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Revised checklist of the vertebrates of Indiana.



ABSTRACT. The vertebrate vertebrate, any animal having a backbone or spinal column. Verbrates can be traced back to the Silurian period. In the adults of nearly all forms the backbone consists of a series of vertebrae. All vertebrates belong to the subphylum Vertebrata of the phylum Chordata.  fauna fauna

All the species of animals found in a particular region, period, or special environment. Five faunal realms, based on terrestrial animal species, are generally recognized: Holarctic, including Nearactic (North America) and Paleartic (Eurasia and northern Africa);
 of Indiana Indiana, state, United States
Indiana, midwestern state in the N central United States. It is bordered by Lake Michigan and the state of Michigan (N), Ohio (E), Kentucky, across the Ohio R. (S), and Illinois (W).
 recorded since the time of European European

emanating from or pertaining to Europe.


European bat lyssavirus
see lyssavirus.

European beech tree
fagussylvaticus.

European blastomycosis
see cryptococcosis.
 settlement numbers 208 fish, 38 amphibian amphibian, in zoology
amphibian, in zoology, cold-blooded vertebrate animal of the class Amphibia. There are three living orders of amphibians: the frogs and toads (order Anura, or Salientia), the salamanders and newts (order Urodela, or Caudata), and the
, 54 reptilian, 401 avian avian /avi·an/ (a´ve-an) of or pertaining to birds.

a·vi·an
adj.
Of, relating to, or characteristic of birds.
, and 68 mammalian mammalian

emanating from or pertaining to mammals.
 species. Currently, 19 fish, 9 amphibian, 16 reptilian, 44 avian, and 13 mammalian species within the political boundaries Natural or artificial separations or divisions between adjoining properties that show their limits.

Boundaries are used to establish private and public ownership by determining the exact location of the points at which one piece of land is distinguishable from another.
 of Indiana require protection due to man's impact. Within the last 200 years, 26 native vertebrate species in Indiana have become extinct or extirpated. These include 6 fish, 1 reptilian, 8 avian, and 11 mammalian species. The present vertebrate fauna of Indiana has 203 fish, 38 amphibian, 53 reptilian, 393 avian, and 57 mammalian species.

Keywords Keywords are the words that are used to reveal the internal structure of an author's reasoning. While they are used primarily for rhetoric, they are also used in a strictly grammatical sense for structural composition, reasoning, and comprehension. : Indiana, fishes, reptiles reptiles

terrestrial or aquatic vertebrates which breathe air through lungs and have a skin covering of horny scales. They are poikilothermic, oviparous or ovoviviparous, and, if they have legs they are short and constructed solely for crawling.
, amphibians amphibians

members of the animal class Amphibia. Includes frogs, toads, newts, salamanders and cecilians all capable of living on land or in water.
, mammals The class Mammalia (the Mammals) is divided into two subclasses based on reproductive techniques: egg laying mammals (the Monotremes); and mammals which give live birth. The latter subclass is divided into two infraclasses: pouched mammals (the marsupials); and the placental mammals. , birds

**********

The current listing is intended to provide a record of the extant ex·tant  
adj.
1. Still in existence; not destroyed, lost, or extinct: extant manuscripts.

2. Archaic Standing out; projecting.
 and extirpated vertebrates of Indiana over the last two centuries. The list was first published by Simon et al. (1993) and is updated here. It includes new information and taxonomic tax·o·nom·ic   also tax·o·nom·i·cal
adj.
Of or relating to taxonomy: a taxonomic designation.



tax
 changes. This is the first step in the efforts of the Biological Survey Committee of the Indiana Academy of Science to compile To translate a program written in a high-level programming language into machine language. See compiler.  a listing of all the known species of biota biota /bi·o·ta/ (bi-o´tah) all the living organisms of a particular area; the combined flora and fauna of a region.

bi·o·ta
n.
The flora and fauna of a region.
 in Indiana. The taxonomic and nomenclatural no·men·cla·ture  
n.
1. A system of names used in an art or science: the nomenclature of mineralogy.

2.
 sources used for the various taxa taxa: see taxon.  include: Fish: American American, river, 30 mi (48 km) long, rising in N central Calif. in the Sierra Nevada and flowing SW into the Sacramento River at Sacramento. The discovery of gold at Sutter's Mill (see Sutter, John Augustus) along the river in 1848 led to the California gold rush of  Fisheries fisheries. From earliest times and in practically all countries, fisheries have been of industrial and commercial importance. In the large N Atlantic fishing grounds off Newfoundland and Labrador, for example, European and North American fishing fleets have long  Society (1991), Burr burr (bur) bur.

burr
n.
Variant of bur.



burr

1. a plant seed capsule carrying many hooked structures which catch in animal coats thus promoting dissemination of the plant.
 & Warren Warren.

1 City (1990 pop. 144,864), Macomb co., SE Mich., a suburb of Detroit; est. 1837, inc. as a city 1957. It is an important metalworking center where steel is processed.
 (1986), Mayden (1989), and Etnier & Starnes (1993); Amphibians and reptiles: Minton Minton, English family of potters. The first important member of the family was

Thomas Minton, 1765–1836, who founded a small pottery at Stoke-on-Trent. He first engraved the famous willow-pattern ware.
 (1972, 2001), Collins (1990), and Conant Co·nant   , James Bryant 1893-1978.

American educator who was president of Harvard University (1933-1953) and served as ambassador to West Germany (1955-1957).
 & Collins (1991); Birds: American Ornithologists' Union The American Ornithologists' Union (AOU) an ornithological organization in the USA. Unlike the National Audubon Society, its members are primarily professional ornithologists rather than amateur birders.  (1998); Mammals: Wilson Wilson, city (1990 pop. 36,930), seat of Wilson co., E N.C., in a rich agricultural region; inc. 1849. It is a commercial and industrial center with a large tobacco market. Manufactures include textile goods (especially clothing), metal products, and processed foods.  & Reeder Reeder is the name of two places in the United States:
  • Reeder, North Dakota
  • Reeder Township, Michigan
 (1993) and Mumford Mum·ford   , Lewis 1895-1990.

American social critic and writer whose works, such as The Culture of Cities (1938) and The Conduct of Life (1951), decry dehumanizing technology and call for a return to humanitarian and moral values.
 & Whitaker Whitaker is a surname and may refer to:
  • Alexander Whitaker (1585–1616), American religious leader
  • Benjamin Whitaker, British Labour Party politician
  • Brian Whitaker, British journalist
 (1982).

The following codes were established to facilitate documentation of the vertebrates of the state (Tables 1, 2). The general range in Indiana is indicated as: statewide (I), north (N), south (S), west (W), east (E), central (C), and various combinations of these regions. Relative abundance Abundance
See also Fertility.

Amalthea’s

horn horn of Zeus’s nurse-goat which became a cornucopia. [Gk. Myth.: Walsh Classical, 19]

cornucopia

conical receptacle which symbolizes abundance. [Rom. Myth.
 refers to the general population levels of the species within the state. Depending on local and seasonal conditions, the population levels will vary. Relative abundance is broken down into four categories: A = abundant, C = common, O = occasional, and R = rare. Abundance categories vary based on size of the animal. Extirpated species (Ex) are listed along with the estimated date of disappearance Disappearance
See also Abduction.

Arden, Enoch

missing for many years after being shipwrecked, returns to find his wife remarried. [Br. Poetry: “Enoch Arden”]

Atlantis

submerged legendary island kingdom; never located.
. In some cases, this date refers to the last time a voucher A receipt or release which provides evidence of payment or other discharge of a debt, often for purposes of reimbursement, or attests to the accuracy of the accounts.  record of the species was collected (Whitaker & Gammon 1988). The status of the species refers to the conservation designations The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view of the subject.
Please [ improve this article] or discuss the issue on the talk page.
 of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Services Office of Endangered Species endangered species, any plant or animal species whose ability to survive and reproduce has been jeopardized by human activities. In 1999 the U.S. government, in accordance with the U.S. , Endangered en·dan·ger  
tr.v. en·dan·gered, en·dan·ger·ing, en·dan·gers
1. To expose to harm or danger; imperil.

2. To threaten with extinction.
 and Threatened Wildlife and Plants (USOFR 1996) and of the Indiana Department of Natural Resources The Indiana Department of Natural Resources is the agency of the U.S. state of Indiana charged with maintaining natural areas such as state parks, state forests, recreation areas, etc.  summarized in Rare Animals of Indiana (Indiana Department of Natural Resources 1999). Federally endangered species are denoted as FE, threatened as FT, and candidates for federal listing as FC. State endangered species will be represented by three codes: state endangered (SE), state threatened (ST), and special concern in need of further study (SC). An additional designation DESIGNATION, wills. The expression used by a testator, instead of the name of the person or the thing he is desirous to name; for example, a legacy to. the eldest son of such a person, would be a designation of the legatee. Vide 1 Rop. Leg. ch. 2.
     2.
, exotic exotic

not native, not indigenous.
 (X), is included for accidentally or deliberately de·lib·er·ate  
adj.
1. Done with or marked by full consciousness of the nature and effects; intentional: mistook the oversight for a deliberate insult.

2.
 released species. One additional code is included for birds (Table 2) to indicate main seasonal occurrence: S = summer resident, W = winter resident, R = year-round resident, M migrant mi·grant  
n.
1. One that moves from one region to another by chance, instinct, or plan.

2. An itinerant worker who travels from one area to another in search of work.

adj.
Migratory.
, A = accidental accidental /ac·ci·den·tal/ (ak?si-den´t'l)
1. occurring by chance, unexpectedly, or unintentionally.

2. nonessential; not innate or intrinsic.
, H = hypothetical Hypothetical is an adjective, meaning of or pertaining to a hypothesis. See:
  • Hypothesis
  • Hypothetical
  • Hypothetical (album)
, and * = breeder breeder

1. a person with an animal enterprise involving the multiplication of the herd, flock or group.

2. a female animal used basically for the production of saleable young.
 and [*] = former breeders. The listing of birds has been greatly improved due to the establishment and work of the Indiana Bird Records Committee of the Indiana Audubon Audubon, borough (1990 pop. 9,205), Camden co., SW N.J., a suburb of Camden; inc. 1905. Audubon is mostly residential. It was named after John James Audubon, the ornithologist, who studied the birds of the area in 1829.  Society.

DISCUSSION

The vertebrate fauna of Indiana recorded from the time of European settlement numbers 203 fish, 38 amphibian, 54 reptilian, 401 avian, and 68 mammalian species. Species first described as new from Indiana include 34 fish, 3 amphibians, 6 reptiles, and 2 mammals. Within the last 200 years, 26 native vertebrate species in Indiana have become extinct or extirpated. Of those lost, 6 species were fish; 1 was a reptile; 8 were birds; and 11 were mammals. Another 18 bird species (13 not including extirpated species) no longer nest in the state. Through accidental or deliberate Willful; purposeful; determined after thoughtful evaluation of all relevant factors; dispassionate. To act with a particular intent, which is derived from a careful consideration of factors that influence the choice to be made.  release, 21 species of fish and 9 additional bird species have become established, although one of these bird species has been recently lost. Currently, 19 fish, 9 amphibian, 16 reptilian, 44 avian, and 13 mammalian species within the political boundaries of Indiana require protection due to man's impact. An additional 6 amphibian, 3 reptilian, 30 avian, and 2 mammalian species are considered hypothetical in occurrence in the state because spe cimens have not been collected. The present faunal fau·na  
n. pl. fau·nas or fau·nae
1. (used with a sing. or pl. verb) Animals, especially the animals of a particular region or period, considered as a group.

2.
 list for Indiana includes 203 fish, 38 amphibian, 53 reptile, 393 bird, and 57 mammal mammal, an animal of the highest class of vertebrates, the Mammalia. The female has mammary glands, which secrete milk for the nourishment of the young after birth.  species.
Table 1

Checklist of the fish, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals of Indiana.
Range is indicated as statewide (I), north (N), south (S), west (W),
east (E), central (C), and various combi-nations. General abundance is
listed roughly as abundant (A), common (C), occasional (O), and rare
(R). Extirpated species (Ex) are given with approximate date of
extirpation. Status is listed as federally endangered (FE), federally
threatened (FT), and candidates for federal listing (FC). State
desig-nations are endangered (SE), threatened (ST), and special concern
(SC). Exotic or or introduced species are indicated by "X."

                                                           Range


CLASS OSTEICHTHYES

 Order Petromyzontiformes
 (lampreys)
  Family Petromyzontidae (lamprey)
   Ichthyomyzon bdellium (Jordon),                         W, S
   Ohio lamprey
   I. castaneus Girard, chestnut                           SW
   lamprey
   I. fossor Reighard & Cummins,                           NE
   northern brook lamprey
   I. unicuspis Hubbs & Trautman,                          W, S
   silver lamprey
   Lampetra aepyptera (Abbott),                            SW
   least brook lamprey
   L. appendix (DeKay), American                           NW
   brook lamprey
   Petromyzon marinus Linnaeus, sea                        NW
   lamprey
 Order Acipenseriformes
 (paddlefish, strugeons)
  Family Acipenseridae (sturgeon)
   Acipenser fulvescens Rafinesque,                        W, S
   lake surgeon
   Scaphirhynchus platorynchus                             W, SE
   (Rafinesque), shovelnose
   sturgeon
  Family Polyodontidae (paddlefish)
   Polyodon spathula (Walbaum),                            W, SE
   paddlefish
 Order Lepisosteiformes (gars)
  Family Lepisosteidae (gars)
   Lepisosteus oculatus Winchell,                          NE, SW
   spotted gar
   L. osseus Linnaeus, longnose gar                        I
   L. platostomus Rafinesque,                              W, S
   shortnose gar
 Order Amiiformes (bowfin)
  Family Amiidae (bowfin)
   Amia calva Linnaeus, bowfin                             N, S
 Order Osteoglossiformes (mooneye)
  Family Hiodontidae (mooneye)
   Hiodon alosoides (Rafinesque),                          S
   goldeye
   H. tergisus LeSueur, mooneye                            W, S
   Order Anguilliformes (eels)
 Family Anguillidae (eel)
   Anguilla rostrata (LeSueur),                            W, S
   American eel
 Order Clupeiformes (herring, shad)
  Family Clupeidae (herring)
   Alosa chrysochloris                                     W, S
   (Rafinesque), skipjack herring
   A. pseudoharengus (Wilson),                             NW
   alewife
   Dorosoma cepedianum (LeSueur),                          I
   gizzard shad
   D. petenense (Gunther),                                 S
   threadfin shad
 Order Cypriniformes (carps and minnows)
  Family Cyprinidae (carps and
  (minnows)
   Campostoma anomalum
   (Rafinesque), stoneroller                               I
   C. oligolepis Hubbs & Greene,                           N
   largescale stoneroller
   Carassius auratus (Linnaeus),                           I
   goldfish
   Clinostomus elongatus                                   E
   (Kirtland), redside dace
   Couesius plumbeus (Agassiz),                            NW
   lake chub
   Ctenopharyngodon idella                                 NW, C
   (Valenciennes), grass carp
   Cyprinella lutrensis (Baird &                           NW
   Girard), red shiner
   C. spiloptera (Cope), spotfin                           I
   shiner
   C. whipplei Giard, steelcolor                           C, S
   shiner
   Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, carp                          I
   Ericymba buccata Cope,                                  I
   silverjaw minnow
   Erimystax dissimilis                                    NW
   (Kirtland), streamline chub
   E. x-punctatus (Hubbs & Crow),                          W
   gravel chub
   Hybognathus hayi Jordan,                                SW
   cypress minnow
   H. nuchalis Agassiz,                                    SC, SW
   Mississippi silvery minnow
   Hybopsis amblops (Rafinesque),                          NW
   bigeye chub
   H. amnis (Hubbs & Greene),                              W
   pallid shiner
   Hypophthalmichthys molitrix                             SE, SW
   (Valenciennes), silver carp
   H. nobilis (Richardson),                                SW
   bighead carp
   Luxilus chrysocephalus                                  I
   Rafinesque, striped shiner
   L. cornutus (Mitchill), common                          N
   shiner
   Lythrurus fasciolaris                                   SE
   (Gilbert), scarlet shiner
   L. fumeus (Evermann), ribbon                            SW
   shiner
   L. umbratilis (Girard), redfin                          W, C
   shiner
   Macrhybopsis hyostoma                                   W, S
   (Gilbert), shoal chub
   M. storeriana (Kirtland),                               W
   silver chub
   Nocomis biguttatus (Kirtland),                          N
   hornyhead chub
   N. micropogon (Cope), river                             NE, C
   chub
   Notemigonus crysoleucas (Mitchill)                      I
   golden shiner
   Notropis atherinoides Rafinesque,                       I
   emerald shiner
   N. blennius (Girard), river shiner                      W, S
   N. boops Gilbert, bigeye shiner                         C
   N. buchanani Meek, ghost shiner                         NW, S
   N. chalybaeus (Cope), ironcolor                         NW
   shiner
   N. dorsalis (Agassiz), bigmouth                         NW
   shiner
   N. heterodon (Cope), blackchin                          N
   shiner
   N. heterolepis Eigenmann &                              N
   Eigenmann, blacknose shiner
   N. hudsonius (Clinton), spottail                        NW
   shiner
   N. photogenis (Cope), silver                            C, SE
   shiner
   N. rubellus (Agassiz), rosyface                         N, C
   shiner
   N. shumardi (Girard), silverband                        SW
   shiner
   N. straminens (Girard), sand                            I
   Shiner
   N. texanus (Girard), weed shiner                        NW
   N. valucellus (Cope), mimic shiner                      E, C, S
   N. wickliffi Trautman, channel                          S
   shiner
   Opsopoeodus emiliae Hay, pugnose                        N, SW
   minnow
   Phenacobius mirabilis (Girard),                         C, S
   suckermouth minnow
   Phoxinus erythrogaster                                  NW, C
   (Rafinesque), southern redbelly
   dace
   Pimephales notatus (Rafinesque),                        I
   bluntnose minnow
   P. promelas Rafinesque, fathead                         N, SE
   minnow
   P. vigilax (Baird & Girard),                            W, S
   bullhead minow
   Rhinichthys atratulus (Hermann),                        NW, C, SE
   blacknose dace
   R. cataractae (Valenciennes),                           N
   longnose dace
   Semotilus atromaculatus (Mitchill)                      I
   creek chub
   Scardinius erythrophthalmus                             NW
   (Linnaeus), rudd
  Family Catostomidae (suckers and
  buffallo)
   Carpiodes carpio (Rafinesque),                          W, S
   river carpsucker
   C. cyprinus (LeSueur), quillback                        I
   C. velifer (Rafinesque), highfin                        W, S
   carpsucker
   Catostomus catostomus (Forster),                        NW
   longnose sucker
   C. commersoni (Lacepede), white                         I
   sucker
   Cycleptus elongatus (LeSueur),                          C, S
   blue sucker
   Erimyzon oblongus (Mitchill),                           NW, C, SW
   creek chubsucker
   E. sucetta (Lacepede), lake                             N
   chubsucker
   Hypentelium nigricans (LeSueur),                        N, C
   northern hogsucker
   Ictiobus bubalus (Rafinesque),                          W, S
   smallmouth buffalo
   I. cpribellus (Valenciennes),                           W, S
   bigmouth buffalo
   I. niger (Rafinesque), black                            NW, S
   buffalo
   Minytrema melanops (Rafinesque),                        NE, C
   spotted sucker
   Moxostoma anisurum (Rafinesque),                        N, C
   silver redhorse
   M. carinatum (Cope), river                              C
   redhorse
   M. duquesnei (LeSueur), black                           C
   redhorse
   M. erythrurum (Rafinesque), golden                      I
   redhorse
   M. macrolepidotum (LeSueur),                            I
   shorthead redhorse
   M. valenciennesi Jordan, greater                        N
   redhorse
 Order Siluriformes (bullhead and
 catfish)
  Family Ictaluridae (bullhead and
  catfish)
   Ameriurus catus (Linnaeus), white                       S
   catfish
   A. melas (Rafinesque), black                            I
   bullhead
   A. natalis (LeSueur), yellow                            I
   bullhead
   A. nebulosus (LeSueur), brown                           S
   bullhead
   Ictalurus furcatus (LeSueur),                           S
   blue catfish
   I. punctatus (Rafinesque),                              I
   channel catfish
   Norturus eleutherus Jordan,                             W, C
   mountain madtom
   N. flavus Rafinesque, stonecat                          I
   N. gyrinus (Mitchill), tadpole                          I
   madtom
   N. miurus Jordan, brindled madtom                       C
   N. nocturnus Jordan & Gilbert,                          W
   frecled madtom
   N. stigmosus Taylor, northern                           WC
   madtom
   Pylodictis olivaris (Rafinesque),                       I
   flathead catfish
 Order Salmoniformes (trout, slamon,
 whitefish)
  Family Esocidae (pikes)
   Esox americanus Gmelin, grass pickerel
   E. lucius Linnaeus, northern pike                       N
   E. masquinongy Mitchill,                                S
   muskellunge
  Family Umbridae (mudminnows)
   Umbra limi (Kirtland), central                          N
   mudminnow
  Family Osmeridae (smelt)
   Osmerus mordax (Mitchill),                              NW
   rainbow smelt
  Family Salmonidate (salmon
  and whitefish)
   Coregonus artedi LeSueur,
   cisco or lake herring                                   NW
   C. clupeaformis (Mitchill),
   lake whitefish                                          NW
   C. hoyi (Milner), bloater                               NW
   C. kiyi (Koelz), kiyi                                   NW
   C. zenithicus (Jordan & Evermann
   shortjaw cisco                                          NW
   Oncorhynchus kisutch (Walbaum),
   coho salmon                                             NW
   O. mykiss (Walbaum), rainbow                            N
   trout
   O. Ishawytscha (Walbaum),
   chinook salmon                                          NW
   Salmo salar Linnaeus,
   Atlantic salmon                                         NW
   trout
  (pirate perch)
   Aphredoderus sayanus
   (Gilliams), pirate perch                                N, SW
  Family Amblyopsidae
  (cavefish)
   Amblyopsis spelaea (DeKay),
   northern cavefish                                       S
   Typhilchthys subterraneus
   Girard, southern cavefish                               S
 Order Percopsiformes
  Family Percopsidae
  (trout-perch)
   Percopsis omiscomaycus
   (Walbaum), trout-perch                                  NW, S
 Order Gadiformes (cod)
  Family Lotidae (freshwater
  cod)
   Lota lota (Linnaeus), burbot                            NW, WE
 Order Cyprinodonitiformes
 (topminnows, silversides)
  Family Fundulidae (topminnows)
   Fundulus catenatus (Storer),
   northern studfish                                       C
   F. diaphanus (LeSuer),
   banded killifish                                        N
   F. dispar (Agassiz), northern
   starhead topminnow                                      NW
   F. notatus (Rafinesque),
   blackstripe topminnow                                   I
   F. olivaceus (Storer),
   blackspotted topminnow                                  W, NE
  Family Poeciliidae (live-bearing fishes)
   Gambusia affinis
   (Baird & Girard), mosquitofish                          W
 Order Atheriniformes
  Family Atherinidae (silversides)
   Labidesthes sicculus (Cope),                            I
   brook silverside
   Menida beryllina (Cope), inland                         S
   silverside
 Order Mugiliformes
  Family Mugilidae
   Mugil cephalus Linnaeus, striped                        S
   mullet
 Order Gasterosteiformers                                  S
 (sticklebacks)
  Family Gasterosteidae
  (sticklebacks)
   Culaea inconstans (Kirtland),                           N, SE
   brook stickleback
   Gasterosteus aculeatus,                                 NW
   Linnaeus, threespine stickleback
   Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus),                         NW
   ninespine stickleback
 Order Scorpaeniformes
  Family Cottidae (sculpins)
   Cottus bairdi (Girard, mottled                          I
   sculpin
   C. carolinae (Gill), banded                             SC
   sculpin
   C. cognatus Richardson, slimy                           NW
   sculpin
   Myoxocephalus thompsoni (Girard),                       NW
   deepwater sculpin
 Order Perciformes (basses, sunfish,
 perch, darters, gobies)
  Family Moronidae (temperate
  basses)
   Morone americana (Gmelin), white                        NW
   perch
   M. chrysops (Rafinesque), white                         W
   bass
   M. mississippiensis Jordan &                            W, S
   Eigenmann, yellow bass
   M. saxatilis (Walbaum), striped                         S
   bass
  Family Elassomatidae (pygmy
  sunfish)
   Elassoma zonatum Jordan, banded                         SW
   pygmy sunfish
  Family Centrarchidae (black bass
  and sunfish)
   Ambloplites rupestris                                   I
   (Rafinesque), rock bass
   Centrarchus macropterus                                 SW
   (Lacepede) flier
   Lepomis cyanellus Ralinesque,                           I
   green sunfish
   L. gibbosus (Linnacus),                                 I
   pumpkinseed
   L. gulosus (Cuvier), warmouth                           N
   L. humilis (Girard),                                    N
   orangespotted sunfish
   L. macrochirus Rafinesque,                              I
   bluegill
   L. megalotis (Rafinesque),                              I
   longear sunfish
   L. microlphus (Gunther),                                N, S
   redear sunfish
   L. miniatus Jordan, redspotted                          SW
   sunfish
   L. symmetricus Forbes, bantam                           W
   sunfish
   Micropterus dolomien Lacepede,                          I
   smallmouth bass
   M. punctulatus (Rafinesque),                            S
   spotted bass
   M. salmoides (Lacepede),                                I
   largemouth bass
   pomoxis annularis Rafinesque,                           I
   white crappie
   P. nigromaculatus (LeSueur),                            I
   black crappie
  Family Percidae
  (perch and darters)
   Ammocrypta clara Jordan &                               NW, S
   Meek, western sand darter
   A. pellucida (Agassiz),                                 C, SW
   eastern sand darter
   Etheostoma asprigene (Forbes),                          S
   mud darter
   E. blennioides Rafinesque,                              C, E
   greenside darter
   E. caeruleum Storer,                                    N, C
   rainbow darter
   E. camurum (Cope),                                      C
   bluebreast darter
   E. chlorosoma (Hay),                                    W
   bluntnose darter
   E. exile (Girard), lowa darter                          N
   E. Flabellare Rafinesque,                               E, C
   fantail darter
   E. gracile (Girard),                                    SW
   slough darter
   E. histrio Jordan & Gilbert,                            S
   harlequin darter
   E. maculatum Kirtland,                                  C
   spotted darter
   E. microperca Jordan & Gilbert,                         N
   least darter
   E. nigrum Rafinesque,                                   I
   johnny darter
   E. proeliare (Hay),                                     S
   cypress darter
   E. spectabile (Agassiz),                                C
   orangethroat darter
   E. squamiceps Jordan,                                   SW
   spottail darter
   E. tippecanoe Jordan & Evermann,                        C
   Tippecanoe darter
   E. variatum Kirtland,                                   SW
   variegate darter
   E. zonale (Cope), banded darter                         NW, SE
   Perca flavescens (Mitcheill),                           N
   yelow perch
   Percina caprodes (Rafinesque),                          I
   logperch
   P. copelandi (Jordan),                                  C
   channel darter
   P. evides (Jordan & Copeland),                          C
   gilt darter
   P. maculata (Girard), blackside darter                  I
   P. phoxocephala (Nelson), slenderhead darter            C
   P. Sciera (Swain), dusky darter                         C
   P. Shumardi (Girard), river darter                      C, S
   P. vigil (Hay), saddleback darter                       SW
   Sander canadense (Griffith & Smith), sauger             W, S
   S. vitreus (Mitchill), walleye                          I
  Family Sciaenidae (drum)
   Aplodinotus grunniens Rafinesque, freshwater drum       I
  Family Gobiidae
   Neogobius melanostomus (Pallas), round goby             NW
Extirpated:
   Atractosteus spatula (Lacepede), alligator gar          S
   Alosa alabamae Jordan & Evermann, Alabama shad          SW
   Notropis anogenus Forbes, pugnose shiner                NE
   N. ariommus (Cope), popeye shiner                       WC
   Coregonus nigripinnis (Gill), blackfin cisco            NW
   C. reighardi (Koelz), shortnose cisco                   NW
   Esox masquinongy Mitchill, Great Lakes muskellunge      N
    Esox masquinongy from the Great Lakes is extirpated,
    but another Ohio River form of
    questionable status exists.
   Lagochila lacera Jordan & Brayton, harelip sucker       C
   Crystallaria asprella Jordan, crystal darter            S
   Percina uranidea (Jordan & Gilbert), stargazing         SW
   darter
    Despite past confusion between the two species
    Percina uranidea and P. vigil, the two species did
    occur in Indiana (but are now extirpated; C. Gilbert,
    pers. comm.). Thompson & Cashner (1980) showed two
    records for P. uranidea from Indiana and a
    single record for P. vigil (as former name P.
    ouachitae) in the 1980 Atlas of North
    American Freshwater Fishes (Lee at al. 1980).

CLASS AMPHIBIA

 Order Caudata (salamanders)
  Family Cryptobranchidae (hellbenders)
   Crytobranchus alleganiensis (Daudin) hellbender         S
  Family Proteidae (mudpuppies)
   Necturus macidosus (Rafinesque), mudpuppy               I
  Family Ambystomatidae (mole salamanders)
   Ambystoma barbouri Kraus & Petranka, streamside         SE
   salamander
   A. jeffersonianum (Green), Jefferson's salamander       SC
   A. laterale Hallowell, blue-spotted salamander          N
   A. maculatum (Shaw), spotted salamander                 I
   A. opacum (Gravenhorst), marbled salamander             C, S
   A. texanum (Matthes), smallmouth salamander             I
   A. tigrinum (Green), tiger salamander                   I
  Family Salamandridae (newts)
   Notophthalmus viridescens (Rafinesque), eastern new     I
  Family Plethodontidae (lungless salamanders)
   Aneides aeneus (Cope & Packard), green salamander       SE
   Desmognathus fuscus (Green), northern                   SE
   dusky salamander
   Eurycea cirrigera (Green), two-lined salamander         C, S
   E.longicauda (Green), longtail salamander               S
   E.lucifuga Rafinesque, cave salamander                  S
   Hemidactylium scutatum (Schlegel), four-toed            N, C
   salamander
   Plethodon cinereus (Green), redback salamander          I
   P. dorsails Cope, zigzag salamander                     C,S
   P. glutinosus (Green), slimy salamander                 S,C
   P. richmondi Netting & Mittleman, ravine                SE
   salamander
   Pseudotriton ruber (Sonnini), northern red              SC
   salamander
  Family Sirenidae (sirens)
   Siren intermedia LeConte, lesser siren                  W
 Order Anura (toads and frogs)
  Family Pelobatidae (spadefoot toads)
   Scaphiopus holbrookii (Harlan), eastern spadefoot       S
  Family Bufonidae (toads)
   Bufo americanus Holbrook, American toad                 N,C,SE
   B. fowleri Hinkley, Fowler's toad                       I
  Family Hylidae (tree frogs)
   Acris crepitans Baird, cricket frog                     I
   Hyla claysoscelis Cope, Cope's gray tree frog           I
   H. versicolor LeConte, eastern gray treefrog            I
   Pseudacris crucifer Wied,                               I
   spring peeper
   P. triseriata (Wied), western                           I
   chorus frog
  Family Ranidae (true frogs)
   Rana areolata Baird & Girard,                           W
   crawfish frog
   R. blairi Mecham et al., plains                         W
   leopard frog
   R. clamitans Latreille, green                           I
   frog
   R. catesbeiana Shaw, bullfrog                           I
   R. pipiens Schreber, northern                           N, E
   leopard frog
   R. palustris LeConte, pickerel                          E, C, WC
   frog
   R. utricularia Harlan, southern                         S, C
   leopard frog
   R. sylvatica LeConte, wood frog                         I
Hypothetical
   Gyrinophilus porphyriticus
   (Green), spring salamander
   Pseudacris brachyphona (Cope),
   mountain chorus frog
   Pseudotriton montanus Baird,
   mud salamander
   Gastrophryne carolinensis
   (Holbrook), eastern
   narrowmouth toad
   Hyla cinerea (Schneider), green
   treefrog
   H. avivoca Viosca, bird-voiced
   treefrog

CLASS REPTILIA

 Order Testudines (turtles)
  Family Chelydridae (snapping
  turtles)
   Chelydra serpentina Linnaeus,                           I
   common snapping turtle
   Macroclemys temminckii                                  SW
   (Troost), alligator snapping
   turtle
  Family Kinosternidae (musk and
  mud turtles)
   Kinosternon subrubrum                                   NW, SW
   (Lacepede), eastern mud
   turtle)
   Sternotherus odoratus                                   I
   (Latreille), common musk
   turtle
  Family Emydidae (box and water
  turtles)
   Chrysemys picts (Schneider),                            I
   painted turtle
   Clemmsys guttata (Schneider),                           N
   spotted turtle
   Emydoidea blandingii                                    N
   (Holbrook), Blanding's turtle
   Graptemys geographica                                   I
   (LeSueur), map turtle
   G. pseudogeographica (Gray),                            W, S
   false map turtle
   G. ouachitensis Cagle,
   Ouachita map turtle
   Pseudemys concinna (LeConte),                           SW
   river cooter
   Terrapene carolina (Linnaeus),                          I
   eastern box turtle
   T. ornata (Agassiz), ornate                             NW, SW
   box turtle
   Trachemys scripta (Schoepff),                           S, W
   red-eared turtle
  Family Trionychidae (softshell turtles)
   Apalone mutica LeSueur, smooth softshell                W, S
   A. spinifera (LeSueur), spiny softshell                 I
 Order Squamata (lizards and snakes)
  Family Iguanidae (iguanids)
   Sceloporus undulatus Latreille, eastern                 S
   fence lizard
  Family Anguidae (glass lizards)
   Ophisaurus attenuatus Cope,                             NW
   slender glass lizard
  Family Teiidae (whiptails)
   Cnemidophorus sexlineatus                               NW, SW
   (Linnaeus), six-lined racerunner
  Family Scincidae (skinks)
   Eumeces fasciatus (Linnaeus),                           I
   five-lined skink
   E. laticeps (Schneider), broad-                         C, S
   headed skink
   Scincella lateralis (Say), ground skink                 S
  Family Colubridae (common snakes)
   Carphophis amoenus (Say), worm snake                    S
   Cemophora coccinea (Blumenbach), scarlet                S
   snake
   Coluber constrictor Linnaeus, black racer               I
   Clonophis kirtlandii (Kennicott),                       N, C, SE
   Kirtland's snake
   Diadophis punctatus (Linnaeus),                         S
   northern ringneck snake
   Elaphe obsoleta (Say), black rat snake                  I
   E. vulpina (Baird & Girard),                            NW
   western fox snake
   Heterodon platirhinos Latreille,                        I
   eastern hognose snake
   Lampropeltis calligaster                                W
   (Harlan), prairie kingsnake
   L. getulus (Linnaeus), common kingsnake                 S
   L. triangulum (Lacepede), eastern                       I
   milksnake
   Nerodia erythrogaster (Forster),                        SW, NE, SC
   northern copperbelly
   N. rhombifer (Hallowell),                               SW
   diamondback water snake
   N. sipedon (Linnaeus), banded water snake               I
   Opheodrys aestivas (Linnaeus),                          S
   rough green snake
   O. vernalis (Harlan), smooth green snake                NW
   Pituophis catenifer (Blainville),                       NW, SW
   bull snake
   Regina septemvittata (Say), queen snake
   Storeria dekayi (Holbrook), brown snake                 I
   S. occipitomaculata (Storer),                           I
   red-bellied snake
   Tantilla coronata (Baird & Girard),                     S
   crowned snake
   Thamnophis butleri (Cope), Butler's                     NE, C
   garter snake
   T. proximus (Say), western ribbon snake                 NW, SW
   T. radix (Baird & Girard), plains                       NW
   garter snake
   T. sauritus (Linnaeus), eastern                         I
   ribbon snake
   T. sirtalis (Linnaeus), common                          I
   garter snake
   Virginia valeriae Baird & Girard,                       S
   western earth snake
  Family Crotalidae (pit vipers)
   Agkistrodon controtrix                                  S, WC
   (Linnaeus), northern copperhead
   A. piscivorus Lacepede, cottonmouth                     S
   Crotalus horridus Linnaeus, timber                      S
   rattlesnake
   Sistrurus catenatus (Rafinesque),                       N
   eastern massasauga
   Hypothetical:
   Eumeces anthracinus (Baird), coal skink
   Regina grahami Baird & Girard,
   Graham's water snake
   Tropidoclonian lineatum
   (Hallowell), lined snake
   Extirpated:
   Farancia abacura (Holbrook), mud snake                  X

CLASS MAMMALIA

 Order Didelphimorphia (American opossums)
  Family Didelphidae (opossums)
  Didelphis virginiana Kerr, opossum                       I
 Order Insectivora (shrews and moles)
  Family Soricidae (shrews)
   Blarina brevicauda (Say), short-tailed                  I
   shrew
   Cryptotis parva (Say), least shrew                      I
   Sorex cinereus Kerr, masked shrew                       N
   S. fumeus Miller, smoky shrew                           SC
   S. hoyi Baird, pygmy shrew                              SC
   S. longirostris Bachman, southeastern                   SC
   shrew
  Family Talpidae (moles)                                  S
   Condylura cristata (Rafinesque)                         NE
   star-nosed mole
   Scalopus aquaticus (Linnaeus),                          I
   eastern mole
 Order Chiroptera (bats)
  Family Vespertilionidae
  (vespertilionid bats)
   Eptesicus fuscus (Beauvois), big                        I
   brown bat
   Lasionycteris noctivagans                               I
   (LeConte), silver-haired bat
   Lasiurus borealis (Muller), red bat                     I
   L. cinereus (Beauvois), hoary bat                       I
   Myotis austroriparius (Rhoads),                         SC
   southeastern myotis
   M. grisescens (Howell), gray myotis                     S
   M. lucifugus (LeConte), little                          I
   brown myotis
   M. septentrionalis Trouessart,                          I
   Northern myotis
   M. sodalis Miller & Allen,                              I
   Indiana myotis
   Nycticeius humeralis                                    S
   (Rafinesque), evening bat
   Pipistrellus subflavus (Cuvier),                        S
   eastern pipistrelle
   Corynorhinus rafinesquii                                SC
   (Lesson), Rafinesque's big-eared bat
 Order Lagomorpha (rabbits, hares, and pikas)
  Family Leporidae (rabbits and hares)
   Sylvilagus aquaticus (Bachman),                         SW
   swamp rabbit
   S. floridanus (Allen), cottontail rabbit                I
 Order Rodentia (rodents)
  Family Sciuridae (squirrels)
   Glaucomys volans (Linnaeus),                            I
   southern flying squirrel
   Marmota monax (Linnaeus), woodchuck                     I
   Sciurus carolinensis Gmelin, gray                       I
   squirrel
   S. niger Linnaeus, for squirrel                         I
   Spermophilus franklinii (Sabine),                       NW
   Franklin's ground squirrel
   S. tridecemlineatus (Mitchill),                         N
   thirteen-lined ground squirrel
   Tamias striatus (Linneaus),                             I
   eastern chipmunk
   Tamiasciurus hudsonicus                                 N
   (Erxleben), red squirrel
  Family Geomyidae (pocket gophers)
   Geomys bursarius (Shaw), plains                         NW
   pocket gopher
  Family Castoridae (beavers)
  Castor canadensis Kuhl, beaver                           I
   The beaver was extirpated by
   1900 but was reintroduced.
  Family Muridae (rats, voles, and mice)
   Subfamily Sigmodontinae
    Neotoma magister (Baird),                              SC
    Allegheny woodrat
    Peromyscus leucopus                                    I
    (Rafinesque), white-footed mouse
    P. maniculatus (Wagner), deer mouse                    I
    Reithrodontomys megalotis                              I
    (Baird), western harvestmouse
   Subfamily Arvicolinae
    Microtus ochroguster (Wagner),                         I
    prairie vole
    M. pennsylvanicus (Ord), meadow vole                   I
    M. pinetorum (LeConte), woodland vole                  I
    Ondatra ziethicus (Linnaeus), muskrat                  I
    Synaptomys cooperi Baird,                              I
    southern bog lemming
   Subfamily Murinae
    Mus musculus Linnaeus, house mouse                     I
    Rattus norvegicus (Berkenhout),                        I
    Norway rat
     The black rat, Rattus rattus,
     was extirpated about 1845 but
     is not included above because
     it was not native.
  Family Dipodidae (Zapodinae) (jumping mice)
     Zapus hudsonius (Zimmermann),                         I
     meadow jumping mouse
 Order Carnivora (canids)
  Family Canidae (canids)
    Canis latrans Say, coyote                              I
    Urocyon cinereoargenteus                               I
    (Schreber), gray fox
    Vulpes vulpes (Linnaeus), red fox                      I
  Family Procyonidae (raccoons and allies)
     Procyon lotor (Linnaeus), raccoon                     I
  Family Mustelidae (weasels, badger, otter)
    Lutra canadensis (Schrebder), river otter              I
    The river otter became extirpated in
    1942, but was reintroduced between
    1995 and 1999.
    Mustela frenata Lichtenstein,                          I
    long-tailed weasel
    M. nivalis (Linnaeus), least weasel                    N
    M. vison Schreber, mink                                I
    Taxidea taxus (Schreber), badger                       I
  Family Mephitidae (skunks)                               I
    Mephitis mephitis (Schreber),
    striped skunk
  Family Felidae (cat)
    Lynx rufus (Schreber), bobcat                          I
 Order Artiodactyla
  Family Cervidae (deer)
    Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann),                   I
    white-tailed deer
    The white-tailed deer was extirpated
    by 1900 but was reintroduced
Hypothetical
    Myotis leibi (Audubon &
    Bachman), Leib's bat
    Reithrodontomys humulis
    (Audubon & Bachman), eastern harvest
    mouse
Extirpated
    Bison bison (Linnaeus), bison                          Ex (1830)
    Canis lupus Linnacus, timber (gray) wolf               Ex (1908)
    C. rufus (Audubon & Bachman), red wolf                 Ex (1832)
    Cervus elaphus Linnaeus, elk (wapiti)                  Ex (1839)
    Erethizon dorsatwn (Linnaeus), porcupine               Ex (1918)
    Felis concolor Linnacus, mountain lion                 Ex (1851)
    Galo galo (Linnacus), wolverine                        Ex (1852)
    Lynx lynx Kerr, lynx                                   Ex (1832?)
    Martes pennanti (Erxleben), fisher                     Ex (1859)
    Spilogale putorius (Linnaeus), eastern                 Ex (1920?)
    spotted skunk
    Ursus americanus Pallas, black bear                    Ex (1850)

                                                           Relative
                                                           abundance

CLASS OSTEICHTHYES

 Order Petromyzontiformes
 (lampreys)
  Family Petromyzontidae (lamprey)
   Ichthyomyzon bdellium (Jordon),                         R
   Ohio lamprey
   I. castaneus Girard, chestnut                           O
   lamprey
   I. fossor Reighard & Cummins,                           R
   northern brook lamprey
   I. unicuspis Hubbs & Trautman,                          O
   silver lamprey
   Lampetra aepyptera (Abbott),                            R
   least brook lamprey
   L. appendix (DeKay), American                           O
   brook lamprey
   Petromyzon marinus Linnaeus, sea                        O
   lamprey
 Order Acipenseriformes
 (paddlefish, strugeons)
  Family Acipenseridae (sturgeon)
   Acipenser fulvescens Rafinesque,                        R
   lake surgeon
   Scaphirhynchus platorynchus                             O
   (Rafinesque), shovelnose
   sturgeon
  Family Polyodontidae (paddlefish)
   Polyodon spathula (Walbaum),                            O
   paddlefish
 Order Lepisosteiformes (gars)
  Family Lepisosteidae (gars)
   Lepisosteus oculatus Winchell,                          O
   spotted gar
   L. osseus Linnaeus, longnose gar                        C
   L. platostomus Rafinesque,                              O
   shortnose gar
 Order Amiiformes (bowfin)
  Family Amiidae (bowfin)
   Amia calva Linnaeus, bowfin                             O
 Order Osteoglossiformes (mooneye)
  Family Hiodontidae (mooneye)
   Hiodon alosoides (Rafinesque),                          O
   goldeye
   H. tergisus LeSueur, mooneye                            O
   Order Anguilliformes (eels)
 Family Anguillidae (eel)
   Anguilla rostrata (LeSueur),                            R
   American eel
 Order Clupeiformes (herring, shad)
  Family Clupeidae (herring)
   Alosa chrysochloris                                     C
   (Rafinesque), skipjack herring
   A. pseudoharengus (Wilson),                             A
   alewife
   Dorosoma cepedianum (LeSueur),                          A
   gizzard shad
   D. petenense (Gunther),                                 C
   threadfin shad
 Order Cypriniformes (carps and minnows)
  Family Cyprinidae (carps and
  (minnows)
   Campostoma anomalum
   (Rafinesque), stoneroller                               A
   C. oligolepis Hubbs & Greene,                           A
   largescale stoneroller
   Carassius auratus (Linnaeus),                           C
   goldfish
   Clinostomus elongatus                                   R
   (Kirtland), redside dace
   Couesius plumbeus (Agassiz),                            R
   lake chub
   Ctenopharyngodon idella                                 O
   (Valenciennes), grass carp
   Cyprinella lutrensis (Baird &                           O
   Girard), red shiner
   C. spiloptera (Cope), spotfin                           A
   shiner
   C. whipplei Giard, steelcolor                           C
   shiner
   Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, carp                          A
   Ericymba buccata Cope,                                  C
   silverjaw minnow
   Erimystax dissimilis                                    R
   (Kirtland), streamline chub
   E. x-punctatus (Hubbs & Crow),                          R
   gravel chub
   Hybognathus hayi Jordan,                                R
   cypress minnow
   H. nuchalis Agassiz,                                    C
   Mississippi silvery minnow
   Hybopsis amblops (Rafinesque),                          C
   bigeye chub
   H. amnis (Hubbs & Greene),                              R
   pallid shiner
   Hypophthalmichthys molitrix                             R
   (Valenciennes), silver carp
   H. nobilis (Richardson),                                O
   bighead carp
   Luxilus chrysocephalus                                  A
   Rafinesque, striped shiner
   L. cornutus (Mitchill), common                          O
   shiner
   Lythrurus fasciolaris                                   C
   (Gilbert), scarlet shiner
   L. fumeus (Evermann), ribbon                            R
   shiner
   L. umbratilis (Girard), redfin                          C
   shiner
   Macrhybopsis hyostoma                                   O
   (Gilbert), shoal chub
   M. storeriana (Kirtland),                               C
   silver chub
   Nocomis biguttatus (Kirtland),                          C
   hornyhead chub
   N. micropogon (Cope), river                             C
   chub
   Notemigonus crysoleucas (Mitchill)                      C
   golden shiner
   Notropis atherinoides Rafinesque,                       A
   emerald shiner
   N. blennius (Girard), river shiner                      C
   N. boops Gilbert, bigeye shiner                         C
   N. buchanani Meek, ghost shiner                         O
   N. chalybaeus (Cope), ironcolor                         O
   shiner
   N. dorsalis (Agassiz), bigmouth                         R
   shiner
   N. heterodon (Cope), blackchin                          R
   shiner
   N. heterolepis Eigenmann &                              R
   Eigenmann, blacknose shiner
   N. hudsonius (Clinton), spottail                        A
   shiner
   N. photogenis (Cope), silver                            O
   shiner
   N. rubellus (Agassiz), rosyface                         C
   shiner
   N. shumardi (Girard), silverband                        C
   shiner
   N. straminens (Girard), sand                            A
   Shiner
   N. texanus (Girard), weed shiner                        R
   N. valucellus (Cope), mimic shiner                      O
   N. wickliffi Trautman, channel                          C
   shiner
   Opsopoeodus emiliae Hay, pugnose                        R
   minnow
   Phenacobius mirabilis (Girard),                         C
   suckermouth minnow
   Phoxinus erythrogaster                                  O
   (Rafinesque), southern redbelly
   dace
   Pimephales notatus (Rafinesque),                        A
   bluntnose minnow
   P. promelas Rafinesque, fathead                         C
   minnow
   P. vigilax (Baird & Girard),                            O
   bullhead minow
   Rhinichthys atratulus (Hermann),                        C
   blacknose dace
   R. cataractae (Valenciennes),                           O
   longnose dace
   Semotilus atromaculatus (Mitchill)                      A
   creek chub
   Scardinius erythrophthalmus                             R
   (Linnaeus), rudd
  Family Catostomidae (suckers and
  buffallo)
   Carpiodes carpio (Rafinesque),                          C
   river carpsucker
   C. cyprinus (LeSueur), quillback                        C
   C. velifer (Rafinesque), highfin                        O
   carpsucker
   Catostomus catostomus (Forster),                        R
   longnose sucker
   C. commersoni (Lacepede), white                         A
   sucker
   Cycleptus elongatus (LeSueur),                          O
   blue sucker
   Erimyzon oblongus (Mitchill),                           O
   creek chubsucker
   E. sucetta (Lacepede), lake                             O
   chubsucker
   Hypentelium nigricans (LeSueur),                        C
   northern hogsucker
   Ictiobus bubalus (Rafinesque),                          C
   smallmouth buffalo
   I. cpribellus (Valenciennes),                           O
   bigmouth buffalo
   I. niger (Rafinesque), black                            R
   buffalo
   Minytrema melanops (Rafinesque),                        C
   spotted sucker
   Moxostoma anisurum (Rafinesque),                        C
   silver redhorse
   M. carinatum (Cope), river                              O
   redhorse
   M. duquesnei (LeSueur), black                           C
   redhorse
   M. erythrurum (Rafinesque), golden                      A
   redhorse
   M. macrolepidotum (LeSueur),                            A
   shorthead redhorse
   M. valenciennesi Jordan, greater                        R
   redhorse
 Order Siluriformes (bullhead and
 catfish)
  Family Ictaluridae (bullhead and
  catfish)
   Ameriurus catus (Linnaeus), white                       O
   catfish
   A. melas (Rafinesque), black                            A
   bullhead
   A. natalis (LeSueur), yellow                            A
   bullhead
   A. nebulosus (LeSueur), brown                           C
   bullhead
   Ictalurus furcatus (LeSueur),                           O
   blue catfish
   I. punctatus (Rafinesque),                              C
   channel catfish
   Norturus eleutherus Jordan,                             O
   mountain madtom
   N. flavus Rafinesque, stonecat                          C
   N. gyrinus (Mitchill), tadpole                          C
   madtom
   N. miurus Jordan, brindled madtom                       O
   N. nocturnus Jordan & Gilbert,                          O
   frecled madtom
   N. stigmosus Taylor, northern                           R
   madtom
   Pylodictis olivaris (Rafinesque),                       C
   flathead catfish
 Order Salmoniformes (trout, slamon,
 whitefish)
  Family Esocidae (pikes)
   Esox americanus Gmelin, grass pickerel                  C
   E. lucius Linnaeus, northern pike                       O
   E. masquinongy Mitchill,                                O
   muskellunge
  Family Umbridae (mudminnows)
   Umbra limi (Kirtland), central                          A
   mudminnow
  Family Osmeridae (smelt)
   Osmerus mordax (Mitchill),                              C
   rainbow smelt
  Family Salmonidate (salmon
  and whitefish)
   Coregonus artedi LeSueur,
   cisco or lake herring                                   R
   C. clupeaformis (Mitchill),
   lake whitefish                                          C
   C. hoyi (Milner), bloater                               R
   C. kiyi (Koelz), kiyi                                   R
   C. zenithicus (Jordan & Evermann
   shortjaw cisco                                          R
   Oncorhynchus kisutch (Walbaum),
   coho salmon                                             C
   O. mykiss (Walbaum), rainbow                            C
   trout
   O. Ishawytscha (Walbaum),
   chinook salmon                                          C
   Salmo salar Linnaeus,
   Atlantic salmon                                         O
   trout
  (pirate perch)
   Aphredoderus sayanus
   (Gilliams), pirate perch                                C
  Family Amblyopsidae
  (cavefish)
   Amblyopsis spelaea (DeKay),
   northern cavefish                                       R
   Typhilchthys subterraneus
   Girard, southern cavefish                               R
 Order Percopsiformes
  Family Percopsidae
  (trout-perch)
   Percopsis omiscomaycus
   (Walbaum), trout-perch                                  R
 Order Gadiformes (cod)
  Family Lotidae (freshwater
  cod)
   Lota lota (Linnaeus), burbot                            O
 Order Cyprinodonitiformes
 (topminnows, silversides)
  Family Fundulidae (topminnows)
   Fundulus catenatus (Storer),
   northern studfish                                       C
   F. diaphanus (LeSuer),
   banded killifish                                        C
   F. dispar (Agassiz), northern
   starhead topminnow                                      C
   F. notatus (Rafinesque),
   blackstripe topminnow                                   A
   F. olivaceus (Storer),
   blackspotted topminnow                                  R
  Family Poeciliidae (live-bearing fishes)
   Gambusia affinis
   (Baird & Girard), mosquitofish                          O
 Order Atheriniformes
  Family Atherinidae (silversides)
   Labidesthes sicculus (Cope),                            C
   brook silverside
   Menida beryllina (Cope), inland                         R
   silverside
 Order Mugiliformes
  Family Mugilidae
   Mugil cephalus Linnaeus, striped                        R
   mullet
 Order Gasterosteiformers                                  R
 (sticklebacks)
  Family Gasterosteidae
  (sticklebacks)
   Culaea inconstans (Kirtland),                           C
   brook stickleback
   Gasterosteus aculeatus,                                 O
   Linnaeus, threespine stickleback
   Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus),                         O
   ninespine stickleback
 Order Scorpaeniformes
  Family Cottidae (sculpins)
   Cottus bairdi (Girard, mottled                          C
   sculpin
   C. carolinae (Gill), banded                             O
   sculpin
   C. cognatus Richardson, slimy                           R
   sculpin
   Myoxocephalus thompsoni (Girard),                       R
   deepwater sculpin
 Order Perciformes (basses, sunfish,
 perch, darters, gobies)
  Family Moronidae (temperate
  basses)
   Morone americana (Gmelin), white                        R
   perch
   M. chrysops (Rafinesque), white                         C
   bass
   M. mississippiensis Jordan &                            O
   Eigenmann, yellow bass
   M. saxatilis (Walbaum), striped                         O
   bass
  Family Elassomatidae (pygmy
  sunfish)
   Elassoma zonatum Jordan, banded                         R
   pygmy sunfish
  Family Centrarchidae (black bass
  and sunfish)
   Ambloplites rupestris                                   C
   (Rafinesque), rock bass
   Centrarchus macropterus                                 O
   (Lacepede) flier
   Lepomis cyanellus Ralinesque,                           A
   green sunfish
   L. gibbosus (Linnacus),                                 C
   pumpkinseed
   L. gulosus (Cuvier), warmouth                           C
   L. humilis (Girard),                                    O
   orangespotted sunfish
   L. macrochirus Rafinesque,                              A
   bluegill
   L. megalotis (Rafinesque),                              A
   longear sunfish
   L. microlphus (Gunther),                                C
   redear sunfish
   L. miniatus Jordan, redspotted                          R
   sunfish
   L. symmetricus Forbes, bantam                           R
   sunfish
   Micropterus dolomien Lacepede,                          A
   smallmouth bass
   M. punctulatus (Rafinesque),                            A
   spotted bass
   M. salmoides (Lacepede),                                A
   largemouth bass
   pomoxis annularis Rafinesque,                           C
   white crappie
   P. nigromaculatus (LeSueur),                            C
   black crappie
  Family Percidae
  (perch and darters)
   Ammocrypta clara Jordan &                               O
   Meek, western sand darter
   A. pellucida (Agassiz),                                 O
   eastern sand darter
   Etheostoma asprigene (Forbes),                          C
   mud darter
   E. blennioides Rafinesque,                              C
   greenside darter
   E. caeruleum Storer,                                    C
   rainbow darter
   E. camurum (Cope),                                      R
   bluebreast darter
   E. chlorosoma (Hay),                                    R
   bluntnose darter
   E. exile (Girard), lowa darter                          O
   E. Flabellare Rafinesque,                               C
   fantail darter
   E. gracile (Girard),                                    O
   slough darter
   E. histrio Jordan & Gilbert,                            R
   harlequin darter
   E. maculatum Kirtland,                                  R
   spotted darter
   E. microperca Jordan & Gilbert,                         C
   least darter
   E. nigrum Rafinesque,                                   A
   johnny darter
   E. proeliare (Hay),                                     R
   cypress darter
   E. spectabile (Agassiz),                                A
   orangethroat darter
   E. squamiceps Jordan,                                   R
   spottail darter
   E. tippecanoe Jordan & Evermann,                        R
   Tippecanoe darter
   E. variatum Kirtland,                                   R
   variegate darter
   E. zonale (Cope), banded darter                         C
   Perca flavescens (Mitcheill),                           C
   yelow perch
   Percina caprodes (Rafinesque),                          C
   logperch
   P. copelandi (Jordan),                                  R
   channel darter
   P. evides (Jordan & Copeland),                          O
   gilt darter
   P. maculata (Girard), blackside darter                  C
   P. phoxocephala (Nelson), slenderhead darter            C
   P. Sciera (Swain), dusky darter                         C
   P. Shumardi (Girard), river darter                      O
   P. vigil (Hay), saddleback darter                       R
   Sander canadense (Griffith & Smith), sauger             C
   S. vitreus (Mitchill), walleye                          C
  Family Sciaenidae (drum)
   Aplodinotus grunniens Rafinesque, freshwater drum       C
  Family Gobiidae
   Neogobius melanostomus (Pallas), round goby             A
Extirpated:
   Atractosteus spatula (Lacepede), alligator gar          1976
   Alosa alabamae Jordan & Evermann, Alabama shad          1902
   Notropis anogenus Forbes, pugnose shiner                1945
   N. ariommus (Cope), popeye shiner                       1894
   Coregonus nigripinnis (Gill), blackfin cisco            ?
   C. reighardi (Koelz), shortnose cisco                   1972
   Esox masquinongy Mitchill, Great Lakes muskellunge      1910
    Esox masquinongy from the Great Lakes is extirpated,
    but another Ohio River form of
    questionable status exists.
   Lagochila lacera Jordan & Brayton, harelip sucker       1893
   Crystallaria asprella Jordan, crystal darter            1892-95
   Percina uranidea (Jordan & Gilbert), stargazing         1920
   darter
    Despite past confusion between the two species
    Percina uranidea and P. vigil, the two species did
    occur in Indiana (but are now extirpated; C. Gilbert,
    pers. comm.). Thompson & Cashner (1980) showed two
    records for P. uranidea from Indiana and a
    single record for P. vigil (as former name P.
    ouachitae) in the 1980 Atlas of North
    American Freshwater Fishes (Lee at al. 1980).

CLASS AMPHIBIA

 Order Caudata (salamanders)
  Family Cryptobranchidae (hellbenders)
   Crytobranchus alleganiensis (Daudin) hellbender         R
  Family Proteidae (mudpuppies)
   Necturus macidosus (Rafinesque), mudpuppy               O
  Family Ambystomatidae (mole salamanders)
   Ambystoma barbouri Kraus & Petranka, streamside         C
   salamander
   A. jeffersonianum (Green), Jefferson's salamander       O
   A. laterale Hallowell, blue-spotted salamander          O
   A. maculatum (Shaw), spotted salamander                 C
   A. opacum (Gravenhorst), marbled salamander             C
   A. texanum (Matthes), smallmouth salamander             A
   A. tigrinum (Green), tiger salamander                   C
  Family Salamandridae (newts)
   Notophthalmus viridescens (Rafinesque), eastern new     O
  Family Plethodontidae (lungless salamanders)
   Aneides aeneus (Cope & Packard), green salamander       R
   Desmognathus fuscus (Green), northern                   O
   dusky salamander
   Eurycea cirrigera (Green), two-lined salamander         A
   E.longicauda (Green), longtail salamander               C
   E.lucifuga Rafinesque, cave salamander                  C
   Hemidactylium scutatum (Schlegel), four-toed            R
   salamander
   Plethodon cinereus (Green), redback salamander          A
   P. dorsails Cope, zigzag salamander                     C
   P. glutinosus (Green), slimy salamander                 C
   P. richmondi Netting & Mittleman, ravine                O
   salamander
   Pseudotriton ruber (Sonnini), northern red              R
   salamander
  Family Sirenidae (sirens)
   Siren intermedia LeConte, lesser siren                  O
 Order Anura (toads and frogs)
  Family Pelobatidae (spadefoot toads)
   Scaphiopus holbrookii (Harlan), eastern spadefoot       O
  Family Bufonidae (toads)
   Bufo americanus Holbrook, American toad                 C
   B. fowleri Hinkley, Fowler's toad                       C
  Family Hylidae (tree frogs)
   Acris crepitans Baird, cricket frog                     C
   Hyla claysoscelis Cope, Cope's gray tree frog           A
   H. versicolor LeConte, eastern gray treefrog            A
   Pseudacris crucifer Wied,                               C
   spring peeper
   P. triseriata (Wied), western                           A
   chorus frog
  Family Ranidae (true frogs)
   Rana areolata Baird & Girard,                           O
   crawfish frog
   R. blairi Mecham et al., plains                         R
   leopard frog
   R. clamitans Latreille, green                           C
   frog
   R. catesbeiana Shaw, bullfrog                           A
   R. pipiens Schreber, northern                           C
   leopard frog
   R. palustris LeConte, pickerel                          O
   frog
   R. utricularia Harlan, southern                         C
   leopard frog
   R. sylvatica LeConte, wood frog                         O
Hypothetical
   Gyrinophilus porphyriticus
   (Green), spring salamander
   Pseudacris brachyphona (Cope),
   mountain chorus frog
   Pseudotriton montanus Baird,
   mud salamander
   Gastrophryne carolinensis
   (Holbrook), eastern
   narrowmouth toad
   Hyla cinerea (Schneider), green
   treefrog
   H. avivoca Viosca, bird-voiced
   treefrog

CLASS REPTILIA

 Order Testudines (turtles)
  Family Chelydridae (snapping
  turtles)
   Chelydra serpentina Linnaeus,                           A
   common snapping turtle
   Macroclemys temminckii                                  R
   (Troost), alligator snapping
   turtle
  Family Kinosternidae (musk and
  mud turtles)
   Kinosternon subrubrum                                   R
   (Lacepede), eastern mud
   turtle)
   Sternotherus odoratus                                   A
   (Latreille), common musk
   turtle
  Family Emydidae (box and water
  turtles)
   Chrysemys picts (Schneider),                            A
   painted turtle
   Clemmsys guttata (Schneider),                           O
   spotted turtle
   Emydoidea blandingii                                    O
   (Holbrook), Blanding's turtle
   Graptemys geographica                                   C
   (LeSueur), map turtle
   G. pseudogeographica (Gray),                            O
   false map turtle
   G. ouachitensis Cagle,
   Ouachita map turtle
   Pseudemys concinna (LeConte),                           1950
   river cooter
   Terrapene carolina (Linnaeus),                          C
   eastern box turtle
   T. ornata (Agassiz), ornate                             O
   box turtle
   Trachemys scripta (Schoepff),                           C
   red-eared turtle
  Family Trionychidae (softshell turtles)
   Apalone mutica LeSueur, smooth softshell                O
   A. spinifera (LeSueur), spiny softshell                 C
 Order Squamata (lizards and snakes)
  Family Iguanidae (iguanids)
   Sceloporus undulatus Latreille, eastern                 C
   fence lizard
  Family Anguidae (glass lizards)
   Ophisaurus attenuatus Cope,                             R
   slender glass lizard
  Family Teiidae (whiptails)
   Cnemidophorus sexlineatus                               O
   (Linnaeus), six-lined racerunner
  Family Scincidae (skinks)
   Eumeces fasciatus (Linnaeus),                           C
   five-lined skink
   E. laticeps (Schneider), broad-                         O
   headed skink
   Scincella lateralis (Say), ground skink                 O
  Family Colubridae (common snakes)
   Carphophis amoenus (Say), worm snake                    O
   Cemophora coccinea (Blumenbach), scarlet                R
   snake
   Coluber constrictor Linnaeus, black racer               C
   Clonophis kirtlandii (Kennicott),                       O
   Kirtland's snake
   Diadophis punctatus (Linnaeus),                         O
   northern ringneck snake
   Elaphe obsoleta (Say), black rat snake                  C
   E. vulpina (Baird & Girard),                            C
   western fox snake
   Heterodon platirhinos Latreille,                        C
   eastern hognose snake
   Lampropeltis calligaster                                O
   (Harlan), prairie kingsnake
   L. getulus (Linnaeus), common kingsnake                 O
   L. triangulum (Lacepede), eastern                       C
   milksnake
   Nerodia erythrogaster (Forster),                        O
   northern copperbelly
   N. rhombifer (Hallowell),                               O
   diamondback water snake
   N. sipedon (Linnaeus), banded water snake               A
   Opheodrys aestivas (Linnaeus),                          O
   rough green snake
   O. vernalis (Harlan), smooth green snake                R
   Pituophis catenifer (Blainville),                       O
   bull snake
   Regina septemvittata (Say), queen snake
   Storeria dekayi (Holbrook), brown snake                 C
   S. occipitomaculata (Storer),                           O
   red-bellied snake
   Tantilla coronata (Baird & Girard),                     R
   crowned snake
   Thamnophis butleri (Cope), Butler's                     R
   garter snake
   T. proximus (Say), western ribbon snake                 O
   T. radix (Baird & Girard), plains                       O
   garter snake
   T. sauritus (Linnaeus), eastern                         O
   ribbon snake
   T. sirtalis (Linnaeus), common                          A
   garter snake
   Virginia valeriae Baird & Girard,                       O
   western earth snake
  Family Crotalidae (pit vipers)
   Agkistrodon controtrix                                  O
   (Linnaeus), northern copperhead
   A. piscivorus Lacepede, cottonmouth                     R
   Crotalus horridus Linnaeus, timber                      R
   rattlesnake
   Sistrurus catenatus (Rafinesque),                       R
   eastern massasauga
   Hypothetical:
   Eumeces anthracinus (Baird), coal skink
   Regina grahami Baird & Girard,
   Graham's water snake
   Tropidoclonian lineatum
   (Hallowell), lined snake
   Extirpated:
   Farancia abacura (Holbrook), mud snake                  1984

CLASS MAMMALIA

 Order Didelphimorphia (American opossums)
  Family Didelphidae (opossums)
  Didelphis virginiana Kerr, opossum                       A
 Order Insectivora (shrews and moles)
  Family Soricidae (shrews)
   Blarina brevicauda (Say), short-tailed                  A
   shrew
   Cryptotis parva (Say), least shrew                      O
   Sorex cinereus Kerr, masked shrew                       C
   S. fumeus Miller, smoky shrew                           O
   S. hoyi Baird, pygmy shrew                              O
   S. longirostris Bachman, southeastern                   O
   shrew
  Family Talpidae (moles)                                  O
   Condylura cristata (Rafinesque)                         R
   star-nosed mole
   Scalopus aquaticus (Linnaeus),                          A
   eastern mole
 Order Chiroptera (bats)
  Family Vespertilionidae
  (vespertilionid bats)
   Eptesicus fuscus (Beauvois), big                        A
   brown bat
   Lasionycteris noctivagans                               O
   (LeConte), silver-haired bat
   Lasiurus borealis (Muller), red bat                     A
   L. cinereus (Beauvois), hoary bat                       O
   Myotis austroriparius (Rhoads),                         R
   southeastern myotis
   M. grisescens (Howell), gray myotis                     R
   M. lucifugus (LeConte), little                          C
   brown myotis
   M. septentrionalis Trouessart,                          C
   Northern myotis
   M. sodalis Miller & Allen,                              O
   Indiana myotis
   Nycticeius humeralis                                    O
   (Rafinesque), evening bat
   Pipistrellus subflavus (Cuvier),                        C
   eastern pipistrelle
   Corynorhinus rafinesquii                                R
   (Lesson), Rafinesque's big-eared bat
 Order Lagomorpha (rabbits, hares, and pikas)
  Family Leporidae (rabbits and hares)
   Sylvilagus aquaticus (Bachman),                         R
   swamp rabbit
   S. floridanus (Allen), cottontail rabbit                A
 Order Rodentia (rodents)
  Family Sciuridae (squirrels)
   Glaucomys volans (Linnaeus),                            C
   southern flying squirrel
   Marmota monax (Linnaeus), woodchuck                     C
   Sciurus carolinensis Gmelin, gray                       C
   squirrel
   S. niger Linnaeus, for squirrel                         A
   Spermophilus franklinii (Sabine),                       R
   Franklin's ground squirrel
   S. tridecemlineatus (Mitchill),                         C
   thirteen-lined ground squirrel
   Tamias striatus (Linneaus),                             A
   eastern chipmunk
   Tamiasciurus hudsonicus                                 C
   (Erxleben), red squirrel
  Family Geomyidae (pocket gophers)
   Geomys bursarius (Shaw), plains                         C
   pocket gopher
  Family Castoridae (beavers)
  Castor canadensis Kuhl, beaver                           C
   The beaver was extirpated by
   1900 but was reintroduced.
  Family Muridae (rats, voles, and mice)
   Subfamily Sigmodontinae
    Neotoma magister (Baird),                              R
    Allegheny woodrat
    Peromyscus leucopus                                    A
    (Rafinesque), white-footed mouse
    P. maniculatus (Wagner), deer mouse                    C
    Reithrodontomys megalotis                              C
    (Baird), western harvestmouse
   Subfamily Arvicolinae
    Microtus ochroguster (Wagner),                         C
    prairie vole
    M. pennsylvanicus (Ord), meadow vole                   C
    M. pinetorum (LeConte), woodland vole                  O
    Ondatra ziethicus (Linnaeus), muskrat                  A
    Synaptomys cooperi Baird,                              O
    southern bog lemming
   Subfamily Murinae
    Mus musculus Linnaeus, house mouse                     A
    Rattus norvegicus (Berkenhout),                        A
    Norway rat
     The black rat, Rattus rattus,
     was extirpated about 1845 but
     is not included above because
     it was not native.
  Family Dipodidae (Zapodinae) (jumping mice)
     Zapus hudsonius (Zimmermann),                         O
     meadow jumping mouse
 Order Carnivora (canids)
  Family Canidae (canids)
    Canis latrans Say, coyote                              C
    Urocyon cinereoargenteus                               O
    (Schreber), gray fox
    Vulpes vulpes (Linnaeus), red fox                      O
  Family Procyonidae (raccoons and allies)
     Procyon lotor (Linnaeus), raccoon                     A
  Family Mustelidae (weasels, badger, otter)
    Lutra canadensis (Schrebder), river otter              R
    The river otter became extirpated in
    1942, but was reintroduced between
    1995 and 1999.
    Mustela frenata Lichtenstein,                          O
    long-tailed weasel
    M. nivalis (Linnaeus), least weasel                    R
    M. vison Schreber, mink                                O
    Taxidea taxus (Schreber), badger                       R
  Family Mephitidae (skunks)
    Mephitis mephitis (Schreber),                          C
    striped skunk
  Family Felidae (cat)
    Lynx rufus (Schreber), bobcat                          R
 Order Artiodactyla
  Family Cervidae (deer)
    Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann),                   A
    white-tailed deer
    The white-tailed deer was extirpated
    by 1900 but was reintroduced
Hypothetical
    Myotis leibi (Audubon &
    Bachman), Leib's bat
    Reithrodontomys humulis
    (Audubon & Bachman), eastern harvest
    mouse
Extirpated
    Bison bison (Linnaeus), bison
    Canis lupus Linnacus, timber (gray) wolf
    C. rufus (Audubon & Bachman), red wolf
    Cervus elaphus Linnaeus, elk (wapiti)
    Erethizon dorsatwn (Linnaeus), porcupine
    Felis concolor Linnacus, mountain lion
    Galo galo (Linnacus), wolverine
    Lynx lynx Kerr, lynx
    Martes pennanti (Erxleben), fisher
    Spilogale putorius (Linnaeus), eastern
    spotted skunk
    Ursus americanus Pallas, black bear

                                                           Status


CLASS OSTEICHTHYES

 Order Petromyzontiformes
 (lampreys)
  Family Petromyzontidae (lamprey)
   Ichthyomyzon bdellium (Jordon),
   Ohio lamprey
   I. castaneus Girard, chestnut
   lamprey
   I. fossor Reighard & Cummins,
   northern brook lamprey
   I. unicuspis Hubbs & Trautman,
   silver lamprey
   Lampetra aepyptera (Abbott),
   least brook lamprey
   L. appendix (DeKay), American
   brook lamprey
   Petromyzon marinus Linnaeus, sea                        X
   lamprey
 Order Acipenseriformes
 (paddlefish, strugeons)
  Family Acipenseridae (sturgeon)
   Acipenser fulvescens Rafinesque,                        SE
   lake surgeon
   Scaphirhynchus platorynchus
   (Rafinesque), shovelnose
   sturgeon
  Family Polyodontidae (paddlefish)
   Polyodon spathula (Walbaum),
   paddlefish
 Order Lepisosteiformes (gars)
  Family Lepisosteidae (gars)
   Lepisosteus oculatus Winchell,
   spotted gar
   L. osseus Linnaeus, longnose gar
   L. platostomus Rafinesque,
   shortnose gar
 Order Amiiformes (bowfin)
  Family Amiidae (bowfin)
   Amia calva Linnaeus, bowfin
 Order Osteoglossiformes (mooneye)
  Family Hiodontidae (mooneye)
   Hiodon alosoides (Rafinesque),
   goldeye
   H. tergisus LeSueur, mooneye
   Order Anguilliformes (eels)
 Family Anguillidae (eel)
   Anguilla rostrata (LeSueur),
   American eel
 Order Clupeiformes (herring, shad)
  Family Clupeidae (herring)
   Alosa chrysochloris
   (Rafinesque), skipjack herring
   A. pseudoharengus (Wilson),                             X
   alewife
   Dorosoma cepedianum (LeSueur),
   gizzard shad
   D. petenense (Gunther),                                 X
   threadfin shad
 Order Cypriniformes (carps and minnows)
  Family Cyprinidae (carps and
  (minnows)
   Campostoma anomalum
   (Rafinesque), stoneroller
   C. oligolepis Hubbs & Greene,
   largescale stoneroller
   Carassius auratus (Linnaeus),                           X
   goldfish
   Clinostomus elongatus                                   ST
   (Kirtland), redside dace
   Couesius plumbeus (Agassiz),
   lake chub
   Ctenopharyngodon idella                                 X
   (Valenciennes), grass carp
   Cyprinella lutrensis (Baird &                           X
   Girard), red shiner
   C. spiloptera (Cope), spotfin
   shiner
   C. whipplei Giard, steelcolor
   shiner
   Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, carp                          X
   Ericymba buccata Cope,
   silverjaw minnow
   Erimystax dissimilis
   (Kirtland), streamline chub
   E. x-punctatus (Hubbs & Crow),
   gravel chub
   Hybognathus hayi Jordan,
   cypress minnow
   H. nuchalis Agassiz,
   Mississippi silvery minnow
   Hybopsis amblops (Rafinesque),
   bigeye chub
   H. amnis (Hubbs & Greene),                              SE
   pallid shiner
   Hypophthalmichthys molitrix                             X
   (Valenciennes), silver carp
   H. nobilis (Richardson),                                X
   bighead carp
   Luxilus chrysocephalus
   Rafinesque, striped shiner
   L. cornutus (Mitchill), common
   shiner
   Lythrurus fasciolaris
   (Gilbert), scarlet shiner
   L. fumeus (Evermann), ribbon
   shiner
   L. umbratilis (Girard), redfin
   shiner
   Macrhybopsis hyostoma
   (Gilbert), shoal chub
   M. storeriana (Kirtland),
   silver chub
   Nocomis biguttatus (Kirtland),
   hornyhead chub
   N. micropogon (Cope), river
   chub
   Notemigonus crysoleucas (Mitchill)
   golden shiner
   Notropis atherinoides Rafinesque,
   emerald shiner
   N. blennius (Girard), river shiner
   N. boops Gilbert, bigeye shiner
   N. buchanani Meek, ghost shiner
   N. chalybaeus (Cope), ironcolor
   shiner
   N. dorsalis (Agassiz), bigmouth                         SE
   shiner
   N. heterodon (Cope), blackchin
   shiner
   N. heterolepis Eigenmann &
   Eigenmann, blacknose shiner
   N. hudsonius (Clinton), spottail
   shiner
   N. photogenis (Cope), silver
   shiner
   N. rubellus (Agassiz), rosyface
   shiner
   N. shumardi (Girard), silverband
   shiner
   N. straminens (Girard), sand
   Shiner
   N. texanus (Girard), weed shiner
   N. valucellus (Cope), mimic shiner
   N. wickliffi Trautman, channel
   shiner
   Opsopoeodus emiliae Hay, pugnose
   minnow
   Phenacobius mirabilis (Girard),
   suckermouth minnow
   Phoxinus erythrogaster
   (Rafinesque), southern redbelly
   dace
   Pimephales notatus (Rafinesque),
   bluntnose minnow
   P. promelas Rafinesque, fathead
   minnow
   P. vigilax (Baird & Girard),
   bullhead minow
   Rhinichthys atratulus (Hermann),
   blacknose dace
   R. cataractae (Valenciennes),
   longnose dace
   Semotilus atromaculatus (Mitchill)
   creek chub
   Scardinius erythrophthalmus                             X
   (Linnaeus), rudd
  Family Catostomidae (suckers and
  buffallo)
   Carpiodes carpio (Rafinesque),
   river carpsucker
   C. cyprinus (LeSueur), quillback
   C. velifer (Rafinesque), highfin
   carpsucker
   Catostomus catostomus (Forster),
   longnose sucker
   C. commersoni (Lacepede), white
   sucker
   Cycleptus elongatus (LeSueur),                          FC
   blue sucker
   Erimyzon oblongus (Mitchill),
   creek chubsucker
   E. sucetta (Lacepede), lake
   chubsucker
   Hypentelium nigricans (LeSueur),
   northern hogsucker
   Ictiobus bubalus (Rafinesque),
   smallmouth buffalo
   I. cpribellus (Valenciennes),
   bigmouth buffalo
   I. niger (Rafinesque), black
   buffalo
   Minytrema melanops (Rafinesque),
   spotted sucker
   Moxostoma anisurum (Rafinesque),
   silver redhorse
   M. carinatum (Cope), river
   redhorse
   M. duquesnei (LeSueur), black
   redhorse
   M. erythrurum (Rafinesque), golden
   redhorse
   M. macrolepidotum (LeSueur),
   shorthead redhorse
   M. valenciennesi Jordan, greater                        SE
   redhorse
 Order Siluriformes (bullhead and
 catfish)
  Family Ictaluridae (bullhead and
  catfish)
   Ameriurus catus (Linnaeus), white                       X
   catfish
   A. melas (Rafinesque), black
   bullhead
   A. natalis (LeSueur), yellow
   bullhead
   A. nebulosus (LeSueur), brown
   bullhead
   Ictalurus furcatus (LeSueur),
   blue catfish
   I. punctatus (Rafinesque),
   channel catfish
   Norturus eleutherus Jordan,
   mountain madtom
   N. flavus Rafinesque, stonecat
   N. gyrinus (Mitchill), tadpole
   madtom
   N. miurus Jordan, brindled madtom
   N. nocturnus Jordan & Gilbert,
   frecled madtom
   N. stigmosus Taylor, northern
   madtom
   Pylodictis olivaris (Rafinesque),
   flathead catfish
 Order Salmoniformes (trout, slamon,
 whitefish)
  Family Esocidae (pikes)
   Esox americanus Gmelin, grass pickerel
   E. lucius Linnaeus, northern pike
   E. masquinongy Mitchill,
   muskellunge
  Family Umbridae (mudminnows)
   Umbra limi (Kirtland), central
   mudminnow
  Family Osmeridae (smelt)
   Osmerus mordax (Mitchill),                              X
   rainbow smelt
  Family Salmonidate (salmon
  and whitefish)
   Coregonus artedi LeSueur,
   cisco or lake herring                                   SC
   C. clupeaformis (Mitchill),
   lake whitefish                                          SE
   C. hoyi (Milner), bloater
   C. kiyi (Koelz), kiyi
   C. zenithicus (Jordan & Evermann
   shortjaw cisco
   Oncorhynchus kisutch (Walbaum),
   coho salmon                                             X
   O. mykiss (Walbaum), rainbow                            X
   trout
   O. Ishawytscha (Walbaum),
   chinook salmon                                          X
   Salmo salar Linnaeus,
   Atlantic salmon                                         X
   trout
  (pirate perch)
   Aphredoderus sayanus
   (Gilliams), pirate perch
  Family Amblyopsidae
  (cavefish)
   Amblyopsis spelaea (DeKay),
   northern cavefish
   Typhilchthys subterraneus
   Girard, southern cavefish
 Order Percopsiformes
  Family Percopsidae
  (trout-perch)
   Percopsis omiscomaycus
   (Walbaum), trout-perch
 Order Gadiformes (cod)
  Family Lotidae (freshwater
  cod)
   Lota lota (Linnaeus), burbot
 Order Cyprinodonitiformes
 (topminnows, silversides)
  Family Fundulidae (topminnows)
   Fundulus catenatus (Storer),
   northern studfish
   F. diaphanus (LeSuer),
   banded killifish
   F. dispar (Agassiz), northern
   starhead topminnow
   F. notatus (Rafinesque),
   blackstripe topminnow
   F. olivaceus (Storer),
   blackspotted topminnow
  Family Poeciliidae (live-bearing fishes)
   Gambusia affinis
   (Baird & Girard), mosquitofish
 Order Atheriniformes
  Family Atherinidae (silversides)
   Labidesthes sicculus (Cope),
   brook silverside
   Menida beryllina (Cope), inland                         X
   silverside
 Order Mugiliformes
  Family Mugilidae
   Mugil cephalus Linnaeus, striped                        X
   mullet
 Order Gasterosteiformers                                  X
 (sticklebacks)
  Family Gasterosteidae
  (sticklebacks)
   Culaea inconstans (Kirtland),                           X
   brook stickleback
   Gasterosteus aculeatus,                                 X
   Linnaeus, threespine stickleback
   Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus),
   ninespine stickleback
 Order Scorpaeniformes
  Family Cottidae (sculpins)
   Cottus bairdi (Girard, mottled
   sculpin
   C. carolinae (Gill), banded
   sculpin
   C. cognatus Richardson, slimy
   sculpin
   Myoxocephalus thompsoni (Girard),
   deepwater sculpin
 Order Perciformes (basses, sunfish,
 perch, darters, gobies)
  Family Moronidae (temperate
  basses)
   Morone americana (Gmelin), white                        X
   perch
   M. chrysops (Rafinesque), white
   bass
   M. mississippiensis Jordan &
   Eigenmann, yellow bass
   M. saxatilis (Walbaum), striped                         X
   bass
  Family Elassomatidae (pygmy
  sunfish)
   Elassoma zonatum Jordan, banded
   pygmy sunfish
  Family Centrarchidae (black bass
  and sunfish)
   Ambloplites rupestris
   (Rafinesque), rock bass
   Centrarchus macropterus
   (Lacepede) flier
   Lepomis cyanellus Ralinesque,
   green sunfish
   L. gibbosus (Linnacus),
   pumpkinseed
   L. gulosus (Cuvier), warmouth
   L. humilis (Girard),
   orangespotted sunfish
   L. macrochirus Rafinesque,
   bluegill
   L. megalotis (Rafinesque),
   longear sunfish
   L. microlphus (Gunther),
   redear sunfish
   L. miniatus Jordan, redspotted
   sunfish
   L. symmetricus Forbes, bantam                           ST
   sunfish
   Micropterus dolomien Lacepede,
   smallmouth bass
   M. punctulatus (Rafinesque),
   spotted bass
   M. salmoides (Lacepede),
   largemouth bass
   pomoxis annularis Rafinesque,
   white crappie
   P. nigromaculatus (LeSueur),
   black crappie
  Family Percidae
  (perch and darters)
   Ammocrypta clara Jordan &
   Meek, western sand darter
   A. pellucida (Agassiz),                                 SC, FC
   eastern sand darter
   Etheostoma asprigene (Forbes),
   mud darter
   E. blennioides Rafinesque,
   greenside darter
   E. caeruleum Storer,
   rainbow darter
   E. camurum (Cope),
   bluebreast darter
   E. chlorosoma (Hay),
   bluntnose darter
   E. exile (Girard), lowa darter
   E. Flabellare Rafinesque,
   fantail darter
   E. gracile (Girard),
   slough darter
   E. histrio Jordan & Gilbert,
   harlequin darter
   E. maculatum Kirtland,                                  SC
   spotted darter
   E. microperca Jordan & Gilbert,
   least darter
   E. nigrum Rafinesque,
   johnny darter
   E. proeliare (Hay),
   cypress darter
   E. spectabile (Agassiz),
   orangethroat darter
   E. squamiceps Jordan,                                   SC
   spottail darter
   E. tippecanoe Jordan & Evermann,                        SC
   Tippecanoe darter
   E. variatum Kirtland,                                   SC
   variegate darter
   E. zonale (Cope), banded darter
   Perca flavescens (Mitcheill),
   yelow perch
   Percina caprodes (Rafinesque),
   logperch
   P. copelandi (Jordan),                                  ST
   channel darter
   P. evides (Jordan & Copeland),                          SE
   gilt darter
   P. maculata (Girard), blackside darter
   P. phoxocephala (Nelson), slenderhead darter
   P. Sciera (Swain), dusky darter
   P. Shumardi (Girard), river darter
   P. vigil (Hay), saddleback darter
   Sander canadense (Griffith & Smith), sauger
   S. vitreus (Mitchill), walleye
  Family Sciaenidae (drum)
   Aplodinotus grunniens Rafinesque, freshwater drum
  Family Gobiidae
   Neogobius melanostomus (Pallas), round goby             X
Extirpated:
   Atractosteus spatula (Lacepede), alligator gar          Ex
   Alosa alabamae Jordan & Evermann, Alabama shad          Ex
   Notropis anogenus Forbes, pugnose shiner                Ex
   N. ariommus (Cope), popeye shiner                       Ex
   Coregonus nigripinnis (Gill), blackfin cisco            Ex
   C. reighardi (Koelz), shortnose cisco                   Ex
   Esox masquinongy Mitchill, Great Lakes muskellunge      Ex
    Esox masquinongy from the Great Lakes is extirpated,
    but another Ohio River form of
    questionable status exists.
   Lagochila lacera Jordan & Brayton, harelip sucker       Ex
   Crystallaria asprella Jordan, crystal darter            Ex
   Percina uranidea (Jordan & Gilbert), stargazing         Ex
   darter
    Despite past confusion between the two species
    Percina uranidea and P. vigil, the two species did
    occur in Indiana (but are now extirpated; C. Gilbert,
    pers. comm.). Thompson & Cashner (1980) showed two
    records for P. uranidea from Indiana and a
    single record for P. vigil (as former name P.
    ouachitae) in the 1980 Atlas of North
    American Freshwater Fishes (Lee at al. 1980).

CLASS AMPHIBIA

 Order Caudata (salamanders)
  Family Cryptobranchidae (hellbenders)
   Crytobranchus alleganiensis (Daudin) hellbender         SE, FC
  Family Proteidae (mudpuppies)
   Necturus macidosus (Rafinesque), mudpuppy               SC
  Family Ambystomatidae (mole salamanders)
   Ambystoma barbouri Kraus & Petranka, streamside
   salamander
   A. jeffersonianum (Green), Jefferson's salamander
   A. laterale Hallowell, blue-spotted salamander          SC
   A. maculatum (Shaw), spotted salamander
   A. opacum (Gravenhorst), marbled salamander
   A. texanum (Matthes), smallmouth salamander
   A. tigrinum (Green), tiger salamander
  Family Salamandridae (newts)
   Notophthalmus viridescens (Rafinesque), eastern new
  Family Plethodontidae (lungless salamanders)
   Aneides aeneus (Cope & Packard), green salamander       SE
   Desmognathus fuscus (Green), northern
   dusky salamander
   Eurycea cirrigera (Green), two-lined salamander
   E.longicauda (Green), longtail salamander
   E.lucifuga Rafinesque, cave salamander
   Hemidactylium scutatum (Schlegel), four-toed            ST
   salamander
   Plethodon cinereus (Green), redback salamander
   P. dorsails Cope, zigzag salamander
   P. glutinosus (Green), slimy salamander
   P. richmondi Netting & Mittleman, ravine
   salamander
   Pseudotriton ruber (Sonnini), northern red              SE
   salamander
  Family Sirenidae (sirens)
   Siren intermedia LeConte, lesser siren
 Order Anura (toads and frogs)
  Family Pelobatidae (spadefoot toads)
   Scaphiopus holbrookii (Harlan), eastern spadefoot
  Family Bufonidae (toads)
   Bufo americanus Holbrook, American toad
   B. fowleri Hinkley, Fowler's toad
  Family Hylidae (tree frogs)
   Acris crepitans Baird, cricket frog
   Hyla claysoscelis Cope, Cope's gray tree frog
   H. versicolor LeConte, eastern gray treefrog
   Pseudacris crucifer Wied,
   spring peeper
   P. triseriata (Wied), western
   chorus frog
  Family Ranidae (true frogs)
   Rana areolata Baird & Girard,                           ST
   crawfish frog
   R. blairi Mecham et al., plains                         SC
   leopard frog
   R. clamitans Latreille, green
   frog
   R. catesbeiana Shaw, bullfrog
   R. pipiens Schreber, northern                           SC
   leopard frog
   R. palustris LeConte, pickerel
   frog
   R. utricularia Harlan, southern
   leopard frog
   R. sylvatica LeConte, wood frog
Hypothetical
   Gyrinophilus porphyriticus
   (Green), spring salamander
   Pseudacris brachyphona (Cope),
   mountain chorus frog
   Pseudotriton montanus Baird,
   mud salamander
   Gastrophryne carolinensis
   (Holbrook), eastern
   narrowmouth toad
   Hyla cinerea (Schneider), green
   treefrog
   H. avivoca Viosca, bird-voiced
   treefrog

CLASS REPTILIA

 Order Testudines (turtles)
  Family Chelydridae (snapping
  turtles)
   Chelydra serpentina Linnaeus,
   common snapping turtle
   Macroclemys temminckii                                  SE
   (Troost), alligator snapping
   turtle
  Family Kinosternidae (musk and
  mud turtles)
   Kinosternon subrubrum                                   ST
   (Lacepede), eastern mud
   turtle)
   Sternotherus odoratus
   (Latreille), common musk
   turtle
  Family Emydidae (box and water
  turtles)
   Chrysemys picts (Schneider),
   painted turtle
   Clemmsys guttata (Schneider),                           ST
   spotted turtle
   Emydoidea blandingii                                    SC
   (Holbrook), Blanding's turtle
   Graptemys geographica
   (LeSueur), map turtle
   G. pseudogeographica (Gray),
   false map turtle
   G. ouachitensis Cagle,
   Ouachita map turtle
   Pseudemys concinna (LeConte),
   river cooter
   Terrapene carolina (Linnaeus),
   eastern box turtle
   T. ornata (Agassiz), ornate                             SC
   box turtle
   Trachemys scripta (Schoepff),
   red-eared turtle
  Family Trionychidae (softshell turtles)
   Apalone mutica LeSueur, smooth softshell
   A. spinifera (LeSueur), spiny softshell
 Order Squamata (lizards and snakes)
  Family Iguanidae (iguanids)
   Sceloporus undulatus Latreille, eastern
   fence lizard
  Family Anguidae (glass lizards)
   Ophisaurus attenuatus Cope,
   slender glass lizard
  Family Teiidae (whiptails)
   Cnemidophorus sexlineatus
   (Linnaeus), six-lined racerunner
  Family Scincidae (skinks)
   Eumeces fasciatus (Linnaeus),
   five-lined skink
   E. laticeps (Schneider), broad-
   headed skink
   Scincella lateralis (Say), ground skink
  Family Colubridae (common snakes)
   Carphophis amoenus (Say), worm snake
   Cemophora coccinea (Blumenbach), scarlet                ST
   snake
   Coluber constrictor Linnaeus, black racer
   Clonophis kirtlandii (Kennicott),                       ST, FC
   Kirtland's snake
   Diadophis punctatus (Linnaeus),
   northern ringneck snake
   Elaphe obsoleta (Say), black rat snake
   E. vulpina (Baird & Girard),
   western fox snake
   Heterodon platirhinos Latreille,
   eastern hognose snake
   Lampropeltis calligaster
   (Harlan), prairie kingsnake
   L. getulus (Linnaeus), common kingsnake
   L. triangulum (Lacepede), eastern
   milksnake
   Nerodia erythrogaster (Forster),                        ST, FC
   northern copperbelly
   N. rhombifer (Hallowell),
   diamondback water snake
   N. sipedon (Linnaeus), banded water snake
   Opheodrys aestivas (Linnaeus),                          SC
   rough green snake
   O. vernalis (Harlan), smooth green snake                ST
   Pituophis catenifer (Blainville),
   bull snake
   Regina septemvittata (Say), queen snake
   Storeria dekayi (Holbrook), brown snake
   S. occipitomaculata (Storer),
   red-bellied snake
   Tantilla coronata (Baird & Girard),                     ST
   crowned snake
   Thamnophis butleri (Cope), Butler's                     ST
   garter snake
   T. proximus (Say), western ribbon snake                 SC
   T. radix (Baird & Girard), plains
   garter snake
   T. sauritus (Linnaeus), eastern
   ribbon snake
   T. sirtalis (Linnaeus), common
   garter snake
   Virginia valeriae Baird & Girard,
   western earth snake
  Family Crotalidae (pit vipers)
   Agkistrodon controtrix
   (Linnaeus), northern copperhead
   A. piscivorus Lacepede, cottonmouth                     ST
   Crotalus horridus Linnaeus, timber                      ST
   rattlesnake
   Sistrurus catenatus (Rafinesque),                       ST, FC
   eastern massasauga
   Hypothetical:
   Eumeces anthracinus (Baird), coal skink
   Regina grahami Baird & Girard,
   Graham's water snake
   Tropidoclonian lineatum
   (Hallowell), lined snake
   Extirpated:
   Farancia abacura (Holbrook), mud snake                  EX

CLASS MAMMALIA

 Order Didelphimorphia (American opossums)
  Family Didelphidae (opossums)
  Didelphis virginiana Kerr, opossum
 Order Insectivora (shrews and moles)
  Family Soricidae (shrews)
   Blarina brevicauda (Say), short-tailed
   shrew
   Cryptotis parva (Say), least shrew
   Sorex cinereus Kerr, masked shrew
   S. fumeus Miller, smoky shrew
   S. hoyi Baird, pygmy shrew
   S. longirostris Bachman, southeastern
   shrew
  Family Talpidae (moles)
   Condylura cristata (Rafinesque)                         SC
   star-nosed mole
   Scalopus aquaticus (Linnaeus),
   eastern mole
 Order Chiroptera (bats)
  Family Vespertilionidae
  (vespertilionid bats)
   Eptesicus fuscus (Beauvois), big
   brown bat
   Lasionycteris noctivagans
   (LeConte), silver-haired bat
   Lasiurus borealis (Muller), red bat
   L. cinereus (Beauvois), hoary bat
   Myotis austroriparius (Rhoads),                         SE
   southeastern myotis
   M. grisescens (Howell), gray myotis                     FE
   M. lucifugus (LeConte), little
   brown myotis
   M. septentrionalis Trouessart,
   Northern myotis
   M. sodalis Miller & Allen,                              FE
   Indiana myotis
   Nycticeius humeralis                                    FE
   (Rafinesque), evening bat
   Pipistrellus subflavus (Cuvier),
   eastern pipistrelle
   Corynorhinus rafinesquii                                SC
   (Lesson), Rafinesque's big-eared bat
 Order Lagomorpha (rabbits, hares, and pikas)
  Family Leporidae (rabbits and hares)
   Sylvilagus aquaticus (Bachman),                         SE
   swamp rabbit
   S. floridanus (Allen), cottontail rabbit
 Order Rodentia (rodents)
  Family Sciuridae (squirrels)
   Glaucomys volans (Linnaeus),
   southern flying squirrel
   Marmota monax (Linnaeus), woodchuck
   Sciurus carolinensis Gmelin, gray
   squirrel
   S. niger Linnaeus, for squirrel
   Spermophilus franklinii (Sabine),                       SE
   Franklin's ground squirrel
   S. tridecemlineatus (Mitchill),
   thirteen-lined ground squirrel
   Tamias striatus (Linneaus),
   eastern chipmunk
   Tamiasciurus hudsonicus
   (Erxleben), red squirrel
  Family Geomyidae (pocket gophers)
   Geomys bursarius (Shaw), plains                         SC
   pocket gopher
  Family Castoridae (beavers)
  Castor canadensis Kuhl, beaver                           reintroduced
   The beaver was extirpated by
   1900 but was reintroduced.
  Family Muridae (rats, voles, and mice)
   Subfamily Sigmodontinae
    Neotoma magister (Baird),                              SE
    Allegheny woodrat
    Peromyscus leucopus
    (Rafinesque), white-footed mouse
    P. maniculatus (Wagner), deer mouse
    Reithrodontomys megalotis
    (Baird), western harvestmouse
   Subfamily Arvicolinae
    Microtus ochroguster (Wagner),
    prairie vole
    M. pennsylvanicus (Ord), meadow vole
    M. pinetorum (LeConte), woodland vole
    Ondatra ziethicus (Linnaeus), muskrat
    Synaptomys cooperi Baird,
    southern bog lemming
   Subfamily Murinae
    Mus musculus Linnaeus, house mouse                     X
    Rattus norvegicus (Berkenhout),                        X
    Norway rat
     The black rat, Rattus rattus,
     was extirpated about 1845 but
     is not included above because
     it was not native.
  Family Dipodidae (Zapodinae) (jumping mice)
     Zapus hudsonius (Zimmermann),
     meadow jumping mouse
 Order Carnivora (canids)
  Family Canidae (canids)
    Canis latrans Say, coyote
    Urocyon cinereoargenteus
    (Schreber), gray fox
    Vulpes vulpes (Linnaeus), red fox
  Family Procyonidae (raccoons and allies)
     Procyon lotor (Linnaeus), raccoon
  Family Mustelidae (weasels, badger, otter)
    Lutra canadensis (Schrebder), river otter              reintroduced
    The river otter became extirpated in
    1942, but was reintroduced between
    1995 and 1999.
    Mustela frenata Lichtenstein,
    long-tailed weasel
    M. nivalis (Linnaeus), least weasel                    SC
    M. vison Schreber, mink
    Taxidea taxus (Schreber), badger                       ST
  Family Mephitidae (skunks)
    Mephitis mephitis (Schreber),
    striped skunk
  Family Felidae (cat)
    Lynx rufus (Schreber), bobcat                          SE
 Order Artiodactyla
  Family Cervidae (deer)
    Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann),                   reintroduced
    white-tailed deer
    The white-tailed deer was extirpated
    by 1900 but was reintroduced
Hypothetical
    Myotis leibi (Audubon &
    Bachman), Leib's bat
    Reithrodontomys humulis
    (Audubon & Bachman), eastern harvest
    mouse
Extirpated
    Bison bison (Linnaeus), bison
    Canis lupus Linnacus, timber (gray) wolf
    C. rufus (Audubon & Bachman), red wolf
    Cervus elaphus Linnaeus, elk (wapiti)
    Erethizon dorsatwn (Linnaeus), porcupine
    Felis concolor Linnacus, mountain lion
    Galo galo (Linnacus), wolverine
    Lynx lynx Kerr, lynx
    Martes pennanti (Erxleben), fisher
    Spilogale putorius (Linnaeus), eastern
    spotted skunk
    Ursus americanus Pallas, black bear

Table 2

Checklist of the birds of Indiana. Range is indicated as statewide (I),
north (N), south (S), west (W), east (E), and central (C), and various
combinations. General abundance is listed roughly as abundant (A),
common (C), occasional (O), and rare (R). Seasonal occurrence is given
as summer resident (S), winter resident (W), migrant (M), accidental
(A), hypothetical (H), breeder (*), and former breeder [(*)]. Status is
listed as federally endangered (FE), federally threatened (FT), and
candidates for federal listing (FC). State designations are endangered
(SE), threatened (ST), and special concern (SC). Exotic or introduced
species are indicated by "X." Extripated species are listed with
approximate date of disappearnce.

                                                          Relative
                                                   Range  abundance

CLASS AVES
 Order Gaviiformes (loons)
  Family Gaviidae (loons)
   Gavia adamsii (Gray), yellow-                     I        R
   billed loon
   G. immer (Brunnich), common loon                  I        C
   G. pacifica (Lawrence), pacific                   I        R
   loon
   G. stellata (Pontoppidan), red-                   I        O
   throated loon
Order Podicipediformes (grebes)
  Family Podicipedidae (grebes)
   Aechmophorus occidentalis                         I        R
   (Lawrence), western grebe
   Podiceps auritus (Linnaeus),                      I        O
   horned grebe
   P. grisegena (Boddaert),red-                      I        R
   necked grebe
   P. nigricollis Brehm, eared grebe                 I        R
   Podilymbus podiceps (Linnaeus),                   I        C
   pied-billed grebe
 Order Procellariiformes (tube-nosed
 swimmers)
  Family Hydrobatidae (storm-                        I        R
  petrels)
   Oceanodroma castro (Harcourt),                    I        R
   band-rumped storm-petrel
 Order Pelecaniformes (totipalmate
 swimmers)
  Family Sulidae (boobies and
  gannets)
   Morus bassanus (Linnaeus),                        I        R
   northern gannet
  Family Pelecanidae (pelicans)
   Pelecanus erythrorhynchos Gmelin,                 I        R
   American white pelican
   P. occidentalis Linnaeus, brown                   I        R
   pelican
  Family Phalacrocoracidae
  (cormorants)
   Phalacrocorax auritus (Lesson),                   I        O
   double-crested cormorant
  Family Fregatidae (frigatebirds)
   Fregata magnificens Mathews,                      I        R
   magnificent frigatebird
 Order Ciconiiformes (herons,
 ibises, storks, and allies)
  Family Ardeidae (bitterns and
  herons)
   Ardea alba (Linnaeus), great                      I        O
   egret
   Ardea herodias Linnaeus, great                    I        C
   blue heron
   Botaurus lentiginosus (Rackett),                  I        R
   American bittern
   Bubulcus ibis (Linnaeus), cattle                  I        R
   egret
   Butorides virescens (Linnaeus),                   I    C
   Butorides virescens (Linnaeus), green heron
   Egretta caerulea (Linnaeus), little blue heron    I    R
   E. rufescens (Gmelin), reddish egret              I    R
   E. thula (Molina), snowy egret                    I    R
   E. tricolor (Muller), tricolored heron            I    R
   Ixobrychus exilis (Gmelin), least bittern         I    R
   Nyctanassa violacea (Linnaeus),                   S    R
   yellow-crowned night-heron
   Nycticorax nycticorax (Linnaeus),                 I    R
   black-crowned night-heron
  Family Threskiornithidae (ibises)
   Eudocimus albus (Linnaeus), white ibis            S    R
   Plegadis chihi (Vieillot), white-faced ibis       I    R
   P. falcinellus (Linnaeus), glossy ibis            I    R
  Family Ciconiidae (storks)
   Mycteria americana Linnaeus, wood stork           S    R
  Family Cathartidae (American vultures)
   Cathartes aura (Linnaeus), turkey vulture         I    C
   Coragyps atratus (Bechstein), black vulture       S    R
 Order Anseriformes (swans, geese, and ducks)
  Family Anatidae (swans, geese and ducks)
   Aix sponsa (Linnaeus), wood duck                  I    C
   Anas acuta Linnaeus, northern pintail             I    O
   A. americana Gmelin, American wigeon              I    O
   A. clypeata Linnaeus, northern shoveler           I    O
   A. crecca (Linnaeus), green-winged teal           I    O
   A. cyanoptera Viellot, cinnamon teal              I    R
   A. discors Linnaeus, blue-winged teal             I    O
   A. penelope Linnaeus, Eurasian Wigeon             I    R
   A. platyrhynchos Linnaeus, mallard                I    C
   A. rubripes Brewster, American black duck         I    C
   A strepera Linnaeus, gadwall                      I    O
   Anser albifrons (Scopoli),                        I    R
   greater white-fronted goose
   Aythya affinis (Eyton), lesser                    I    C
   scaup
   A. americana (Eyton), redhead                     I    O
   A. collaris (Donovan), ring-                      I    O
   necked duck
   A. marila (Linnaeus), greater                     N    O
   scaup
   A. valisineria (Wilson),                          I    O
   canvasback
   Branta bernicla (Linnaeus), brant                 N    R
   B. canadensis (Linnaeus), Canada                  I    A
   goose
   Bucephala albeola (Linnaeus),                     I    O
   bufftehead
   B. clangula (Linnaeus), common                    I    C
   goldeneye
   B. islandica (Gmelin), Barrow's                   N    R
   goldeneye
   Chen caerulescens (Linnacus),                     I    O
   snow goose
   C. rossii (Cassin), Ross's goose                  I    R
   Clangula hyemalis (Linnacus),                     N    O
   long-tailed duck
   Cygnus buccinator Richardson,                     I    R
   trumpeter swan
   C. colunbianus (Ord), tundra swan                 I    O
   C. olor (Gmelin), mute swan                       I    O
   Dendrocygna bicolor (Vieillot),                   I    R
   fulvous whistling-duck
   Histrionicus histrionicus                         N    R
   (Linnaeus), harlequin duck
   Lophodytes cucullatus (Linnacus),                 I    O
   hooded merganser
   Melanitta fusca (Linnaeus),                       N    R
   white-winged scoter
   M. nigra (Linnaeus), black scoter                 N    R
   M. perspicillata (Linnaeus), surf                 N    R
   scoter
   Mergus Merganser Linnaeus, common                 I    O
   merganser
   M. serrator Linnacus, red-                        I    O
   breasted merganser
   Oxyura jamaicensis (Gmelin),                      I    O
   ruddy duck
   Somateria spectabilis (Linnaeus),                 N    R
   king eider
 Order Falconiformes (diurnal birds
 of prey)
  Family Accipitridae (kites,
  eagles, hawks, and allies)
   Accipiter cooperii (Bonaparte),                   I    O
   Cooper's hawk
   A. gentilis (Linnaeus), northern                  N    R
   goshawk
   A. striatus Vieillot, sharp-                      I    O
   shinned hawk
   Aquila chrysaetos (Linnaeus),                     I    O
   golden eagle
   Buteo jamaicensis (Gmelin), red-                  I    A
   tailed hawk
   B. lagopus (Pontoppidan), rough-                  I    O
   legged hawk
   B. lineatus (Gmelin), red-                        I    O
   shouldered hawk
   B. playpterus (Vieillot), broad-                  I    O
   winged hawk
   B. regalis (Gray), ferruginous                    W    R
   hawk
   B. swainsoni Bonaparte,                           W    R
   Swainson's hawk
   Circus cyaneus (Linnaeus),                        I    O
   northern harrier
   Elanoides forficatus (Linnaeus),                  I    R
   swallow-tailed kite
   Elanus leucurus (Vieillot),                       I    R
   white-tailed kite
  Family Falconidae (falcons)
   Falco columbarius Linnaeus,                       I    R
   merlin
   F. mexicanus Schlegel, prairie                    W    R
   falcon
   F. peregrinus Tunstall,                           I    R
   peregrine falcon
   F. rusticolus Linnaeus,                           N    R
   gyrfalcon
   F. sparverius Linnaeus, American                  I    C
   kestrel
   Haliaeetus leucocephalus                          I    R
   (Linnaeus), bald eagle
   Ictinia mississippiensis                          I    R
   (Wilson), Mississippi kite
   Pandion haliaetus (Linnaeus),                     I    R
   osprey
 Order Galliformes (gallinaceous
 birds)
  Family Phasianidae (grouse,
  turkey, and quail)
   Bonasa umbellus (Linnaeus),                       S    O
   ruffed grouse
   Meleagris gallopavo Linnaeus,                     I    O
   wild turkey
   Phasianus colchicus Linnaeus,                     N    O
   ring-necked pheasant
  Family Odontophoridae (quail)
   Colinus virginianus (Linnaeus),                   I    C
   northern bobwhite
 Order Gruiformes (cranes, rails,
 and allies)
  Family Rallidae (rails,
  gallinules, and coots)
   Coturnicops noveboracensis                        I    R
   (Gmelin), yellow rail
   Fulica americana (Gmelin),                        I    O
   American coot
   Gallinula chloropus (Linnaeus),                   I    R
   common moorhen
   Laterallus jamaicensis (Gmelin),                  I    R
   black rail
   Porphyrio martinica (Linnaeus),                   I    R
   purple gallinule
   Porzana carolina (Linnaeus),                      I    O
   sora
   Rallus elegans Audubon, king                      I    R
   rail
   R. limicola Vieillot, Virginia                    I    R
   rail
  Family Gruidae (cranes)
   Grus canadensis (Linnaeus),                       I    O
   sandhill crane
   G. grus (Linnaeus), common crane                  I    R
 Order Charadriiformes (shorebirds,
 gulls, auks, and allies)
  Family Charadriidae (plovers)
   Charadrius alexandrinus                           I    R
   Linnaeus, snowy plover
   C. melodus Ord, piping plover                     I    R
   C. semipalmatus Bonaparte,                        I    O
   semipalmated plover
   C. vociferus Linnaeus, killdeer                   I    C
   C. wilsonia Ord, Wilson's plover                  I    R
   Pluvialis dominica (Muller),                      I    O
   American golden-plover
   P. squatarola (Linnaues), black-                  I    O
   bellied plover
  Family Recurvirostridae (stilts
  and avocets)
   Himantopus mexicanus (Muller),                    I    R
   black-necked stilt
   Recurvirostra americana Gmelin,                   I    R
   American avocet
  Family Scolopacidae (sandpipers,
  phalaropes, and allies)
   Actitis macularia (Linnaeus),                     I    O
   spotted sandpiper
   Arenaria interpres (Linnaeus),                    I    R
   ruddy turnstone
   Bartramia longicauda                              I    R
   (Bechstein), upland sandpiper
   Calidris acuminata (Horsfield),                   I    R
   sharp-tailed sandpiper
   C. alba (Pallas), sanderling                      I    R
   C. alpina (Linnaeus), dunlin                      I    O
   C. bairdii (Coues), Baird's                       I    R
   sandpiper
   C. canutus (Linnaeus), red knot                   I    R
   C. ferrugineu (Pontoppidan),                      I    R
   curlew sandpiper
   C. fuscicollis (Vieillot),                        I    R
   white-rumped sandpiper
   C. himantopus (Bonaparte), stilt                  I    R
   sandpiper
   C. maritima (Brunnich), purple                    I    R
   sandpiper
   C. mauri (Cabanis), western                       I    O
   sandpiper
   C. melanotos (Vieillot),                          I    O
   pectoral sandpiper
   C. minutilla (Vieillot), least                    I    O
   sandpiper
   C. pusillo (Linnaeus),                            I    O
   semipalmated sandpiper
   Catoptrophorus semipalmatus                       I    R
   (Gmelin), willet
   Gallinago delicata (Ord),                         I    O
   Wilson's snipe
   Limnodromus griseus (Gmelin),                     I    O
   short-billed dowitcher
   L. scolopaceus (Say), long-                       I    O
   billed dowitcher
   Limosa fedoa (Linnaeus), marbled                  I    R
   godwit
   L. haemastica (Linnaeus),                         I    R
   Hudsonian godwit
   Numenius phaeopus (Linnaeus),                     I    R
   whimbrel
   Phalaropus fulicarius (Linnaeus),                 I    R
   red phalarope
   P. lobatus (Linnaeus), red-necked                 I    R
   phalarope
   P. tricolor (Vieillot), Wilson's                  I    R
   phalarope
   Philomachus pugnax (Linnaeus),                    I    R
   ruff
   Scolopax minor Gmelin, American                   I    O
   woodcock
   Tringa flavipes (Gmelin), lesser                  I    O
   yellowlegs
   T. melanoleuca (Gmelin), greater                  I    O
   yellowlegs
   T. solitaria Wilson, solitary                     I    O
   sandpiper
   Tryngites subruficollis                           I    R
   (Vieillot), buff-breasted
   sandpiper
Family Laridae (jaegers, gulls,
terns, and skimmers)
   Chlidonias leucopterus (Temminck),                N    R
   white-winged tern
   C. niger (Linnaeus), black tern                   I    O
   Larus argentatus Pontoppidan,                     I    C
   herring gull
   L. atricilla Linnaeus, laughing                   I    R
   gull
   L. californicus Lawrence,                         I    R
   California gull
   L. canus Linnaeus, mew gull                       I    R
   L. delawarensis Ord, ring-billed                  I    C
   gull
   L. fuscus Linnaeus, Iesser black-                 I    R
   backed gull
   L. glaucoides Meyer, Iceland gull                 I    R
   L. hyperboreus Gunnerus, glaucous                 I    R
   gull
   L. marinus Linnaeus, great black-                 I    R
   backed gull
   L. minutus Pallas, little gull                    I    R
   L. philadelphia (Ord), Bonaparte's                I    O
   gull
   L. pipixcan Wagler, Franklin's                    I    R
   gull
   L. ridibundus Linnaeus, black-                    I    R
   headed gull
   L. schistisagus Stejneger, slaty-                 I    R
   backed gull
   L. thayeri Brooks, Thayer's gull                  I    R
   Rhodostethia rosea (MacGillivray),                I    R
   Ross's gull
   Rissa tridactyla (Linnaeus),                      I    R
   black-legged kittiwake
   Rynchops niger Linnaeus, black                    I    R
   skimmer
   Stercorarius logicaudus Vieillot,                 N    R
   long-tailed jaeger
   S. parasiticus (Linnaeus),                        N    R
   parasitic jaeger
   S. pomarinus (Temminck), pomarine                 N    R
   jaeger
   Sterna antillarum (Lesson), least                 I    R
   tern
   S. caspia Pallas, Caspian tern                    I    O
   S. dougallii Montagu, roseate                     I    R
   tern
   S. forsteri Nuttall, Forster's                    I    O
   tern
   S. fuscata Linnaeus, sooty tern                   I    R
   S. hirundo Linnaeus, common tern                  I    O
   S. maxima Boddaert, royal tern                    I    R
   S. nilotica Gmelin, gull-billed                   I    R
   tern
   S. paradisaea Pontoppidan, arctic                 I    R
   tern
   Xema sabini (Sabine), Sabine's                    I    R
   gull
  Family Alcidae (auks, murres, and
   puffins)
   Brachyramphus perdix (Pallas),                    I    R
   long-billed murrelet
   Synthliboramphus antiquus                         I    R
   (Gmelin), ancient murrelet
   Uria lomvia (Linnaeus),                           I    R
   thick-billed murre
 Order Columbiformes (pigeons and
 doves)
  Family Columbidae (pigeons and
  doves)
   Columba fasciata Say,                             I    R
   band-tailed pigeon
   C. livia Gmelin, rock dove                        I    A
   Columbina passerina (Linnaeus),                   I    R
   common ground-dove
   Streptopelia decaocto                             I    R
   (Frivaldsky), Eurasian
   collared-dove
   Zenaida asiatica (Linnacus),                      I    R
   white-winged dove
   Z. macroura (Linnaeus), mourning                  I    R
   dove
 Order Cuculiformes (cuckoos)
  Family Cuculidae (cuckoos)
   Coccyzus americanus (Linnaeus),                   I    O
   yellow-billed cuckoo
   C. erythrophthalmus (Wilson),                     I    O
   black-billed cuckoo
   Crotophaga sulcirostris Swainson,                 I    R
   groove-billed ani
 Order Strigiformes (owls)
  Family Tytonidae (barn owls)
   Tyto alba (Scopoli), barn owl                     I    R
  Family Strigidae (typical owls)
   Aegolius acadicus (Gmelin),                       I    R
   northern saw-whet owl
   Asio flammeus (Pontoppidan),                      I    R
   short-eared owl
   A. otus (Linnaeus), long-eared                    I    R
   owl
   Athene cunicularia (Molina),                      W    R
   burrowing owl
   Bubo virginianus (Gmelin), great                  I    C
   horned owl
   Nyctea scandiaca (Linnaeus), snow                 N    R
   owl
   Otus asio (Linnaeus), eastern                     I    C
   screech-owl
   Strix varia Barton, barred owl                    I    O
 Order Caprimulgiformes
 goatsuckers, oilbirds, and allies)
  Family Caprimulgidae
  (goatsuckers)
   Caprimulgus carolinensis Gmelin,                  S    R
   chuck-will's-widow
   C. vociferus Wilson, whip-poor-                   I    C
   will
   Chordeiles minor (Forster),                       I    O
   common nighthawk
 Order Apodiformes (swifts and
 hummingbirds)
  Family Apodidae (swifts)
   Chaetura pelagica (Linnaeus),                     I    A
   chimney swift
  Family Trochilidae (hummingbords)
   Archilochus colubris (Linnaeus),                  I    C
   ruby-throated hummingbird
   Selasphorus rufus (Gmelin),                       I    R
   rufous hummingbird
 Order Coraciiformes (todies,
 motmots, and kingfishers)
  Family Alcedinidae (kingfishers)
   Ceryle alcyon (Linnaeus), belted                  I    O
   kingfisher
 Order Piciformes (woodpeckers and
 allies)
  Family Picidae (woodpeckers)
   Colaptes auratus (Linnaeus),                      I    C
   northern flicker
   Dryocopus pileatus (Linnaeus),                    I    O
   pileated woodpecker
   Melanerpes carolinus (Linnaeus),                  I    C
   red-bellied woodspecker
   M. erythrocephalus (Linnaeus),                    I    O
   red-headed woodpecker
   Picoides arcticus (Swainson),                     N    R
   black-backed woodpecker
   P. pubescens (Linnaeus), downy                    I    C
   woodpecker
   P. villosus (Linnaeus), hairy                     I    C
   woodpecker
   Sphyrapicus varius (Linnaeus),                    I    R
   yellow-bellied sapsucker
 Order Passeriformes (passerine
 birds)
  Family Tyrannidae (flycatchers)
   Contopus cooperi (Nuttall),                       I    R
   olive-sided flycatcher
   C. sordidulus Sclater, western                    W    R
   wood-pewee
   C. virens (Linnaeus), eastern                     I    C
   wood-pewee
   Empidonax alnorum Brewster, alder                 N    R
   flycatcher
   E. flaviventris (Baird and Baird),                I    R
   yellow-bellied flycatcher
   E. minimus (Baird and Baird),                     I    R
   least flycatcher
   E. traillii (Audubon), willow                     I    O
   flycatcher
   E. virescens (Vieillot), Acadian                  I    O
   flycatcher
   Myiarchus crinitus (Linnaeus),                    I    O
   great crested flycatcher
   Pyrocephalus rubinus (Boddaert),                  I    R
   vermilion flycatcher
   Sayornis phoebe (Latham), eastern                 I    O
   phoebe
   S. saya (Bonaparte), Say's phoebe                 I    R
   Tyrannus forficatus (Gmelin),                     S    R
   scissor-tailed flycatcher
   T. tyrannus (Linnaeus), eastern                   I    C
   kingbird
   T. verticalis Say, western                        I    R
   kingbird
  Family Laniidae (shrikes)
   Lanius excubitor Linnaeus,                        N    R
   northern shrike
   L. ludovicianus Linnaeus,                         I    R
   loggerhead shrike
  Family Vireonidae (vireos)
   Vireo bellii Audubon, Bell's vireo                W    R
   V. flavifrons (Vieillot), yellow-                 I    O
   throated vireo
   V. gilvus (Vieillot), warbling                    I    C
   vireo
   V. griseus (Boddaert), white-eyed                 I    C
   vireo
   V. olivaceus (Linnaeus), red-eyed                 I    C
   vireo
   V. philadelphicus (Cassin),                       I    R
   Philadelphia vireo
   V. solitarius (Wilson), blue-                     I    R
   headed vireo
  Family Corvidae (jays, magpies, and
  crows)
   Aphelocoma californica Vigors,                    I    R
   western scrub-jay
   Corvus brachyrhynchos Brehm,                      I    A
   American crow
   C. corax Linnaeus, common raven                   I    R
   C. ossifragus Wilson, fish crow                  SW    R
   Cyanocitta cristata (Linnaeus),                   I    A
   blue jay
   Pica hudsonia (Linnaeus), black-                  I    R
   billed magpie
  Family Alaudidae (larks)
   Eremophila alpestris (Linnaeus),                  I    C
   horned lark
  Family Hirundinidae (swallows)
   Hirundo rustica Linnaeus, barn                    I    A
   swallow
   Petrochelidon pyrrhonota                          I    R
   Vieillot, cliff swallow
   Progne subis (Linnaeus), purple                   I    C
   martin
   Riparia riparia (Linnaeus), bank                  I    O
   swallow
   Stelgidopteryx serripennis                        I    O
   (Audubon), northern rough-winged
   swallow
   Tachycineta bicolor (Vieillot),                   I    O
   tree swallow
  Family Paridae (titmice)
   Baeolophus bicolor Linnaeus,                      I    C
   tufted titmouse
   Poecile atricapilla Linnaeus,                     N    C
   black-capped chickadee
   P. carolinensis Audubon, Carolina                 S    C
   chickadee
   P. hudsonia Forster, boreal                       I    R
   chickadee
  Family Sittidae (nuthatches)
   Sitta canadensis Linnaeus, red-                   I    O
   breasted nuthatch
   S. carolinensis Latham, white-                    I    C
   breasted nuthatch
  Family Certhiidae (creepers)
   Certhia americana Bonaparte,                      I    O
   brown creeper
  Family Troglodytidae (wrens)
   Cistothorus palustris (Wilson),                   I    R
   marsh wren
   C. platensis (Latham), sedge wren                 I    R
   Salpinctes obsoletus (Say), rock                  I    R
   wren
   Thryomanes bewickii (Audubon),                    I    R
   Bewick's wren
   Thryothorus ludovicianus (Latham)                 I    C
   Carolina wren
   Troglodytes aedon Vieillot, house                 I    C
   wren
   T. troglodytes (Linnaeus), winter                 I    O
   wren
  Family Regulidae (Kinglets)
   Regulus calendula (Linnaeus),                     I    R
   ruby-crowned kinglet
   R. satrapa Lichtenstein, golden-                  I    C
   crowned kinglet
  Family Sylviidae (old world
  warblers)
   Polioptila caerulea (Linnaeus),                   I    C
   blue-gray gnatcatcher
  Family Turdidae (thrushes)
   Catharus fuscescens (Stephens)                    I    O
   veery
   C. guttatus (Pallas), hermit                      I    O
   thrust
   C. minimus (Lafresnaye), gray-                    I    O
   cheeked thrush
   C. ustulatus (Nuttall), Swainson's                I    O
   thrush
   Hylocichla mustelina (Gmelin),                    I    C
   wood thrush
   Ixoreus naevius (Gmelin), varied                  I    R
   thrush
   Myadestes townsendi (Audubon),                    I    R
   Townsend's solitaire
   Oenanthe oenanthe (Linnaeus),                     I    R
   northern wheatear
   Sialia currucoides (Bechstein),                   I    R
   mountain bluebird
   S. sialis (Linnaeus) eastern                      I    C
   bluebird
   Turdus migratorius Linnaeus,                      I    A
   American robin
  Family Mimidae (mimic thrushes)
   Dumetella carolinensis (Linaeus),                 I    C
   gray catbird
   Mimus polyglottos (Linnaeus),                     I    C
   northern mockingbird
   Toxostoma rufum (Linnaeus), brown                 I    C
   thrasher
  Family Sturnidae (starlings)
   Sturnus vulgaris Linnaeus,                        I    A
   European starling
  Family Motacillidae (wagtails and
  pipits)
   Anthus rubescens (Tunstall),                      I    R
   American pipit
  Family Bombycillidae (waxwings)
   Bombycilla cedrorum Vieillot,                     I    O
   cedar waxwing
   B. garrulus (Linnaeus), Bohemian                  N    R
   waxwing
  Family Parulidae (new world
  warblers)
   Dendroica caerulescens (Gmelin),                  I    O
   black-throated blue warbler
   D. castanea (Wilson), bay-breasted                I    O
   warbler
   D. cerulea (Wilson), cerulean                     I    O
   warbler
   D. coronata (Linnaeus),                           I    C
   yellow-rumped warbler
   D. discolor (Vieillot), prairie                   I    O
   warbler
   D. dominica (Linnaeus),                           I    O
   yellow-throated warbler
   D. fusca (Muller), blackburnian                   I    O
   warbler
   D. kirtlandii (Baird), Kirkland's                 I    R
   warbler
   D. magnolia (Wilson), magnolia                    I    O
   warbler
   D. nigrescens (Townsend),                         I    R
   black-throated gray warbler
   D. palmarum (Gmelin), palm warbler                I    O
   D. pensylvanica (Linnaeus),                       N    O
   chestnut-sided warbler
   D. petechia (Linnaeus), yellow                    I    C
   warbler
   D. pinus (Wilson), pine warbler                   S    O
   D. striata (Forster), blackpoll                   I    O
   warbler
   D. tigrina (Gmelin), Cape May                     I    O
   wabler
   D. townsendi (Townsend),                          I    R
   Townsend's warbler
   D. virens (Gmelin), black-throated                I    O
   green warbler
   Geothlypis trichas (Linnaeus),                    I    C
   common yellowthroat
   Helmitheros vermivorus (Gmelin),                  I    R
   worm-eating warbler
   Iceteria virens (Linnaeus),                       I    C
   yellow-breasted chat
   Limnothlypis swainsonii (Audubon),               SW    R
   Swainson's warbler
   Mniotilta varia (Linnaeus), black-                I    O
   and-white warbler
   Oporornis agilis (Wilson),                        I    R
   Connecticut warbler
   O. formosus (Wilson), Kentucky                    I    O
   warbler
   O. philadelphia (Wilson), mourning                I    R
   warbler
   Parula americana (Linnaeus),                      I    O
   northern parula
   Protonotaria citrea (Boddaert),                   I    O
   prothonotary warbler
   Seiurus aurocapillus (Linnaeus),                  I    O
   ovenbird
   S. motacilla (Vieillot), Louisiana                I    O
   waterthrush
   S. noveboracensis (Gmelin),                       I    R
   northern waterthrush
   Setophaga ruticilla (Linnaeus),                   I    O
   American redstart
   Vermivora celata (Say), orange-                   I    O
   crowned warbler
   V. chrysoptera (Linnaeus), golden-                I    R
   winged warbler
   V. peregrina (Wilson), Tennessee                  I    C
   warbler
   V. pinus (Linnaeus), blue-winged                  I    O
   warbler
   V. ruficapilla (Wilson), Nashville                I    O
   warbler
   Wilsonia canadensis (Linnaeus),                   N    R
   Canada warbler
   W. citrina (Boddaert), hooded                     I    R
   warbler
   W. pusilla (Wilson), Wilson's                     I    O
   warbler
  Family Thraupidae (tanagers)
   Piranga ludoviciana (Wilson),                     W    R
   western tanager
   P. olivacea (Gmelin), scarlet                     I    O
   tanager
   P. rubra (Linnaeus), summer                       S    O
   tanager
  Family Emberizidae (new world
  sparrows)
   Aimophila aestivalis                              S    R
   (Lichtenstein), Bachman's sparrow
   A. cassinii (Woodhouse), Cassin's                 I    R
   sparrow
   Ammodramus henslowii (Audubon),                   I    R
   Henslow's sparrow
   A. leconteii (Audubon), LeConte's                 I    R
   sparrow
   A. nelsoni (Allen), Nelson's                      I    R
   sharp-tailed sparrow
   A. savannarum (Gmelin),                           I    O
   grasshopper sparrow
   Calamospiza melanocorys Stejneger,                I    R
   lark bunting
   Calcarius lapponicus (Linnaeus),                  I    O
   Lapland longspur
   C. mccownii (Lawrence), McCown's                  I    R
   longspur
   C. pictus (Swainson), Smith's                     I    R
   longspur
   Chondestes grammacus (Say), lark                  I    R
   sparrow
   Junco hyemalis (Linnaeus), dark-                  I    A
   eyed junco
   Melospiza georgiana (Latham), swam                I    O
   sparrow
   M. lincolnii (Audubon), Lincoln's                 I    R
   sparrow
   M. melodia (Wilson), song sparrow                 I    A
   Passerculus sandwichensis (Gmelin)                I    O
   savannah sparrow
   Passerella iliaca (Merrem), fox                   I    O
   sparrow
   Pipilo chlorurus (Audubon), green-                I    R
   tailed towhee
   P. erythrophthalmus (Linnaeus),                   I    O
   eastern towhee
   P. maculatus (Swainson), spotted                  I    R
   towhee
   Plectrophenax nivalis (Linnaeus),                 I    O
   snow bunting
   Pooecetes gramineus (Gmelin),                     I    O
   vesper sparrow
   Spizella arborea (Wilson),                        I    C
   American tree sparrow
   S. pallida (Swainson),                            I    R
   clay-colored sparrow
   S. passerina (Bechstein), chipping                I    C
   sparrow
   S. pusilla (Wilson), field sparrow                I    C
   Zonotrichia albicollis (Gmelin),                  I    O
   white-throated sparrow
   Z. leucophrys (Forster), white-                   I    O
   crowned sparrow
   Z. querula (Nuttall), Harris's                    I    R
   sparrow
  Family Cardinalidae (grosbeaks)
   Cardinalis cardinalis (Linnacus),                 I    A
   northern cardinal
   Passerina caerulea (Linnaeus),                    S    O
   blue grosbeak
   P. ciris (Linnaeus), painted                      I    R
   bunting
   P. cyanea (Linnaeus), indigo                      I    A
   bunting
   Pheucticus ludovicianus                           I    C
   (Linnaeus), rose-breasted
   grosbeak
   P. melanocephalus (Swainson),                     I    R
   black-headed grosbeak
   Spiza americana (Gmelin),                         I    O
   dickcissel
  Family Icteridae (icterines)
   Agelaius phoeniceus (Linnaeus),                   I    A
   red-winged blackbird
   Dolichonyx oryzivorus (Linnaeus),                 I    O
   bobolink
   Euphagus carolinus (Muller), rusty                I    R
   blackbird
   E. cyanocephalus (Wagler),                        W    R
   Brewer's blackbird
   Icteris galbula (Linnaeus),                       I    O
   Baltimore oriole
   I. spurius (Linnaeus), orchard                    I    O
   oriole
   Molothrus ater (Boddaert),                        I    A
   brown-headed cowbird
   Quiscalus mexicanus (Gmelin),                     I    R
   great-tailed grackle
   Q. quiscula (Linnaeus), common                    I    A
   grackle
   Sturnella magna (Linnaeus),                       I    A
   eastern meadowlark
   S. neglecta (Audubon), western                    N    R
   meadowlark
   Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus                     W    R
   (Bonaparte), yellow-headed
   blackbird
  Family Fringillidae (finches)
   Carduelis flammea (Linnaeus),                     N    R
   common redpoll
   C. hornemanni (Holboll), hoary                    N    R
   redpoll
   C. pinus (Wilson), pine siskin                    I    O
   C. tristis (Linnaeus), American                   I    C
   goldfinch
   Carpodacus mexicanus (Muller),                    I    C
   house finch
   C. purpureus (Gmelin), purple                     I    O
   finch
   Coccothraustes vespertinus                        I    R
   (Cooper), evening grosbeak
   Fringilla montifringilla Linnaeus,                I    R
   brambling
   Loxia curvirostra Linnaeus, red                   N    R
   crossbill
   L. leuceoptera Gmelin,                            N    R
   white-winged crossbill
   Pinicola enucleator (Linnaeus),                   N    R
   pine grosbeak
  Family Passeridae (weaver finches)
   Passer domesticus (Linnaeus),                     I    A
   Passer domesticus (Linnaeus),                     I    A
   house sparrow
   P. montanus (Linnaeus),                           I    R
   Eurasian tree sparrow
Extirpated:
   Campephilus principalis                           S
   (Linnaeus), ivory-billed
   woodpecker
   Conuropsis carolinensis                           I
   (Linnaeus), Carolina parakeet
   Ectopistes migratorius                            I
   (Linnaeus), passenger pigeon
   Grus americana (Linnaeus),                        N
   whooping crane
   Numenius borealis (Forster),                      I
   eskimo curlew
   Perdix perdix (Linnaeus), gray                    N
   partridge
   Tympanuchus cupido (Linnaeus),                   NW
   greater prairie-chicken
   Vermivora bachmanii (Audubon),                    S
   Bachman's warbler


                                                   Season

CLASS AVES
 Order Gaviiformes (loons)
  Family Gaviidae (loons)
   Gavia adamsii (Gray), yellow-                     A
   billed loon
   G. immer (Brunnich), common loon                  M(*)
   G. pacifica (Lawrence), pacific                   A
   loon
   G. stellata (Pontoppidan), red-                   M
   throated loon
Order Podicipediformes (grebes)
  Family Podicipedidae (grebes)
   Aechmophorus occidentalis                         A
   (Lawrence), western grebe
   Podiceps auritus (Linnaeus),                      W(*)
   horned grebe
   P. grisegena (Boddaert),red-                      A
   necked grebe
   P. nigricollis Brehm, eared grebe                 A
   Podilymbus podiceps (Linnaeus),                   R*
   pied-billed grebe
 Order Procellariiformes (tube-nosed
 swimmers)
  Family Hydrobatidae (storm-
  petrels)
   Oceanodroma castro (Harcourt),                    A
   band-rumped storm-petrel
 Order Pelecaniformes (totipalmate
 swimmers)
  Family Sulidae (boobies and
  gannets)
   Morus bassanus (Linnaeus),                        A
   northern gannet
  Family Pelecanidae (pelicans)
   Pelecanus erythrorhynchos Gmelin,                 A
   American white pelican
   P. occidentalis Linnaeus, brown                   A
   pelican
  Family Phalacrocoracidae
  (cormorants)
   Phalacrocorax auritus (Lesson),                   M*
   double-crested cormorant
  Family Fregatidae (frigatebirds)
   Fregata magnificens Mathews,                      A
   magnificent frigatebird
 Order Ciconiiformes (herons,
 ibises, storks, and allies)
  Family Ardeidae (bitterns and
  herons)
   Ardea alba (Linnaeus), great                      S*
   egret
   Ardea herodias Linnaeus, great                    R*
   blue heron
   Botaurus lentiginosus (Rackett),                  S*
   American bittern
   Bubulcus ibis (Linnaeus), cattle                  M*
   egret
   Butorides virescens (Linnaeus),                 S *
   Butorides virescens (Linnaeus), green heron
   Egretta caerulea (Linnaeus), little blue heron  S *
   E. rufescens (Gmelin), reddish egret            A
   E. thula (Molina), snowy egret                  A *
   E. tricolor (Muller), tricolored heron          A
   Ixobrychus exilis (Gmelin), least bittern       S *
   Nyctanassa violacea (Linnaeus),                 S *
   yellow-crowned night-heron
   Nycticorax nycticorax (Linnaeus),               S *
   black-crowned night-heron
  Family Threskiornithidae (ibises)
   Eudocimus albus (Linnaeus), white ibis          A
   Plegadis chihi (Vieillot), white-faced ibis     A
   P. falcinellus (Linnaeus), glossy ibis          A
  Family Ciconiidae (storks)
   Mycteria americana Linnaeus, wood stork         A
  Family Cathartidae (American vultures)
   Cathartes aura (Linnaeus), turkey vulture       R *
   Coragyps atratus (Bechstein), black vulture     R *
 Order Anseriformes (swans, geese, and ducks)
  Family Anatidae (swans, geese and ducks)
   Aix sponsa (Linnaeus), wood duck                R *
   Anas acuta Linnaeus, northern pintail           M *
   A. americana Gmelin, American wigeon            M (*)
   A. clypeata Linnaeus, northern shoveler         M *
   A. crecca (Linnaeus), green-winged teal         M *
   A. cyanoptera Viellot, cinnamon teal            A
   A. discors Linnaeus, blue-winged teal           S *
   A. penelope Linnaeus, Eurasian Wigeon           A
   A. platyrhynchos Linnaeus, mallard              R *
   A. rubripes Brewster, American black duck       R *
   A strepera Linnaeus, gadwall                    M *
   Anser albifrons (Scopoli),                      M
   greater white-fronted goose
   Aythya affinis (Eyton), lesser                  W (*)
   scaup
   A. americana (Eyton), redhead                   M *
   A. collaris (Donovan), ring-                    M *
   necked duck
   A. marila (Linnaeus), greater                   W
   scaup
   A. valisineria (Wilson),                        M
   canvasback
   Branta bernicla (Linnaeus), brant               A
   B. canadensis (Linnaeus), Canada                R *
   goose
   Bucephala albeola (Linnaeus),                   W
   bufftehead
   B. clangula (Linnaeus), common                  W
   goldeneye
   B. islandica (Gmelin), Barrow's                 A
   goldeneye
   Chen caerulescens (Linnacus),                   M
   snow goose
   C. rossii (Cassin), Ross's goose                A
   Clangula hyemalis (Linnacus),                   W
   long-tailed duck
   Cygnus buccinator Richardson,                   W (*)
   trumpeter swan
   C. colunbianus (Ord), tundra swan               M
   C. olor (Gmelin), mute swan                     R *
   Dendrocygna bicolor (Vieillot),                 A
   fulvous whistling-duck
   Histrionicus histrionicus                       A
   (Linnaeus), harlequin duck
   Lophodytes cucullatus (Linnacus),               R *
   hooded merganser
   Melanitta fusca (Linnaeus),                     M
   white-winged scoter
   M. nigra (Linnaeus), black scoter               M
   M. perspicillata (Linnaeus), surf               M
   scoter
   Mergus Merganser Linnaeus, common               W
   merganser
   M. serrator Linnacus, red-                      M *
   breasted merganser
   Oxyura jamaicensis (Gmelin),                    M *
   ruddy duck
   Somateria spectabilis (Linnaeus),               A
   king eider
 Order Falconiformes (diurnal birds
 of prey)
  Family Accipitridae (kites,
  eagles, hawks, and allies)
   Accipiter cooperii (Bonaparte),                 R *
   Cooper's hawk
   A. gentilis (Linnaeus), northern                W
   goshawk
   A. striatus Vieillot, sharp-                    R *
   shinned hawk
   Aquila chrysaetos (Linnaeus),                   M
   golden eagle
   Buteo jamaicensis (Gmelin), red-                R *
   tailed hawk
   B. lagopus (Pontoppidan), rough-                W
   legged hawk
   B. lineatus (Gmelin), red-                      R *
   shouldered hawk
   B. playpterus (Vieillot), broad-                S *
   winged hawk
   B. regalis (Gray), ferruginous                  A
   hawk
   B. swainsoni Bonaparte,                         A
   Swainson's hawk
   Circus cyaneus (Linnaeus),                      R *
   northern harrier
   Elanoides forficatus (Linnaeus),                A (*)
   swallow-tailed kite
   Elanus leucurus (Vieillot),                     A
   white-tailed kite
  Family Falconidae (falcons)
   Falco columbarius Linnaeus,                     M
   merlin
   F. mexicanus Schlegel, prairie                  A
   falcon
   F. peregrinus Tunstall,                         R *
   peregrine falcon
   F. rusticolus Linnaeus,                         A
   gyrfalcon
   F. sparverius Linnaeus, American                R *
   kestrel
   Haliaeetus leucocephalus                        R *
   (Linnaeus), bald eagle
   Ictinia mississippiensis                        A *
   (Wilson), Mississippi kite
   Pandion haliaetus (Linnaeus),                   S *
   osprey
 Order Galliformes (gallinaceous
 birds)
  Family Phasianidae (grouse,
  turkey, and quail)
   Bonasa umbellus (Linnaeus),                     R *
   ruffed grouse
   Meleagris gallopavo Linnaeus,                   R *
   wild turkey
   Phasianus colchicus Linnaeus,                   R *
   ring-necked pheasant
  Family Odontophoridae (quail)
   Colinus virginianus (Linnaeus),                 R *
   northern bobwhite
 Order Gruiformes (cranes, rails,
 and allies)
  Family Rallidae (rails,
  gallinules, and coots)
   Coturnicops noveboracensis                      M
   (Gmelin), yellow rail
   Fulica americana (Gmelin),                      R *
   American coot
   Gallinula chloropus (Linnaeus),                 S *
   common moorhen
   Laterallus jamaicensis (Gmelin),                A *
   black rail
   Porphyrio martinica (Linnaeus),                 A
   purple gallinule
   Porzana carolina (Linnaeus),                    S *
   sora
   Rallus elegans Audubon, king                    S *
   rail
   R. limicola Vieillot, Virginia                  R *
   rail
  Family Gruidae (cranes)
   Grus canadensis (Linnaeus),                     M *
   sandhill crane
   G. grus (Linnaeus), common crane                A
 Order Charadriiformes (shorebirds,
 gulls, auks, and allies)
  Family Charadriidae (plovers)
   Charadrius alexandrinus                         A
   Linnaeus, snowy plover
   C. melodus Ord, piping plover                   A (*)
   C. semipalmatus Bonaparte,                      M
   semipalmated plover
   C. vociferus Linnaeus, killdeer                 R *
   C. wilsonia Ord, Wilson's plover                A
   Pluvialis dominica (Muller),                    M
   American golden-plover
   P. squatarola (Linnaues), black-                M
   bellied plover
  Family Recurvirostridae (stilts
  and avocets)
   Himantopus mexicanus (Muller),                  A
   black-necked stilt
   Recurvirostra americana Gmelin,                 M (*)
   American avocet
  Family Scolopacidae (sandpipers,
  phalaropes, and allies)
   Actitis macularia (Linnaeus),                   S *
   spotted sandpiper
   Arenaria interpres (Linnaeus),                  M
   ruddy turnstone
   Bartramia longicauda                            S *
   (Bechstein), upland sandpiper
   Calidris acuminata (Horsfield),                 A
   sharp-tailed sandpiper
   C. alba (Pallas), sanderling                    M
   C. alpina (Linnaeus), dunlin                    M
   C. bairdii (Coues), Baird's                     M
   sandpiper
   C. canutus (Linnaeus), red knot                 M
   C. ferrugineu (Pontoppidan),                    A
   curlew sandpiper
   C. fuscicollis (Vieillot),                      M
   white-rumped sandpiper
   C. himantopus (Bonaparte), stilt                M
   sandpiper
   C. maritima (Brunnich), purple                  W
   sandpiper
   C. mauri (Cabanis), western                     M
   sandpiper
   C. melanotos (Vieillot),                        M
   pectoral sandpiper
   C. minutilla (Vieillot), least                  M
   sandpiper
   C. pusillo (Linnaeus),                          M
   semipalmated sandpiper
   Catoptrophorus semipalmatus                     M
   (Gmelin), willet
   Gallinago delicata (Ord),                       R *
   Wilson's snipe
   Limnodromus griseus (Gmelin),                   M
   short-billed dowitcher
   L. scolopaceus (Say), long-                     M
   billed dowitcher
   Limosa fedoa (Linnaeus), marbled                A
   godwit
   L. haemastica (Linnaeus),                       A
   Hudsonian godwit
   Numenius phaeopus (Linnaeus),                   M
   whimbrel
   Phalaropus fulicarius (Linnaeus),               M
   red phalarope
   P. lobatus (Linnaeus), red-necked               M
   phalarope
   P. tricolor (Vieillot), Wilson's                M (*)
   phalarope
   Philomachus pugnax (Linnaeus),                  A
   ruff
   Scolopax minor Gmelin, American                 S *
   woodcock
   Tringa flavipes (Gmelin), lesser                M
   yellowlegs
   T. melanoleuca (Gmelin), greater                M
   yellowlegs
   T. solitaria Wilson, solitary                   M
   sandpiper
   Tryngites subruficollis                         M
   (Vieillot), buff-breasted
   sandpiper
Family Laridae (jaegers, gulls,
terns, and skimmers)
   Chlidonias leucopterus (Temminck),              A
   white-winged tern
   C. niger (Linnaeus), black tern                 S *
   Larus argentatus Pontoppidan,                   R *
   herring gull
   L. atricilla Linnaeus, laughing                 M
   gull
   L. californicus Lawrence,                       A
   California gull
   L. canus Linnaeus, mew gull                     A
   L. delawarensis Ord, ring-billed                R *
   gull
   L. fuscus Linnaeus, Iesser black-               A
   backed gull
   L. glaucoides Meyer, Iceland gull               A
   L. hyperboreus Gunnerus, glaucous               W
   gull
   L. marinus Linnaeus, great black-               M
   backed gull
   L. minutus Pallas, little gull                  A
   L. philadelphia (Ord), Bonaparte's              M
   gull
   L. pipixcan Wagler, Franklin's                  M
   gull
   L. ridibundus Linnaeus, black-                  A
   headed gull
   L. schistisagus Stejneger, slaty-               A
   backed gull
   L. thayeri Brooks, Thayer's gull                M
   Rhodostethia rosea (MacGillivray),              A
   Ross's gull
   Rissa tridactyla (Linnaeus),                    A
   black-legged kittiwake
   Rynchops niger Linnaeus, black                  A
   skimmer
   Stercorarius logicaudus Vieillot,               M
   long-tailed jaeger
   S. parasiticus (Linnaeus),                      M
   parasitic jaeger
   S. pomarinus (Temminck), pomarine               M
   jaeger
   Sterna antillarum (Lesson), least               S *
   tern
   S. caspia Pallas, Caspian tern                  M *
   S. dougallii Montagu, roseate                   A
   tern
   S. forsteri Nuttall, Forster's                  M (*)
   tern
   S. fuscata Linnaeus, sooty tern                 A
   S. hirundo Linnaeus, common tern                M (*)
   S. maxima Boddaert, royal tern                  A
   S. nilotica Gmelin, gull-billed                 A
   tern
   S. paradisaea Pontoppidan, arctic               A
   tern
   Xema sabini (Sabine), Sabine's                  A
   gull
  Family Alcidae (auks, murres, and
   puffins)
   Brachyramphus perdix (Pallas),                  A
   long-billed murrelet
   Synthliboramphus antiquus                       A
   (Gmelin), ancient murrelet
   Uria lomvia (Linnaeus),                         A
   thick-billed murre
 Order Columbiformes (pigeons and
 doves)
  Family Columbidae (pigeons and
  doves)
   Columba fasciata Say,                           A
   band-tailed pigeon
   C. livia Gmelin, rock dove                      R *
   Columbina passerina (Linnaeus),                 A
   common ground-dove
   Streptopelia decaocto                           R *
   (Frivaldsky), Eurasian
   collared-dove
   Zenaida asiatica (Linnacus),                    A
   white-winged dove
   Z. macroura (Linnaeus), mourning                R *
   dove
 Order Cuculiformes (cuckoos)
  Family Cuculidae (cuckoos)
   Coccyzus americanus (Linnaeus),                 S *
   yellow-billed cuckoo
   C. erythrophthalmus (Wilson),                   S *
   black-billed cuckoo
   Crotophaga sulcirostris Swainson,               A
   groove-billed ani
 Order Strigiformes (owls)
  Family Tytonidae (barn owls)
   Tyto alba (Scopoli), barn owl                   R *
  Family Strigidae (typical owls)
   Aegolius acadicus (Gmelin),                     W *
   northern saw-whet owl
   Asio flammeus (Pontoppidan),                    R *
   short-eared owl
   A. otus (Linnaeus), long-eared                  R *
   owl
   Athene cunicularia (Molina),                    A
   burrowing owl
   Bubo virginianus (Gmelin), great                R *
   horned owl
   Nyctea scandiaca (Linnaeus), snow               W
   owl
   Otus asio (Linnaeus), eastern                   R *
   screech-owl
   Strix varia Barton, barred owl                  R *
 Order Caprimulgiformes
 goatsuckers, oilbirds, and allies)
  Family Caprimulgidae
  (goatsuckers)
   Caprimulgus carolinensis Gmelin,                S *
   chuck-will's-widow
   C. vociferus Wilson, whip-poor-                 S *
   will
   Chordeiles minor (Forster),                     S *
   common nighthawk
 Order Apodiformes (swifts and
 hummingbirds)
  Family Apodidae (swifts)
   Chaetura pelagica (Linnaeus),                   S *
   chimney swift
  Family Trochilidae (hummingbords)
   Archilochus colubris (Linnaeus),                S *
   ruby-throated hummingbird
   Selasphorus rufus (Gmelin),                     S *
   rufous hummingbird
 Order Coraciiformes (todies,
 motmots, and kingfishers)
  Family Alcedinidae (kingfishers)
   Ceryle alcyon (Linnaeus), belted                R *
   kingfisher
 Order Piciformes (woodpeckers and
 allies)
  Family Picidae (woodpeckers)
   Colaptes auratus (Linnaeus),                    R *
   northern flicker
   Dryocopus pileatus (Linnaeus),                  R *
   pileated woodpecker
   Melanerpes carolinus (Linnaeus),                R *
   red-bellied woodspecker
   M. erythrocephalus (Linnaeus),                  R *
   red-headed woodpecker
   Picoides arcticus (Swainson),                   A
   black-backed woodpecker
   P. pubescens (Linnaeus), downy                  R *
   woodpecker
   P. villosus (Linnaeus), hairy                   R *
   woodpecker
   Sphyrapicus varius (Linnaeus),                  M *
   yellow-bellied sapsucker
 Order Passeriformes (passerine
 birds)
  Family Tyrannidae (flycatchers)
   Contopus cooperi (Nuttall),                     M
   olive-sided flycatcher
   C. sordidulus Sclater, western                  A
   wood-pewee
   C. virens (Linnaeus), eastern                   S *
   wood-pewee
   Empidonax alnorum Brewster, alder               S *
   flycatcher
   E. flaviventris (Baird and Baird),              M
   yellow-bellied flycatcher
   E. minimus (Baird and Baird),                   S *
   least flycatcher
   E. traillii (Audubon), willow                   S *
   flycatcher
   E. virescens (Vieillot), Acadian                S *
   flycatcher
   Myiarchus crinitus (Linnaeus),                  S *
   great crested flycatcher
   Pyrocephalus rubinus (Boddaert),                A
   vermilion flycatcher
   Sayornis phoebe (Latham), eastern               R *
   phoebe
   S. saya (Bonaparte), Say's phoebe               A
   Tyrannus forficatus (Gmelin),                   A *
   scissor-tailed flycatcher
   T. tyrannus (Linnaeus), eastern                 S *
   kingbird
   T. verticalis Say, western                      A *
   kingbird
  Family Laniidae (shrikes)
   Lanius excubitor Linnaeus,                      W
   northern shrike
   L. ludovicianus Linnaeus,                       R *
   loggerhead shrike
  Family Vireonidae (vireos)
   Vireo bellii Audubon, Bell's vireo              S *
   V. flavifrons (Vieillot), yellow-               S *
   throated vireo
   V. gilvus (Vieillot), warbling                  S *
   vireo
   V. griseus (Boddaert), white-eyed               S *
   vireo
   V. olivaceus (Linnaeus), red-eyed               S *
   vireo
   V. philadelphicus (Cassin),                     M
   Philadelphia vireo
   V. solitarius (Wilson), blue-                   M *
   headed vireo
  Family Corvidae (jays, magpies, and
  crows)
   Aphelocoma californica Vigors,                  A
   western scrub-jay
   Corvus brachyrhynchos Brehm,                    R *
   American crow
   C. corax Linnaeus, common raven                 A (*)
   C. ossifragus Wilson, fish crow                 S
   Cyanocitta cristata (Linnaeus),                 R *
   blue jay
   Pica hudsonia (Linnaeus), black-                A
   billed magpie
  Family Alaudidae (larks)
   Eremophila alpestris (Linnaeus),                R *
   horned lark
  Family Hirundinidae (swallows)
   Hirundo rustica Linnaeus, barn                  S *
   swallow
   Petrochelidon pyrrhonota                        S *
   Vieillot, cliff swallow
   Progne subis (Linnaeus), purple                 S *
   martin
   Riparia riparia (Linnaeus), bank                S *
   swallow
   Stelgidopteryx serripennis                      S *
   (Audubon), northern rough-winged
   swallow
   Tachycineta bicolor (Vieillot),                 S *
   tree swallow
  Family Paridae (titmice)
   Baeolophus bicolor Linnaeus,                    R *
   tufted titmouse
   Poecile atricapilla Linnaeus,                   R *
   black-capped chickadee
   P. carolinensis Audubon, Carolina               R *
   chickadee
   P. hudsonia Forster, boreal                     A
   chickadee
  Family Sittidae (nuthatches)
   Sitta canadensis Linnaeus, red-                 W *
   breasted nuthatch
   S. carolinensis Latham, white-                  R *
   breasted nuthatch
  Family Certhiidae (creepers)
   Certhia americana Bonaparte,                    R *
   brown creeper
  Family Troglodytidae (wrens)
   Cistothorus palustris (Wilson),                 S *
   marsh wren
   C. platensis (Latham), sedge wren               S *
   Salpinctes obsoletus (Say), rock                A
   wren
   Thryomanes bewickii (Audubon),                  R *
   Bewick's wren
   Thryothorus ludovicianus (Latham)               R *
   Carolina wren
   Troglodytes aedon Vieillot, house               S *
   wren
   T. troglodytes (Linnaeus), winter               W
   wren
  Family Regulidae (Kinglets)
   Regulus calendula (Linnaeus),                   M
   ruby-crowned kinglet
   R. satrapa Lichtenstein, golden-                W *
   crowned kinglet
  Family Sylviidae (old world
  warblers)
   Polioptila caerulea (Linnaeus),                 S *
   blue-gray gnatcatcher
  Family Turdidae (thrushes)
   Catharus fuscescens (Stephens)                  S *
   veery
   C. guttatus (Pallas), hermit                    W
   thrust
   C. minimus (Lafresnaye), gray-                  M
   cheeked thrush
   C. ustulatus (Nuttall), Swainson's              M
   thrush
   Hylocichla mustelina (Gmelin),                  S *
   wood thrush
   Ixoreus naevius (Gmelin), varied                A
   thrush
   Myadestes townsendi (Audubon),                  A
   Townsend's solitaire
   Oenanthe oenanthe (Linnaeus),                   A
   northern wheatear
   Sialia currucoides (Bechstein),                 A
   mountain bluebird
   S. sialis (Linnaeus) eastern                    R *
   bluebird
   Turdus migratorius Linnaeus,                    R *
   American robin
  Family Mimidae (mimic thrushes)
   Dumetella carolinensis (Linaeus),               S *
   gray catbird
   Mimus polyglottos (Linnaeus),                   R *
   northern mockingbird
   Toxostoma rufum (Linnaeus), brown               R *
   thrasher
  Family Sturnidae (starlings)
   Sturnus vulgaris Linnaeus,                      R *
   European starling
  Family Motacillidae (wagtails and
  pipits)
   Anthus rubescens (Tunstall),                    M
   American pipit
  Family Bombycillidae (waxwings)
   Bombycilla cedrorum Vieillot,                   R *
   cedar waxwing
   B. garrulus (Linnaeus), Bohemian                W
   waxwing
  Family Parulidae (new world
  warblers)
   Dendroica caerulescens (Gmelin),                M
   black-throated blue warbler
   D. castanea (Wilson), bay-breasted              M
   warbler
   D. cerulea (Wilson), cerulean                   S *
   warbler
   D. coronata (Linnaeus),                         W
   yellow-rumped warbler
   D. discolor (Vieillot), prairie                 S *
   warbler
   D. dominica (Linnaeus),                         S *
   yellow-throated warbler
   D. fusca (Muller), blackburnian                 M *
   warbler
   D. kirtlandii (Baird), Kirkland's               M
   warbler
   D. magnolia (Wilson), magnolia                  M *
   warbler
   D. nigrescens (Townsend),                       A
   black-throated gray warbler
   D. palmarum (Gmelin), palm warbler              M
   D. pensylvanica (Linnaeus),                     M *
   chestnut-sided warbler
   D. petechia (Linnaeus), yellow                  S *
   warbler
   D. pinus (Wilson), pine warbler                 S *
   D. striata (Forster), blackpoll                 M
   warbler
   D. tigrina (Gmelin), Cape May                   M
   wabler
   D. townsendi (Townsend),                        A
   Townsend's warbler
   D. virens (Gmelin), black-throated              S *
   green warbler
   Geothlypis trichas (Linnaeus),                  S *
   common yellowthroat
   Helmitheros vermivorus (Gmelin),                S *
   worm-eating warbler
   Iceteria virens (Linnaeus),                     S *
   yellow-breasted chat
   Limnothlypis swainsonii (Audubon),              A
   Swainson's warbler
   Mniotilta varia (Linnaeus), black-              S *
   and-white warbler
   Oporornis agilis (Wilson),                      M
   Connecticut warbler
   O. formosus (Wilson), Kentucky                  S *
   warbler
   O. philadelphia (Wilson), mourning              M
   warbler
   Parula americana (Linnaeus),                    S *
   northern parula
   Protonotaria citrea (Boddaert),                 S *
   prothonotary warbler
   Seiurus aurocapillus (Linnaeus),                S *
   ovenbird
   S. motacilla (Vieillot), Louisiana              S *
   waterthrush
   S. noveboracensis (Gmelin),                     S *
   northern waterthrush
   Setophaga ruticilla (Linnaeus),                 S *
   American redstart
   Vermivora celata (Say), orange-                 M
   crowned warbler
   V. chrysoptera (Linnaeus), golden-              S *
   winged warbler
   V. peregrina (Wilson), Tennessee                M
   warbler
   V. pinus (Linnaeus), blue-winged                S *
   warbler
   V. ruficapilla (Wilson), Nashville              M
   warbler
   Wilsonia canadensis (Linnaeus),                 M *
   Canada warbler
   W. citrina (Boddaert), hooded                   S *
   warbler
   W. pusilla (Wilson), Wilson's                   M
   warbler
  Family Thraupidae (tanagers)
   Piranga ludoviciana (Wilson),                   A
   western tanager
   P. olivacea (Gmelin), scarlet                   S *
   tanager
   P. rubra (Linnaeus), summer                     S *
   tanager
  Family Emberizidae (new world
  sparrows)
   Aimophila aestivalis                            S (*)
   (Lichtenstein), Bachman's sparrow
   A. cassinii (Woodhouse), Cassin's                A
   sparrow
   Ammodramus henslowii (Audubon),                  S *
   Henslow's sparrow
   A. leconteii (Audubon), LeConte's                W
   sparrow
   A. nelsoni (Allen), Nelson's                     M
   sharp-tailed sparrow
   A. savannarum (Gmelin),                          S *
   grasshopper sparrow
   Calamospiza melanocorys Stejneger,               A
   lark bunting
   Calcarius lapponicus (Linnaeus),                 W
   Lapland longspur
   C. mccownii (Lawrence), McCown's                 A
   longspur
   C. pictus (Swainson), Smith's                    W
   longspur
   Chondestes grammacus (Say), lark                 S *
   sparrow
   Junco hyemalis (Linnaeus), dark-                 W
   eyed junco
   Melospiza georgiana (Latham), swam               R *
   sparrow
   M. lincolnii (Audubon), Lincoln's                M
   sparrow
   M. melodia (Wilson), song sparrow                R *
   Passerculus sandwichensis (Gmelin)               S *
   savannah sparrow
   Passerella iliaca (Merrem), fox                  W
   sparrow
   Pipilo chlorurus (Audubon), green-               A
   tailed towhee
   P. erythrophthalmus (Linnaeus),                  R *
   eastern towhee
   P. maculatus (Swainson), spotted                 A
   towhee
   Plectrophenax nivalis (Linnaeus),                W
   snow bunting
   Pooecetes gramineus (Gmelin),                    S *
   vesper sparrow
   Spizella arborea (Wilson),                       W
   American tree sparrow
   S. pallida (Swainson),                           A
   clay-colored sparrow
   S. passerina (Bechstein), chipping               S *
   sparrow
   S. pusilla (Wilson), field sparrow               R *
   Zonotrichia albicollis (Gmelin),                 W
   white-throated sparrow
   Z. leucophrys (Forster), white-                  W
   crowned sparrow
   Z. querula (Nuttall), Harris's                   W
   sparrow
  Family Cardinalidae (grosbeaks)
   Cardinalis cardinalis (Linnacus),                R *
   northern cardinal
   Passerina caerulea (Linnaeus),                  S *
   blue grosbeak
   P. ciris (Linnaeus), painted                    A
   bunting
   P. cyanea (Linnaeus), indigo                    S *
   bunting
   Pheucticus ludovicianus                         S *
   (Linnaeus), rose-breasted
   grosbeak
   P. melanocephalus (Swainson),                   A
   black-headed grosbeak
   Spiza americana (Gmelin),                       S *
   dickcissel
  Family Icteridae (icterines)
   Agelaius phoeniceus (Linnaeus),                 R *
   red-winged blackbird
   Dolichonyx oryzivorus (Linnaeus),               S *
   bobolink
   Euphagus carolinus (Muller), rusty              W
   blackbird
   E. cyanocephalus (Wagler),                      M *
   Brewer's blackbird
   Icteris galbula (Linnaeus),                     S *
   Baltimore oriole
   I. spurius (Linnaeus), orchard                  S *
   oriole
   Molothrus ater (Boddaert),                      R *
   brown-headed cowbird
   Quiscalus mexicanus (Gmelin),                   A
   great-tailed grackle
   Q. quiscula (Linnaeus), common                  R *
   grackle
   Sturnella magna (Linnaeus),                     R *
   eastern meadowlark
   S. neglecta (Audubon), western                  R *
   meadowlark
   Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus                   S *
   (Bonaparte), yellow-headed
   blackbird
  Family Fringillidae (finches)
   Carduelis flammea (Linnaeus),                   W
   common redpoll
   C. hornemanni (Holboll), hoary                  A
   redpoll
   C. pinus (Wilson), pine siskin                  W *
   C. tristis (Linnaeus), American                 R *
   goldfinch
   Carpodacus mexicanus (Muller),                  R *
   house finch
   C. purpureus (Gmelin), purple                   W
   finch
   Coccothraustes vespertinus                      W
   (Cooper), evening grosbeak
   Fringilla montifringilla Linnaeus,              A
   brambling
   Loxia curvirostra Linnaeus, red                 W *
   crossbill
   L. leuceoptera Gmelin,                          W
   white-winged crossbill
   Pinicola enucleator (Linnaeus),                 W
   pine grosbeak
  Family Passeridae (weaver finches)
   Passer domesticus (Linnaeus),                   R *
   Passer domesticus (Linnaeus),                   R *
   house sparrow
   P. montanus (Linnaeus),                         A
   Eurasian tree sparrow
Extirpated:
   Campephilus principalis                         H (*)
   (Linnaeus), ivory-billed
   woodpecker
   Conuropsis carolinensis                         R (*)
   (Linnaeus), Carolina parakeet
   Ectopistes migratorius                          R (*)
   (Linnaeus), passenger pigeon
   Grus americana (Linnaeus),                      M
   whooping crane
   Numenius borealis (Forster),                    M
   eskimo curlew
   Perdix perdix (Linnaeus), gray                  R (*)
   partridge
   Tympanuchus cupido (Linnaeus),                  R (*)
   greater prairie-chicken
   Vermivora bachmanii (Audubon),                  H
   Bachman's warbler


                                                   Status

CLASS AVES
 Order Gaviiformes (loons)
  Family Gaviidae (loons)
   Gavia adamsii (Gray), yellow-
   billed loon
   G. immer (Brunnich), common loon
   G. pacifica (Lawrence), pacific
   loon
   G. stellata (Pontoppidan), red-
   throated loon
Order Podicipediformes (grebes)
  Family Podicipedidae (grebes)
   Aechmophorus occidentalis
   (Lawrence), western grebe
   Podiceps auritus (Linnaeus),
   horned grebe
   P. grisegena (Boddaert),red-
   necked grebe
   P. nigricollis Brehm, eared grebe
   Podilymbus podiceps (Linnaeus),
   pied-billed grebe
 Order Procellariiformes (tube-nosed
 swimmers)
  Family Hydrobatidae (storm-
  petrels)
   Oceanodroma castro (Harcourt),
   band-rumped storm-petrel
 Order Pelecaniformes (totipalmate
 swimmers)
  Family Sulidae (boobies and
  gannets)
   Morus bassanus (Linnaeus),
   northern gannet
  Family Pelecanidae (pelicans)
   Pelecanus erythrorhynchos Gmelin,
   American white pelican
   P. occidentalis Linnaeus, brown
   pelican
  Family Phalacrocoracidae
  (cormorants)
   Phalacrocorax auritus (Lesson),
   double-crested cormorant
  Family Fregatidae (frigatebirds)
   Fregata magnificens Mathews,
   magnificent frigatebird
 Order Ciconiiformes (herons,
 ibises, storks, and allies)
  Family Ardeidae (bitterns and
  herons)
   Ardea alba (Linnaeus), great                      SC
   egret
   Ardea herodias Linnaeus, great
   blue heron
   Botaurus lentiginosus (Rackett),                  SE
   American bittern
   Bubulcus ibis (Linnaeus), cattle
   egret
   Butorides virescens (Linnaeus),
   Butorides virescens (Linnaeus), green heron
   Egretta caerulea (Linnaeus), little blue heron
   E. rufescens (Gmelin), reddish egret
   E. thula (Molina), snowy egret
   E. tricolor (Muller), tricolored heron
   Ixobrychus exilis (Gmelin), least bittern       SE
   Nyctanassa violacea (Linnaeus),                 SE
   yellow-crowned night-heron
   Nycticorax nycticorax (Linnaeus),               SE
   black-crowned night-heron
  Family Threskiornithidae (ibises)
   Eudocimus albus (Linnaeus), white ibis
   Plegadis chihi (Vieillot), white-faced ibis
   P. falcinellus (Linnaeus), glossy ibis
  Family Ciconiidae (storks)
   Mycteria americana Linnaeus, wood stork         FE
  Family Cathartidae (American vultures)
   Cathartes aura (Linnaeus), turkey vulture
   Coragyps atratus (Bechstein), black vulture
 Order Anseriformes (swans, geese, and ducks)
  Family Anatidae (swans, geese and ducks)
   Aix sponsa (Linnaeus), wood duck
   Anas acuta Linnaeus, northern pintail
   A. americana Gmelin, American wigeon
   A. clypeata Linnaeus, northern shoveler
   A. crecca (Linnaeus), green-winged teal
   A. cyanoptera Viellot, cinnamon teal
   A. discors Linnaeus, blue-winged teal
   A. penelope Linnaeus, Eurasian Wigeon
   A. platyrhynchos Linnaeus, mallard
   A. rubripes Brewster, American black duck
   A strepera Linnaeus, gadwall
   Anser albifrons (Scopoli),
   greater white-fronted goose
   Aythya affinis (Eyton), lesser
   scaup
   A. americana (Eyton), redhead
   A. collaris (Donovan), ring-
   necked duck
   A. marila (Linnaeus), greater
   scaup
   A. valisineria (Wilson),
   canvasback
   Branta bernicla (Linnaeus), brant
   B. canadensis (Linnaeus), Canada
   goose
   Bucephala albeola (Linnaeus),
   bufftehead
   B. clangula (Linnaeus), common
   goldeneye
   B. islandica (Gmelin), Barrow's
   goldeneye
   Chen caerulescens (Linnacus),
   snow goose
   C. rossii (Cassin), Ross's goose
   Clangula hyemalis (Linnacus),
   long-tailed duck
   Cygnus buccinator Richardson,                   SE
   trumpeter swan
   C. colunbianus (Ord), tundra swan
   C. olor (Gmelin), mute swan                     X
   Dendrocygna bicolor (Vieillot),
   fulvous whistling-duck
   Histrionicus histrionicus
   (Linnaeus), harlequin duck
   Lophodytes cucullatus (Linnacus),
   hooded merganser
   Melanitta fusca (Linnaeus),
   white-winged scoter
   M. nigra (Linnaeus), black scoter
   M. perspicillata (Linnaeus), surf
   scoter
   Mergus Merganser Linnaeus, common
   merganser
   M. serrator Linnacus, red-
   breasted merganser
   Oxyura jamaicensis (Gmelin),
   ruddy duck
   Somateria spectabilis (Linnaeus),
   king eider
 Order Falconiformes (diurnal birds
 of prey)
  Family Accipitridae (kites,
  eagles, hawks, and allies)
   Accipiter cooperii (Bonaparte),
   Cooper's hawk
   A. gentilis (Linnaeus), northern
   goshawk
   A. striatus Vieillot, sharp-                    SC
   shinned hawk
   Aquila chrysaetos (Linnaeus),
   golden eagle
   Buteo jamaicensis (Gmelin), red-
   tailed hawk
   B. lagopus (Pontoppidan), rough-
   legged hawk
   B. lineatus (Gmelin), red-                      SC
   shouldered hawk
   B. playpterus (Vieillot), broad-                SC
   winged hawk
   B. regalis (Gray), ferruginous
   hawk
   B. swainsoni Bonaparte,
   Swainson's hawk
   Circus cyaneus (Linnaeus),                      SE
   northern harrier
   Elanoides forficatus (Linnaeus),                SE
   swallow-tailed kite
   Elanus leucurus (Vieillot),
   white-tailed kite
  Family Falconidae (falcons)
   Falco columbarius Linnaeus,
   merlin
   F. mexicanus Schlegel, prairie
   falcon
   F. peregrinus Tunstall,                         SE
   peregrine falcon
   F. rusticolus Linnaeus,
   gyrfalcon
   F. sparverius Linnaeus, American
   kestrel
   Haliaeetus leucocephalus                        SE, FT
   (Linnaeus), bald eagle
   Ictinia mississippiensis                        SC
   (Wilson), Mississippi kite
   Pandion haliaetus (Linnaeus),                   SE
   osprey
 Order Galliformes (gallinaceous
 birds)
  Family Phasianidae (grouse,
  turkey, and quail)
   Bonasa umbellus (Linnaeus),
   ruffed grouse
   Meleagris gallopavo Linnaeus,
   wild turkey
   Phasianus colchicus Linnaeus,                   X
   ring-necked pheasant
  Family Odontophoridae (quail)
   Colinus virginianus (Linnaeus),
   northern bobwhite
 Order Gruiformes (cranes, rails,
 and allies)
  Family Rallidae (rails,
  gallinules, and coots)
   Coturnicops noveboracensis
   (Gmelin), yellow rail
   Fulica americana (Gmelin),
   American coot
   Gallinula chloropus (Linnaeus),
   common moorhen
   Laterallus jamaicensis (Gmelin),                SE
   black rail
   Porphyrio martinica (Linnaeus),
   purple gallinule
   Porzana carolina (Linnaeus),
   sora
   Rallus elegans Audubon, king                    SE
   rail
   R. limicola Vieillot, Virginia                  SE
   rail
  Family Gruidae (cranes)
   Grus canadensis (Linnaeus),                     SC
   sandhill crane
   G. grus (Linnaeus), common crane
 Order Charadriiformes (shorebirds,
 gulls, auks, and allies)
  Family Charadriidae (plovers)
   Charadrius alexandrinus
   Linnaeus, snowy plover
   C. melodus Ord, piping plover                   SE, FE
   C. semipalmatus Bonaparte,
   semipalmated plover
   C. vociferus Linnaeus, killdeer
   C. wilsonia Ord, Wilson's plover
   Pluvialis dominica (Muller),
   American golden-plover
   P. squatarola (Linnaues), black-
   bellied plover
  Family Recurvirostridae (stilts
  and avocets)
   Himantopus mexicanus (Muller),
   black-necked stilt
   Recurvirostra americana Gmelin,
   American avocet
  Family Scolopacidae (sandpipers,
  phalaropes, and allies)
   Actitis macularia (Linnaeus),
   spotted sandpiper
   Arenaria interpres (Linnaeus),
   ruddy turnstone
   Bartramia longicauda                            SE
   (Bechstein), upland sandpiper
   Calidris acuminata (Horsfield),
   sharp-tailed sandpiper
   C. alba (Pallas), sanderling
   C. alpina (Linnaeus), dunlin
   C. bairdii (Coues), Baird's
   sandpiper
   C. canutus (Linnaeus), red knot
   C. ferrugineu (Pontoppidan),
   curlew sandpiper
   C. fuscicollis (Vieillot),
   white-rumped sandpiper
   C. himantopus (Bonaparte), stilt
   sandpiper
   C. maritima (Brunnich), purple
   sandpiper
   C. mauri (Cabanis), western
   sandpiper
   C. melanotos (Vieillot),
   pectoral sandpiper
   C. minutilla (Vieillot), least
   sandpiper
   C. pusillo (Linnaeus),
   semipalmated sandpiper
   Catoptrophorus semipalmatus
   (Gmelin), willet
   Gallinago delicata (Ord),
   Wilson's snipe
   Limnodromus griseus (Gmelin),
   short-billed dowitcher
   L. scolopaceus (Say), long-
   billed dowitcher
   Limosa fedoa (Linnaeus), marbled
   godwit
   L. haemastica (Linnaeus),
   Hudsonian godwit
   Numenius phaeopus (Linnaeus),
   whimbrel
   Phalaropus fulicarius (Linnaeus),
   red phalarope
   P. lobatus (Linnaeus), red-necked
   phalarope
   P. tricolor (Vieillot), Wilson's
   phalarope
   Philomachus pugnax (Linnaeus),
   ruff
   Scolopax minor Gmelin, American
   woodcock
   Tringa flavipes (Gmelin), lesser
   yellowlegs
   T. melanoleuca (Gmelin), greater
   yellowlegs
   T. solitaria Wilson, solitary
   sandpiper
   Tryngites subruficollis
   (Vieillot), buff-breasted
   sandpiper
Family Laridae (jaegers, gulls,
terns, and skimmers)
   Chlidonias leucopterus (Temminck),
   white-winged tern
   C. niger (Linnaeus), black tern                 SE
   Larus argentatus Pontoppidan,
   herring gull
   L. atricilla Linnaeus, laughing
   gull
   L. californicus Lawrence,
   California gull
   L. canus Linnaeus, mew gull
   L. delawarensis Ord, ring-billed
   gull
   L. fuscus Linnaeus, Iesser black-
   backed gull
   L. glaucoides Meyer, Iceland gull
   L. hyperboreus Gunnerus, glaucous
   gull
   L. marinus Linnaeus, great black-
   backed gull
   L. minutus Pallas, little gull
   L. philadelphia (Ord), Bonaparte's
   gull
   L. pipixcan Wagler, Franklin's
   gull
   L. ridibundus Linnaeus, black-
   headed gull
   L. schistisagus Stejneger, slaty-
   backed gull
   L. thayeri Brooks, Thayer's gull
   Rhodostethia rosea (MacGillivray),
   Ross's gull
   Rissa tridactyla (Linnaeus),
   black-legged kittiwake
   Rynchops niger Linnaeus, black
   skimmer
   Stercorarius logicaudus Vieillot,
   long-tailed jaeger
   S. parasiticus (Linnaeus),
   parasitic jaeger
   S. pomarinus (Temminck), pomarine
   jaeger
   Sterna antillarum (Lesson), least               SE, FE
   tern
   S. caspia Pallas, Caspian tern
   S. dougallii Montagu, roseate                   FE
   tern
   S. forsteri Nuttall, Forster's
   tern
   S. fuscata Linnaeus, sooty tern
   S. hirundo Linnaeus, common tern
   S. maxima Boddaert, royal tern
   S. nilotica Gmelin, gull-billed
   tern
   S. paradisaea Pontoppidan, arctic
   tern
   Xema sabini (Sabine), Sabine's
   gull
  Family Alcidae (auks, murres, and
   puffins)
   Brachyramphus perdix (Pallas),
   long-billed murrelet
   Synthliboramphus antiquus
   (Gmelin), ancient murrelet
   Uria lomvia (Linnaeus),
   thick-billed murre
 Order Columbiformes (pigeons and
 doves)
  Family Columbidae (pigeons and
  doves)
   Columba fasciata Say,
   band-tailed pigeon
   C. livia Gmelin, rock dove                      X
   Columbina passerina (Linnaeus),
   common ground-dove
   Streptopelia decaocto                           X
   (Frivaldsky), Eurasian
   collared-dove
   Zenaida asiatica (Linnacus),
   white-winged dove
   Z. macroura (Linnaeus), mourning
   dove
 Order Cuculiformes (cuckoos)
  Family Cuculidae (cuckoos)
   Coccyzus americanus (Linnaeus),
   yellow-billed cuckoo
   C. erythrophthalmus (Wilson),
   black-billed cuckoo
   Crotophaga sulcirostris Swainson,
   groove-billed ani
 Order Strigiformes (owls)
  Family Tytonidae (barn owls)
   Tyto alba (Scopoli), barn owl                   SE
  Family Strigidae (typical owls)
   Aegolius acadicus (Gmelin),
   northern saw-whet owl
   Asio flammeus (Pontoppidan),                    SE
   short-eared owl
   A. otus (Linnaeus), long-eared
   owl
   Athene cunicularia (Molina),
   burrowing owl
   Bubo virginianus (Gmelin), great
   horned owl
   Nyctea scandiaca (Linnaeus), snow
   owl
   Otus asio (Linnaeus), eastern
   screech-owl
   Strix varia Barton, barred owl
 Order Caprimulgiformes
 goatsuckers, oilbirds, and allies)
  Family Caprimulgidae
  (goatsuckers)
   Caprimulgus carolinensis Gmelin,
   chuck-will's-widow
   C. vociferus Wilson, whip-poor-
   will
   Chordeiles minor (Forster),
   common nighthawk
 Order Apodiformes (swifts and
 hummingbirds)
  Family Apodidae (swifts)
   Chaetura pelagica (Linnaeus),
   chimney swift
  Family Trochilidae (hummingbords)
   Archilochus colubris (Linnaeus),
   ruby-throated hummingbird
   Selasphorus rufus (Gmelin),
   rufous hummingbird
 Order Coraciiformes (todies,
 motmots, and kingfishers)
  Family Alcedinidae (kingfishers)
   Ceryle alcyon (Linnaeus), belted
   kingfisher
 Order Piciformes (woodpeckers and
 allies)
  Family Picidae (woodpeckers)
   Colaptes auratus (Linnaeus),
   northern flicker
   Dryocopus pileatus (Linnaeus),
   pileated woodpecker
   Melanerpes carolinus (Linnaeus),
   red-bellied woodspecker
   M. erythrocephalus (Linnaeus),
   red-headed woodpecker
   Picoides arcticus (Swainson),
   black-backed woodpecker
   P. pubescens (Linnaeus), downy
   woodpecker
   P. villosus (Linnaeus), hairy
   woodpecker
   Sphyrapicus varius (Linnaeus),
   yellow-bellied sapsucker
 Order Passeriformes (passerine
 birds)
  Family Tyrannidae (flycatchers)
   Contopus cooperi (Nuttall),
   olive-sided flycatcher
   C. sordidulus Sclater, western
   wood-pewee
   C. virens (Linnaeus), eastern
   wood-pewee
   Empidonax alnorum Brewster, alder
   flycatcher
   E. flaviventris (Baird and Baird),
   yellow-bellied flycatcher
   E. minimus (Baird and Baird),
   least flycatcher
   E. traillii (Audubon), willow
   flycatcher
   E. virescens (Vieillot), Acadian
   flycatcher
   Myiarchus crinitus (Linnaeus),
   great crested flycatcher
   Pyrocephalus rubinus (Boddaert),
   vermilion flycatcher
   Sayornis phoebe (Latham), eastern
   phoebe
   S. saya (Bonaparte), Say's phoebe
   Tyrannus forficatus (Gmelin),
   scissor-tailed flycatcher
   T. tyrannus (Linnaeus), eastern
   kingbird
   T. verticalis Say, western
   kingbird
  Family Laniidae (shrikes)
   Lanius excubitor Linnaeus,
   northern shrike
   L. ludovicianus Linnaeus,                       SE, FC
   loggerhead shrike
  Family Vireonidae (vireos)
   Vireo bellii Audubon, Bell's vireo
   V. flavifrons (Vieillot), yellow-
   throated vireo
   V. gilvus (Vieillot), warbling
   vireo
   V. griseus (Boddaert), white-eyed
   vireo
   V. olivaceus (Linnaeus), red-eyed
   vireo
   V. philadelphicus (Cassin),
   Philadelphia vireo
   V. solitarius (Wilson), blue-
   headed vireo
  Family Corvidae (jays, magpies, and
  crows)
   Aphelocoma californica Vigors,
   western scrub-jay
   Corvus brachyrhynchos Brehm,
   American crow
   C. corax Linnaeus, common raven
   C. ossifragus Wilson, fish crow
   Cyanocitta cristata (Linnaeus),
   blue jay
   Pica hudsonia (Linnaeus), black-
   billed magpie
  Family Alaudidae (larks)
   Eremophila alpestris (Linnaeus),
   horned lark
  Family Hirundinidae (swallows)
   Hirundo rustica Linnaeus, barn
   swallow
   Petrochelidon pyrrhonota
   Vieillot, cliff swallow
   Progne subis (Linnaeus), purple
   martin
   Riparia riparia (Linnaeus), bank
   swallow
   Stelgidopteryx serripennis
   (Audubon), northern rough-winged
   swallow
   Tachycineta bicolor (Vieillot),
   tree swallow
  Family Paridae (titmice)
   Baeolophus bicolor Linnaeus,
   tufted titmouse
   Poecile atricapilla Linnaeus,
   black-capped chickadee
   P. carolinensis Audubon, Carolina
   chickadee
   P. hudsonia Forster, boreal
   chickadee
  Family Sittidae (nuthatches)
   Sitta canadensis Linnaeus, red-
   breasted nuthatch
   S. carolinensis Latham, white-
   breasted nuthatch
  Family Certhiidae (creepers)
   Certhia americana Bonaparte,
   brown creeper
  Family Troglodytidae (wrens)
   Cistothorus palustris (Wilson),                 SE
   marsh wren
   C. platensis (Latham), sedge wren               SE
   Salpinctes obsoletus (Say), rock
   wren
   Thryomanes bewickii (Audubon),                  SE
   Bewick's wren
   Thryothorus ludovicianus (Latham)
   Carolina wren
   Troglodytes aedon Vieillot, house
   wren
   T. troglodytes (Linnaeus), winter
   wren
  Family Regulidae (Kinglets)
   Regulus calendula (Linnaeus),
   ruby-crowned kinglet
   R. satrapa Lichtenstein, golden-
   crowned kinglet
  Family Sylviidae (old world
  warblers)
   Polioptila caerulea (Linnaeus),
   blue-gray gnatcatcher
  Family Turdidae (thrushes)
   Catharus fuscescens (Stephens)
   veery
   C. guttatus (Pallas), hermit
   thrust
   C. minimus (Lafresnaye), gray-
   cheeked thrush
   C. ustulatus (Nuttall), Swainson's
   thrush
   Hylocichla mustelina (Gmelin),
   wood thrush
   Ixoreus naevius (Gmelin), varied
   thrush
   Myadestes townsendi (Audubon),
   Townsend's solitaire
   Oenanthe oenanthe (Linnaeus),
   northern wheatear
   Sialia currucoides (Bechstein),
   mountain bluebird
   S. sialis (Linnaeus) eastern
   bluebird
   Turdus migratorius Linnaeus,                    X
   American robin
  Family Mimidae (mimic thrushes)
   Dumetella carolinensis (Linaeus),
   gray catbird
   Mimus polyglottos (Linnaeus),
   northern mockingbird
   Toxostoma rufum (Linnaeus), brown
   thrasher
  Family Sturnidae (starlings)
   Sturnus vulgaris Linnaeus,
   European starling
  Family Motacillidae (wagtails and
  pipits)
   Anthus rubescens (Tunstall),
   American pipit
  Family Bombycillidae (waxwings)
   Bombycilla cedrorum Vieillot,
   cedar waxwing
   B. garrulus (Linnaeus), Bohemian
   waxwing
  Family Parulidae (new world
  warblers)
   Dendroica caerulescens (Gmelin),
   black-throated blue warbler
   D. castanea (Wilson), bay-breasted
   warbler
   D. cerulea (Wilson), cerulean                   SC
   warbler
   D. coronata (Linnaeus),
   yellow-rumped warbler
   D. discolor (Vieillot), prairie
   warbler
   D. dominica (Linnaeus),
   yellow-throated warbler
   D. fusca (Muller), blackburnian
   warbler
   D. kirtlandii (Baird), Kirkland's               SE, FE
   warbler
   D. magnolia (Wilson), magnolia
   warbler
   D. nigrescens (Townsend),
   black-throated gray warbler
   D. palmarum (Gmelin), palm warbler
   D. pensylvanica (Linnaeus),
   chestnut-sided warbler
   D. petechia (Linnaeus), yellow
   warbler
   D. pinus (Wilson), pine warbler
   D. striata (Forster), blackpoll
   warbler
   D. tigrina (Gmelin), Cape May
   wabler
   D. townsendi (Townsend),
   Townsend's warbler
   D. virens (Gmelin), black-throated
   green warbler
   Geothlypis trichas (Linnaeus),                  SC
   common yellowthroat
   Helmitheros vermivorus (Gmelin),
   worm-eating warbler
   Iceteria virens (Linnaeus),
   yellow-breasted chat
   Limnothlypis swainsonii (Audubon),
   Swainson's warbler
   Mniotilta varia (Linnaeus), black-
   and-white warbler
   Oporornis agilis (Wilson),
   Connecticut warbler
   O. formosus (Wilson), Kentucky
   warbler
   O. philadelphia (Wilson), mourning
   warbler
   Parula americana (Linnaeus),
   northern parula
   Protonotaria citrea (Boddaert),
   prothonotary warbler
   Seiurus aurocapillus (Linnaeus),
   ovenbird
   S. motacilla (Vieillot), Louisiana
   waterthrush
   S. noveboracensis (Gmelin),
   northern waterthrush
   Setophaga ruticilla (Linnaeus),
   American redstart
   Vermivora celata (Say), orange-
   crowned warbler
   V. chrysoptera (Linnaeus), golden-              SE
   winged warbler
   V. peregrina (Wilson), Tennessee
   warbler
   V. pinus (Linnaeus), blue-winged
   warbler
   V. ruficapilla (Wilson), Nashville
   warbler
   Wilsonia canadensis (Linnaeus),
   Canada warbler
   W. citrina (Boddaert), hooded                   SC
   warbler
   W. pusilla (Wilson), Wilson's
   warbler
  Family Thraupidae (tanagers)
   Piranga ludoviciana (Wilson),
   western tanager
   P. olivacea (Gmelin), scarlet
   tanager
   P. rubra (Linnaeus), summer
   tanager
  Family Emberizidae (new world
  sparrows)
   Aimophila aestivalis                            SE
   (Lichtenstein), Bachman's sparrow
   A. cassinii (Woodhouse), Cassin's
   sparrow
   Ammodramus henslowii (Audubon),                 SE
   Henslow's sparrow
   A. leconteii (Audubon), LeConte's
   sparrow
   A. nelsoni (Allen), Nelson's
   sharp-tailed sparrow
   A. savannarum (Gmelin),
   grasshopper sparrow
   Calamospiza melanocorys Stejneger,
   lark bunting
   Calcarius lapponicus (Linnaeus),
   Lapland longspur
   C. mccownii (Lawrence), McCown's
   longspur
   C. pictus (Swainson), Smith's
   longspur
   Chondestes grammacus (Say), lark
   sparrow
   Junco hyemalis (Linnaeus), dark-
   eyed junco
   Melospiza georgiana (Latham), swam
   sparrow
   M. lincolnii (Audubon), Lincoln's
   sparrow
   M. melodia (Wilson), song sparrow
   Passerculus sandwichensis (Gmelin)
   savannah sparrow
   Passerella iliaca (Merrem), fox
   sparrow
   Pipilo chlorurus (Audubon), green-
   tailed towhee
   P. erythrophthalmus (Linnaeus),
   eastern towhee
   P. maculatus (Swainson), spotted
   towhee
   Plectrophenax nivalis (Linnaeus),
   snow bunting
   Pooecetes gramineus (Gmelin),
   vesper sparrow
   Spizella arborea (Wilson),
   American tree sparrow
   S. pallida (Swainson),
   clay-colored sparrow
   S. passerina (Bechstein), chipping
   sparrow
   S. pusilla (Wilson), field sparrow
   Zonotrichia albicollis (Gmelin),
   white-throated sparrow
   Z. leucophrys (Forster), white-
   crowned sparrow
   Z. querula (Nuttall), Harris's
   sparrow
  Family Cardinalidae (grosbeaks)
   Cardinalis cardinalis (Linnacus),
   northern cardinal
   Passerina caerulea (Linnaeus),
   blue grosbeak
   P. ciris (Linnaeus), painted
   bunting
   P. cyanea (Linnaeus), indigo
   bunting
   Pheucticus ludovicianus
   (Linnaeus), rose-breasted
   grosbeak
   P. melanocephalus (Swainson),
   black-headed grosbeak
   Spiza americana (Gmelin),
   dickcissel
  Family Icteridae (icterines)
   Agelaius phoeniceus (Linnaeus),
   red-winged blackbird
   Dolichonyx oryzivorus (Linnaeus),
   bobolink
   Euphagus carolinus (Muller), rusty
   blackbird
   E. cyanocephalus (Wagler),
   Brewer's blackbird
   Icteris galbula (Linnaeus),
   Baltimore oriole
   I. spurius (Linnaeus), orchard
   oriole
   Molothrus ater (Boddaert),
   brown-headed cowbird
   Quiscalus mexicanus (Gmelin),
   great-tailed grackle
   Q. quiscula (Linnaeus), common
   grackle
   Sturnella magna (Linnaeus),
   eastern meadowlark
   S. neglecta (Audubon), western                  SC
   meadowlark
   Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus                   SE
   (Bonaparte), yellow-headed
   blackbird
  Family Fringillidae (finches)
   Carduelis flammea (Linnaeus),
   common redpoll
   C. hornemanni (Holboll), hoary
   redpoll
   C. pinus (Wilson), pine siskin
   C. tristis (Linnaeus), American
   goldfinch
   Carpodacus mexicanus (Muller),                  X
   house finch
   C. purpureus (Gmelin), purple
   finch
   Coccothraustes vespertinus
   (Cooper), evening grosbeak
   Fringilla montifringilla Linnaeus,
   brambling
   Loxia curvirostra Linnaeus, red
   crossbill
   L. leuceoptera Gmelin,
   white-winged crossbill
   Pinicola enucleator (Linnaeus),
   pine grosbeak
  Family Passeridae (weaver finches)
   Passer domesticus (Linnaeus),                   X
   Passer domesticus (Linnaeus),                   X
   house sparrow
   P. montanus (Linnaeus),                         X
   Eurasian tree sparrow
Extirpated:
   Campephilus principalis                         FE, Ex (1814)
   (Linnaeus), ivory-billed
   woodpecker
   Conuropsis carolinensis                         Ex (1859)
   (Linnaeus), Carolina parakeet
   Ectopistes migratorius                          Ex (1902)
   (Linnaeus), passenger pigeon
   Grus americana (Linnaeus),                      SE, FE, Ex (1907)
   whooping crane
   Numenius borealis (Forster),                    FE, Ex (1890)
   eskimo curlew
   Perdix perdix (Linnaeus), gray                  X, Ex (1977)
   partridge
   Tympanuchus cupido (Linnaeus),                  Ex (1972)
   greater prairie-chicken
   Vermivora bachmanii (Audubon),                  FE, Ex (1899)
   Bachman's warbler


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS See About this product.  

The authors wish to thank the Biological Survey Committee of the Indiana Academy of Science for the charge of assembling this list of taxa. Additional thanks is specifically extended to Alan A`lan´   

n. 1. A wolfhound.
 Bruner Bruner could refer to:

People:
  • Bud Bruner, American boxing manager
  • Jerome Bruner, American psychologist
  • Rick Bruner
  • Robert Bruner, business professor at the University of Virginia
  • Wally Bruner, American journalist and television host
Places:
    , Bill McKnight William Hunter "Bill" McKnight, PC (born July 12 1940) is a former Canadian politician.

    Born in Elrose, Saskatchewan, he served as Minister of Agriculture , Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development , Minister of National Defence , Minister of Energy, Mines and
    , Charles Charles, archduke of Austria
    Charles, 1771–1847, archduke of Austria; brother of Holy Roman Emperor Francis II. Despite his epilepsy, he was the ablest Austrian commander in the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic wars; however, he was handicapped by
     Keller, Kenneth Brock brock  
    n. Chiefly British
    A badger.



    [Middle English brok, from Old English broc, of Celtic origin.]
    , Dan Webster Webster, town (1990 pop. 16,196), Worcester co., S Mass., near the Conn. line; settled c.1713, set off from Dudley and Oxford and inc. 1832. The chief manufactures are footwear, fabrics, and textiles. , and to several anonymous Nameless. See anonymous post and anonymous Web surfing.  reviewers for comments on previous drafts of the manuscript manuscript, a handwritten work as distinguished from printing. The oldest manuscripts, those found in Egyptian tombs, were written on papyrus; the earliest dates from c.3500 B.C. .

    Sherman Sherman, city (1990 pop. 31,601), seat of Grayson co., N Tex., near the Red River; inc. 1858. Originally on a stagecoach route, it is a highway and railroad junction. Manufactures include electronic equipment, processed foods, military equipment, and metal products.  A. Minton (1)

    (1.) Deceased deceased 1) adj. dead. 2) n. the person who has died, as used in the handling of his/her estate, probate of will and other proceedings after death, or in reference to the victim of a homicide (as: "The deceased had been shot three times. .

    LITERATURE CITED CITED Copyright in Transmitted Electronic Documents
    CITEd Center for Implementing Technology in Education
     

    American Fisheries Society. 1991. Common and Scientific Names of Fishes from the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area.  and Canada Canada (kăn`ədə), independent nation (2001 pop. 30,007,094), 3,851,787 sq mi (9,976,128 sq km), N North America. Canada occupies all of North America N of the United States (and E of Alaska) except for Greenland and the French islands of . American Fisheries Society Special Publication 20. 183 pp.

    American Ornithologists' Union. 1998. Check-list of North American Birds <onlyinclude> This list of North American birds is a comprehensive listing of all the bird species known from the North American continent north of Mexico. </onlyinclude> . 7th ed. American Ornithologists' Union. 829 pp.

    Burr, B.M. & M.L. Warren, Jr. 1986. A Distributional Atlas Atlas, in Greek mythology
    Atlas (ăt`ləs), in Greek mythology, a Titan; son of Iapetus and Clymene and the brother of Prometheus.
     of Kentucky Kentucky, state, United States
    Kentucky (kəntŭk`ē, kĭn–), one of the so-called border states of the S central United States. It is bordered by West Virginia and Virginia (E); Tennessee (S); the Mississippi R.
     Fishes. Kentucky Nature Preserves Scientific and Technical Series 4. 398 pp.

    Castrale, J.S., E.M. Hopkins Hopkins, city (1990 pop. 16,534), Hennepin co., SE Minn., a suburb of Minneapolis; inc. as West Minneapolis 1893, name changed 1928. The city manufactures machinery, computer and electronic parts, steel products, air pollution equipment, ophthalmic lenses, tools,  & C.E. Keller. 1998. Atlas of Breeding Birds of Indiana. Indiana Department of Natural Resources. Indianapolis Indianapolis (ĭn'dēənă`pəlĭs), city (1990 pop. 731,327), state capital and seat of Marion co., central Ind., on the White River; selected 1820 as the site of the state capital (which was moved there in 1825), inc. 1847. . 388 pp.

    Collins, J.T. 1990. Standard common and current scientific names for North American North American

    named after North America.


    North American blastomycosis
    see North American blastomycosis.

    North American cattle tick
    see boophilusannulatus.
     amphibians and reptiles, 3rd ed. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles Herpetological Circular Circular may refer to:
    • Circle, or something in the shape of a circle
    • Flyer (pamphlet), a single page leaflet advertising a nightclub, event, service, or other activity
    • Circular reasoning, also known as Begging the question.
     No. 19. 41 pp.

    Conant, J. & J.T. Collins. 1991. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians: Eastern and Central North America North America, third largest continent (1990 est. pop. 365,000,000), c.9,400,000 sq mi (24,346,000 sq km), the northern of the two continents of the Western Hemisphere. . Houghton Mifflin Houghton Mifflin Company is a leading educational publisher in the United States. The company's headquarters is located in Boston's Back Bay. It publishes textbooks, instructional technology materials, assessments, reference works, and fiction and non-fiction for both young readers , Boston Boston, town, England
    Boston, town (1991 pop. 26,495), E central England, on the Witham River. Boston's fame as a port dates from the 13th cent., when it was a Hanseatic port trading wool and wine. Having recovered from a decline in the 18th and 19th cent.
    . 608 pp.

    Etnier, D.A. & W.C. Starnes. 1993. The Fishes of Tennessee Tennessee, state, United States
    Tennessee (tĕn`əsē', tĕn'əsē`), state in the south-central United States.
    . University of Tennessee Press The University of Tennessee Press (or UT Press), founded in 1940, is a university press that is part of the University of Tennessee. External link
    • University of Tennessee Press
    , Knoxville Knoxville, city (1990 pop. 165,121), seat of Knox co., E Tenn., on the Tennessee River; inc. 1876. A port of entry, it is a trade and shipping center for a farm, bituminous-coal, and marble area. . 681 pp.

    Gerking, S.D. 1945. The Distribution of the Fishes of Indiana. Investigations of Indiana Lakes and Streams 3:1-137.

    Indiana Department of Natural Resources (IDNR IDNR Illinois Department of Natural Resources
    IDNR Iowa Department of Natural Resources
    IDNR Indiana Department of Natural Resources
    ). 1999. Rare animals of Indiana. Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Indianapolis. 8 pp.

    Lee, D.S D.S Drainage Structure (flood protection) ., C.R. Gilbert Gil·bert , Walter Born 1932.

    American biologist. He shared a 1980 Nobel Prize for developing methods of mapping the structure and function of DNA.
    , C.H. Hocutt, R.E. Jenkins Jen´kins

    n. 1. A name of contempt for a flatterer of persons high in social or official life; as, the Jenkins employed by a newspaper s>.
    , D.E. McAllister People surnamed McAllister
    • Tim McAllister (1962-) American musician.
    • Rod McAllister (1961-) British architect.
    • Gary McAllister (1964-) Scottish professional footballer, manager.
     & J.R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American Freshwater fresh·wa·ter  
    adj.
    1. Of, relating to, living in, or consisting of water that is not salty: freshwater fish; freshwater lakes.

    2. Situated away from the sea; inland.

    3.
     Fishes. North Carolina North Carolina, state in the SE United States. It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean (E), South Carolina and Georgia (S), Tennessee (W), and Virginia (N). Facts and Figures


    Area, 52,586 sq mi (136,198 sq km). Pop.
     State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh Raleigh (rôl`ē, räl`ē), city (1990 pop. 207,951), state capital, and seat of Wake co., central N.C.; the site was selected for the capital in 1788, and the city was laid out and inc. 1792. , i-x + 854 pp.

    Mayden, R.L. 1989. Phylogenetic phy·lo·ge·net·ic
    adj.
    1. Of or relating to phylogeny or phylogenetics.

    2. Relating to or based on evolutionary development or history.
     Studies of North American Minnows, with Emphasis on the Genus genus, in taxonomy: see classification.
    genus

    Biological classification. It ranks below family and above species, consisting of structurally or phylogenetically (see
     Cyprinella Cyprinella is a genus of ray-finned fish in the Cyprinidae family. It contains the following species:
    • Cyprinella alvarezdelvillari
    • Sardinita Bocagrande (Cyprinella bocagrande)
    • Blue Shiner (Cyprinella caerulea)
     (Teleostei: Cypriniformes n. 1. an order of fishes including almost entirely freshwater fishes: characins; loaches; carp; suckers; sometimes classified as Cyprinoidea ltname>, a suborder of Ostariophysi.

    Noun 1.
    ). Miscellaneous Publications University Kansas Kansas, state, United States
    Kansas (kăn`zəs), midwestern state occupying the center of the coterminous United States. It is bordered by Missouri (E), Oklahoma (S), Colorado (W), and Nebraska (N).
     Museum Natural History 80. 189 pp.

    Minton, S.A., Jr. 1972. Amphibians and Reptiles of Indiana. Indiana Academy of Science Monograph 3. 346 pp.

    Minton, S.A., Jr. 2001. Amphibians and Reptiles of Indiana. Indiana Academy of Science, Indianapolis. 404 pp.

    Mumford, R.E. & C.E. Keller. 1984. Birds of Indiana. Indiana University Press Indiana University Press, also known as IU Press, is a publishing house at Indiana University that engages in academic publishing, specializing in the humanities and social sciences. It was founded in 1950. Its headquarters are located in Bloomington, Indiana. . Bloomington Bloomington.

    1 City (1990 pop. 51,972), seat of McLean co., central Ill.; inc. 1839. The economy is based on farming; electrical equipment is also manufactured.
    . 376 pp.

    Mumford, R.E. & J.O. Whitaker, Jr. 1982. Mammals of Indiana. Indiana University Press. Bloomington. 537 pp.

    Simon, T.P., J.O. Whitaker, Jr., J.S. Castrale & S.A. Minton. 1993. Checklist of the Vertebrates of Indiana. Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science 101:95-126.

    U.S. Office of the Federal Register The Office of the Federal Register is an agency of the United States Government within the National Archives and Records Administration.

    The Office publishes the Federal Register, Code of Federal Regulations, and United States Statutes at Large, among others.
    . 1996. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants. Code of Federal Regulations The New Deal program of legislation enacted during the administration of President franklin roosevelt established a large number of new federal agencies, which generated a shapeless and confusing mass of new regulations. , Title 50, Parts 17.11 and 17.12. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington Washington, town, England
    Washington, town (1991 pop. 48,856), Sunderland metropolitan district, NE England. Washington was designated one of the new towns in 1964 to alleviate overpopulation in the Tyneside-Wearside area.
    , D.C.

    Whitaker, J.O., Jr. & J.R. Gammon. 1988. Endangered and Threatened Vertebrate Animals of Indiana, Their Distribution and Abundance. Indiana Academy of Science Monograph 5. 122 pp.

    Wilson, D.E. & D.M. Reeder. 1993. Mammal Species of the World Mammal Species of the World, now in its 3rd edition, is a standard reference work in zoology giving descriptions and bibliographic data for the known species of mammals,

    An updated Third Edition of Mammal Species of the World was published late in 2005: Wilson, D. E.
    : A Taxonomic and Geographic geographic /geo·graph·ic/ (je?o-graf´ik) in pathology, of or referring to a pattern that is well demarcated, resembling outlines on a map.

    geographic

    pertaining to geography.
     Reference. Smithsonian Institution Smithsonian Institution, research and education center, at Washington, D.C.; founded 1846 under terms of the will of James Smithson of London, who in 1829 bequeathed his fortune to the United States to create an establishment for the "increase and diffusion of  Press (Washington), in association with American Society of Mammalogists The American Society of Mammalogists (ASM) was founded in 1919. Its primary purpose is to encourage the study of mammals and professions studying mammals. There are over 4,500 members of this society, and they are primarily professional scientists who emphasize the importance of . 1206 pp.

    Manuscript received 15 April 2002, revised 16 September September: see month.  2002.
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    Author:Minton, Sherman A.
    Publication:Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science
    Geographic Code:1U3IN
    Date:Dec 23, 2002
    Words:17994
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