Restless legs patients have high depression rate.
SANTA ANA PUEBLO, N.M. -- People with restless legs syndrome Restless Legs Syndrome Definition
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is characterized by unpleasant sensations in the limbs, usually the legs, that occur at rest or before sleep and are relieved by activity such as walking. were three times more likely to have a major depressive disorder Major depressive disorder
A mood disorder characterized by profound feelings of sadness or despair.
Mentioned in: Conduct Disorder
major depressive disorder in a study of 1,071 Baltimore residents reported by Dr. Hochang Benjamin Lee at the annual meeting of the Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine.
Investigators from Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore found major depressive disorder in 8 of 42 patients (19%) diagnosed with restless legs syndrome (RLS). Only 8.4% of those without RLS met the DSM-IV criteria for depression in diagnostic interviews.
"Depression and anxiety are common in RLS, and vice versa," said Dr. Lee of the Neuropsychiatry and Memory Group at Johns Hopkins. Previous population-based studies suggested a connection, he said, but the new study is "probably the most definitive."
Dr. Lee described numerous overlaps between the two disorders, both of which are diagnosed on the basis of subjective reports from the patient. He said the two conditions have similar prevalence in the community, occur twice as often in women as in men, present with diurnal variation, and tend to run in families.
Both RLS and depression also have a high placebo response rate in treatment trials.
Additionally, six of the nine symptoms that the DSM-IV lists for major depressive disorder are common in RLS patients, according to Dr. Lee.
He cited depressed mood, diminished interest, fatigue or loss of energy, diminished concentration, psychomotor retardation, and insomnia or excessive sleepiness. Indeed, he suggested asking depressed patients who complain of insomnia or excessive sleepiness whether they experience "a creepy crawling feeling" in their legs.
Noting that no guidelines exist for managing depression in RLS patients, Dr. Lee recommended this strategy:
* If an RLS patient presents with mild depression or dysthymia dysthymia /dys·thy·mia/ (-thi´me-ah) dysthymic disorder.
A mood disorder characterized by despondency or mild depression. , treat the RLS first and see whether mood-related symptoms improve. If the patient continues to have depressive symptoms, treat these as well.
* If a severe major depressive disorder occurs along with mild RLS, treat the depression first, preferably with agents that are not SSRIs or tricyclic antidepressants.
* If both RLS and depression are severe, however, consider treating the conditions simultaneously, but avoid using most dopamine agonists for RLS because of the possibility of the rare side effect of psychosis.
"Careful consideration is needed for treatment of major depressive disorder in patients with restless legs syndrome," Dr. Lee warned.
He ruled out the use of many medications, saying that SSRIs and tricyclic antidepressants should be avoided whenever possible. Both drug classes can exacerbate periodic limb movements, which occur in 80%-90% of RLS patients, according to Dr. Lee.
He suggested trying nefazodone, trazodone trazodone /tra·zo·done/ (tra´zo-don) an antidepressant, used as the hydrochloride salt to treat major depressive episodes with or without prominent anxiety. , and bupropion as alternatives. These agents have not been reported to exacerbate periodic limb movements, he said, and they may produce improvement. Mirtazapine is sometimes recommended for depression in RLS patients, he added, but reports are conflicting.
Regarding adjunctive treatments for RLS, he said that antipsychotic medications generally exacerbate the syndrome. While atypical antipsychotic agents are less likely to do so, he said there have been reports of risperidone, quetiapine, and olanzapine worsening RLS. Aripiprazole might be worth a trial in this movement disorder, given that it is a partial dopamine agonist.
Anticonvulsants do not usually worsen RLS symptoms, according to Dr. Lee. He described gabapentin and carbamazepine as "viable alternatives" for treating RLS. Valproic acid and lamotrigine also may be helpful, he said, but anecdotal reports suggest lithium can exacerbate RLS and periodic leg movements.
Benzodiazepines, particularly clonazepam clonazepam /clo·naz·e·pam/ (klo-naz´e-pam) a benzodiazepine used as an anticonvulsant and as an antipanic agent.
n. , may be used as an adjunctive RLS treatment, Dr. Lee said.
No data are available on use of the cholinesterase inhibitors, however, and he warned that antihistamines such as Benadryl are poorly tolerated in this patient population.
Dopamine agonists are increasingly an option for treatment of RLS, but Dr. Lee said ergot-derived dopamine agonists should be avoided. He cited the possibility of heart valve abnormalities and other side effects. Instead, he suggested a trial of dopamine agonists that are not derived from ergot ergot (ûr`gət), disease of rye and other cereals caused by the fungus Claviceps purpurea. The cottony, matlike body, or mycelium, of the fungus develops in the ovaries of the host plant; it eventually turns into a hard pink or purple such as pramipexole pramipexole /pram·i·pex·ole/ (pram?i-pek´sol) a dopamine agonist used in the form of the dihydrochloride salt as an antidyskinetic in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.
n. and ropinirole ropinirole /ro·pin·i·role/ (ro-pin´i-rol?) a dopamine agonist used as the hydrochloride salt as an antidyskinetic in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.
Dr. Lee added, however, that high doses of dopamine agonists have been linked to hallucinations, compulsive gambling, and psychiatric side effects in Parkinson's disease patients.
He expressed concern that widespread use will result in new issues for psychiatrists consulting on RLS patients.
BY JANE SALODOF MACNEIL