Resource sharing in the systemic context of scholarly communication.INTRODUCTION
One way of identifying the primary constituents of the cycle of scholarly publishing is to name the author, publisher, and librarian as its most essential participants.(1) Each of these stakeholders Stakeholders
All parties that have an interest, financial or otherwise, in a firm-stockholders, creditors, bondholders, employees, customers, management, the community, and the government. is affected by digital electronic networks that have emerged as nonpareil Nonpareil - One of five pedagogical languages based on Markov algorithms, used in ["Nonpareil, a Machine Level Machine Independent Language for the Study of Semantics", B. Higman, ULICS Intl Report No ICSI 170, U London (1968)]. The others were Brilliant, Diamond, Pearl and Ruby. vehicles for facilitating scholarly discourse, publishing timely research, and archiving scholarly texts for eventual retrieval.
Each of the constituencies has adjusted to the influence of electronic networks in different ways. Every adjustment, and each solution to a perceived difficulty, is justifiable. But sometimes decisions made within the confines of one group's concerns may be counterproductive or at odds with the overall need of the system of scholarly communication Scholarly Communication is an umbrella term used to describe the process of academics, scholars and researchers sharing and publishing their research findings so that they are available to the wider academic community (such as university academics) and beyond. .
One such example may exist in the solution to economic constraints, developed by libraries, known as "resource sharing." Resource sharing is typically defined as one of two activities. The first is collaborative collection development, whereby subject specializations are intended to be "distributed" among libraries within a clearly defined geographic region so that individual libraries need not attempt to collect in all fields (which generally results in a broad but shallow representation of literature) but can concentrate in depth in a particular field (which results in a more extensive in-depth collection within a narrow field).
The second form of resource sharing is through various document delivery mechanisms. Interlibrary loan Interlibrary loan (abbreviated ILL, and sometimes called interloan, document delivery, or document supply etc.) is a service whereby a user of one library can borrow books, videos, DVDs, sound recordings, microfilms, or receive photocopies of might suitably fall into this category, as might reserve reading rooms and subcontracted document fulfillment services.
Clearly, any manner by which libraries can pool their regional or collective purchasing capabilities or agree on subject specializations being "distributed" among consorital members is in the best interest of the library community. Yet, some consortia! activities can cause contrary effects than the ones originally intended. Researchers in libraries that have elected not to emphasize acquisitions in a researcher's discipline area may be disadvantaged (or, at minimum, inconvenienced). Reduced revenues from subscriptions or sales of publications may result in the need for publishers to increase the price of their publications. Ineffective control mechanisms on the proper use of library materials may further erode the revenues needed to support the value-added system of publication.
CROSS FERTILIZATION the fertilization of the female products of one physiological individual by the male products of another, - as the fertilization of the ovules of one plant by pollen from another. See Fertilization.
fertilization by pollen from some other blossom.
In professional meetings just a few years ago, participation was commonly restricted to one's own professional associates. Increasingly, meetings of library professionals include panels by publishers; the Society for Scholarly Publishing (SSP (1) (Service Switching Point) The local exchange node in an SS7 telephone network. The SSP can be part of the voice switch or in a separate computer connected to it. ) is eager to attract greater participation by librarians in its meetings; and professional academic meetings host sessions in which librarians and publishers are primary presenters.
Today, academic authors appear content to extend the use of the Internet to publishing and archiving, although some voices have raised caution about overconfidence o·ver·con·fi·dent
Excessively confident; presumptuous.
over·con in technology, citing deficiencies in media (bit-drop and media-erosion), the lack of substantial infrastructure aids (online quality indicators analogous to those in print, the absence of bibliographic meta-data, and the difficulty of authenticating an "original" or "archival" text). Some also express concerns about the long-term integration of new electronic repositories with legacy collections.
There continue to exist apprehensions among member of the library community about their viability in an electronic environment. This is sometimes cited under the rhetorical question rhetorical question
A question to which no answer is expected, often used for rhetorical effect.
Noun "Can a public lending library lend·ing library
A library from which books may be borrowed or rented for a minimal fee. Also called circulating library.
Noun 1. exist in the electronic village?" Issues of fair use, copyright, and ownership of electronic information have arisen and have proven to be complicated matters. Scholarly publishers (both primary and secondary) are still seeking suitable ways of incorporating electronic publications strategies into their business models and having them make fiscal sense.
It is in the context of the system of scholarly communication that the following discussion is undertaken as a means of better understanding individual pressure imposed by distributed networks on existing behavior and conventional relationships. Sometimes condensing con·dense
v. con·densed, con·dens·ing, con·dens·es
1. To reduce the volume or compass of.
2. To make more concise; abridge or shorten.
a. the history of a trend into a survey serves to highlight (through exaggeration) the importance of individual events in a way that can be illuminating and bring new perceptions to light. What is being examined is the impact of compelling new modes of electronic communications (the Internet) on each of the three major constituencies in the cycle of scholarly communication--author, librarian, and publisher--and the individualistic responses that have sometimes contributed, sometimes contradicted, the needs of the system as a whole.
EMERGENCE OF DIGITAL TECHNOLOGIES
Some two decades ago, academic librarians began observing changing trends in the availability and usage of electronic networks. The Internet had become established in the academic environment, though it was not yet as ubiquitous (nor as globally dispersed) as it would be in the years following. With the expansion of the Internet, a new class of electronic document had emerged. It was, at once, promising and attractive for its obvious advantages of speed and transmissibility trans·mis·si·ble
That can be transmitted: transmissible signals.
trans·mis , and profoundly elusive and confounding confounding
when the effects of two, or more, processes on results cannot be separated, the results are said to be confounded, a cause of bias in disease studies.
confounding factor to the library community because of its intangibility and malleability malleability, property of a metal describing the ease with which it can be hammered, forged, pressed, or rolled into thin sheets. Metals vary in this respect; pure gold is the most malleable. Silver, copper, aluminum, lead, tin, zinc, and iron are also very malleable. .(2)
The actual communications mechanism (a distributed network of computers and LANs) which made electronic documents possible had existed many years earlier. An arbitrary starting point Noun 1. starting point - earliest limiting point
terminus a quo
commencement, get-go, offset, outset, showtime, starting time, beginning, start, kickoff, first - the time at which something is supposed to begin; "they got an early start"; "she knew from the of twenty years TWENTY YEARS. The lapse of twenty years raises a presumption of certain facts, and after such a time, the party against whom the presumption has been raised, will be required to prove a negative to establish his rights.
2. ago can underscore the rapidity with which substantial change (not merely ephemeral or sensational) has taken place in scholarly communication and in scholarly publishing.
By the mid 1960s, the Internet had expanded to include a sufficiently diverse group of higher education higher education
Study beyond the level of secondary education. Institutions of higher education include not only colleges and universities but also professional schools in such fields as law, theology, medicine, business, music, and art. institutions and a large critical mass of active users. Given those conditions, the limitations of infrastructure (and they were real) become insignificant barriers to real implementation and utility on a broad scale by those who found the network highly productive for peer-to-peer communication, collaboration over distance, and remote database access. Within the last ten years, the Years, The
the seven decades of Eleanor Pargiter’s life. [Br. Lit.: Benét, 1109]
See : Time Internet has become global and ubiquitous. It reaches hundreds of countries on all continents and is featured daily in the business sections of all major newspapers.
COHERENCE WITHIN DISCIPLINES
The new form of scholarly communication--based on distributed digital network technology--was first exploited by academics and researchers because the ARPAnet (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (networking) Advanced Research Projects Agency Network - (ARPANET) A pioneering longhaul wide area network funded by DARPA (when it was still called "ARPA"?). It became operational in 1968 and served as the basis for early networking research, as well as a central backbone during ) had expanded from its self-imposed confines of the nation's National Scientific Research Laboratories (where it was first developed and implemented) to reach out to the major academic centers and institutions at which the scientists at the laboratories had professional associations and colleagues. The network (redefined as the Internet) rapidly evolved to include a growing majority of the nation's higher educational institutions. Once in place, it permitted rapid exchange of information among scholars and researchers, facilitated closer collaboration on research agendas, and offered new forms of informal sharing of research results among members of a given discipline.
These changes served to tighten the bonds among researchers in any given discipline with one another irrespective of irrespective of
Without consideration of; regardless of.
preposition despite geography or location. Conversely, it subtly weakened the researcher's primary identification with an institution or a university (which was, by nature, locally grounded) and replaced it with greater links to professional and scientific associations and societies (which were national and even international in scope).
SHIFTS IN COLLECTION DEVELOPMENT
Concurrent with the emergence of this new scholarly communications capability, a change was taking place in the existing bibliographic organization--based on print--which has been the dominant influence on scholarship and research for the past 500 years. An unusually steep rise in journals and serials prices began to be noted by librarians. As they monitored these escalations with growing alarm, the situation led, eventually, to what has become known in library circles as the "journals pricing crisis."(3) The price of serials publications subscriptions, well documented in the literature, has risen so precipitously over the past two decades that journals acquisitions expenses have claimed an ever-larger proportion of the overall collections budget available to librarians for acquiring both serials and books.
Because of the timeliness and perceived importance of serial publications (especially in the sciences) and reinforced by the natural desire to retain continuity within a numbered series of a title which a library might, perhaps long ago, have begun to collect, a gradual reallocation Noun 1. reallocation - a share that has been allocated again
allocation, allotment - a share set aside for a specific purpose
2. reallocation of budgets could be seen to have been taking place which threatened and eroded the capacity of a library to maintain former purchasing levels. The first victims of this pressure were scholarly monographs and nonjournal sources. Subsequently, even journals themselves were not immune from the pressure of insufficient funds.(4)
As the trend escalated to the level of a budgetary crisis, it forced a very difficult and trying process among librarians and faculty at academic institutions. Subscription cost/benefit ratios were calculated for heretofore sacrosanct sac·ro·sanct
Regarded as sacred and inviolable.
[Latin sacrs journal series. Usage patterns and statistics for all of a library's journals were gathered and evaluated. A variety of innovative solutions were sought to reconcile the conflicting desires to: (1 ) preserve the record and collection of publications within fields judged to be important to individual libraries, (2) protect the purchasing capacity of a library for monographic and specialized book-length studies, and (3) balance economic and budget limitations that could not be made to stretch to accommodate both needs and desires. Resource sharing became one by-word in efforts to accommodate new economic realities. Cooperative regional collections development strategies were suggested. New forms of sharing (interlibrary loan and document delivery systems) became increasingly popular.
In general, it must be admitted that collection development strategies have not succeeded very well as cooperative efforts entered into voluntarily by libraries. One librarian characterized contemporary efforts in this way:
True resource "sharing" may not be the right word for it, but it is
cooperative decision making with regards to datasets for either 1. local
loading, or 2. contract for distance access....WE are also, with both public
and academic libraries, contributing funds to support some of this.
It's the most cooperation I've seen in terms of resource sharing since
I've been a librarian. (Chuck Hamaker, personal communication, July 31,
So, I think there is resource sharing going on, but it may not be the kind
some people expected. The impetus may not be the "pricing crises" but
rather easier access to low cost technology, electronic products, network
connections at the desktop, simple access tools such as WWW browsers,
etc. (Denny Jones, personal communication, August 1, 1996)
Cindy Hepfer, editor of Serials Review, quotes a review of a book that will appear in Serials Review:
While there is a core collection of both journals and monographs that
support the curriculum at ASU ASU Arizona State University (Tempe, AZ)
ASU Appalachian State University
ASU Arkansas State University
ASU Angelo State University
ASU Alabama State University
ASU Australian Services Union West, access to other information is
provided through document delivery/interlibrary loan, utilizing both the
Main campus and commercial suppliers to the end user. (Mitchell &
One of the participants in OhioLink in Ohio, which is generally regarded as the leading exemplar ex·em·plar
1. One that is worthy of imitation; a model. See Synonyms at ideal.
2. One that is typical or representative; an example.
3. An ideal that serves as a pattern; an archetype.
4. of resource sharing on a statewide scale, confided that it was not libraries' needs that ultimately motivated OhioLink to come into being. Rather, a legislative mandate overcame natural reluctance to change and actually forced it into existence, even though it is now more popular than not with the majority of participants (Julia Ann Gammon, personal communication, September 24, 1996).
Librarians are justifiably possessive pos·ses·sive
1. Of or relating to ownership or possession.
2. Having or manifesting a desire to control or dominate another, especially in order to limit that person's relationships with others: about their collections. Their collections have been an important part of the identity of their parent institutions. The expertise developed in knowing the requirements of certain fields is an asset that establishes a library as a user-oriented and professional center in that field. It appears that there is insufficient impetus within the library community itself to share collection strategies.
IMPORTANCE OF DIGITAL WORKS FOR WORLD KNOWLEDGE
This is further reinforced by the behavior of libraries within Third World and developing countries with which the author is familiar. Even though such libraries have been under the constraint of enormous budget restrictions, volunteer collaborative collection development cannot be observed to have taken place among libraries in Central or Eastern Europe Eastern Europe
The countries of eastern Europe, especially those that were allied with the USSR in the Warsaw Pact, which was established in 1955 and dissolved in 1991. nor among similar libraries in India (two areas with which the author is slightly familiar). Specialized libraries have been established, to be sure, with specific collections mandates in particular fields of interest. But academic library collection decisions are as personal and subjective as the individuals who work in the libraries.
However, despite the fact that budgets were severely limited, once the global Internet became available within these regions, libraries suddenly found resources, albeit not without difficulty, with which to provide connectivity to the Internet, support the educational requirements of their staff, and master the tool sets that permit access to remote databases in electronic formats.
In contrast to collaborative collection development, the impetus for access to network resources is a compelling one. As we enter the new century (which is already being identified as the "Information Age"), there is a greater awareness that applied information products, targeted to specific business, industrial, or legislative needs, will be the most important ingredient for economic self-sufficiency. An argument may be made that the consensus decision-making Consensus decision-making is a decision-making process that not only seeks the agreement of most participants, but also to resolve or mitigate the objections of the minority to achieve the most agreeable decision. governance model of the Internet is one of the most effective demonstrations of democratic decision making in action. Given the perspective of global needs, investment in knowledge resources made available on the Internet to promote the self-sustainable, ecologically sensible, and socially responsible development of companies, governments, and communities ought to have any nation's highest priority. The availability of electronic resources on a global basis heightens the imperative that libraries obtain access to the Internet and master its intricacies for their own good and that of their patrons. Libraries, in general, and those in developing countries in particular, can obtain information from the Internet from one of three sources:
* another library,(5)
* a publisher who has mounted its information on the network in one form or another,(6)
* an individual professional academic or researcher with sufficient stature in the field to be a recognized authority, thus providing a semblance of reliability in the information available from such a source.(7)
Each has different responses to new global demands for information. What are the practicalities of these retrieval solutions?
Clearly, the unlimited distribution by one library of its information resources (1) The data and information assets of an organization, department or unit. See data administration.
(2) Another name for the Information Systems (IS) or Information Technology (IT) department. See IT. to others on a global basis would not only tax the library but would run counter to any business model that attempted to recover costs. Libraries could become document delivery service centers (some, like the British Library British Library, national library of Great Britain, located in London. Long a part of the British Museum, the library collection originated in 1753 when the government purchased the Harleian Library, the library of Sir Robert Bruce Cotton, and groups of manuscripts. , may be said to have already done so in large part). But this often runs counter to the principal mandate given the library to store and provide reliable access to its collection. One of the redefinitions taking place within the library community is precisely whether its focus should be on its own collection or on providing patron access to collections wherever they exist.
Until some of the business infrastructures are put into place to satisfy the publishing community, primarily having to do with document security, usage metering, and incremental billing mechanisms, there will be hesitancy hes·i·tan·cy
An involuntary delay or inability in starting the urinary stream. in providing much formally published material on the Internet. When publishers do begin making their properties available, it may be assumed that access will be provided for a price. This business logic is unlike the reason that libraries were given specific and limited exemptions from the Copyright Act. But the idea of providing information at a price is not, inherently, disagreeable dis·a·gree·a·ble
1. Not to one's liking; unpleasant or offensive.
2. Having a quarrelsome, bad-tempered manner.
dis . If the price can be made sufficiently low, then most consumers would not object. Here, the problem is that the present cost of financial transactions is so high on the network that it is difficult to foresee a mechanism for billing small amounts of transactional cost.(8)
Individuals, departments, and institutions are indeed rapidly populating the Internet with a wealth of information and knowledge resources through the process known as "self-publishing." However, with the absence of the quality assurance imprint granted by a professional publisher, it is hard to determine what is valuable and what is chaff chaff
1. chaffed hay; called also chop.
2. the winnowings from a threshing, consisting of awns, husks, glumes and other relatively indigestible materials. on the Internet. III addition, today's crop of search engines is miserably primitive by contemporary bibliographic standards, and it appears that it may be some time in the future before the generation of sophisticated natural-language query engines will perform as well in refining a search as do contemporary bibliographic techniques.
There are also examples of centrally mounted repositories of preprints, notably Paul Ginsparg's Physics Preprint pre·print
Something printed and often distributed in partial or preliminary form in advance of official publication: a preprint of a scientific article.
tr.v. Database in Los Alamos, New Mexico Los Alamos (Spanish: Los Álamos, meaning "The Cottonwoods") is an unincorporated townsite in Los Alamos County, New Mexico. The population of the townsite alone was 11,909 at the 2000 census. The townsite or "the hill" is one part of town while White Rock is also part of the town. . Is this a model for the future? The objections raised in editorials in the journal Science suggest that more study is needed about the economics of such a discipline-specific database. The preprint database is currently supported by a major grant from the National Science Foundation. While this money is being well used to help define the proper storage technology, search and retrieval engines, and automated review processes, it remains to be seen whether an ongoing service like the one that has been developed can be self-sustaining.
NATIONAL PERIODICALS CENTER
Ten years ago, the patterns first observed by the library community had been recognized as being real, not anomalous. In partial answer to questions such as those posed above, Scholarly Communication: Report of the National Enquiry, was published (National Enquiry, 1979). It articulated anew a much older idea that had never reached consensus: that a "national periodicals center" be established.
As recommended by the National Enquiry, a center should be established which would act as a national library agency. Amassed at the center, a far more robust collection of journals literature could be gathered than any single library could ever hope to afford. Having centralized cen·tral·ize
v. cen·tral·ized, cen·tral·iz·ing, cen·tral·iz·es
1. To draw into or toward a center; consolidate.
2. oversight mechanisms to this real or virtual warehouse could make it possible to coordinate bibliographic controls, facilitate the development of national and international bibliographic standards, and ensure access to "published information of all kinds and formats which are needed by scholars but which their libraries are unable to acquire or retain" (National Enquiry, 1979, p. 156).
In retrospect, three characteristics of the electronic age conflicted with this idea.
1. "Centralization cen·tral·ize
v. cen·tral·ized, cen·tral·iz·ing, cen·tral·iz·es
1. To draw into or toward a center; consolidate.
2. " had, in the meantime Adv. 1. in the meantime - during the intervening time; "meanwhile I will not think about the problem"; "meantime he was attentive to his other interests"; "in the meantime the police were notified"
meantime, meanwhile , given way in all spheres of public and social life to more popular "distributed" models of authority and governance.(9)
2. The economics of a national periodical center, while clearly advantageous when viewed from the perspective of the consumer (researcher/ library), had not been so well considered from the perspective of the producer (author/publisher).
3. The legal implications were challenging if not daunting daunt
tr.v. daunt·ed, daunt·ing, daunts
To abate the courage of; discourage. See Synonyms at dismay.
[Middle English daunten, from Old French danter, from Latin . Concurrent with the Report of the National Enquiry, discussions had been taking place between libraries and publishers under the aegis of the National Commission on New Technological Uses of Copyrighted Works (CONTU CONTU (National) Commission On New Technological Uses (of copyrighted works) ). These deliberations, including a broad base of participants, attempted to define, through limits on practice, what "fair use" meant in the context of interlibrary loan and reserve reading room use of published documents. The CONTU discussions brought to light the practical difficulties associated with the enforcement (of any agreed upon Adj. 1. agreed upon - constituted or contracted by stipulation or agreement; "stipulatory obligations"
noncontroversial, uncontroversial - not likely to arouse controversy policies) within library settings, which were characterized by reduced staff and greater availability of coin-operated copying machines. Perhaps more important, they identified the magnified and highly exaggerated problems that could be anticipated as fair use was applied to the collection, accessibility, and sharing of electronic documents.
CIRCULAR EFFECT OF CANCELLATIONS
Inevitably, the budgetary and economic realities among academic and public libraries, heightened by institutional budgetary constraints, led to the cancellation of journals subscriptions. This entirely sensible decision, based as it was within one segment of the scholarly communications cycle, initiated tensions upon the economic models that publishers had previously relied upon to capitalize their value-added services on behalf of the scholarly community.
As subscriptions declined, the unit cost of publications naturally rose.(10) In response to declining subscriptions, the publisher had no recourse but to increase costs on those and remaining journals in order to cover fixed expenses. This decision, considered locally within the publishing industry, also could be seen as logical, even though, within the larger context of the scholarly communications cycle, it was counter-productive since it caused a spiraling effect (increased prices equaled budgetary difficulties among libraries; library's efforts to balance their budget equaled canceled subscriptions to expensive journals; canceled subscriptions equaled increased prices to cover escalating costs; and so on).
THE NATURE OF ELECTRONIC DOCUMENTS
Early pioneers in Internet development--notably Douglas Engelbart--had, in the early 1960s, published descriptions of a new kind of hypertextually linked "document" that was envisioned within a distributed network (and only possible when such networks had been widely deployed). These types of electronic documents were increasingly practical in a networked environment that had reached critical mass and extent, and whose participants perceived and experienced real values of immediacy, timeliness, and convenience.(11)
Engelbart had wondered about how such electronic documents would change our notion of fundamental elements in scholarly communication such as authorship, peer review, verification, authentication (1) Verifying the integrity of a transmitted message. See message integrity, e-mail authentication and MAC.
(2) Verifying the identity of a user logging into a network. , permanence, and archiving. He had concluded, as had many others, that a shift was inevitable and potentially dramatic. Scholarly researchers and academic authors would, without doubt, be attracted to such new capabilities as efficient and productive and would come to rely on them in preference over existing bibliographic information systems. The existing bibliographic systems--while admittedly elegant--supported the complex and highly difficult tasks of classifying, cataloging, providing access, and managing printed documents. In contrast to author-centered electronic communications, it was turgid turgid /tur·gid/ (ter´jid) swollen and congested.
Swollen or distended, as from a fluid; bloated; tumid.
swollen and congested. as compared with an environment where instantaneous communication, measured in nanoseconds, was possible.
Indeed, because the infrastructure existed among academic institutions to facilitate e-mail, electronic discussion groups, remote job control, and the development of online databases, scholars and researchers demonstrated a capacity to put up with the irregularities and inconsistencies of nonstandard non·stan·dard
1. Varying from or not adhering to the standard: nonstandard lengths of board.
2. software tools and the lack of sufficient documentation. They showed an enthusiasm for new methods of working with one another coupled with new methods for research in all fields.
ENTIRELY NEW RESEARCH AREAS
These changes were by no means restricted to the sciences, although the capability for computer-aided modeling and visualization was of particular interest to the scientific community. The applications in the sciences are also so compelling as to draw considerable attention by popular media and the press. As early as 1980, however, Robert Oakman at the University of South Carolina
• • had published his "Computer Methods for Literary Research." New computerized concordances concordances,
n.pl 1. items that are in harmony.
2. homeopathic medicines with affinity to one another and therefore can be used serially during the sequence of treating an illness. This interaction was initially noted by Boenninghausen. , for example, virtually eliminated a heretofore brisk publishing business in typesetting typesetting: see printing.
Setting of type for use in any of various printing processes. Type for printing, using woodblocks, was invented in China in the 11th century, and movable type using metal molds had appeared in Korea by the 13th and publishing printed concordances to literary works, indicating the frequency of word use and relationships among idiomatic id·i·o·mat·ic
a. Peculiar to or characteristic of a given language.
b. Characterized by proficient use of idiomatic expressions: a foreigner who speaks idiomatic English. phrases. This work was far better done by computer, and new forms of computer-aided literary analytical tools drove even the resisting humanities scholar to appreciate the advances of computer capabilities in all fields.
Shoshanna Zhubov, in her doctoral dissertation, "In the Age of the Smart Machine," documented her comprehension that computers should not be viewed merely as tools for facilitating traditional forms of work (or scholarship) but as changing the very kinds of work (and scholarship) that could be conducted.
By 1987, Oldrich Standera (University of Calgary Library) would publish an encyclopedic en·cy·clo·pe·dic
1. Of, relating to, or characteristic of an encyclopedia.
2. Embracing many subjects; comprehensive: "an ignorance almost as encyclopedic as his erudition" compendium of nonprint-based varieties of electronic publishing An umbrella term for non-paper publishing, which includes publishing online or on media such as CDs and DVDs. , which he perceptively titled The Electronic Era of Publishing.
The Electronic Era of Publishing was a more appropriate title than "The Era of Electronic Publishing," for, in fact, a number of barriers existed that restrained traditional scholarly publishers from enthusiastic adoption of electronic publishing methods. These barriers still exist today.
* The first barrier is the formulation of an economic model for revenue generation in an electronic environment, which provides comparable revenues to those generated by print.
* The second barrier to adoption derives from the first. It is the lack of a mechanism for adequately monitoring the use of intellectual property that is encapsulated within an electronic document (of whatever sort).
Publishers must work within very tight constraints of economics as do libraries. Ironically, many society publishers who have distinguished themselves from commercial scholarly publishers by fulfilling their mandate to publish--at favorably reduced cost--society members' works, find their operations are dependent on the revenues generated by print subscriptions and the sale of print publications. Many society publishers can no more easily adopt electronic mechanisms than can their commercial counterparts without the tools and protections desired by commercial publishers.
In the emergence of distributed networks, publishers have been at a distinct disadvantage. As institutionalized in·sti·tu·tion·al·ize
tr.v. in·sti·tu·tion·al·ized, in·sti·tu·tion·al·iz·ing, in·sti·tu·tion·al·iz·es
a. To make into, treat as, or give the character of an institution to.
b. self-sustaining business entities, they have been less able, for example, to experiment with "beta" versions of software or risk development on products that might not survive in the marketplace.(12) While academic and research institutes can find independent sources of funding for infrastructure and R&D experimentation, businesses must depend on revenues generated from sales. Given their own experiences with technology and in the marketplace, they were understandably cautious about implementing technologies before they were completely proven and stable.
PREPARING DOCUMENTS FOR ELECTRONIC PUBLICATION
Another element in publishers' reluctance to adopt advanced electronic technologies is the fact that preparing texts for distribution in electronic form requires a specific form of manuscript object tagging known as SGML SGML
in full Standard Generalized Markup Language
Markup language for organizing and tagging elements of a document, including headings, paragraphs, tables, and graphics. (Standard Generalized Markup Language (language, text) Standard Generalized Markup Language - (SGML) A generic markup language for representing documents. SGML is an International Standard that describes the relationship between a document's content and its structure. ). SGML can also be used effectively for generating print, but there are alternative, more popular methods that can produce print-ready pages, and most publishers use the latter.
Under pressure by consumers and authors to publish electronic versions of products, publishers who may want to do so are nevertheless caught up in the dilemma that additional expenses will be necessary in order for them to provide such products. Needless to say, such expenses would have to be borne just at a time when price resistance in the market place has become an issue.
AVAILABILITY AND DEMAND
Many publishers have engaged themselves in voluntary experimental projects by which to learn more about business models, technical issues, and end-user behavior with respect to electronic publications.
* "CORE" was among the first of these, a joint venture between Cornell University Cornell University, mainly at Ithaca, N.Y.; with land-grant, state, and private support; coeducational; chartered 1865, opened 1868. It was named for Ezra Cornell, who donated $500,000 and a tract of land. With the help of state senator Andrew D. and Bellcore Labs, attempting to resolve issues around display requirements on computers for SGML tagged files.
* "Red Sage Red sage either refer to:
* TULIP (The University LIcensing Program), jointly participated in by several universities each of whom adopted various methodologies for retrieving and printing documents provided by Elsevier Science Publishers, has just concluded and issued its final report (Borghuis et al., 1996).
* The IEEE/UC-Systemwide partnership, by which 1 million pages of IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, www.ieee.org) A membership organization that includes engineers, scientists and students in electronics and allied fields. publications in electronic form are being delivered annually to the University of California The University of California has a combined student body of more than 191,000 students, over 1,340,000 living alumni, and a combined systemwide and campus endowment of just over $7.3 billion (8th largest in the United States). , which is undertaking to mount the pages, link them to the automated library catalog MELVYL, and make images available for downloading to the desktop of engineering faculty, staff, and students within the nine-campus UC system.
Each of these, and others, has its purpose in providing quantifiable usage statistics and information that can assist in developing financial models and user behavior information that can inform publishers about the kinds of electronic products that might be most successful in the electronic marketplace.
There is an in-built reluctance to engage in such experiments, however. It is well documented (and should be a source of considerable comfort for publishers) that the mere availability of electronic forms of information substantially increases its use. Yet, an experimental prototype is destined des·tine
tr.v. des·tined, des·tin·ing, des·tines
1. To determine beforehand; preordain: a foolish scheme destined to fail; a film destined to become a classic.
2. , by design, to conclude within a span of several years. So publishers and institutions who engage in such experiments raise the expectations of patrons and users who find utility in the services provided. It is very difficult then, even with advance foreknowledge fore·knowl·edge
Knowledge or awareness of something before its existence or occurrence; prescience.
knowledge of something before it actually happens
Noun 1. , to end the experiment or to transform it into a business model that is self-sustaining.
The next era of experimental prototypes will undoubtedly involve universities, libraries, and publishers in developing real solutions in usage metering, transactions billing, and mechanisms for monitoring distribution of electonic files.
This broad survey of ways in which individual constituencies of the scholarly communications system have been influenced by the emergence of electronic information technologies may have teased out many of the most perplexing per·plex
tr.v. per·plexed, per·plex·ing, per·plex·es
1. To confuse or trouble with uncertainty or doubt. See Synonyms at puzzle.
2. To make confusedly intricate; complicate. difficulties, as well as several of the important opportunities, provided by electronic networks. What are some of the critical areas of development that might suggest future innovation or breakthroughs?
The best thinking about Internet publishing models suggests that publishers (and "content providers" in general) will generate revenues sufficient to sustain operations (which is interpreted to include administrative costs administrative costs,
n.pl the overhead expenses incurred in the operation of a dental benefits program, excluding costs of dental services provided. as well as the costs of sustaining peer-review, quality assurance, and document preparation suitable for distribution electronically) only through a variety of income-generating mechanisms.
Part of the costs may be returned from site licensing fees, part from individual subscriptions, part from advertising revenues, part from institutional subventions or member fees, and part from subsidiary rights to third party publishers.(13)
Most publishers fear the unauthorized redistribution of electronic intellectual property known as "downs/reaming." There are usually fairly manageable and practical methods for obtaining fees for the use of electronic information at the first instance of transfer. This is to say, there exists many mechanisms for a user to purchase a license to legally download electronic text (or sound clips, animations, or executable code Software in a form that can be run in the computer. It typically refers to machine language, which is comprised of native instructions the computer carries out in hardware. Executable files in the DOS/Windows world use .EXE and . ) to the user's computer. What is less clear are mechanisms for preventing the legal user from redistributing the downloaded material to other colleagues, friends, or associates or, indeed, from posting the file on multiple large redistribution lists like ListServ or MajorDomo. Publishers legitimately fear the loss of downstream revenues and confront possible erosion of income by two legal techniques.
The first deterrent to misuse of electronic publications is to replace the use of Copyright Law, into which these media may not easily fit, with Contract Law through which legal obligation and performance and usage standards are established between the contracting parties.
The second is to employ various developing technologies like IBM's Cryptolopes, electronic watermarking, or secure encryption.
* "Encrypted Envelopes" contain rights and permissions header information which can provide access or restrict it to a class of users (individuals, members of a company, participants in an ad hoc For this purpose. Meaning "to this" in Latin, it refers to dealing with special situations as they occur rather than functions that are repeated on a regular basis. See ad hoc query and ad hoc mode. project, etc.). Cryptolopes can also authorize or restrict what an individual can do with an electronic document (print it, share it with others, mount it, incorporate it into another file). The Association of American Publishers (body, publication) Association of American Publishers - (AAP) A group engaged in standardisation efforts in document preparation. (AAP AAP - Association of American Publishers ) has recently announced the development of a Digital Object Identifier
A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a permanent identifier given to a document, which is not related to its current location. (DOI (Digital Object Identifier) A method of applying a persistent name to documents, publications and other resources on the Internet rather than using a URL, which can change over time. ), a project administered by AAP's Enabling Technologies Committee and recently subcontracted to R.R. Bowker R.R. Bowker, LLC provides information support for the publishing industry in the United States. Bowker is the official U.S. ISBN Agency, the publisher of Books In Print , a division of Reed Elsevier, Inc., and the Corporation for National Research Initiatives (body) Corporation for National Research Initiatives - (CNRI) A US research and development organisation that leads and funds research and development of network-based information technology including the National Information Infrastructure.
Address: Reston, VA, USA.
CNRI Home. (CNRI CNRI - Corporation for National Research Initiatives ). This technology will facilitate identification of the owner of any electronic file, and the methods by which rights and permissions might easily be secured. It is one of the building blocks of a system by which transactions involving electronic documents can be implemented.
* Electronic Watermarking is a system that has little social appeal. It electronically "stamps" a document as belonging to a specific individual. If that individual should share the document with hundreds of friends, each copy will contain the watermark watermark: see paper.
See digital watermark. bearing the original purchaser's identification. This may serve as a disincentive dis·in·cen·tive
Something that prevents or discourages action; a deterrent.
something that discourages someone from behaving or acting in a particular way
Noun 1. for downstreaming because it would make enforcement and criminal prosecution easier.
* Straightforward encryption is another possibility. And a number of companies are working on projects that will not offend the resistance of federal law enforcement agencies A law enforcement agency (LEA) is a term used to describe any agency which enforces the law. This may be a local or state police, federal agencies such as the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) or the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). to implementing true encryption technologies by which it would be impossible for legitimate law enforcement officials to "wire tap" (even for legitimate reasons) electronic document transmissions.
Financial Tool Sets
As mentioned earlier, many of the barriers that exist to electronic publishing implementation derive from the lack of a cost-effective mechanism by which to collect small increments of change in return for the purchase, use, or citation of electronic documents. Several institutions are working with financial networks to develop such mechanisms, some by aggregating low volume transactions until a sufficiently large In mathematics, the phrase sufficiently large is used in contexts such as:
One can be sure that the mechanisms and tool sets needed to provide for electronic commerce will develop and become available in the immediate future (a one- to two-year span of time). Such enabling technologies will provide the basis for a brand new electronic marketplace. Given the right price point (and the incentives exist to make it reasonably affordable), many individuals, small organizations, libraries, and research units could afford to avail themselves of such transaction mechanisms to become "electronic publishers."
Software encryption envelopes will permit the exchange of information in ways that permit a user to receive royalties on a sale of a file wherever it happens in the life of a document. This suggests that intermediaries in the process (an "agent" who encourages a sale on behalf of a document found to be interesting, for example) might share in such royalties. So, as was described in a research paper presented to the Library of Congress Networking Solutions Committee in 1979 called "useright," technology will soon exist for an individual to act as author, publisher, agent, and buyer at various times and receive or pay token amounts of money, the aggregate of which might be sufficient to support the costs of a different kind of electronic information distribution system than the one we enjoy presently.
Given the likelihood of such developments, what finally are the principles we can derive from the various vested interests vested interest
1. Law A right or title, as to present or future possession of an estate, that can be conveyed to another.
2. A fixed right granted to an employee under a pension plan.
3. which have been described in the survey above that should be our guiding principles as we move into the electronic future?
Principles of copyright should be of particular importance to authors, publishers, and libraries alike. Many behavioral attititudes on the Internet presently undermine these principles. Because it is possible (and desirable) to download elements, files, illustrations, and texts for one's personal use and for use in building new products and modules, the users are lulled into believing such data is "free" and certainly "free of copyright." Nothing is further from the truth.
While the practice is responsible for many of the developments on the Internet and is a behavior that is altruistically-based, collaborative, and needs to be preserved, the data itself are undeniably copyrighted and are someone's valuable intellectual property. It is very important that all members of the academic, library, and publishing community hold the same awareness of the value of intellectual property in electronic form and recognize that it exists--in the moment of its tangible expression--as the valuable property of the individual who created it.
It is entirely possible that many individuals in specific circumstances will choose to "license" use of their work by others. But copyright is so important an underpinning of all the structures needed to make the creation and dissemination of scholarly information possible, that our communities must take an active role in educating our constituencies about the role of copyright in the protection of works of intellectual property.
To the extent that content providers succeed in supplanting sup·plant
tr.v. sup·plant·ed, sup·plant·ing, sup·plants
1. To usurp the place of, especially through intrigue or underhanded tactics.
2. copyright law by contract law in licensing and contracting obligations and restrictions on use for electronic property, to that extent we undermine the principles of fair use which, in fact, have been one of the primary ways of providing access to information for the disenfranchised, the small entrepreneur, and the motivated individual in our country. Maintaining a reasonable understanding and implementation of fair use needs to be a high priority. Articulating precisely what fair use means in an electronic environment is not only a challenge for librarians, but is one that--if we do not rise to it--may result in the obliteration A destruction; an eradication of written words.
Obliteration is a method of revoking a Will or a clause therein. Lines drawn through the signatures of witnesses to a will constitute an obliteration of the will even if the names are still decipherable. of the concept and, with that, much of what libraries stand for.
Evidence of piracy is pointed to among foreign nations and offshore pirating organizations. Clearly, the global information infrastructure we know under many names (e.g., the Internet, the Internet, the, international computer network linking together thousands of individual networks at military and government agencies, educational institutions, nonprofit organizations, industrial and financial corporations of all sizes, and commercial enterprises Matrix, or the Global Information Infrastructure [GII GII Global Information Infrastructure
GII Getty Information Institute
GII Gasherbrum II (26,360 ft. mountain near Pakistan-China)
GII Government Information Infrastructure
GII Ghana Integrity Initiative ]) is breaking down geopolitical ge·o·pol·i·tics
n. (used with a sing. verb)
1. The study of the relationship among politics and geography, demography, and economics, especially with respect to the foreign policy of a nation.
a. borders and is making it necessary for there to be a global harmonization har·mo·nize
v. har·mo·nized, har·mo·niz·ing, har·mo·niz·es
1. To bring or come into agreement or harmony. See Synonyms at agree.
2. Music To provide harmony for (a melody). of intellectual property laws. To establish uniform understandings about intellectual property, and to aggressively stamp out pirates both at home or abroad is an effort that will strengthen, rather than diminish, the ability of those with information to provide it on a cost-effective basis to those who most need it.
Electronic networks level the field of access to needed information. In focusing on our own needs, we must ever be aware of the importance of providing information to emerging free markets and democracies that provide for the same level of creative intellectual achievement as we ourselves enjoy. It is easy to become chauvinistic and insular insular /in·su·lar/ (-sdbobr-ler) pertaining to the insula or to an island, as the islands of Langerhans.
Of or being an isolated tissue or island of tissue. in thinking about our knowledge resources; it would be foolish to act on such impulses given the needs of the world today and the efficacy of information to redress commercial, environmental, and legislative limitations. A major effort to provide solutions by which developing countries can be provided with access to information will only reflect back on the economy and security of the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. , difficult though it may be to implement appropriate mechanisms.
It is seductive to become involved in issues of transport, transaction, visualization, and format. Ultimately, the librarian's guiding principle should be an emphasis on content of information--its fair and open availability, verification, authentication, evaluation, and identification. It is these values that the library community most brings to the cycle of scholarly communication. Concentrating on how we can transform the skills developed over so long a period in print, and adapt them to the needs of the electronic environment should be our foremost endeavor.
(1) Complicating discussions on such topics is the fact that some might argue for a different constituency of primary partners in the scholarly communications process (e.g., one could argue with some validity that the National Science Foundation, the Departments of Energy or Defense, or universities should be identified as primary constituents). Others would quibble QUIBBLE. A slight difficulty raised without necessity or propriety; a cavil.
2. No justly eminent member of the bar will resort to a quibble in his argument. over the definitions of the constituents named here, claiming that the "author" is usually also the primary "consumer"; that the publisher's role is challenged by self-publishing capabilities or other institutional forms of academic publishing and should therefore be redefined; or that the library can no longer identify itself exclusively with "fiber" (book) (or that it must do so in order to circumscribe cir·cum·scribe
tr.v. cir·cum·scribed, cir·cum·scrib·ing, cir·cum·scribes
1. To draw a line around; encircle.
2. To limit narrowly; restrict.
3. To determine the limits of; define. its task).
(2) Librarians who face the ongoing challenge of integrating new electronic forms of scholarly publication have been known to print copies of electronic journals in order that the, now physically expressed, journals could be accessioned and shelved with standard collections.
(3) The costs of journal production can be influenced by many externalities externalities
side-effects, either harmful or beneficial, borne by those not directly involved in the production of a commodity. , including the cost of labor, capital expenses for production and manufacturing technologies, increased subcontractor costs, and the rising risks associated with publishing in less well-established fields.
(4) While it is not clear that the influence of electronic journals played a dominant role in the price escalation in journals prices, it is certainly true that publishers were aware of the challenge potentially represented by new online electronic professional and scholarly journals. At least one component of the cost increases that translated into higher prices for journals was the need for journals publishers to combat this new competition with increased R&D of their own in the area of electronically published journals.
(5) Psychologically, there is a certain comfort in the shared standards that can be expected from another professional librarian, although there are certain legal questions (see later) about the rights of a library to distribute beyond a certain restricted site.
(6) The availability of electronic versions of published materials has been skimpy skimp·y
adj. skimp·i·er, skimp·i·est
1. Inadequate, as in size or fullness, especially through economizing or stinting: a skimpy meal.
2. Unduly thrifty; niggardly. , to date, given that the network instrumentation for usage control and billing have not yet been put in place.
(7) The Internet contains a wealth of information resources, but it consists of an undifferentiated undifferentiated /un·dif·fer·en·ti·at·ed/ (un-dif?er-en´she-at-ed) anaplastic.
Having no special structure or function; primitive; embryonic. chaos in terms of quality. Librarians would prefer to rely on the "imprint" of a bona fide [Latin, In good faith.] Honest; genuine; actual; authentic; acting without the intention of defrauding.
A bona fide purchaser is one who purchases property for a valuable consideration that is inducement for entering into a contract and without suspicion of being publisher, in whose procedures of peer review and selection they can rely. Absent that, a recognized authority can also provide scholarly validation. The absence of encryption technology that guarantees that an electronic file contains what it purports to contain is, however, another deterrent to libraries.
(8) As of this writing, Netscape has announced a major effort to solve this problem (common to many businesses who would like to conduct commercial transactions on the Internet), through a special CyberCoin effort.
(9) The effect of decentralization de·cen·tral·ize
v. de·cen·tral·ized, de·cen·tral·iz·ing, de·cen·tral·iz·es
1. To distribute the administrative functions or powers of (a central authority) among several local authorities. was manifest ubiquitously in politics, university governance, social organizations of all kinds. It was not merely a phenomenon of the distributed electronic networks, though it may fairly be said that the emergence of the network not only coincided with movements towards decentralization, but propelled them, as well.
(10) In print-based manufacturing environments there exist economies of scale, such that increasing a print run, for example, reduces the unit cost of each individual copy in that run. Conversely, when print runs decrease beneath certain plateaus, the price of an individual copy increases, sometimes sharply This effect, while observable in individual print runs of any given title, is also manifest in a publisher's overall profit calculation. An increasing number of titles amortizes the startup, editorial, overhead, and marketing cost in such a way as to favor the journals publisher that publishes a large number of individual titles. This is one reason for the perceptible per·cep·ti·ble
Capable of being perceived by the senses or the mind: perceptible sounds in the night.
[Late Latin perceptibilis, from Latin perceptus consolidation of titles in the hands of a smaller and smaller number of mega-publishers.
(11) To be sure, there were questions concerning "scalability" of the theories proposed on smaller network models. Subsequent experience has proven the validity of the notion that the theories were "scaleable," for the software engineering community has consistently supplied technical solutions to accommodate the astounding a·stound
tr.v. a·stound·ed, a·stound·ing, a·stounds
To astonish and bewilder. See Synonyms at surprise.
[From Middle English astoned, past participle of astonen, rapidity of growth and size of the distributed network community.
(12) Publishers, during the same period, encompassed by this survey had practical experience with the instability of technical progress. The typesetting industry with which publishers were inexorably linked went through profound changes. In the 1960's, there were still to be found hot metal typesetting Hot metal typesetting (also called hot lead typesetting or simply hot metal) is a term used to encompass a range of different 19th century technologies to create or compose text for use in the letterpress method of printing. firms which set type for scholarly books and journals by hand, and by mechanical typesetting equipment like Linotype-and Monotype monotype, type set by the Monotype machine. See printing.
In art printmaking, a technique prized because of its unique textural qualities. casting machines. The introduction of the Merganthaler V.I.P. (variable input phototypesetter See imagesetter. ) permitted machines to be controlled by paper tape, modem transmission, or magnetic information contained on floppy disks. But these changes made it possible for faster photo-optical machines to be implemented. Their success (even though photomechanical pho·to·me·chan·i·cal
Of, relating to, or involving any of various methods by which plates are prepared for printing by means of photography.
pho typesetting machines had notoriously bad throughput) encouraged the development of computer-generated typesetting systems. No sooner had these come onto the market, than the personal computer revolution spawned the development of "Desktop Publishing desktop publishing, system for producing printed materials that consists of a personal computer or computer workstation, a high-resolution printer (usually a laser printer), and a computer program that allows the user to select from a variety of type fonts and sizes, ," challenging the primacy of dedicated typesetting systems. For CFOs attempting to determine at which point and in which technology to invest was a trying experience, at best.
Typesetters themselves had to "reinvent re·in·vent
tr.v. re·in·vent·ed, re·in·vent·ing, re·in·vents
1. To make over completely: "She reinvented Indian cooking to fit a Western kitchen and a Western larder" " their businesses as they experienced the erosion of traditional sources of work. First, they began to extend their expertise to encompass "pre-press" capabilities (these have to do with the preparation of materials for reproduction-a task traditionally accomplished at a commercial printer), and more recently typesetters have marketed their keyboarding and coding skills to publishers interested in producing electronic by-products of printed work, such as CD-ROM CD-ROM: see compact disc.
in full compact disc read-only memory
Type of computer storage medium that is read optically (e.g., by a laser). versions of books or online versions. In September 1996, a foremost typesetter See imagesetter. of academic and professional books released its own first CD-ROM, having reinvented itself completely by turning into a publisher.
(13) Much has been written recently about the emergence of new information "consolidators" who might license (on a nonexclusive basis) information from a wide variety of resources, but within connected fields of interest. These new "publishers" may be unusual corporate organizations who might not--at first glance--be thought of as publishers. The best example of this is, perhaps, Intuit in·tu·it
tr.v. in·tu·it·ed, in·tu·it·ing, in·tu·its Usage Problem
To know intuitively.
[Back-formation from intuition. Inc., the producers of the personal financial software program called Quicken. Intuit has entered into agreements with a number of providers of information in the area of economics, finance, stock information, business news, etc. presuming pre·sum·ing
Having or showing excessive and arrogant self-confidence; presumptuous.
pre·suming·ly adv. that its marketing outreach, and its Internet savvy will be able to add value to such information by making it available in aggregated form on its own Intuit site. Thus, Intuit would become, in effect, a secondary publisher of primary information by consolidating it and providing all the information in a user-friendly interface. Some analysts predict that more examples of this kind of subsidiary publishing will be available in the future.
Borghuis, M.; Brinckman, H.; Fischer, A.; Hunter, K; van der Loo, E.; Mors, R. t.; Mostert, R; & Zijlatra, J. (1996). TULIP: Final report. New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of : Elsevier Science Publishers. Available from: <http://www.elsevier.nl/locate/tulip>
Mitchell, E., & Walters, S. A. (1995). Document delivery services: Issues and answers. Medford, NJ: Learned Information.
National Enquiry. (1979). Scholarly communication: Report of the national enquiry. Baltimore, MD:Johns Hopkins University Press The Johns Hopkins University Press is a publishing house and division of Johns Hopkins University that engages in publishing journals and books. It was founded in 1878 and holds the distinction of being the oldest continuously running university press in the United States. .
Standera, O. (1987). The electronic era of publishing: An overview of concepts, technologies and methods. New York: Elsevier Science Publishing Co., Inc.
Czeslaw Jan Grycz, 8637 Arbor Drive, El Cerrito El Cerrito (ĕl sərē`tō), city (1990 pop. 22,869), Contra Costa co., W Calif., on San Francisco Bay; inc. 1917. It is primarily residential. Golden Gate Fields Racetrack is nearby. , CA 94530-2728