoma
 (Gilbert), shoal chub
 M. storeriana (Kirtland),
 silver chub
 Nocomis biguttatus (Kirtland),
 hornyhead chub
 N. micropogon (Cope), river
 chub
 Notemigonus crysoleucas (Mitchill)
 golden shiner
 Notropis atherinoides Rafinesque,
 emerald shiner
 N. blennius (Girard), river shiner
 N. boops Gilbert, bigeye shiner
 N. buchanani Meek, ghost shiner
 N. chalybaeus (Cope), ironcolor
 shiner
 N. dorsalis (Agassiz), bigmouth SE
 shiner
 N. heterodon (Cope), blackchin
 shiner
 N. heterolepis Eigenmann &
 Eigenmann, blacknose shiner
 N. hudsonius (Clinton), spottail
 shiner
 N. photogenis (Cope), silver
 shiner
 N. rubellus (Agassiz), rosyface
 shiner
 N. shumardi (Girard), silverband
 shiner
 N. straminens (Girard), sand
 Shiner
 N. texanus (Girard), weed shiner
 N. valucellus (Cope), mimic shiner
 N. wickliffi Trautman, channel
 shiner
 Opsopoeodus emiliae Hay, pugnose
 minnow
 Phenacobius mirabilis (Girard),
 suckermouth minnow
 Phoxinus erythrogaster
 (Rafinesque), southern redbelly
 dace
 Pimephales notatus (Rafinesque),
 bluntnose minnow
 P. promelas Rafinesque, fathead
 minnow
 P. vigilax (Baird & Girard),
 bullhead minow
 Rhinichthys atratulus (Hermann),
 blacknose dace
 R. cataractae (Valenciennes),
 longnose dace
 Semotilus atromaculatus (Mitchill)
 creek chub
 Scardinius erythrophthalmus X
 (Linnaeus), rudd
 Family Catostomidae (suckers and
 buffallo)
 Carpiodes carpio (Rafinesque),
 river carpsucker
 C. cyprinus (LeSueur), quillback
 C. velifer (Rafinesque), highfin
 carpsucker
 Catostomus catostomus (Forster),
 longnose sucker
 C. commersoni (Lacepede), white
 sucker
 Cycleptus elongatus (LeSueur), FC
 blue sucker
 Erimyzon oblongus (Mitchill),
 creek chubsucker
 E. sucetta (Lacepede), lake
 chubsucker
 Hypentelium nigricans (LeSueur),
 northern hogsucker
 Ictiobus bubalus (Rafinesque),
 smallmouth buffalo
 I. cpribellus (Valenciennes),
 bigmouth buffalo
 I. niger (Rafinesque), black
 buffalo
 Minytrema melanops (Rafinesque),
 spotted sucker
 Moxostoma anisurum (Rafinesque),
 silver redhorse
 M. carinatum (Cope), river
 redhorse
 M. duquesnei (LeSueur), black
 redhorse
 M. erythrurum (Rafinesque), golden
 redhorse
 M. macrolepidotum (LeSueur),
 shorthead redhorse
 M. valenciennesi Jordan, greater SE
 redhorse
 Order Siluriformes (bullhead and
 catfish)
 Family Ictaluridae (bullhead and
 catfish)
 Ameriurus catus (Linnaeus), white X
 catfish
 A. melas (Rafinesque), black
 bullhead
 A. natalis (LeSueur), yellow
 bullhead
 A. nebulosus (LeSueur), brown
 bullhead
 Ictalurus furcatus (LeSueur),
 blue catfish
 I. punctatus (Rafinesque),
 channel catfish
 Norturus eleutherus Jordan,
 mountain madtom
 N. flavus Rafinesque, stonecat
 N. gyrinus (Mitchill), tadpole
 madtom
 N. miurus Jordan, brindled madtom
 N. nocturnus Jordan & Gilbert,
 frecled madtom
 N. stigmosus Taylor, northern
 madtom
 Pylodictis olivaris (Rafinesque),
 flathead catfish
 Order Salmoniformes (trout, slamon,
 whitefish)
 Family Esocidae (pikes)
 Esox americanus Gmelin, grass pickerel
 E. lucius Linnaeus, northern pike
 E. masquinongy Mitchill,
 muskellunge
 Family Umbridae (mudminnows)
 Umbra limi (Kirtland), central
 mudminnow
 Family Osmeridae (smelt)
 Osmerus mordax (Mitchill), X
 rainbow smelt
 Family Salmonidate (salmon
 and whitefish)
 Coregonus artedi LeSueur,
 cisco or lake herring SC
 C. clupeaformis (Mitchill),
 lake whitefish SE
 C. hoyi (Milner), bloater
 C. kiyi (Koelz), kiyi
 C. zenithicus (Jordan & Evermann
 shortjaw cisco
 Oncorhynchus kisutch (Walbaum),
 coho salmon X
 O. mykiss (Walbaum), rainbow X
 trout
 O. Ishawytscha (Walbaum),
 chinook salmon X
 Salmo salar Linnaeus,
 Atlantic salmon X
 trout
 (pirate perch)
 Aphredoderus sayanus
 (Gilliams), pirate perch
 Family Amblyopsidae
 (cavefish)
 Amblyopsis spelaea (DeKay),
 northern cavefish
 Typhilchthys subterraneus
 Girard, southern cavefish
 Order Percopsiformes
 Family Percopsidae
 (trout-perch)
 Percopsis omiscomaycus
 (Walbaum), trout-perch
 Order Gadiformes (cod)
 Family Lotidae (freshwater
 cod)
 Lota lota (Linnaeus), burbot
 Order Cyprinodonitiformes
 (topminnows, silversides)
 Family Fundulidae (topminnows)
 Fundulus catenatus (Storer),
 northern studfish
 F. diaphanus (LeSuer),
 banded killifish
 F. dispar (Agassiz), northern
 starhead topminnow
 F. notatus (Rafinesque),
 blackstripe topminnow
 F. olivaceus (Storer),
 blackspotted topminnow
 Family Poeciliidae (live-bearing fishes)
 Gambusia affinis
 (Baird & Girard), mosquitofish
 Order Atheriniformes
 Family Atherinidae (silversides)
 Labidesthes sicculus (Cope),
 brook silverside
 Menida beryllina (Cope), inland X
 silverside
 Order Mugiliformes
 Family Mugilidae
 Mugil cephalus Linnaeus, striped X
 mullet
 Order Gasterosteiformers X
 (sticklebacks)
 Family Gasterosteidae
 (sticklebacks)
 Culaea inconstans (Kirtland), X
 brook stickleback
 Gasterosteus aculeatus, X
 Linnaeus, threespine stickleback
 Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus),
 ninespine stickleback
 Order Scorpaeniformes
 Family Cottidae (sculpins)
 Cottus bairdi (Girard, mottled
 sculpin
 C. carolinae (Gill), banded
 sculpin
 C. cognatus Richardson, slimy
 sculpin
 Myoxocephalus thompsoni (Girard),
 deepwater sculpin
 Order Perciformes (basses, sunfish,
 perch, darters, gobies)
 Family Moronidae (temperate
 basses)
 Morone americana (Gmelin), white X
 perch
 M. chrysops (Rafinesque), white
 bass
 M. mississippiensis Jordan &
 Eigenmann, yellow bass
 M. saxatilis (Walbaum), striped X
 bass
 Family Elassomatidae (pygmy
 sunfish)
 Elassoma zonatum Jordan, banded
 pygmy sunfish
 Family Centrarchidae (black bass
 and sunfish)
 Ambloplites rupestris
 (Rafinesque), rock bass
 Centrarchus macropterus
 (Lacepede) flier
 Lepomis cyanellus Ralinesque,
 green sunfish
 L. gibbosus (Linnacus),
 pumpkinseed
 L. gulosus (Cuvier), warmouth
 L. humilis (Girard),
 orangespotted sunfish
 L. macrochirus Rafinesque,
 bluegill
 L. megalotis (Rafinesque),
 longear sunfish
 L. microlphus (Gunther),
 redear sunfish
 L. miniatus Jordan, redspotted
 sunfish
 L. symmetricus Forbes, bantam ST
 sunfish
 Micropterus dolomien Lacepede,
 smallmouth bass
 M. punctulatus (Rafinesque),
 spotted bass
 M. salmoides (Lacepede),
 largemouth bass
 pomoxis annularis Rafinesque,
 white crappie
 P. nigromaculatus (LeSueur),
 black crappie
 Family Percidae
 (perch and darters)
 Ammocrypta clara Jordan &
 Meek, western sand darter
 A. pellucida (Agassiz), SC, FC
 eastern sand darter
 Etheostoma asprigene (Forbes),
 mud darter
 E. blennioides Rafinesque,
 greenside darter
 E. caeruleum Storer,
 rainbow darter
 E. camurum (Cope),
 bluebreast darter
 E. chlorosoma (Hay),
 bluntnose darter
 E. exile (Girard), lowa darter
 E. Flabellare Rafinesque,
 fantail darter
 E. gracile (Girard),
 slough darter
 E. histrio Jordan & Gilbert,
 harlequin darter
 E. maculatum Kirtland, SC
 spotted darter
 E. microperca Jordan & Gilbert,
 least darter
 E. nigrum Rafinesque,
 johnny darter
 E. proeliare (Hay),
 cypress darter
 E. spectabile (Agassiz),
 orangethroat darter
 E. squamiceps Jordan, SC
 spottail darter
 E. tippecanoe Jordan & Evermann, SC
 Tippecanoe darter
 E. variatum Kirtland, SC
 variegate darter
 E. zonale (Cope), banded darter
 Perca flavescens (Mitcheill),
 yelow perch
 Percina caprodes (Rafinesque),
 logperch
 P. copelandi (Jordan), ST
 channel darter
 P. evides (Jordan & Copeland), SE
 gilt darter
 P. maculata (Girard), blackside darter
 P. phoxocephala (Nelson), slenderhead darter
 P. Sciera (Swain), dusky darter
 P. Shumardi (Girard), river darter
 P. vigil (Hay), saddleback darter
 Sander canadense (Griffith & Smith), sauger
 S. vitreus (Mitchill), walleye
 Family Sciaenidae (drum)
 Aplodinotus grunniens Rafinesque, freshwater drum
 Family Gobiidae
 Neogobius melanostomus (Pallas), round goby X
Extirpated:
 Atractosteus spatula (Lacepede), alligator gar Ex
 Alosa alabamae Jordan & Evermann, Alabama shad Ex
 Notropis anogenus Forbes, pugnose shiner Ex
 N. ariommus (Cope), popeye shiner Ex
 Coregonus nigripinnis (Gill), blackfin cisco Ex
 C. reighardi (Koelz), shortnose cisco Ex
 Esox masquinongy Mitchill, Great Lakes muskellunge Ex
 Esox masquinongy from the Great Lakes is extirpated,
 but another Ohio River form of
 questionable status exists.
 Lagochila lacera Jordan & Brayton, harelip sucker Ex
 Crystallaria asprella Jordan, crystal darter Ex
 Percina uranidea (Jordan & Gilbert), stargazing Ex
 darter
 Despite past confusion between the two species
 Percina uranidea and P. vigil, the two species did
 occur in Indiana (but are now extirpated; C. Gilbert,
 pers. comm.). Thompson & Cashner (1980) showed two
 records for P. uranidea from Indiana and a
 single record for P. vigil (as former name P.
 ouachitae) in the 1980 Atlas of North
 American Freshwater Fishes (Lee at al. 1980).

CLASS AMPHIBIA

 Order Caudata (salamanders)
 Family Cryptobranchidae (hellbenders)
 Crytobranchus alleganiensis (Daudin) hellbender SE, FC
 Family Proteidae (mudpuppies)
 Necturus macidosus (Rafinesque), mudpuppy SC
 Family Ambystomatidae (mole salamanders)
 Ambystoma barbouri Kraus & Petranka, streamside
 salamander
 A. jeffersonianum (Green), Jefferson's salamander
 A. laterale Hallowell, blue-spotted salamander SC
 A. maculatum (Shaw), spotted salamander
 A. opacum (Gravenhorst), marbled salamander
 A. texanum (Matthes), smallmouth salamander
 A. tigrinum (Green), tiger salamander
 Family Salamandridae (newts)
 Notophthalmus viridescens (Rafinesque), eastern new
 Family Plethodontidae (lungless salamanders)
 Aneides aeneus (Cope & Packard), green salamander SE
 Desmognathus fuscus (Green), northern
 dusky salamander
 Eurycea cirrigera (Green), two-lined salamander
 E.longicauda (Green), longtail salamander
 E.lucifuga Rafinesque, cave salamander
 Hemidactylium scutatum (Schlegel), four-toed ST
 salamander
 Plethodon cinereus (Green), redback salamander
 P. dorsails Cope, zigzag salamander
 P. glutinosus (Green), slimy salamander
 P. richmondi Netting & Mittleman, ravine
 salamander
 Pseudotriton ruber (Sonnini), northern red SE
 salamander
 Family Sirenidae (sirens)
 Siren intermedia LeConte, lesser siren
 Order Anura (toads and frogs)
 Family Pelobatidae (spadefoot toads)
 Scaphiopus holbrookii (Harlan), eastern spadefoot
 Family Bufonidae (toads)
 Bufo americanus Holbrook, American toad
 B. fowleri Hinkley, Fowler's toad
 Family Hylidae (tree frogs)
 Acris crepitans Baird, cricket frog
 Hyla claysoscelis Cope, Cope's gray tree frog
 H. versicolor LeConte, eastern gray treefrog
 Pseudacris crucifer Wied,
 spring peeper
 P. triseriata (Wied), western
 chorus frog
 Family Ranidae (true frogs)
 Rana areolata Baird & Girard, ST
 crawfish frog
 R. blairi Mecham et al., plains SC
 leopard frog
 R. clamitans Latreille, green
 frog
 R. catesbeiana Shaw, bullfrog
 R. pipiens Schreber, northern SC
 leopard frog
 R. palustris LeConte, pickerel
 frog
 R. utricularia Harlan, southern
 leopard frog
 R. sylvatica LeConte, wood frog
Hypothetical
 Gyrinophilus porphyriticus
 (Green), spring salamander
 Pseudacris brachyphona (Cope),
 mountain chorus frog
 Pseudotriton montanus Baird,
 mud salamander
 Gastrophryne carolinensis
 (Holbrook), eastern
 narrowmouth toad
 Hyla cinerea (Schneider), green
 treefrog
 H. avivoca Viosca, bird-voiced
 treefrog

CLASS REPTILIA

 Order Testudines (turtles)
 Family Chelydridae (snapping
 turtles)
 Chelydra serpentina Linnaeus,
 common snapping turtle
 Macroclemys temminckii SE
 (Troost), alligator snapping
 turtle
 Family Kinosternidae (musk and
 mud turtles)
 Kinosternon subrubrum ST
 (Lacepede), eastern mud
 turtle)
 Sternotherus odoratus
 (Latreille), common musk
 turtle
 Family Emydidae (box and water
 turtles)
 Chrysemys picts (Schneider),
 painted turtle
 Clemmsys guttata (Schneider), ST
 spotted turtle
 Emydoidea blandingii SC
 (Holbrook), Blanding's turtle
 Graptemys geographica
 (LeSueur), map turtle
 G. pseudogeographica (Gray),
 false map turtle
 G. ouachitensis Cagle,
 Ouachita map turtle
 Pseudemys concinna (LeConte),
 river cooter
 Terrapene carolina (Linnaeus),
 eastern box turtle
 T. ornata (Agassiz), ornate SC
 box turtle
 Trachemys scripta (Schoepff),
 red-eared turtle
 Family Trionychidae (softshell turtles)
 Apalone mutica LeSueur, smooth softshell
 A. spinifera (LeSueur), spiny softshell
 Order Squamata (lizards and snakes)
 Family Iguanidae (iguanids)
 Sceloporus undulatus Latreille, eastern
 fence lizard
 Family Anguidae (glass lizards)
 Ophisaurus attenuatus Cope,
 slender glass lizard
 Family Teiidae (whiptails)
 Cnemidophorus sexlineatus
 (Linnaeus), six-lined racerunner
 Family Scincidae (skinks)
 Eumeces fasciatus (Linnaeus),
 five-lined skink
 E. laticeps (Schneider), broad-
 headed skink
 Scincella lateralis (Say), ground skink
 Family Colubridae (common snakes)
 Carphophis amoenus (Say), worm snake
 Cemophora coccinea (Blumenbach), scarlet ST
 snake
 Coluber constrictor Linnaeus, black racer
 Clonophis kirtlandii (Kennicott), ST, FC
 Kirtland's snake
 Diadophis punctatus (Linnaeus),
 northern ringneck snake
 Elaphe obsoleta (Say), black rat snake
 E. vulpina (Baird & Girard),
 western fox snake
 Heterodon platirhinos Latreille,
 eastern hognose snake
 Lampropeltis calligaster
 (Harlan), prairie kingsnake
 L. getulus (Linnaeus), common kingsnake
 L. triangulum (Lacepede), eastern
 milksnake
 Nerodia erythrogaster (Forster), ST, FC
 northern copperbelly
 N. rhombifer (Hallowell),
 diamondback water snake
 N. sipedon (Linnaeus), banded water snake
 Opheodrys aestivas (Linnaeus), SC
 rough green snake
 O. vernalis (Harlan), smooth green snake ST
 Pituophis catenifer (Blainville),
 bull snake
 Regina septemvittata (Say), queen snake
 Storeria dekayi (Holbrook), brown snake
 S. occipitomaculata (Storer),
 red-bellied snake
 Tantilla coronata (Baird & Girard), ST
 crowned snake
 Thamnophis butleri (Cope), Butler's ST
 garter snake
 T. proximus (Say), western ribbon snake SC
 T. radix (Baird & Girard), plains
 garter snake
 T. sauritus (Linnaeus), eastern
 ribbon snake
 T. sirtalis (Linnaeus), common
 garter snake
 Virginia valeriae Baird & Girard,
 western earth snake
 Family Crotalidae (pit vipers)
 Agkistrodon controtrix
 (Linnaeus), northern copperhead
 A. piscivorus Lacepede, cottonmouth ST
 Crotalus horridus Linnaeus, timber ST
 rattlesnake
 Sistrurus catenatus (Rafinesque), ST, FC
 eastern massasauga
 Hypothetical:
 Eumeces anthracinus (Baird), coal skink
 Regina grahami Baird & Girard,
 Graham's water snake
 Tropidoclonian lineatum
 (Hallowell), lined snake
 Extirpated:
 Farancia abacura (Holbrook), mud snake EX

CLASS MAMMALIA

 Order Didelphimorphia (American opossums)
 Family Didelphidae (opossums)
 Didelphis virginiana Kerr, opossum
 Order Insectivora (shrews and moles)
 Family Soricidae (shrews)
 Blarina brevicauda (Say), short-tailed
 shrew
 Cryptotis parva (Say), least shrew
 Sorex cinereus Kerr, masked shrew
 S. fumeus Miller, smoky shrew
 S. hoyi Baird, pygmy shrew
 S. longirostris Bachman, southeastern
 shrew
 Family Talpidae (moles)
 Condylura cristata (Rafinesque) SC
 star-nosed mole
 Scalopus aquaticus (Linnaeus),
 eastern mole
 Order Chiroptera (bats)
 Family Vespertilionidae
 (vespertilionid bats)
 Eptesicus fuscus (Beauvois), big
 brown bat
 Lasionycteris noctivagans
 (LeConte), silver-haired bat
 Lasiurus borealis (Muller), red bat
 L. cinereus (Beauvois), hoary bat
 Myotis austroriparius (Rhoads), SE
 southeastern myotis
 M. grisescens (Howell), gray myotis FE
 M. lucifugus (LeConte), little
 brown myotis
 M. septentrionalis Trouessart,
 Northern myotis
 M. sodalis Miller & Allen, FE
 Indiana myotis
 Nycticeius humeralis FE
 (Rafinesque), evening bat
 Pipistrellus subflavus (Cuvier),
 eastern pipistrelle
 Corynorhinus rafinesquii SC
 (Lesson), Rafinesque's big-eared bat
 Order Lagomorpha (rabbits, hares, and pikas)
 Family Leporidae (rabbits and hares)
 Sylvilagus aquaticus (Bachman), SE
 swamp rabbit
 S. floridanus (Allen), cottontail rabbit
 Order Rodentia (rodents)
 Family Sciuridae (squirrels)
 Glaucomys volans (Linnaeus),
 southern flying squirrel
 Marmota monax (Linnaeus), woodchuck
 Sciurus carolinensis Gmelin, gray
 squirrel
 S. niger Linnaeus, for squirrel
 Spermophilus franklinii (Sabine), SE
 Franklin's ground squirrel
 S. tridecemlineatus (Mitchill),
 thirteen-lined ground squirrel
 Tamias striatus (Linneaus),
 eastern chipmunk
 Tamiasciurus hudsonicus
 (Erxleben), red squirrel
 Family Geomyidae (pocket gophers)
 Geomys bursarius (Shaw), plains SC
 pocket gopher
 Family Castoridae (beavers)
 Castor canadensis Kuhl, beaver reintroduced
 The beaver was extirpated by
 1900 but was reintroduced.
 Family Muridae (rats, voles, and mice)
 Subfamily Sigmodontinae
 Neotoma magister (Baird), SE
 Allegheny woodrat
 Peromyscus leucopus
 (Rafinesque), white-footed mouse
 P. maniculatus (Wagner), deer mouse
 Reithrodontomys megalotis
 (Baird), western harvestmouse
 Subfamily Arvicolinae
 Microtus ochroguster (Wagner),
 prairie vole
 M. pennsylvanicus (Ord), meadow vole
 M. pinetorum (LeConte), woodland vole
 Ondatra ziethicus (Linnaeus), muskrat
 Synaptomys cooperi Baird,
 southern bog lemming
 Subfamily Murinae
 Mus musculus Linnaeus, house mouse X
 Rattus norvegicus (Berkenhout), X
 Norway rat
 The black rat, Rattus rattus,
 was extirpated about 1845 but
 is not included above because
 it was not native.
 Family Dipodidae (Zapodinae) (jumping mice)
 Zapus hudsonius (Zimmermann),
 meadow jumping mouse
 Order Carnivora (canids)
 Family Canidae (canids)
 Canis latrans Say, coyote
 Urocyon cinereoargenteus
 (Schreber), gray fox
 Vulpes vulpes (Linnaeus), red fox
 Family Procyonidae (raccoons and allies)
 Procyon lotor (Linnaeus), raccoon
 Family Mustelidae (weasels, badger, otter)
 Lutra canadensis (Schrebder), river otter reintroduced
 The river otter became extirpated in
 1942, but was reintroduced between
 1995 and 1999.
 Mustela frenata Lichtenstein,
 long-tailed weasel
 M. nivalis (Linnaeus), least weasel SC
 M. vison Schreber, mink
 Taxidea taxus (Schreber), badger ST
 Family Mephitidae (skunks)
 Mephitis mephitis (Schreber),
 striped skunk
 Family Felidae (cat)
 Lynx rufus (Schreber), bobcat SE
 Order Artiodactyla
 Family Cervidae (deer)
 Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann), reintroduced
 white-tailed deer
 The white-tailed deer was extirpated
 by 1900 but was reintroduced
Hypothetical
 Myotis leibi (Audubon &
 Bachman), Leib's bat
 Reithrodontomys humulis
 (Audubon & Bachman), eastern harvest
 mouse
Extirpated
 Bison bison (Linnaeus), bison
 Canis lupus Linnacus, timber (gray) wolf
 C. rufus (Audubon & Bachman), red wolf
 Cervus elaphus Linnaeus, elk (wapiti)
 Erethizon dorsatwn (Linnaeus), porcupine
 Felis concolor Linnacus, mountain lion
 Galo galo (Linnacus), wolverine
 Lynx lynx Kerr, lynx
 Martes pennanti (Erxleben), fisher
 Spilogale putorius (Linnaeus), eastern
 spotted skunk
 Ursus americanus Pallas, black bear

Table 2

Checklist of the birds of Indiana. Range is indicated as statewide (I),
north (N), south (S), west (W), east (E), and central (C), and various
combinations. General abundance is listed roughly as abundant (A),
common (C), occasional (O), and rare (R). Seasonal occurrence is given
as summer resident (S), winter resident (W), migrant (M), accidental
(A), hypothetical (H), breeder (*), and former breeder [(*)]. Status is
listed as federally endangered (FE), federally threatened (FT), and
candidates for federal listing (FC). State designations are endangered
(SE), threatened (ST), and special concern (SC). Exotic or introduced
species are indicated by "X." Extripated species are listed with
approximate date of disappearnce.

 Relative
 Range abundance

CLASS AVES
 Order Gaviiformes (loons)
 Family Gaviidae (loons)
 Gavia adamsii (Gray), yellow- I R
 billed loon
 G. immer (Brunnich), common loon I C
 G. pacifica (Lawrence), pacific I R
 loon
 G. stellata (Pontoppidan), red- I O
 throated loon
Order Podicipediformes (grebes)
 Family Podicipedidae (grebes)
 Aechmophorus occidentalis I R
 (Lawrence), western grebe
 Podiceps auritus (Linnaeus), I O
 horned grebe
 P. grisegena (Boddaert),red- I R
 necked grebe
 P. nigricollis Brehm, eared grebe I R
 Podilymbus podiceps (Linnaeus), I C
 pied-billed grebe
 Order Procellariiformes (tube-nosed
 swimmers)
 Family Hydrobatidae (storm- I R
 petrels)
 Oceanodroma castro (Harcourt), I R
 band-rumped storm-petrel
 Order Pelecaniformes (totipalmate
 swimmers)
 Family Sulidae (boobies and
 gannets)
 Morus bassanus (Linnaeus), I R
 northern gannet
 Family Pelecanidae (pelicans)
 Pelecanus erythrorhynchos Gmelin, I R
 American white pelican
 P. occidentalis Linnaeus, brown I R
 pelican
 Family Phalacrocoracidae
 (cormorants)
 Phalacrocorax auritus (Lesson), I O
 double-crested cormorant
 Family Fregatidae (frigatebirds)
 Fregata magnificens Mathews, I R
 magnificent frigatebird
 Order Ciconiiformes (herons,
 ibises, storks, and allies)
 Family Ardeidae (bitterns and
 herons)
 Ardea alba (Linnaeus), great I O
 egret
 Ardea herodias Linnaeus, great I C
 blue heron
 Botaurus lentiginosus (Rackett), I R
 American bittern
 Bubulcus ibis (Linnaeus), cattle I R
 egret
 Butorides virescens (Linnaeus), I C
 Butorides virescens (Linnaeus), green heron
 Egretta caerulea (Linnaeus), little blue heron I R
 E. rufescens (Gmelin), reddish egret I R
 E. thula (Molina), snowy egret I R
 E. tricolor (Muller), tricolored heron I R
 Ixobrychus exilis (Gmelin), least bittern I R
 Nyctanassa violacea (Linnaeus), S R
 yellow-crowned night-heron
 Nycticorax nycticorax (Linnaeus), I R
 black-crowned night-heron
 Family Threskiornithidae (ibises)
 Eudocimus albus (Linnaeus), white ibis S R
 Plegadis chihi (Vieillot), white-faced ibis I R
 P. falcinellus (Linnaeus), glossy ibis I R
 Family Ciconiidae (storks)
 Mycteria americana Linnaeus, wood stork S R
 Family Cathartidae (American vultures)
 Cathartes aura (Linnaeus), turkey vulture I C
 Coragyps atratus (Bechstein), black vulture S R
 Order Anseriformes (swans, geese, and ducks)
 Family Anatidae (swans, geese and ducks)
 Aix sponsa (Linnaeus), wood duck I C
 Anas acuta Linnaeus, northern pintail I O
 A. americana Gmelin, American wigeon I O
 A. clypeata Linnaeus, northern shoveler I O
 A. crecca (Linnaeus), green-winged teal I O
 A. cyanoptera Viellot, cinnamon teal I R
 A. discors Linnaeus, blue-winged teal I O
 A. penelope Linnaeus, Eurasian Wigeon I R
 A. platyrhynchos Linnaeus, mallard I C
 A. rubripes Brewster, American black duck I C
 A strepera Linnaeus, gadwall I O
 Anser albifrons (Scopoli), I R
 greater white-fronted goose
 Aythya affinis (Eyton), lesser I C
 scaup
 A. americana (Eyton), redhead I O
 A. collaris (Donovan), ring- I O
 necked duck
 A. marila (Linnaeus), greater N O
 scaup
 A. valisineria (Wilson), I O
 canvasback
 Branta bernicla (Linnaeus), brant N R
 B. canadensis (Linnaeus), Canada I A
 goose
 Bucephala albeola (Linnaeus), I O
 bufftehead
 B. clangula (Linnaeus), common I C
 goldeneye
 B. islandica (Gmelin), Barrow's N R
 goldeneye
 Chen caerulescens (Linnacus), I O
 snow goose
 C. rossii (Cassin), Ross's goose I R
 Clangula hyemalis (Linnacus), N O
 long-tailed duck
 Cygnus buccinator Richardson, I R
 trumpeter swan
 C. colunbianus (Ord), tundra swan I O
 C. olor (Gmelin), mute swan I O
 Dendrocygna bicolor (Vieillot), I R
 fulvous whistling-duck
 Histrionicus histrionicus N R
 (Linnaeus), harlequin duck
 Lophodytes cucullatus (Linnacus), I O
 hooded merganser
 Melanitta fusca (Linnaeus), N R
 white-winged scoter
 M. nigra (Linnaeus), black scoter N R
 M. perspicillata (Linnaeus), surf N R
 scoter
 Mergus Merganser Linnaeus, common I O
 merganser
 M. serrator Linnacus, red- I O
 breasted merganser
 Oxyura jamaicensis (Gmelin), I O
 ruddy duck
 Somateria spectabilis (Linnaeus), N R
 king eider
 Order Falconiformes (diurnal birds
 of prey)
 Family Accipitridae (kites,
 eagles, hawks, and allies)
 Accipiter cooperii (Bonaparte), I O
 Cooper's hawk
 A. gentilis (Linnaeus), northern N R
 goshawk
 A. striatus Vieillot, sharp- I O
 shinned hawk
 Aquila chrysaetos (Linnaeus), I O
 golden eagle
 Buteo jamaicensis (Gmelin), red- I A
 tailed hawk
 B. lagopus (Pontoppidan), rough- I O
 legged hawk
 B. lineatus (Gmelin), red- I O
 shouldered hawk
 B. playpterus (Vieillot), broad- I O
 winged hawk
 B. regalis (Gray), ferruginous W R
 hawk
 B. swainsoni Bonaparte, W R
 Swainson's hawk
 Circus cyaneus (Linnaeus), I O
 northern harrier
 Elanoides forficatus (Linnaeus), I R
 swallow-tailed kite
 Elanus leucurus (Vieillot), I R
 white-tailed kite
 Family Falconidae (falcons)
 Falco columbarius Linnaeus, I R
 merlin
 F. mexicanus Schlegel, prairie W R
 falcon
 F. peregrinus Tunstall, I R
 peregrine falcon
 F. rusticolus Linnaeus, N R
 gyrfalcon
 F. sparverius Linnaeus, American I C
 kestrel
 Haliaeetus leucocephalus I R
 (Linnaeus), bald eagle
 Ictinia mississippiensis I R
 (Wilson), Mississippi kite
 Pandion haliaetus (Linnaeus), I R
 osprey
 Order Galliformes (gallinaceous
 birds)
 Family Phasianidae (grouse,
 turkey, and quail)
 Bonasa umbellus (Linnaeus), S O
 ruffed grouse
 Meleagris gallopavo Linnaeus, I O
 wild turkey
 Phasianus colchicus Linnaeus, N O
 ring-necked pheasant
 Family Odontophoridae (quail)
 Colinus virginianus (Linnaeus), I C
 northern bobwhite
 Order Gruiformes (cranes, rails,
 and allies)
 Family Rallidae (rails,
 gallinules, and coots)
 Coturnicops noveboracensis I R
 (Gmelin), yellow rail
 Fulica americana (Gmelin), I O
 American coot
 Gallinula chloropus (Linnaeus), I R
 common moorhen
 Laterallus jamaicensis (Gmelin), I R
 black rail
 Porphyrio martinica (Linnaeus), I R
 purple gallinule
 Porzana carolina (Linnaeus), I O
 sora
 Rallus elegans Audubon, king I R
 rail
 R. limicola Vieillot, Virginia I R
 rail
 Family Gruidae (cranes)
 Grus canadensis (Linnaeus), I O
 sandhill crane
 G. grus (Linnaeus), common crane I R
 Order Charadriiformes (shorebirds,
 gulls, auks, and allies)
 Family Charadriidae (plovers)
 Charadrius alexandrinus I R
 Linnaeus, snowy plover
 C. melodus Ord, piping plover I R
 C. semipalmatus Bonaparte, I O
 semipalmated plover
 C. vociferus Linnaeus, killdeer I C
 C. wilsonia Ord, Wilson's plover I R
 Pluvialis dominica (Muller), I O
 American golden-plover
 P. squatarola (Linnaues), black- I O
 bellied plover
 Family Recurvirostridae (stilts
 and avocets)
 Himantopus mexicanus (Muller), I R
 black-necked stilt
 Recurvirostra americana Gmelin, I R
 American avocet
 Family Scolopacidae (sandpipers,
 phalaropes, and allies)
 Actitis macularia (Linnaeus), I O
 spotted sandpiper
 Arenaria interpres (Linnaeus), I R
 ruddy turnstone
 Bartramia longicauda I R
 (Bechstein), upland sandpiper
 Calidris acuminata (Horsfield), I R
 sharp-tailed sandpiper
 C. alba (Pallas), sanderling I R
 C. alpina (Linnaeus), dunlin I O
 C. bairdii (Coues), Baird's I R
 sandpiper
 C. canutus (Linnaeus), red knot I R
 C. ferrugineu (Pontoppidan), I R
 curlew sandpiper
 C. fuscicollis (Vieillot), I R
 white-rumped sandpiper
 C. himantopus (Bonaparte), stilt I R
 sandpiper
 C. maritima (Brunnich), purple I R
 sandpiper
 C. mauri (Cabanis), western I O
 sandpiper
 C. melanotos (Vieillot), I O
 pectoral sandpiper
 C. minutilla (Vieillot), least I O
 sandpiper
 C. pusillo (Linnaeus), I O
 semipalmated sandpiper
 Catoptrophorus semipalmatus I R
 (Gmelin), willet
 Gallinago delicata (Ord), I O
 Wilson's snipe
 Limnodromus griseus (Gmelin), I O
 short-billed dowitcher
 L. scolopaceus (Say), long- I O
 billed dowitcher
 Limosa fedoa (Linnaeus), marbled I R
 godwit
 L. haemastica (Linnaeus), I R
 Hudsonian godwit
 Numenius phaeopus (Linnaeus), I R
 whimbrel
 Phalaropus fulicarius (Linnaeus), I R
 red phalarope
 P. lobatus (Linnaeus), red-necked I R
 phalarope
 P. tricolor (Vieillot), Wilson's I R
 phalarope
 Philomachus pugnax (Linnaeus), I R
 ruff
 Scolopax minor Gmelin, American I O
 woodcock
 Tringa flavipes (Gmelin), lesser I O
 yellowlegs
 T. melanoleuca (Gmelin), greater I O
 yellowlegs
 T. solitaria Wilson, solitary I O
 sandpiper
 Tryngites subruficollis I R
 (Vieillot), buff-breasted
 sandpiper
Family Laridae (jaegers, gulls,
terns, and skimmers)
 Chlidonias leucopterus (Temminck), N R
 white-winged tern
 C. niger (Linnaeus), black tern I O
 Larus argentatus Pontoppidan, I C
 herring gull
 L. atricilla Linnaeus, laughing I R
 gull
 L. californicus Lawrence, I R
 California gull
 L. canus Linnaeus, mew gull I R
 L. delawarensis Ord, ring-billed I C
 gull
 L. fuscus Linnaeus, Iesser black- I R
 backed gull
 L. glaucoides Meyer, Iceland gull I R
 L. hyperboreus Gunnerus, glaucous I R
 gull
 L. marinus Linnaeus, great black- I R
 backed gull
 L. minutus Pallas, little gull I R
 L. philadelphia (Ord), Bonaparte's I O
 gull
 L. pipixcan Wagler, Franklin's I R
 gull
 L. ridibundus Linnaeus, black- I R
 headed gull
 L. schistisagus Stejneger, slaty- I R
 backed gull
 L. thayeri Brooks, Thayer's gull I R
 Rhodostethia rosea (MacGillivray), I R
 Ross's gull
 Rissa tridactyla (Linnaeus), I R
 black-legged kittiwake
 Rynchops niger Linnaeus, black I R
 skimmer
 Stercorarius logicaudus Vieillot, N R
 long-tailed jaeger
 S. parasiticus (Linnaeus), N R
 parasitic jaeger
 S. pomarinus (Temminck), pomarine N R
 jaeger
 Sterna antillarum (Lesson), least I R
 tern
 S. caspia Pallas, Caspian tern I O
 S. dougallii Montagu, roseate I R
 tern
 S. forsteri Nuttall, Forster's I O
 tern
 S. fuscata Linnaeus, sooty tern I R
 S. hirundo Linnaeus, common tern I O
 S. maxima Boddaert, royal tern I R
 S. nilotica Gmelin, gull-billed I R
 tern
 S. paradisaea Pontoppidan, arctic I R
 tern
 Xema sabini (Sabine), Sabine's I R
 gull
 Family Alcidae (auks, murres, and
 puffins)
 Brachyramphus perdix (Pallas), I R
 long-billed murrelet
 Synthliboramphus antiquus I R
 (Gmelin), ancient murrelet
 Uria lomvia (Linnaeus), I R
 thick-billed murre
 Order Columbiformes (pigeons and
 doves)
 Family Columbidae (pigeons and
 doves)
 Columba fasciata Say, I R
 band-tailed pigeon
 C. livia Gmelin, rock dove I A
 Columbina passerina (Linnaeus), I R
 common ground-dove
 Streptopelia decaocto I R
 (Frivaldsky), Eurasian
 collared-dove
 Zenaida asiatica (Linnacus), I R
 white-winged dove
 Z. macroura (Linnaeus), mourning I R
 dove
 Order Cuculiformes (cuckoos)
 Family Cuculidae (cuckoos)
 Coccyzus americanus (Linnaeus), I O
 yellow-billed cuckoo
 C. erythrophthalmus (Wilson), I O
 black-billed cuckoo
 Crotophaga sulcirostris Swainson, I R
 groove-billed ani
 Order Strigiformes (owls)
 Family Tytonidae (barn owls)
 Tyto alba (Scopoli), barn owl I R
 Family Strigidae (typical owls)
 Aegolius acadicus (Gmelin), I R
 northern saw-whet owl
 Asio flammeus (Pontoppidan), I R
 short-eared owl
 A. otus (Linnaeus), long-eared I R
 owl
 Athene cunicularia (Molina), W R
 burrowing owl
 Bubo virginianus (Gmelin), great I C
 horned owl
 Nyctea scandiaca (Linnaeus), snow N R
 owl
 Otus asio (Linnaeus), eastern I C
 screech-owl
 Strix varia Barton, barred owl I O
 Order Caprimulgiformes
 goatsuckers, oilbirds, and allies)
 Family Caprimulgidae
 (goatsuckers)
 Caprimulgus carolinensis Gmelin, S R
 chuck-will's-widow
 C. vociferus Wilson, whip-poor- I C
 will
 Chordeiles minor (Forster), I O
 common nighthawk
 Order Apodiformes (swifts and
 hummingbirds)
 Family Apodidae (swifts)
 Chaetura pelagica (Linnaeus), I A
 chimney swift
 Family Trochilidae (hummingbords)
 Archilochus colubris (Linnaeus), I C
 ruby-throated hummingbird
 Selasphorus rufus (Gmelin), I R
 rufous hummingbird
 Order Coraciiformes (todies,
 motmots, and kingfishers)
 Family Alcedinidae (kingfishers)
 Ceryle alcyon (Linnaeus), belted I O
 kingfisher
 Order Piciformes (woodpeckers and
 allies)
 Family Picidae (woodpeckers)
 Colaptes auratus (Linnaeus), I C
 northern flicker
 Dryocopus pileatus (Linnaeus), I O
 pileated woodpecker
 Melanerpes carolinus (Linnaeus), I C
 red-bellied woodspecker
 M. erythrocephalus (Linnaeus), I O
 red-headed woodpecker
 Picoides arcticus (Swainson), N R
 black-backed woodpecker
 P. pubescens (Linnaeus), downy I C
 woodpecker
 P. villosus (Linnaeus), hairy I C
 woodpecker
 Sphyrapicus varius (Linnaeus), I R
 yellow-bellied sapsucker
 Order Passeriformes (passerine
 birds)
 Family Tyrannidae (flycatchers)
 Contopus cooperi (Nuttall), I R
 olive-sided flycatcher
 C. sordidulus Sclater, western W R
 wood-pewee
 C. virens (Linnaeus), eastern I C
 wood-pewee
 Empidonax alnorum Brewster, alder N R
 flycatcher
 E. flaviventris (Baird and Baird), I R
 yellow-bellied flycatcher
 E. minimus (Baird and Baird), I R
 least flycatcher
 E. traillii (Audubon), willow I O
 flycatcher
 E. virescens (Vieillot), Acadian I O
 flycatcher
 Myiarchus crinitus (Linnaeus), I O
 great crested flycatcher
 Pyrocephalus rubinus (Boddaert), I R
 vermilion flycatcher
 Sayornis phoebe (Latham), eastern I O
 phoebe
 S. saya (Bonaparte), Say's phoebe I R
 Tyrannus forficatus (Gmelin), S R
 scissor-tailed flycatcher
 T. tyrannus (Linnaeus), eastern I C
 kingbird
 T. verticalis Say, western I R
 kingbird
 Family Laniidae (shrikes)
 Lanius excubitor Linnaeus, N R
 northern shrike
 L. ludovicianus Linnaeus, I R
 loggerhead shrike
 Family Vireonidae (vireos)
 Vireo bellii Audubon, Bell's vireo W R
 V. flavifrons (Vieillot), yellow- I O
 throated vireo
 V. gilvus (Vieillot), warbling I C
 vireo
 V. griseus (Boddaert), white-eyed I C
 vireo
 V. olivaceus (Linnaeus), red-eyed I C
 vireo
 V. philadelphicus (Cassin), I R
 Philadelphia vireo
 V. solitarius (Wilson), blue- I R
 headed vireo
 Family Corvidae (jays, magpies, and
 crows)
 Aphelocoma californica Vigors, I R
 western scrub-jay
 Corvus brachyrhynchos Brehm, I A
 American crow
 C. corax Linnaeus, common raven I R
 C. ossifragus Wilson, fish crow SW R
 Cyanocitta cristata (Linnaeus), I A
 blue jay
 Pica hudsonia (Linnaeus), black- I R
 billed magpie
 Family Alaudidae (larks)
 Eremophila alpestris (Linnaeus), I C
 horned lark
 Family Hirundinidae (swallows)
 Hirundo rustica Linnaeus, barn I A
 swallow
 Petrochelidon pyrrhonota I R
 Vieillot, cliff swallow
 Progne subis (Linnaeus), purple I C
 martin
 Riparia riparia (Linnaeus), bank I O
 swallow
 Stelgidopteryx serripennis I O
 (Audubon), northern rough-winged
 swallow
 Tachycineta bicolor (Vieillot), I O
 tree swallow
 Family Paridae (titmice)
 Baeolophus bicolor Linnaeus, I C
 tufted titmouse
 Poecile atricapilla Linnaeus, N C
 black-capped chickadee
 P. carolinensis Audubon, Carolina S C
 chickadee
 P. hudsonia Forster, boreal I R
 chickadee
 Family Sittidae (nuthatches)
 Sitta canadensis Linnaeus, red- I O
 breasted nuthatch
 S. carolinensis Latham, white- I C
 breasted nuthatch
 Family Certhiidae (creepers)
 Certhia americana Bonaparte, I O
 brown creeper
 Family Troglodytidae (wrens)
 Cistothorus palustris (Wilson), I R
 marsh wren
 C. platensis (Latham), sedge wren I R
 Salpinctes obsoletus (Say), rock I R
 wren
 Thryomanes bewickii (Audubon), I R
 Bewick's wren
 Thryothorus ludovicianus (Latham) I C
 Carolina wren
 Troglodytes aedon Vieillot, house I C
 wren
 T. troglodytes (Linnaeus), winter I O
 wren
 Family Regulidae (Kinglets)
 Regulus calendula (Linnaeus), I R
 ruby-crowned kinglet
 R. satrapa Lichtenstein, golden- I C
 crowned kinglet
 Family Sylviidae (old world
 warblers)
 Polioptila caerulea (Linnaeus), I C
 blue-gray gnatcatcher
 Family Turdidae (thrushes)
 Catharus fuscescens (Stephens) I O
 veery
 C. guttatus (Pallas), hermit I O
 thrust
 C. minimus (Lafresnaye), gray- I O
 cheeked thrush
 C. ustulatus (Nuttall), Swainson's I O
 thrush
 Hylocichla mustelina (Gmelin), I C
 wood thrush
 Ixoreus naevius (Gmelin), varied I R
 thrush
 Myadestes townsendi (Audubon), I R
 Townsend's solitaire
 Oenanthe oenanthe (Linnaeus), I R
 northern wheatear
 Sialia currucoides (Bechstein), I R
 mountain bluebird
 S. sialis (Linnaeus) eastern I C
 bluebird
 Turdus migratorius Linnaeus, I A
 American robin
 Family Mimidae (mimic thrushes)
 Dumetella carolinensis (Linaeus), I C
 gray catbird
 Mimus polyglottos (Linnaeus), I C
 northern mockingbird
 Toxostoma rufum (Linnaeus), brown I C
 thrasher
 Family Sturnidae (starlings)
 Sturnus vulgaris Linnaeus, I A
 European starling
 Family Motacillidae (wagtails and
 pipits)
 Anthus rubescens (Tunstall), I R
 American pipit
 Family Bombycillidae (waxwings)
 Bombycilla cedrorum Vieillot, I O
 cedar waxwing
 B. garrulus (Linnaeus), Bohemian N R
 waxwing
 Family Parulidae (new world
 warblers)
 Dendroica caerulescens (Gmelin), I O
 black-throated blue warbler
 D. castanea (Wilson), bay-breasted I O
 warbler
 D. cerulea (Wilson), cerulean I O
 warbler
 D. coronata (Linnaeus), I C
 yellow-rumped warbler
 D. discolor (Vieillot), prairie I O
 warbler
 D. dominica (Linnaeus), I O
 yellow-throated warbler
 D. fusca (Muller), blackburnian I O
 warbler
 D. kirtlandii (Baird), Kirkland's I R
 warbler
 D. magnolia (Wilson), magnolia I O
 warbler
 D. nigrescens (Townsend), I R
 black-throated gray warbler
 D. palmarum (Gmelin), palm warbler I O
 D. pensylvanica (Linnaeus), N O
 chestnut-sided warbler
 D. petechia (Linnaeus), yellow I C
 warbler
 D. pinus (Wilson), pine warbler S O
 D. striata (Forster), blackpoll I O
 warbler
 D. tigrina (Gmelin), Cape May I O
 wabler
 D. townsendi (Townsend), I R
 Townsend's warbler
 D. virens (Gmelin), black-throated I O
 green warbler
 Geothlypis trichas (Linnaeus), I C
 common yellowthroat
 Helmitheros vermivorus (Gmelin), I R
 worm-eating warbler
 Iceteria virens (Linnaeus), I C
 yellow-breasted chat
 Limnothlypis swainsonii (Audubon), SW R
 Swainson's warbler
 Mniotilta varia (Linnaeus), black- I O
 and-white warbler
 Oporornis agilis (Wilson), I R
 Connecticut warbler
 O. formosus (Wilson), Kentucky I O
 warbler
 O. philadelphia (Wilson), mourning I R
 warbler
 Parula americana (Linnaeus), I O
 northern parula
 Protonotaria citrea (Boddaert), I O
 prothonotary warbler
 Seiurus aurocapillus (Linnaeus), I O
 ovenbird
 S. motacilla (Vieillot), Louisiana I O
 waterthrush
 S. noveboracensis (Gmelin), I R
 northern waterthrush
 Setophaga ruticilla (Linnaeus), I O
 American redstart
 Vermivora celata (Say), orange- I O
 crowned warbler
 V. chrysoptera (Linnaeus), golden- I R
 winged warbler
 V. peregrina (Wilson), Tennessee I C
 warbler
 V. pinus (Linnaeus), blue-winged I O
 warbler
 V. ruficapilla (Wilson), Nashville I O
 warbler
 Wilsonia canadensis (Linnaeus), N R
 Canada warbler
 W. citrina (Boddaert), hooded I R
 warbler
 W. pusilla (Wilson), Wilson's I O
 warbler
 Family Thraupidae (tanagers)
 Piranga ludoviciana (Wilson), W R
 western tanager
 P. olivacea (Gmelin), scarlet I O
 tanager
 P. rubra (Linnaeus), summer S O
 tanager
 Family Emberizidae (new world
 sparrows)
 Aimophila aestivalis S R
 (Lichtenstein), Bachman's sparrow
 A. cassinii (Woodhouse), Cassin's I R
 sparrow
 Ammodramus henslowii (Audubon), I R
 Henslow's sparrow
 A. leconteii (Audubon), LeConte's I R
 sparrow
 A. nelsoni (Allen), Nelson's I R
 sharp-tailed sparrow
 A. savannarum (Gmelin), I O
 grasshopper sparrow
 Calamospiza melanocorys Stejneger, I R
 lark bunting
 Calcarius lapponicus (Linnaeus), I O
 Lapland longspur
 C. mccownii (Lawrence), McCown's I R
 longspur
 C. pictus (Swainson), Smith's I R
 longspur
 Chondestes grammacus (Say), lark I R
 sparrow
 Junco hyemalis (Linnaeus), dark- I A
 eyed junco
 Melospiza georgiana (Latham), swam I O
 sparrow
 M. lincolnii (Audubon), Lincoln's I R
 sparrow
 M. melodia (Wilson), song sparrow I A
 Passerculus sandwichensis (Gmelin) I O
 savannah sparrow
 Passerella iliaca (Merrem), fox I O
 sparrow
 Pipilo chlorurus (Audubon), green- I R
 tailed towhee
 P. erythrophthalmus (Linnaeus), I O
 eastern towhee
 P. maculatus (Swainson), spotted I R
 towhee
 Plectrophenax nivalis (Linnaeus), I O
 snow bunting
 Pooecetes gramineus (Gmelin), I O
 vesper sparrow
 Spizella arborea (Wilson), I C
 American tree sparrow
 S. pallida (Swainson), I R
 clay-colored sparrow
 S. passerina (Bechstein), chipping I C
 sparrow
 S. pusilla (Wilson), field sparrow I C
 Zonotrichia albicollis (Gmelin), I O
 white-throated sparrow
 Z. leucophrys (Forster), white- I O
 crowned sparrow
 Z. querula (Nuttall), Harris's I R
 sparrow
 Family Cardinalidae (grosbeaks)
 Cardinalis cardinalis (Linnacus), I A
 northern cardinal
 Passerina caerulea (Linnaeus), S O
 blue grosbeak
 P. ciris (Linnaeus), painted I R
 bunting
 P. cyanea (Linnaeus), indigo I A
 bunting
 Pheucticus ludovicianus I C
 (Linnaeus), rose-breasted
 grosbeak
 P. melanocephalus (Swainson), I R
 black-headed grosbeak
 Spiza americana (Gmelin), I O
 dickcissel
 Family Icteridae (icterines)
 Agelaius phoeniceus (Linnaeus), I A
 red-winged blackbird
 Dolichonyx oryzivorus (Linnaeus), I O
 bobolink
 Euphagus carolinus (Muller), rusty I R
 blackbird
 E. cyanocephalus (Wagler), W R
 Brewer's blackbird
 Icteris galbula (Linnaeus), I O
 Baltimore oriole
 I. spurius (Linnaeus), orchard I O
 oriole
 Molothrus ater (Boddaert), I A
 brown-headed cowbird
 Quiscalus mexicanus (Gmelin), I R
 great-tailed grackle
 Q. quiscula (Linnaeus), common I A
 grackle
 Sturnella magna (Linnaeus), I A
 eastern meadowlark
 S. neglecta (Audubon), western N R
 meadowlark
 Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus W R
 (Bonaparte), yellow-headed
 blackbird
 Family Fringillidae (finches)
 Carduelis flammea (Linnaeus), N R
 common redpoll
 C. hornemanni (Holboll), hoary N R
 redpoll
 C. pinus (Wilson), pine siskin I O
 C. tristis (Linnaeus), American I C
 goldfinch
 Carpodacus mexicanus (Muller), I C
 house finch
 C. purpureus (Gmelin), purple I O
 finch
 Coccothraustes vespertinus I R
 (Cooper), evening grosbeak
 Fringilla montifringilla Linnaeus, I R
 brambling
 Loxia curvirostra Linnaeus, red N R
 crossbill
 L. leuceoptera Gmelin, N R
 white-winged crossbill
 Pinicola enucleator (Linnaeus), N R
 pine grosbeak
 Family Passeridae (weaver finches)
 Passer domesticus (Linnaeus), I A
 Passer domesticus (Linnaeus), I A
 house sparrow
 P. montanus (Linnaeus), I R
 Eurasian tree sparrow
Extirpated:
 Campephilus principalis S
 (Linnaeus), ivory-billed
 woodpecker
 Conuropsis carolinensis I
 (Linnaeus), Carolina parakeet
 Ectopistes migratorius I
 (Linnaeus), passenger pigeon
 Grus americana (Linnaeus), N
 whooping crane
 Numenius borealis (Forster), I
 eskimo curlew
 Perdix perdix (Linnaeus), gray N
 partridge
 Tympanuchus cupido (Linnaeus), NW
 greater prairie-chicken
 Vermivora bachmanii (Audubon), S
 Bachman's warbler


 Season

CLASS AVES
 Order Gaviiformes (loons)
 Family Gaviidae (loons)
 Gavia adamsii (Gray), yellow- A
 billed loon
 G. immer (Brunnich), common loon M(*)
 G. pacifica (Lawrence), pacific A
 loon
 G. stellata (Pontoppidan), red- M
 throated loon
Order Podicipediformes (grebes)
 Family Podicipedidae (grebes)
 Aechmophorus occidentalis A
 (Lawrence), western grebe
 Podiceps auritus (Linnaeus), W(*)
 horned grebe
 P. grisegena (Boddaert),red- A
 necked grebe
 P. nigricollis Brehm, eared grebe A
 Podilymbus podiceps (Linnaeus), R*
 pied-billed grebe
 Order Procellariiformes (tube-nosed
 swimmers)
 Family Hydrobatidae (storm-
 petrels)
 Oceanodroma castro (Harcourt), A
 band-rumped storm-petrel
 Order Pelecaniformes (totipalmate
 swimmers)
 Family Sulidae (boobies and
 gannets)
 Morus bassanus (Linnaeus), A
 northern gannet
 Family Pelecanidae (pelicans)
 Pelecanus erythrorhynchos Gmelin, A
 American white pelican
 P. occidentalis Linnaeus, brown A
 pelican
 Family Phalacrocoracidae
 (cormorants)
 Phalacrocorax auritus (Lesson), M*
 double-crested cormorant
 Family Fregatidae (frigatebirds)
 Fregata magnificens Mathews, A
 magnificent frigatebird
 Order Ciconiiformes (herons,
 ibises, storks, and allies)
 Family Ardeidae (bitterns and
 herons)
 Ardea alba (Linnaeus), great S*
 egret
 Ardea herodias Linnaeus, great R*
 blue heron
 Botaurus lentiginosus (Rackett), S*
 American bittern
 Bubulcus ibis (Linnaeus), cattle M*
 egret
 Butorides virescens (Linnaeus), S *
 Butorides virescens (Linnaeus), green heron
 Egretta caerulea (Linnaeus), little blue heron S *
 E. rufescens (Gmelin), reddish egret A
 E. thula (Molina), snowy egret A *
 E. tricolor (Muller), tricolored heron A
 Ixobrychus exilis (Gmelin), least bittern S *
 Nyctanassa violacea (Linnaeus), S *
 yellow-crowned night-heron
 Nycticorax nycticorax (Linnaeus), S *
 black-crowned night-heron
 Family Threskiornithidae (ibises)
 Eudocimus albus (Linnaeus), white ibis A
 Plegadis chihi (Vieillot), white-faced ibis A
 P. falcinellus (Linnaeus), glossy ibis A
 Family Ciconiidae (storks)
 Mycteria americana Linnaeus, wood stork A
 Family Cathartidae (American vultures)
 Cathartes aura (Linnaeus), turkey vulture R *
 Coragyps atratus (Bechstein), black vulture R *
 Order Anseriformes (swans, geese, and ducks)
 Family Anatidae (swans, geese and ducks)
 Aix sponsa (Linnaeus), wood duck R *
 Anas acuta Linnaeus, northern pintail M *
 A. americana Gmelin, American wigeon M (*)
 A. clypeata Linnaeus, northern shoveler M *
 A. crecca (Linnaeus), green-winged teal M *
 A. cyanoptera Viellot, cinnamon teal A
 A. discors Linnaeus, blue-winged teal S *
 A. penelope Linnaeus, Eurasian Wigeon A
 A. platyrhynchos Linnaeus, mallard R *
 A. rubripes Brewster, American black duck R *
 A strepera Linnaeus, gadwall M *
 Anser albifrons (Scopoli), M
 greater white-fronted goose
 Aythya affinis (Eyton), lesser W (*)
 scaup
 A. americana (Eyton), redhead M *
 A. collaris (Donovan), ring- M *
 necked duck
 A. marila (Linnaeus), greater W
 scaup
 A. valisineria (Wilson), M
 canvasback
 Branta bernicla (Linnaeus), brant A
 B. canadensis (Linnaeus), Canada R *
 goose
 Bucephala albeola (Linnaeus), W
 bufftehead
 B. clangula (Linnaeus), common W
 goldeneye
 B. islandica (Gmelin), Barrow's A
 goldeneye
 Chen caerulescens (Linnacus), M
 snow goose
 C. rossii (Cassin), Ross's goose A
 Clangula hyemalis (Linnacus), W
 long-tailed duck
 Cygnus buccinator Richardson, W (*)
 trumpeter swan
 C. colunbianus (Ord), tundra swan M
 C. olor (Gmelin), mute swan R *
 Dendrocygna bicolor (Vieillot), A
 fulvous whistling-duck
 Histrionicus histrionicus A
 (Linnaeus), harlequin duck
 Lophodytes cucullatus (Linnacus), R *
 hooded merganser
 Melanitta fusca (Linnaeus), M
 white-winged scoter
 M. nigra (Linnaeus), black scoter M
 M. perspicillata (Linnaeus), surf M
 scoter
 Mergus Merganser Linnaeus, common W
 merganser
 M. serrator Linnacus, red- M *
 breasted merganser
 Oxyura jamaicensis (Gmelin), M *
 ruddy duck
 Somateria spectabilis (Linnaeus), A
 king eider
 Order Falconiformes (diurnal birds
 of prey)
 Family Accipitridae (kites,
 eagles, hawks, and allies)
 Accipiter cooperii (Bonaparte), R *
 Cooper's hawk
 A. gentilis (Linnaeus), northern W
 goshawk
 A. striatus Vieillot, sharp- R *
 shinned hawk
 Aquila chrysaetos (Linnaeus), M
 golden eagle
 Buteo jamaicensis (Gmelin), red- R *
 tailed hawk
 B. lagopus (Pontoppidan), rough- W
 legged hawk
 B. lineatus (Gmelin), red- R *
 shouldered hawk
 B. playpterus (Vieillot), broad- S *
 winged hawk
 B. regalis (Gray), ferruginous A
 hawk
 B. swainsoni Bonaparte, A
 Swainson's hawk
 Circus cyaneus (Linnaeus), R *
 northern harrier
 Elanoides forficatus (Linnaeus), A (*)
 swallow-tailed kite
 Elanus leucurus (Vieillot), A
 white-tailed kite
 Family Falconidae (falcons)
 Falco columbarius Linnaeus, M
 merlin
 F. mexicanus Schlegel, prairie A
 falcon
 F. peregrinus Tunstall, R *
 peregrine falcon
 F. rusticolus Linnaeus, A
 gyrfalcon
 F. sparverius Linnaeus, American R *
 kestrel
 Haliaeetus leucocephalus R *
 (Linnaeus), bald eagle
 Ictinia mississippiensis A *
 (Wilson), Mississippi kite
 Pandion haliaetus (Linnaeus), S *
 osprey
 Order Galliformes (gallinaceous
 birds)
 Family Phasianidae (grouse,
 turkey, and quail)
 Bonasa umbellus (Linnaeus), R *
 ruffed grouse
 Meleagris gallopavo Linnaeus, R *
 wild turkey
 Phasianus colchicus Linnaeus, R *
 ring-necked pheasant
 Family Odontophoridae (quail)
 Colinus virginianus (Linnaeus), R *
 northern bobwhite
 Order Gruiformes (cranes, rails,
 and allies)
 Family Rallidae (rails,
 gallinules, and coots)
 Coturnicops noveboracensis M
 (Gmelin), yellow rail
 Fulica americana (Gmelin), R *
 American coot
 Gallinula chloropus (Linnaeus), S *
 common moorhen
 Laterallus jamaicensis (Gmelin), A *
 black rail
 Porphyrio martinica (Linnaeus), A
 purple gallinule
 Porzana carolina (Linnaeus), S *
 sora
 Rallus elegans Audubon, king S *
 rail
 R. limicola Vieillot, Virginia R *
 rail
 Family Gruidae (cranes)
 Grus canadensis (Linnaeus), M *
 sandhill crane
 G. grus (Linnaeus), common crane A
 Order Charadriiformes (shorebirds,
 gulls, auks, and allies)
 Family Charadriidae (plovers)
 Charadrius alexandrinus A
 Linnaeus, snowy plover
 C. melodus Ord, piping plover A (*)
 C. semipalmatus Bonaparte, M
 semipalmated plover
 C. vociferus Linnaeus, killdeer R *
 C. wilsonia Ord, Wilson's plover A
 Pluvialis dominica (Muller), M
 American golden-plover
 P. squatarola (Linnaues), black- M
 bellied plover
 Family Recurvirostridae (stilts
 and avocets)
 Himantopus mexicanus (Muller), A
 black-necked stilt
 Recurvirostra americana Gmelin, M (*)
 American avocet
 Family Scolopacidae (sandpipers,
 phalaropes, and allies)
 Actitis macularia (Linnaeus), S *
 spotted sandpiper
 Arenaria interpres (Linnaeus), M
 ruddy turnstone
 Bartramia longicauda S *
 (Bechstein), upland sandpiper
 Calidris acuminata (Horsfield), A
 sharp-tailed sandpiper
 C. alba (Pallas), sanderling M
 C. alpina (Linnaeus), dunlin M
 C. bairdii (Coues), Baird's M
 sandpiper
 C. canutus (Linnaeus), red knot M
 C. ferrugineu (Pontoppidan), A
 curlew sandpiper
 C. fuscicollis (Vieillot), M
 white-rumped sandpiper
 C. himantopus (Bonaparte), stilt M
 sandpiper
 C. maritima (Brunnich), purple W
 sandpiper
 C. mauri (Cabanis), western M
 sandpiper
 C. melanotos (Vieillot), M
 pectoral sandpiper
 C. minutilla (Vieillot), least M
 sandpiper
 C. pusillo (Linnaeus), M
 semipalmated sandpiper
 Catoptrophorus semipalmatus M
 (Gmelin), willet
 Gallinago delicata (Ord), R *
 Wilson's snipe
 Limnodromus griseus (Gmelin), M
 short-billed dowitcher
 L. scolopaceus (Say), long- M
 billed dowitcher
 Limosa fedoa (Linnaeus), marbled A
 godwit
 L. haemastica (Linnaeus), A
 Hudsonian godwit
 Numenius phaeopus (Linnaeus), M
 whimbrel
 Phalaropus fulicarius (Linnaeus), M
 red phalarope
 P. lobatus (Linnaeus), red-necked M
 phalarope
 P. tricolor (Vieillot), Wilson's M (*)
 phalarope
 Philomachus pugnax (Linnaeus), A
 ruff
 Scolopax minor Gmelin, American S *
 woodcock
 Tringa flavipes (Gmelin), lesser M
 yellowlegs
 T. melanoleuca (Gmelin), greater M
 yellowlegs
 T. solitaria Wilson, solitary M
 sandpiper
 Tryngites subruficollis M
 (Vieillot), buff-breasted
 sandpiper
Family Laridae (jaegers, gulls,
terns, and skimmers)
 Chlidonias leucopterus (Temminck), A
 white-winged tern
 C. niger (Linnaeus), black tern S *
 Larus argentatus Pontoppidan, R *
 herring gull
 L. atricilla Linnaeus, laughing M
 gull
 L. californicus Lawrence, A
 California gull
 L. canus Linnaeus, mew gull A
 L. delawarensis Ord, ring-billed R *
 gull
 L. fuscus Linnaeus, Iesser black- A
 backed gull
 L. glaucoides Meyer, Iceland gull A
 L. hyperboreus Gunnerus, glaucous W
 gull
 L. marinus Linnaeus, great black- M
 backed gull
 L. minutus Pallas, little gull A
 L. philadelphia (Ord), Bonaparte's M
 gull
 L. pipixcan Wagler, Franklin's M
 gull
 L. ridibundus Linnaeus, black- A
 headed gull
 L. schistisagus Stejneger, slaty- A
 backed gull
 L. thayeri Brooks, Thayer's gull M
 Rhodostethia rosea (MacGillivray), A
 Ross's gull
 Rissa tridactyla (Linnaeus), A
 black-legged kittiwake
 Rynchops niger Linnaeus, black A
 skimmer
 Stercorarius logicaudus Vieillot, M
 long-tailed jaeger
 S. parasiticus (Linnaeus), M
 parasitic jaeger
 S. pomarinus (Temminck), pomarine M
 jaeger
 Sterna antillarum (Lesson), least S *
 tern
 S. caspia Pallas, Caspian tern M *
 S. dougallii Montagu, roseate A
 tern
 S. forsteri Nuttall, Forster's M (*)
 tern
 S. fuscata Linnaeus, sooty tern A
 S. hirundo Linnaeus, common tern M (*)
 S. maxima Boddaert, royal tern A
 S. nilotica Gmelin, gull-billed A
 tern
 S. paradisaea Pontoppidan, arctic A
 tern
 Xema sabini (Sabine), Sabine's A
 gull
 Family Alcidae (auks, murres, and
 puffins)
 Brachyramphus perdix (Pallas), A
 long-billed murrelet
 Synthliboramphus antiquus A
 (Gmelin), ancient murrelet
 Uria lomvia (Linnaeus), A
 thick-billed murre
 Order Columbiformes (pigeons and
 doves)
 Family Columbidae (pigeons and
 doves)
 Columba fasciata Say, A
 band-tailed pigeon
 C. livia Gmelin, rock dove R *
 Columbina passerina (Linnaeus), A
 common ground-dove
 Streptopelia decaocto R *
 (Frivaldsky), Eurasian
 collared-dove
 Zenaida asiatica (Linnacus), A
 white-winged dove
 Z. macroura (Linnaeus), mourning R *
 dove
 Order Cuculiformes (cuckoos)
 Family Cuculidae (cuckoos)
 Coccyzus americanus (Linnaeus), S *
 yellow-billed cuckoo
 C. erythrophthalmus (Wilson), S *
 black-billed cuckoo
 Crotophaga sulcirostris Swainson, A
 groove-billed ani
 Order Strigiformes (owls)
 Family Tytonidae (barn owls)
 Tyto alba (Scopoli), barn owl R *
 Family Strigidae (typical owls)
 Aegolius acadicus (Gmelin), W *
 northern saw-whet owl
 Asio flammeus (Pontoppidan), R *
 short-eared owl
 A. otus (Linnaeus), long-eared R *
 owl
 Athene cunicularia (Molina), A
 burrowing owl
 Bubo virginianus (Gmelin), great R *
 horned owl
 Nyctea scandiaca (Linnaeus), snow W
 owl
 Otus asio (Linnaeus), eastern R *
 screech-owl
 Strix varia Barton, barred owl R *
 Order Caprimulgiformes
 goatsuckers, oilbirds, and allies)
 Family Caprimulgidae
 (goatsuckers)
 Caprimulgus carolinensis Gmelin, S *
 chuck-will's-widow
 C. vociferus Wilson, whip-poor- S *
 will
 Chordeiles minor (Forster), S *
 common nighthawk
 Order Apodiformes (swifts and
 hummingbirds)
 Family Apodidae (swifts)
 Chaetura pelagica (Linnaeus), S *
 chimney swift
 Family Trochilidae (hummingbords)
 Archilochus colubris (Linnaeus), S *
 ruby-throated hummingbird
 Selasphorus rufus (Gmelin), S *
 rufous hummingbird
 Order Coraciiformes (todies,
 motmots, and kingfishers)
 Family Alcedinidae (kingfishers)
 Ceryle alcyon (Linnaeus), belted R *
 kingfisher
 Order Piciformes (woodpeckers and
 allies)
 Family Picidae (woodpeckers)
 Colaptes auratus (Linnaeus), R *
 northern flicker
 Dryocopus pileatus (Linnaeus), R *
 pileated woodpecker
 Melanerpes carolinus (Linnaeus), R *
 red-bellied woodspecker
 M. erythrocephalus (Linnaeus), R *
 red-headed woodpecker
 Picoides arcticus (Swainson), A
 black-backed woodpecker
 P. pubescens (Linnaeus), downy R *
 woodpecker
 P. villosus (Linnaeus), hairy R *
 woodpecker
 Sphyrapicus varius (Linnaeus), M *
 yellow-bellied sapsucker
 Order Passeriformes (passerine
 birds)
 Family Tyrannidae (flycatchers)
 Contopus cooperi (Nuttall), M
 olive-sided flycatcher
 C. sordidulus Sclater, western A
 wood-pewee
 C. virens (Linnaeus), eastern S *
 wood-pewee
 Empidonax alnorum Brewster, alder S *
 flycatcher
 E. flaviventris (Baird and Baird), M
 yellow-bellied flycatcher
 E. minimus (Baird and Baird), S *
 least flycatcher
 E. traillii (Audubon), willow S *
 flycatcher
 E. virescens (Vieillot), Acadian S *
 flycatcher
 Myiarchus crinitus (Linnaeus), S *
 great crested flycatcher
 Pyrocephalus rubinus (Boddaert), A
 vermilion flycatcher
 Sayornis phoebe (Latham), eastern R *
 phoebe
 S. saya (Bonaparte), Say's phoebe A
 Tyrannus forficatus (Gmelin), A *
 scissor-tailed flycatcher
 T. tyrannus (Linnaeus), eastern S *
 kingbird
 T. verticalis Say, western A *
 kingbird
 Family Laniidae (shrikes)
 Lanius excubitor Linnaeus, W
 northern shrike
 L. ludovicianus Linnaeus, R *
 loggerhead shrike
 Family Vireonidae (vireos)
 Vireo bellii Audubon, Bell's vireo S *
 V. flavifrons (Vieillot), yellow- S *
 throated vireo
 V. gilvus (Vieillot), warbling S *
 vireo
 V. griseus (Boddaert), white-eyed S *
 vireo
 V. olivaceus (Linnaeus), red-eyed S *
 vireo
 V. philadelphicus (Cassin), M
 Philadelphia vireo
 V. solitarius (Wilson), blue- M *
 headed vireo
 Family Corvidae (jays, magpies, and
 crows)
 Aphelocoma californica Vigors, A
 western scrub-jay
 Corvus brachyrhynchos Brehm, R *
 American crow
 C. corax Linnaeus, common raven A (*)
 C. ossifragus Wilson, fish crow S
 Cyanocitta cristata (Linnaeus), R *
 blue jay
 Pica hudsonia (Linnaeus), black- A
 billed magpie
 Family Alaudidae (larks)
 Eremophila alpestris (Linnaeus), R *
 horned lark
 Family Hirundinidae (swallows)
 Hirundo rustica Linnaeus, barn S *
 swallow
 Petrochelidon pyrrhonota S *
 Vieillot, cliff swallow
 Progne subis (Linnaeus), purple S *
 martin
 Riparia riparia (Linnaeus), bank S *
 swallow
 Stelgidopteryx serripennis S *
 (Audubon), northern rough-winged
 swallow
 Tachycineta bicolor (Vieillot), S *
 tree swallow
 Family Paridae (titmice)
 Baeolophus bicolor Linnaeus, R *
 tufted titmouse
 Poecile atricapilla Linnaeus, R *
 black-capped chickadee
 P. carolinensis Audubon, Carolina R *
 chickadee
 P. hudsonia Forster, boreal A
 chickadee
 Family Sittidae (nuthatches)
 Sitta canadensis Linnaeus, red- W *
 breasted nuthatch
 S. carolinensis Latham, white- R *
 breasted nuthatch
 Family Certhiidae (creepers)
 Certhia americana Bonaparte, R *
 brown creeper
 Family Troglodytidae (wrens)
 Cistothorus palustris (Wilson), S *
 marsh wren
 C. platensis (Latham), sedge wren S *
 Salpinctes obsoletus (Say), rock A
 wren
 Thryomanes bewickii (Audubon), R *
 Bewick's wren
 Thryothorus ludovicianus (Latham) R *
 Carolina wren
 Troglodytes aedon Vieillot, house S *
 wren
 T. troglodytes (Linnaeus), winter W
 wren
 Family Regulidae (Kinglets)
 Regulus calendula (Linnaeus), M
 ruby-crowned kinglet
 R. satrapa Lichtenstein, golden- W *
 crowned kinglet
 Family Sylviidae (old world
 warblers)
 Polioptila caerulea (Linnaeus), S *
 blue-gray gnatcatcher
 Family Turdidae (thrushes)
 Catharus fuscescens (Stephens) S *
 veery
 C. guttatus (Pallas), hermit W
 thrust
 C. minimus (Lafresnaye), gray- M
 cheeked thrush
 C. ustulatus (Nuttall), Swainson's M
 thrush
 Hylocichla mustelina (Gmelin), S *
 wood thrush
 Ixoreus naevius (Gmelin), varied A
 thrush
 Myadestes townsendi (Audubon), A
 Townsend's solitaire
 Oenanthe oenanthe (Linnaeus), A
 northern wheatear
 Sialia currucoides (Bechstein), A
 mountain bluebird
 S. sialis (Linnaeus) eastern R *
 bluebird
 Turdus migratorius Linnaeus, R *
 American robin
 Family Mimidae (mimic thrushes)
 Dumetella carolinensis (Linaeus), S *
 gray catbird
 Mimus polyglottos (Linnaeus), R *
 northern mockingbird
 Toxostoma rufum (Linnaeus), brown R *
 thrasher
 Family Sturnidae (starlings)
 Sturnus vulgaris Linnaeus, R *
 European starling
 Family Motacillidae (wagtails and
 pipits)
 Anthus rubescens (Tunstall), M
 American pipit
 Family Bombycillidae (waxwings)
 Bombycilla cedrorum Vieillot, R *
 cedar waxwing
 B. garrulus (Linnaeus), Bohemian W
 waxwing
 Family Parulidae (new world
 warblers)
 Dendroica caerulescens (Gmelin), M
 black-throated blue warbler
 D. castanea (Wilson), bay-breasted M
 warbler
 D. cerulea (Wilson), cerulean S *
 warbler
 D. coronata (Linnaeus), W
 yellow-rumped warbler
 D. discolor (Vieillot), prairie S *
 warbler
 D. dominica (Linnaeus), S *
 yellow-throated warbler
 D. fusca (Muller), blackburnian M *
 warbler
 D. kirtlandii (Baird), Kirkland's M
 warbler
 D. magnolia (Wilson), magnolia M *
 warbler
 D. nigrescens (Townsend), A
 black-throated gray warbler
 D. palmarum (Gmelin), palm warbler M
 D. pensylvanica (Linnaeus), M *
 chestnut-sided warbler
 D. petechia (Linnaeus), yellow S *
 warbler
 D. pinus (Wilson), pine warbler S *
 D. striata (Forster), blackpoll M
 warbler
 D. tigrina (Gmelin), Cape May M
 wabler
 D. townsendi (Townsend), A
 Townsend's warbler
 D. virens (Gmelin), black-throated S *
 green warbler
 Geothlypis trichas (Linnaeus), S *
 common yellowthroat
 Helmitheros vermivorus (Gmelin), S *
 worm-eating warbler
 Iceteria virens (Linnaeus), S *
 yellow-breasted chat
 Limnothlypis swainsonii (Audubon), A
 Swainson's warbler
 Mniotilta varia (Linnaeus), black- S *
 and-white warbler
 Oporornis agilis (Wilson), M
 Connecticut warbler
 O. formosus (Wilson), Kentucky S *
 warbler
 O. philadelphia (Wilson), mourning M
 warbler
 Parula americana (Linnaeus), S *
 northern parula
 Protonotaria citrea (Boddaert), S *
 prothonotary warbler
 Seiurus aurocapillus (Linnaeus), S *
 ovenbird
 S. motacilla (Vieillot), Louisiana S *
 waterthrush
 S. noveboracensis (Gmelin), S *
 northern waterthrush
 Setophaga ruticilla (Linnaeus), S *
 American redstart
 Vermivora celata (Say), orange- M
 crowned warbler
 V. chrysoptera (Linnaeus), golden- S *
 winged warbler
 V. peregrina (Wilson), Tennessee M
 warbler
 V. pinus (Linnaeus), blue-winged S *
 warbler
 V. ruficapilla (Wilson), Nashville M
 warbler
 Wilsonia canadensis (Linnaeus), M *
 Canada warbler
 W. citrina (Boddaert), hooded S *
 warbler
 W. pusilla (Wilson), Wilson's M
 warbler
 Family Thraupidae (tanagers)
 Piranga ludoviciana (Wilson), A
 western tanager
 P. olivacea (Gmelin), scarlet S *
 tanager
 P. rubra (Linnaeus), summer S *
 tanager
 Family Emberizidae (new world
 sparrows)
 Aimophila aestivalis S (*)
 (Lichtenstein), Bachman's sparrow
 A. cassinii (Woodhouse), Cassin's A
 sparrow
 Ammodramus henslowii (Audubon), S *
 Henslow's sparrow
 A. leconteii (Audubon), LeConte's W
 sparrow
 A. nelsoni (Allen), Nelson's M
 sharp-tailed sparrow
 A. savannarum (Gmelin), S *
 grasshopper sparrow
 Calamospiza melanocorys Stejneger, A
 lark bunting
 Calcarius lapponicus (Linnaeus), W
 Lapland longspur
 C. mccownii (Lawrence), McCown's A
 longspur
 C. pictus (Swainson), Smith's W
 longspur
 Chondestes grammacus (Say), lark S *
 sparrow
 Junco hyemalis (Linnaeus), dark- W
 eyed junco
 Melospiza georgiana (Latham), swam R *
 sparrow
 M. lincolnii (Audubon), Lincoln's M
 sparrow
 M. melodia (Wilson), song sparrow R *
 Passerculus sandwichensis (Gmelin) S *
 savannah sparrow
 Passerella iliaca (Merrem), fox W
 sparrow
 Pipilo chlorurus (Audubon), green- A
 tailed towhee
 P. erythrophthalmus (Linnaeus), R *
 eastern towhee
 P. maculatus (Swainson), spotted A
 towhee
 Plectrophenax nivalis (Linnaeus), W
 snow bunting
 Pooecetes gramineus (Gmelin), S *
 vesper sparrow
 Spizella arborea (Wilson), W
 American tree sparrow
 S. pallida (Swainson), A
 clay-colored sparrow
 S. passerina (Bechstein), chipping S *
 sparrow
 S. pusilla (Wilson), field sparrow R *
 Zonotrichia albicollis (Gmelin), W
 white-throated sparrow
 Z. leucophrys (Forster), white- W
 crowned sparrow
 Z. querula (Nuttall), Harris's W
 sparrow
 Family Cardinalidae (grosbeaks)
 Cardinalis cardinalis (Linnacus), R *
 northern cardinal
 Passerina caerulea (Linnaeus), S *
 blue grosbeak
 P. ciris (Linnaeus), painted A
 bunting
 P. cyanea (Linnaeus), indigo S *
 bunting
 Pheucticus ludovicianus S *
 (Linnaeus), rose-breasted
 grosbeak
 P. melanocephalus (Swainson), A
 black-headed grosbeak
 Spiza americana (Gmelin), S *
 dickcissel
 Family Icteridae (icterines)
 Agelaius phoeniceus (Linnaeus), R *
 red-winged blackbird
 Dolichonyx oryzivorus (Linnaeus), S *
 bobolink
 Euphagus carolinus (Muller), rusty W
 blackbird
 E. cyanocephalus (Wagler), M *
 Brewer's blackbird
 Icteris galbula (Linnaeus), S *
 Baltimore oriole
 I. spurius (Linnaeus), orchard S *
 oriole
 Molothrus ater (Boddaert), R *
 brown-headed cowbird
 Quiscalus mexicanus (Gmelin), A
 great-tailed grackle
 Q. quiscula (Linnaeus), common R *
 grackle
 Sturnella magna (Linnaeus), R *
 eastern meadowlark
 S. neglecta (Audubon), western R *
 meadowlark
 Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus S *
 (Bonaparte), yellow-headed
 blackbird
 Family Fringillidae (finches)
 Carduelis flammea (Linnaeus), W
 common redpoll
 C. hornemanni (Holboll), hoary A
 redpoll
 C. pinus (Wilson), pine siskin W *
 C. tristis (Linnaeus), American R *
 goldfinch
 Carpodacus mexicanus (Muller), R *
 house finch
 C. purpureus (Gmelin), purple W
 finch
 Coccothraustes vespertinus W
 (Cooper), evening grosbeak
 Fringilla montifringilla Linnaeus, A
 brambling
 Loxia curvirostra Linnaeus, red W *
 crossbill
 L. leuceoptera Gmelin, W
 white-winged crossbill
 Pinicola enucleator (Linnaeus), W
 pine grosbeak
 Family Passeridae (weaver finches)
 Passer domesticus (Linnaeus), R *
 Passer domesticus (Linnaeus), R *
 house sparrow
 P. montanus (Linnaeus), A
 Eurasian tree sparrow
Extirpated:
 Campephilus principalis H (*)
 (Linnaeus), ivory-billed
 woodpecker
 Conuropsis carolinensis R (*)
 (Linnaeus), Carolina parakeet
 Ectopistes migratorius R (*)
 (Linnaeus), passenger pigeon
 Grus americana (Linnaeus), M
 whooping crane
 Numenius borealis (Forster), M
 eskimo curlew
 Perdix perdix (Linnaeus), gray R (*)
 partridge
 Tympanuchus cupido (Linnaeus), R (*)
 greater prairie-chicken
 Vermivora bachmanii (Audubon), H
 Bachman's warbler


 Status

CLASS AVES
 Order Gaviiformes (loons)
 Family Gaviidae (loons)
 Gavia adamsii (Gray), yellow-
 billed loon
 G. immer (Brunnich), common loon
 G. pacifica (Lawrence), pacific
 loon
 G. stellata (Pontoppidan), red-
 throated loon
Order Podicipediformes (grebes)
 Family Podicipedidae (grebes)
 Aechmophorus occidentalis
 (Lawrence), western grebe
 Podiceps auritus (Linnaeus),
 horned grebe
 P. grisegena (Boddaert),red-
 necked grebe
 P. nigricollis Brehm, eared grebe
 Podilymbus podiceps (Linnaeus),
 pied-billed grebe
 Order Procellariiformes (tube-nosed
 swimmers)
 Family Hydrobatidae (storm-
 petrels)
 Oceanodroma castro (Harcourt),
 band-rumped storm-petrel
 Order Pelecaniformes (totipalmate
 swimmers)
 Family Sulidae (boobies and
 gannets)
 Morus bassanus (Linnaeus),
 northern gannet
 Family Pelecanidae (pelicans)
 Pelecanus erythrorhynchos Gmelin,
 American white pelican
 P. occidentalis Linnaeus, brown
 pelican
 Family Phalacrocoracidae
 (cormorants)
 Phalacrocorax auritus (Lesson),
 double-crested cormorant
 Family Fregatidae (frigatebirds)
 Fregata magnificens Mathews,
 magnificent frigatebird
 Order Ciconiiformes (herons,
 ibises, storks, and allies)
 Family Ardeidae (bitterns and
 herons)
 Ardea alba (Linnaeus), great SC
 egret
 Ardea herodias Linnaeus, great
 blue heron
 Botaurus lentiginosus (Rackett), SE
 American bittern
 Bubulcus ibis (Linnaeus), cattle
 egret
 Butorides virescens (Linnaeus),
 Butorides virescens (Linnaeus), green heron
 Egretta caerulea (Linnaeus), little blue heron
 E. rufescens (Gmelin), reddish egret
 E. thula (Molina), snowy egret
 E. tricolor (Muller), tricolored heron
 Ixobrychus exilis (Gmelin), least bittern SE
 Nyctanassa violacea (Linnaeus), SE
 yellow-crowned night-heron
 Nycticorax nycticorax (Linnaeus), SE
 black-crowned night-heron
 Family Threskiornithidae (ibises)
 Eudocimus albus (Linnaeus), white ibis
 Plegadis chihi (Vieillot), white-faced ibis
 P. falcinellus (Linnaeus), glossy ibis
 Family Ciconiidae (storks)
 Mycteria americana Linnaeus, wood stork FE
 Family Cathartidae (American vultures)
 Cathartes aura (Linnaeus), turkey vulture
 Coragyps atratus (Bechstein), black vulture
 Order Anseriformes (swans, geese, and ducks)
 Family Anatidae (swans, geese and ducks)
 Aix sponsa (Linnaeus), wood duck
 Anas acuta Linnaeus, northern pintail
 A. americana Gmelin, American wigeon
 A. clypeata Linnaeus, northern shoveler
 A. crecca (Linnaeus), green-winged teal
 A. cyanoptera Viellot, cinnamon teal
 A. discors Linnaeus, blue-winged teal
 A. penelope Linnaeus, Eurasian Wigeon
 A. platyrhynchos Linnaeus, mallard
 A. rubripes Brewster, American black duck
 A strepera Linnaeus, gadwall
 Anser albifrons (Scopoli),
 greater white-fronted goose
 Aythya affinis (Eyton), lesser
 scaup
 A. americana (Eyton), redhead
 A. collaris (Donovan), ring-
 necked duck
 A. marila (Linnaeus), greater
 scaup
 A. valisineria (Wilson),
 canvasback
 Branta bernicla (Linnaeus), brant
 B. canadensis (Linnaeus), Canada
 goose
 Bucephala albeola (Linnaeus),
 bufftehead
 B. clangula (Linnaeus), common
 goldeneye
 B. islandica (Gmelin), Barrow's
 goldeneye
 Chen caerulescens (Linnacus),
 snow goose
 C. rossii (Cassin), Ross's goose
 Clangula hyemalis (Linnacus),
 long-tailed duck
 Cygnus buccinator Richardson, SE
 trumpeter swan
 C. colunbianus (Ord), tundra swan
 C. olor (Gmelin), mute swan X
 Dendrocygna bicolor (Vieillot),
 fulvous whistling-duck
 Histrionicus histrionicus
 (Linnaeus), harlequin duck
 Lophodytes cucullatus (Linnacus),
 hooded merganser
 Melanitta fusca (Linnaeus),
 white-winged scoter
 M. nigra (Linnaeus), black scoter
 M. perspicillata (Linnaeus), surf
 scoter
 Mergus Merganser Linnaeus, common
 merganser
 M. serrator Linnacus, red-
 breasted merganser
 Oxyura jamaicensis (Gmelin),
 ruddy duck
 Somateria spectabilis (Linnaeus),
 king eider
 Order Falconiformes (diurnal birds
 of prey)
 Family Accipitridae (kites,
 eagles, hawks, and allies)
 Accipiter cooperii (Bonaparte),
 Cooper's hawk
 A. gentilis (Linnaeus), northern
 goshawk
 A. striatus Vieillot, sharp- SC
 shinned hawk
 Aquila chrysaetos (Linnaeus),
 golden eagle
 Buteo jamaicensis (Gmelin), red-
 tailed hawk
 B. lagopus (Pontoppidan), rough-
 legged hawk
 B. lineatus (Gmelin), red- SC
 shouldered hawk
 B. playpterus (Vieillot), broad- SC
 winged hawk
 B. regalis (Gray), ferruginous
 hawk
 B. swainsoni Bonaparte,
 Swainson's hawk
 Circus cyaneus (Linnaeus), SE
 northern harrier
 Elanoides forficatus (Linnaeus), SE
 swallow-tailed kite
 Elanus leucurus (Vieillot),
 white-tailed kite
 Family Falconidae (falcons)
 Falco columbarius Linnaeus,
 merlin
 F. mexicanus Schlegel, prairie
 falcon
 F. peregrinus Tunstall, SE
 peregrine falcon
 F. rusticolus Linnaeus,
 gyrfalcon
 F. sparverius Linnaeus, American
 kestrel
 Haliaeetus leucocephalus SE, FT
 (Linnaeus), bald eagle
 Ictinia mississippiensis SC
 (Wilson), Mississippi kite
 Pandion haliaetus (Linnaeus), SE
 osprey
 Order Galliformes (gallinaceous
 birds)
 Family Phasianidae (grouse,
 turkey, and quail)
 Bonasa umbellus (Linnaeus),
 ruffed grouse
 Meleagris gallopavo Linnaeus,
 wild turkey
 Phasianus colchicus Linnaeus, X
 ring-necked pheasant
 Family Odontophoridae (quail)
 Colinus virginianus (Linnaeus),
 northern bobwhite
 Order Gruiformes (cranes, rails,
 and allies)
 Family Rallidae (rails,
 gallinules, and coots)
 Coturnicops noveboracensis
 (Gmelin), yellow rail
 Fulica americana (Gmelin),
 American coot
 Gallinula chloropus (Linnaeus),
 common moorhen
 Laterallus jamaicensis (Gmelin), SE
 black rail
 Porphyrio martinica (Linnaeus),
 purple gallinule
 Porzana carolina (Linnaeus),
 sora
 Rallus elegans Audubon, king SE
 rail
 R. limicola Vieillot, Virginia SE
 rail
 Family Gruidae (cranes)
 Grus canadensis (Linnaeus), SC
 sandhill crane
 G. grus (Linnaeus), common crane
 Order Charadriiformes (shorebirds,
 gulls, auks, and allies)
 Family Charadriidae (plovers)
 Charadrius alexandrinus
 Linnaeus, snowy plover
 C. melodus Ord, piping plover SE, FE
 C. semipalmatus Bonaparte,
 semipalmated plover
 C. vociferus Linnaeus, killdeer
 C. wilsonia Ord, Wilson's plover
 Pluvialis dominica (Muller),
 American golden-plover
 P. squatarola (Linnaues), black-
 bellied plover
 Family Recurvirostridae (stilts
 and avocets)
 Himantopus mexicanus (Muller),
 black-necked stilt
 Recurvirostra americana Gmelin,
 American avocet
 Family Scolopacidae (sandpipers,
 phalaropes, and allies)
 Actitis macularia (Linnaeus),
 spotted sandpiper
 Arenaria interpres (Linnaeus),
 ruddy turnstone
 Bartramia longicauda SE
 (Bechstein), upland sandpiper
 Calidris acuminata (Horsfield),
 sharp-tailed sandpiper
 C. alba (Pallas), sanderling
 C. alpina (Linnaeus), dunlin
 C. bairdii (Coues), Baird's
 sandpiper
 C. canutus (Linnaeus), red knot
 C. ferrugineu (Pontoppidan),
 curlew sandpiper
 C. fuscicollis (Vieillot),
 white-rumped sandpiper
 C. himantopus (Bonaparte), stilt
 sandpiper
 C. maritima (Brunnich), purple
 sandpiper
 C. mauri (Cabanis), western
 sandpiper
 C. melanotos (Vieillot),
 pectoral sandpiper
 C. minutilla (Vieillot), least
 sandpiper
 C. pusillo (Linnaeus),
 semipalmated sandpiper
 Catoptrophorus semipalmatus
 (Gmelin), willet
 Gallinago delicata (Ord),
 Wilson's snipe
 Limnodromus griseus (Gmelin),
 short-billed dowitcher
 L. scolopaceus (Say), long-
 billed dowitcher
 Limosa fedoa (Linnaeus), marbled
 godwit
 L. haemastica (Linnaeus),
 Hudsonian godwit
 Numenius phaeopus (Linnaeus),
 whimbrel
 Phalaropus fulicarius (Linnaeus),
 red phalarope
 P. lobatus (Linnaeus), red-necked
 phalarope
 P. tricolor (Vieillot), Wilson's
 phalarope
 Philomachus pugnax (Linnaeus),
 ruff
 Scolopax minor Gmelin, American
 woodcock
 Tringa flavipes (Gmelin), lesser
 yellowlegs
 T. melanoleuca (Gmelin), greater
 yellowlegs
 T. solitaria Wilson, solitary
 sandpiper
 Tryngites subruficollis
 (Vieillot), buff-breasted
 sandpiper
Family Laridae (jaegers, gulls,
terns, and skimmers)
 Chlidonias leucopterus (Temminck),
 white-winged tern
 C. niger (Linnaeus), black tern SE
 Larus argentatus Pontoppidan,
 herring gull
 L. atricilla Linnaeus, laughing
 gull
 L. californicus Lawrence,
 California gull
 L. canus Linnaeus, mew gull
 L. delawarensis Ord, ring-billed
 gull
 L. fuscus Linnaeus, Iesser black-
 backed gull
 L. glaucoides Meyer, Iceland gull
 L. hyperboreus Gunnerus, glaucous
 gull
 L. marinus Linnaeus, great black-
 backed gull
 L. minutus Pallas, little gull
 L. philadelphia (Ord), Bonaparte's
 gull
 L. pipixcan Wagler, Franklin's
 gull
 L. ridibundus Linnaeus, black-
 headed gull
 L. schistisagus Stejneger, slaty-
 backed gull
 L. thayeri Brooks, Thayer's gull
 Rhodostethia rosea (MacGillivray),
 Ross's gull
 Rissa tridactyla (Linnaeus),
 black-legged kittiwake
 Rynchops niger Linnaeus, black
 skimmer
 Stercorarius logicaudus Vieillot,
 long-tailed jaeger
 S. parasiticus (Linnaeus),
 parasitic jaeger
 S. pomarinus (Temminck), pomarine
 jaeger
 Sterna antillarum (Lesson), least SE, FE
 tern
 S. caspia Pallas, Caspian tern
 S. dougallii Montagu, roseate FE
 tern
 S. forsteri Nuttall, Forster's
 tern
 S. fuscata Linnaeus, sooty tern
 S. hirundo Linnaeus, common tern
 S. maxima Boddaert, royal tern
 S. nilotica Gmelin, gull-billed
 tern
 S. paradisaea Pontoppidan, arctic
 tern
 Xema sabini (Sabine), Sabine's
 gull
 Family Alcidae (auks, murres, and
 puffins)
 Brachyramphus perdix (Pallas),
 long-billed murrelet
 Synthliboramphus antiquus
 (Gmelin), ancient murrelet
 Uria lomvia (Linnaeus),
 thick-billed murre
 Order Columbiformes (pigeons and
 doves)
 Family Columbidae (pigeons and
 doves)
 Columba fasciata Say,
 band-tailed pigeon
 C. livia Gmelin, rock dove X
 Columbina passerina (Linnaeus),
 common ground-dove
 Streptopelia decaocto X
 (Frivaldsky), Eurasian
 collared-dove
 Zenaida asiatica (Linnacus),
 white-winged dove
 Z. macroura (Linnaeus), mourning
 dove
 Order Cuculiformes (cuckoos)
 Family Cuculidae (cuckoos)
 Coccyzus americanus (Linnaeus),
 yellow-billed cuckoo
 C. erythrophthalmus (Wilson),
 black-billed cuckoo
 Crotophaga sulcirostris Swainson,
 groove-billed ani
 Order Strigiformes (owls)
 Family Tytonidae (barn owls)
 Tyto alba (Scopoli), barn owl SE
 Family Strigidae (typical owls)
 Aegolius acadicus (Gmelin),
 northern saw-whet owl
 Asio flammeus (Pontoppidan), SE
 short-eared owl
 A. otus (Linnaeus), long-eared
 owl
 Athene cunicularia (Molina),
 burrowing owl
 Bubo virginianus (Gmelin), great
 horned owl
 Nyctea scandiaca (Linnaeus), snow
 owl
 Otus asio (Linnaeus), eastern
 screech-owl
 Strix varia Barton, barred owl
 Order Caprimulgiformes
 goatsuckers, oilbirds, and allies)
 Family Caprimulgidae
 (goatsuckers)
 Caprimulgus carolinensis Gmelin,
 chuck-will's-widow
 C. vociferus Wilson, whip-poor-
 will
 Chordeiles minor (Forster),
 common nighthawk
 Order Apodiformes (swifts and
 hummingbirds)
 Family Apodidae (swifts)
 Chaetura pelagica (Linnaeus),
 chimney swift
 Family Trochilidae (hummingbords)
 Archilochus colubris (Linnaeus),
 ruby-throated hummingbird
 Selasphorus rufus (Gmelin),
 rufous hummingbird
 Order Coraciiformes (todies,
 motmots, and kingfishers)
 Family Alcedinidae (kingfishers)
 Ceryle alcyon (Linnaeus), belted
 kingfisher
 Order Piciformes (woodpeckers and
 allies)
 Family Picidae (woodpeckers)
 Colaptes auratus (Linnaeus),
 northern flicker
 Dryocopus pileatus (Linnaeus),
 pileated woodpecker
 Melanerpes carolinus (Linnaeus),
 red-bellied woodspecker
 M. erythrocephalus (Linnaeus),
 red-headed woodpecker
 Picoides arcticus (Swainson),
 black-backed woodpecker
 P. pubescens (Linnaeus), downy
 woodpecker
 P. villosus (Linnaeus), hairy
 woodpecker
 Sphyrapicus varius (Linnaeus),
 yellow-bellied sapsucker
 Order Passeriformes (passerine
 birds)
 Family Tyrannidae (flycatchers)
 Contopus cooperi (Nuttall),
 olive-sided flycatcher
 C. sordidulus Sclater, western
 wood-pewee
 C. virens (Linnaeus), eastern
 wood-pewee
 Empidonax alnorum Brewster, alder
 flycatcher
 E. flaviventris (Baird and Baird),
 yellow-bellied flycatcher
 E. minimus (Baird and Baird),
 least flycatcher
 E. traillii (Audubon), willow
 flycatcher
 E. virescens (Vieillot), Acadian
 flycatcher
 Myiarchus crinitus (Linnaeus),
 great crested flycatcher
 Pyrocephalus rubinus (Boddaert),
 vermilion flycatcher
 Sayornis phoebe (Latham), eastern
 phoebe
 S. saya (Bonaparte), Say's phoebe
 Tyrannus forficatus (Gmelin),
 scissor-tailed flycatcher
 T. tyrannus (Linnaeus), eastern
 kingbird
 T. verticalis Say, western
 kingbird
 Family Laniidae (shrikes)
 Lanius excubitor Linnaeus,
 northern shrike
 L. ludovicianus Linnaeus, SE, FC
 loggerhead shrike
 Family Vireonidae (vireos)
 Vireo bellii Audubon, Bell's vireo
 V. flavifrons (Vieillot), yellow-
 throated vireo
 V. gilvus (Vieillot), warbling
 vireo
 V. griseus (Boddaert), white-eyed
 vireo
 V. olivaceus (Linnaeus), red-eyed
 vireo
 V. philadelphicus (Cassin),
 Philadelphia vireo
 V. solitarius (Wilson), blue-
 headed vireo
 Family Corvidae (jays, magpies, and
 crows)
 Aphelocoma californica Vigors,
 western scrub-jay
 Corvus brachyrhynchos Brehm,
 American crow
 C. corax Linnaeus, common raven
 C. ossifragus Wilson, fish crow
 Cyanocitta cristata (Linnaeus),
 blue jay
 Pica hudsonia (Linnaeus), black-
 billed magpie
 Family Alaudidae (larks)
 Eremophila alpestris (Linnaeus),
 horned lark
 Family Hirundinidae (swallows)
 Hirundo rustica Linnaeus, barn
 swallow
 Petrochelidon pyrrhonota
 Vieillot, cliff swallow
 Progne subis (Linnaeus), purple
 martin
 Riparia riparia (Linnaeus), bank
 swallow
 Stelgidopteryx serripennis
 (Audubon), northern rough-winged
 swallow
 Tachycineta bicolor (Vieillot),
 tree swallow
 Family Paridae (titmice)
 Baeolophus bicolor Linnaeus,
 tufted titmouse
 Poecile atricapilla Linnaeus,
 black-capped chickadee
 P. carolinensis Audubon, Carolina
 chickadee
 P. hudsonia Forster, boreal
 chickadee
 Family Sittidae (nuthatches)
 Sitta canadensis Linnaeus, red-
 breasted nuthatch
 S. carolinensis Latham, white-
 breasted nuthatch
 Family Certhiidae (creepers)
 Certhia americana Bonaparte,
 brown creeper
 Family Troglodytidae (wrens)
 Cistothorus palustris (Wilson), SE
 marsh wren
 C. platensis (Latham), sedge wren SE
 Salpinctes obsoletus (Say), rock
 wren
 Thryomanes bewickii (Audubon), SE
 Bewick's wren
 Thryothorus ludovicianus (Latham)
 Carolina wren
 Troglodytes aedon Vieillot, house
 wren
 T. troglodytes (Linnaeus), winter
 wren
 Family Regulidae (Kinglets)
 Regulus calendula (Linnaeus),
 ruby-crowned kinglet
 R. satrapa Lichtenstein, golden-
 crowned kinglet
 Family Sylviidae (old world
 warblers)
 Polioptila caerulea (Linnaeus),
 blue-gray gnatcatcher
 Family Turdidae (thrushes)
 Catharus fuscescens (Stephens)
 veery
 C. guttatus (Pallas), hermit
 thrust
 C. minimus (Lafresnaye), gray-
 cheeked thrush
 C. ustulatus (Nuttall), Swainson's
 thrush
 Hylocichla mustelina (Gmelin),
 wood thrush
 Ixoreus naevius (Gmelin), varied
 thrush
 Myadestes townsendi (Audubon),
 Townsend's solitaire
 Oenanthe oenanthe (Linnaeus),
 northern wheatear
 Sialia currucoides (Bechstein),
 mountain bluebird
 S. sialis (Linnaeus) eastern
 bluebird
 Turdus migratorius Linnaeus, X
 American robin
 Family Mimidae (mimic thrushes)
 Dumetella carolinensis (Linaeus),
 gray catbird
 Mimus polyglottos (Linnaeus),
 northern mockingbird
 Toxostoma rufum (Linnaeus), brown
 thrasher
 Family Sturnidae (starlings)
 Sturnus vulgaris Linnaeus,
 European starling
 Family Motacillidae (wagtails and
 pipits)
 Anthus rubescens (Tunstall),
 American pipit
 Family Bombycillidae (waxwings)
 Bombycilla cedrorum Vieillot,
 cedar waxwing
 B. garrulus (Linnaeus), Bohemian
 waxwing
 Family Parulidae (new world
 warblers)
 Dendroica caerulescens (Gmelin),
 black-throated blue warbler
 D. castanea (Wilson), bay-breasted
 warbler
 D. cerulea (Wilson), cerulean SC
 warbler
 D. coronata (Linnaeus),
 yellow-rumped warbler
 D. discolor (Vieillot), prairie
 warbler
 D. dominica (Linnaeus),
 yellow-throated warbler
 D. fusca (Muller), blackburnian
 warbler
 D. kirtlandii (Baird), Kirkland's SE, FE
 warbler
 D. magnolia (Wilson), magnolia
 warbler
 D. nigrescens (Townsend),
 black-throated gray warbler
 D. palmarum (Gmelin), palm warbler
 D. pensylvanica (Linnaeus),
 chestnut-sided warbler
 D. petechia (Linnaeus), yellow
 warbler
 D. pinus (Wilson), pine warbler
 D. striata (Forster), blackpoll
 warbler
 D. tigrina (Gmelin), Cape May
 wabler
 D. townsendi (Townsend),
 Townsend's warbler
 D. virens (Gmelin), black-throated
 green warbler
 Geothlypis trichas (Linnaeus), SC
 common yellowthroat
 Helmitheros vermivorus (Gmelin),
 worm-eating warbler
 Iceteria virens (Linnaeus),
 yellow-breasted chat
 Limnothlypis swainsonii (Audubon),
 Swainson's warbler
 Mniotilta varia (Linnaeus), black-
 and-white warbler
 Oporornis agilis (Wilson),
 Connecticut warbler
 O. formosus (Wilson), Kentucky
 warbler
 O. philadelphia (Wilson), mourning
 warbler
 Parula americana (Linnaeus),
 northern parula
 Protonotaria citrea (Boddaert),
 prothonotary warbler
 Seiurus aurocapillus (Linnaeus),
 ovenbird
 S. motacilla (Vieillot), Louisiana
 waterthrush
 S. noveboracensis (Gmelin),
 northern waterthrush
 Setophaga ruticilla (Linnaeus),
 American redstart
 Vermivora celata (Say), orange-
 crowned warbler
 V. chrysoptera (Linnaeus), golden- SE
 winged warbler
 V. peregrina (Wilson), Tennessee
 warbler
 V. pinus (Linnaeus), blue-winged
 warbler
 V. ruficapilla (Wilson), Nashville
 warbler
 Wilsonia canadensis (Linnaeus),
 Canada warbler
 W. citrina (Boddaert), hooded SC
 warbler
 W. pusilla (Wilson), Wilson's
 warbler
 Family Thraupidae (tanagers)
 Piranga ludoviciana (Wilson),
 western tanager
 P. olivacea (Gmelin), scarlet
 tanager
 P. rubra (Linnaeus), summer
 tanager
 Family Emberizidae (new world
 sparrows)
 Aimophila aestivalis SE
 (Lichtenstein), Bachman's sparrow
 A. cassinii (Woodhouse), Cassin's
 sparrow
 Ammodramus henslowii (Audubon), SE
 Henslow's sparrow
 A. leconteii (Audubon), LeConte's
 sparrow
 A. nelsoni (Allen), Nelson's
 sharp-tailed sparrow
 A. savannarum (Gmelin),
 grasshopper sparrow
 Calamospiza melanocorys Stejneger,
 lark bunting
 Calcarius lapponicus (Linnaeus),
 Lapland longspur
 C. mccownii (Lawrence), McCown's
 longspur
 C. pictus (Swainson), Smith's
 longspur
 Chondestes grammacus (Say), lark
 sparrow
 Junco hyemalis (Linnaeus), dark-
 eyed junco
 Melospiza georgiana (Latham), swam
 sparrow
 M. lincolnii (Audubon), Lincoln's
 sparrow
 M. melodia (Wilson), song sparrow
 Passerculus sandwichensis (Gmelin)
 savannah sparrow
 Passerella iliaca (Merrem), fox
 sparrow
 Pipilo chlorurus (Audubon), green-
 tailed towhee
 P. erythrophthalmus (Linnaeus),
 eastern towhee
 P. maculatus (Swainson), spotted
 towhee
 Plectrophenax nivalis (Linnaeus),
 snow bunting
 Pooecetes gramineus (Gmelin),
 vesper sparrow
 Spizella arborea (Wilson),
 American tree sparrow
 S. pallida (Swainson),
 clay-colored sparrow
 S. passerina (Bechstein), chipping
 sparrow
 S. pusilla (Wilson), field sparrow
 Zonotrichia albicollis (Gmelin),
 white-throated sparrow
 Z. leucophrys (Forster), white-
 crowned sparrow
 Z. querula (Nuttall), Harris's
 sparrow
 Family Cardinalidae (grosbeaks)
 Cardinalis cardinalis (Linnacus),
 northern cardinal
 Passerina caerulea (Linnaeus),
 blue grosbeak
 P. ciris (Linnaeus), painted
 bunting
 P. cyanea (Linnaeus), indigo
 bunting
 Pheucticus ludovicianus
 (Linnaeus), rose-breasted
 grosbeak
 P. melanocephalus (Swainson),
 black-headed grosbeak
 Spiza americana (Gmelin),
 dickcissel
 Family Icteridae (icterines)
 Agelaius phoeniceus (Linnaeus),
 red-winged blackbird
 Dolichonyx oryzivorus (Linnaeus),
 bobolink
 Euphagus carolinus (Muller), rusty
 blackbird
 E. cyanocephalus (Wagler),
 Brewer's blackbird
 Icteris galbula (Linnaeus),
 Baltimore oriole
 I. spurius (Linnaeus), orchard
 oriole
 Molothrus ater (Boddaert),
 brown-headed cowbird
 Quiscalus mexicanus (Gmelin),
 great-tailed grackle
 Q. quiscula (Linnaeus), common
 grackle
 Sturnella magna (Linnaeus),
 eastern meadowlark
 S. neglecta (Audubon), western SC
 meadowlark
 Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus SE
 (Bonaparte), yellow-headed
 blackbird
 Family Fringillidae (finches)
 Carduelis flammea (Linnaeus),
 common redpoll
 C. hornemanni (Holboll), hoary
 redpoll
 C. pinus (Wilson), pine siskin
 C. tristis (Linnaeus), American
 goldfinch
 Carpodacus mexicanus (Muller), X
 house finch
 C. purpureus (Gmelin), purple
 finch
 Coccothraustes vespertinus
 (Cooper), evening grosbeak
 Fringilla montifringilla Linnaeus,
 brambling
 Loxia curvirostra Linnaeus, red
 crossbill
 L. leuceoptera Gmelin,
 white-winged crossbill
 Pinicola enucleator (Linnaeus),
 pine grosbeak
 Family Passeridae (weaver finches)
 Passer domesticus (Linnaeus), X
 Passer domesticus (Linnaeus), X
 house sparrow
 P. montanus (Linnaeus), X
 Eurasian tree sparrow
Extirpated:
 Campephilus principalis FE, Ex (1814)
 (Linnaeus), ivory-billed
 woodpecker
 Conuropsis carolinensis Ex (1859)
 (Linnaeus), Carolina parakeet
 Ectopistes migratorius Ex (1902)
 (Linnaeus), passenger pigeon
 Grus americana (Linnaeus), SE, FE, Ex (1907)
 whooping crane
 Numenius borealis (Forster), FE, Ex (1890)
 eskimo curlew
 Perdix perdix (Linnaeus), gray X, Ex (1977)
 partridge
 Tympanuchus cupido (Linnaeus), Ex (1972)
 greater prairie-chicken
 Vermivora bachmanii (Audubon), FE, Ex (1899)
 Bachman's warbler


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors wish to thank the Biological Survey Committee of the Indiana Academy of Science for the charge of assembling this list of taxa. Additional thanks is specifically extended to Alan Bruner, Bill McKnight, Charles Keller, Kenneth Brock, Dan Webster, and to several anonymous reviewers for comments on previous drafts of the manuscript.

Sherman A. Minton (1)

(1.) Deceased.

LITERATURE CITED

American Fisheries Society. 1991. Common and Scientific Names of Fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 20. 183 pp.

American Ornithologists' Union. 1998. Check-list of North American Birds. 7th ed. American Ornithologists' Union. 829 pp.

Burr, B.M. & M.L. Warren, Jr. 1986. A Distributional Atlas of Kentucky Fishes. Kentucky Nature Preserves Scientific and Technical Series 4. 398 pp.

Castrale, J.S., E.M. Hopkins & C.E. Keller. 1998. Atlas of Breeding Birds of Indiana. Indiana Department of Natural Resources. Indianapolis. 388 pp.

Collins, J.T. 1990. Standard common and current scientific names for North American amphibians and reptiles, 3rd ed. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles Herpetological Circular No. 19. 41 pp.

Conant, J. & J.T. Collins. 1991. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians: Eastern and Central North America. Houghton Mifflin, Boston. 608 pp.

Etnier, D.A. & W.C. Starnes. 1993. The Fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville. 681 pp.

Gerking, S.D. 1945. The Distribution of the Fishes of Indiana. Investigations of Indiana Lakes and Streams 3:1-137.

Indiana Department of Natural Resources (IDNR). 1999. Rare animals of Indiana. Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Indianapolis. 8 pp.

Lee, D.S., C.R. Gilbert, C.H. Hocutt, R.E. Jenkins, D.E. McAllister & J.R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American Freshwater Fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, i-x + 854 pp.

Mayden, R.L. 1989. Phylogenetic Studies of North American Minnows, with Emphasis on the Genus Cyprinella (Teleostei: Cypriniformes). Miscellaneous Publications University Kansas Museum Natural History 80. 189 pp.

Minton, S.A., Jr. 1972. Amphibians and Reptiles of Indiana. Indiana Academy of Science Monograph 3. 346 pp.

Minton, S.A., Jr. 2001. Amphibians and Reptiles of Indiana. Indiana Academy of Science, Indianapolis. 404 pp.

Mumford, R.E. & C.E. Keller. 1984. Birds of Indiana. Indiana University Press. Bloomington. 376 pp.

Mumford, R.E. & J.O. Whitaker, Jr. 1982. Mammals of Indiana. Indiana University Press. Bloomington. 537 pp.

Simon, T.P., J.O. Whitaker, Jr., J.S. Castrale & S.A. Minton. 1993. Checklist of the Vertebrates of Indiana. Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science 101:95-126.

U.S. Office of the Federal Register. 1996. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 50, Parts 17.11 and 17.12. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

Whitaker, J.O., Jr. & J.R. Gammon. 1988. Endangered and Threatened Vertebrate Animals of Indiana, Their Distribution and Abundance. Indiana Academy of Science Monograph 5. 122 pp.

Wilson, D.E. & D.M. Reeder. 1993. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. Smithsonian Institution Press (Washington), in association with American Society of Mammalogists. 1206 pp.

Manuscript received 15 April 2002, revised 16 September 2002.
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Author:Minton, Sherman A.
Publication:Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science
Geographic Code:1U3IN
Date:Dec 23, 2002
Words:17994
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