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Reducing aging markers with lipoic acid: why do some people age better than others?

We know that part of the answer lies in genetics. However, premature aging also comes down to cellular damage, brought on by oxidative stress oxidative stress,
n an imbalance of the prooxidant antioxidant ratio in which too few antioxidants are produced or ingested or too many oxidizing agents are produced.
 from free radicals that are constantly being formed through countless biochemical reactions in our bodies.

One of the secrets to slowing down aging is to aggressively combat this oxidative damage with long-acting antioxidants Antioxidants
Substances that reduce the damage of the highly reactive free radicals that are the byproducts of the cells.

Mentioned in: Aging, Nutritional Supplements


Lipoic acid is one of the most potent, versatile and longer-acting antioxidant vitamins known. Of all the major antioxidant vitamins only lipoic acid possesses the unique ability to work in both water-soluble and fat-soluble environments in the body. This ubiquitous property means that lipoic acid has access to all parts of our cells to neutralize damaging free radicals, which are implicated im·pli·cate  
tr.v. im·pli·cat·ed, im·pli·cat·ing, im·pli·cates
1. To involve or connect intimately or incriminatingly: evidence that implicates others in the plot.

 in many age-related diseases including heart disease and diabetes. Being able to navigate cellular membranes throughout the body also means that lipoic acid can also cross the blood-brain barrier to exert its protective effects against neurological and cognitive diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease.


As scientific research continues to advance, the discovery of newer, rapidly absorbed forms of lipoic acid will allow us to increase the broad-spectrum benefits of this universal antioxidant antioxidant, substance that prevents or slows the breakdown of another substance by oxygen. Synthetic and natural antioxidants are used to slow the deterioration of gasoline and rubber, and such antioxidants as vitamin C (ascorbic acid), butylated hydroxytoluene .

Every second, 24 hours a day, oxidative damage caused by free radicals occurs in our bodies through the energy-producing reactions that take place within mitochondria of our cells. The cumulative damage inflicted by free radicals can have numerous negative age-related effects. This free radical theory of aging is supported by many leading researchers, one key proponent being world-renowned biochemist, Bruce Ames, PhD, from the University of California, Berkeley The University of California, Berkeley is a public research university located in Berkeley, California, United States. Commonly referred to as UC Berkeley, Berkeley and Cal . Dr. Ames and colleagues maintain that "oxidant oxidant /ox·i·dant/ (ok´si-dant) the electron acceptor in an oxidation-reduction (redox) reaction.

See oxidizer.
 by-products of normal metabolism cause extensive damage to DNA DNA: see nucleic acid.
 or deoxyribonucleic acid

One of two types of nucleic acid (the other is RNA); a complex organic compound found in all living cells and many viruses. It is the chemical substance of genes.
, protein, and lipid." They argue that "this damage (the same as that produced by radiation) is a major contributor to aging and to degenerative diseases of aging such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, immune-system decline, brain dysfunction, and cataracts." (1)

Scientific research suggests that minimizing these deleterious free radical reactions by ensuring optimal antioxidant levels could therefore hold the key to effectively slowing aging and its unwanted consequences.


pertaining to mitochondria.

mitochondrial RNAs
a unique set of tRNAs, mRNAs, rRNAs, transcribed from mitochondrial DNA by a mitochondrial-specific RNA polymerase, that account for about 4% of the total cell RNA that

Lipoic acid is considered to be a crucial anti-oxidant for a variety of mitochondrial reactions. Animal studies have shown that antioxidants such as lipoic acid can neutralize the excess production of free radicals within the mitochondria (2-5) and reverse some of the mitochondrial decay caused by oxidative damage. (3,5-8)

Mitochondrial disorders share several common consequences--reduced production of ATP ATP: see adenosine triphosphate.
 in full adenosine triphosphate

Organic compound, substrate in many enzyme-catalyzed reactions (see catalysis) in the cells of animals, plants, and microorganisms.
 (or energy), increased reliance on nonoxygen energy sources, and increased production of oxygen free radicals. The benefits of lipoic acid in mitochondrial disorders have been demonstrated in numerous studies.

Animal studies have shown that lipoic acid in combination with acetyl-L-carnitine restores mitochondrial function to youthful levels. (3,9,10) These studies also show that the decline due to aging in physical activity, cognition, and heart and immune function can also be restored in good part with lipoic acid and acetyl-L-carnitine. (3,9-11)


Investigators have also studied the efficacy of lipoic acid, creatine creatine /cre·a·tine/ (kre´ah-tin) an amino acid occurring in vertebrate tissues, particularly in muscle; phosphorylated creatine is an important storage form of high-energy phosphate.  monohydrate mon·o·hy·drate
A compound, such as calcium chloride monohydrate, that contains one molecule of water.
, and coenzyme Q10, in patients with mitochondrial disorders. In a placebo-controlled study, this combination therapy favorably influenced surrogate markers of cellular energy dysfunction such as plasma lactate Lactate

A salt or ester of lactic acid (CH3CHOHCOOH). In lactates, the acidic hydrogen of the carboxyl group has been replaced by a metal or an organic radical. Lactates are optically active, with a chiral center at carbon 2.
 levels. (12)

A study published this year also found that treatment with lipoic acid and acetyl-L-carnitine significantly increases mitochondrial mass in fat cells (adipocytes) and promotes mitochondrial synthesis and adipocyte adipocyte /ad·i·po·cyte/ (-sit?) fat cell.

See fat cell.

 metabolism. (13)

Imagine keeping the powerhouses of your cells vibrant and strong throughout your life. This is what lipoic acid does for your mitochondria.


Lipoic acid is one of the body's most important antioxidants particularly because it is the supplement that can also best regenerate glutathione glutathione: see coenzyme. . Glutathione, a compound produced from three amino acids cysteine cysteine (sĭs`tēn), organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer participates in the biosynthesis of mammalian protein. , glutamic acid, and glycine glycine (glī`sēn), organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Glycine is the only one of these amino acids that is not optically active, i.e. , is a key endogenous antioxidant that cannot be efficiently administered orally since it is broken down in the digestive tract before it can reach cells. Glutathione can be found in the watery portion of the cell (known as the cytosol cytosol /cy·to·sol/ (sit´ah-sol) the liquid medium of the cytoplasm, i.e., cytoplasm minus organelles and nonmembranous insoluble components.cytosol´ic

) as opposed to vitamin E, which is present in the fatty portion of each cell. The liver contains a tremendous amount of glutathione, which reflects its function in the body's detoxification Detoxification Definition

Detoxification is one of the more widely used treatments and concepts in alternative medicine. It is based on the principle that illnesses can be caused by the accumulation of toxic substances (toxins) in the body.

Human aging is marked by a sharp decline in the synthesis and recycling of glutathione and other key antioxidants, such as vitamins C and E and coenzyme Q10, leaving the body vulnerable to increased oxidative damage. Lipoic acid can regenerate these anti-oxidants (14,15) proving a useful weapon against numerous diseases that are associated with impaired energy utilization and increased oxidative stress, including type 2 diabetes type 2 diabetes
See diabetes mellitus.
, neurological diseases, and heart disease.

According to Lester Packer, PhD, one of the most noted researchers on antioxidants, "lipoic acid is the most versatile and powerful antioxidant in the entire antioxidant defense network."


Lipoic acid is a dietary supplement that is perhaps best known for being an insulin mimic because it increases glucose uptake in insulin-resistant cells. (16-18) "Normal" levels of insulin are essential for glucose and amino acid metabolism. Insulin secreted by the pancreas after a meal helps transport glucose and amino acids (the building blocks of protein) into the body's cells. Having "normal" levels of insulin, however, does not necessarily guarantee "optimal" benefits with regards to its effects. Dietary means of increasing insulin sensitivity therefore increase the efficiency by which the body transports glucose and amino acids into the muscle cells.

Some of the most impressive research on lipoic acid involves its role in fighting diabetes. Numerous studies have shown that treating insulin-resistant animals and patients with type 2 diabetes improves skeletal muscle glucose uptake and glucose tolerance. (16-20)


To study the effects of lipoic acid on insulin sensitivity, European researchers treated 12 overweight adults, average age 53 years, suffering from type 2 diabetes with oral lipoic acid, 600 mg twice daily over a period of four weeks. Twelve subjects with normal glucose tolerance served as a control group in terms of insulin sensitivity. They found that lipoic acid treatment increased peripheral insulin sensitivity in patients with type 2 diabetes in this very short time period of just four weeks. (21)

Lipoic acid also shows dramatic benefits in overcoming peripheral nerve complications once diabetes has taken hold. Multiple pathogenic pathways are involved in these neuropathic effects and many treatments have been tried without success. In Germany, lipoic acid has been widely used for overcoming the painful symptoms of diabetic neuropathy.

A number of clinical studies have demonstrated its therapeutic effectiveness in diabetic neuropathy and many researchers believe this may due to its strong antioxidant power in improving the pathophysiology pathophysiology /patho·phys·i·ol·o·gy/ (-fiz?e-ol´ah-je) the physiology of disordered function.

 of damaged nerves. One placebo-controlled study involving 328 diabetic patients with peripheral nerve problems revealed that 600 mg daily intravenous treatment with lipoic acid is safe and effective for overcoming characteristic symptoms such as pain, burning, and itching in the feet after just three weeks of treatment. (22)

Another placebo-controlled three-week study with 600 mg oral lipoic acid given three times a day in 24 patients with diabetes found that neuropathic symptoms decreased by 47% in the supplemented group compared with only 24% in the control group. (23)

Yet another short-term study found that just five weeks of oral supplementation with 600-1,800 mg/day of lipoic acid also improves painful symptoms of diabetic neuropathy. (24)

In addition, lipoic acid has been shown to be beneficial in renal complications associated with diabetes. This was seen in a study in which supplementing with 600 mg/day of lipoic acid for 18 months slowed the progression of kidney damage in 84 patients with diabetic nephropathy. (25)


Add to these impressive benefits a long list of other health applications for lipoic acid. In another particular study, (26) scientists investigated whether lipoic acid inhibits atherosclerosis in animal (mice) models of human atherosclerosis. They discovered that supplementation with lipoic acid significantly reduced atherosclerotic lesion formation in the large blood vessels of these mice. This was associated with approximately 40% less body weight gain and lower triglycerides Triglycerides
Fatty compounds synthesized from carbohydrates during the process of digestion and stored in the body's adipose (fat) tissues. High levels of triglycerides in the blood are associated with insulin resistance.
 levels. According to these scientists, "dietary lipoic acid supplementation inhibits atherosclerotic lesion formation in two mouse models of human atherosclerosis, an inhibition that appears to be due to the 'anti-obesity,' antihypertriglyceridemic, and anti-inflammatory effects of lipoic acid. Lipoic acid may be a useful adjunct in the prevention and treatment of atherosclerotic vascular diseases." (26) Lipoic acid supplementation also prevents the development of high blood pressure and high blood glucose, presumably pre·sum·a·ble  
That can be presumed or taken for granted; reasonable as a supposition: presumable causes of the disaster.
 through its antioxidative properties. (27)


Alzheimer's is a neurodegenerative disease that currently has no known cure. It is thought that oxidative stress might play a key role in neuro-degenerative and cognitive disorders due to the higher vulnerability of neuronal tissues to free-radical damage. A recent study revealed that anti-oxidants such as lipoic acid may have clinical value in slowing down the progression of Alzheimer's disease. In this open-label study, nine patients with Alzheimer's disease received 600 mg of lipoic acid daily in addition to standard acetylcholinesterase acetylcholinesterase /ac·e·tyl·cho·lin·es·ter·ase/ (AChE) (-ko?li-nes´ter-as) an enzyme present in the central nervous system, particularly in nervous tissue, muscle, and red cells, that catalyzes the hydrolysis of acetylcholine to  drugs for 12 months. Encouraged by findings that treatment led to a "stabilization of cognitive functions in the study group," the investigators extended their analysis to 43 patients over an observation period of up to 4 years. During this longer time period, they found that the disease progressed very slowly in patients with mild dementia. They also noted that the rate of disease progression was dramatically lower than data from other long-term studies, leading to the conclusion that "alpha-lipoic acid might be a successful 'neuroprotective' therapy option for Alzheimer's disease." (28)

A number of other studies also support the clinical value of lipoic acid as a neuroprotective treatment for Alzheimer's, (29-31) especially during the early stages of the disease. (29) Researchers have identified a number of mechanisms through which lipoic acid may help prevent cognitive decline. They believe lipoic acid may help increase the production of acetylcholine acetylcholine (əsēt'əlkō`lēn), a small organic molecule liberated at nerve endings as a neurotransmitter. It is particularly important in the stimulation of muscle tissue. , an essential chemical messenger in the brain that is deficient in Alzheimer's disease sufferers. (29) A recent study also suggests that lipoic acid combats oxidative vulnerability induced by exposing rats to amyloid-beta fibrils--neurotoxic protein fragments that are implicated in Alzheimer's disease. (32)


Parkinson's disease is a degenerative disorder in which individuals suffer from various motor impairments that may also be helped by lipoic acid supplementation. Part of the brain called the substantia nigra is negatively affected in this disease. Scientists believe that oxidative stress might play a role in the degeneration of nerve cells in this area. Accordingly, an important biochemical feature of Parkinson's is a significant early depletion of glutathione, a potent antioxidant mentioned earlier, which may ultimately result in free radical-induced damage, mitochondrial dysfunction, and neuronal cell death. Test tube, or in vitro, data suggest that pre-treatment of PC12 cells (a model of primary neuronal cells used by scientists) with lipoic acid may lessen the depletion of glutathione and preserve the activity of mitochondria. (33) Other work indeed shows that lipoic acid pre-treatment helps protect against radiation-induced DNA damage, indicating that "alpha-lipoic acid is a potent neuroprotective antioxidant." (34)


Lipoic acid has also been investigated as an anticancer therapy, (35) because of its ability to preferentially induce apoptosis (36) and inhibit cancer cell proliferation. (37) In one amazing case study, the authors describe the long-term survival of a patient with pancreatic cancer without any toxic adverse effects. Pancreatic cancer is one of the most virulent forms of cancer that has a very poor prognosis. In this case study, the subject was treated with intravenous lipoic acid and low-dose naltrexone naltrexone /nal·trex·one/ (nal-trek´son) an opioid antagonist used as the hydrochloride salt in treatment of opioid or alcohol abuse.

An endorphin and narcotic antagonist.
 combined with a healthy lifestyle program. The patient was informed in October 2002 that there was little hope for his survival. By January 2006, however, he was back at work, symptom-free, and without appreciable progression of his malignancy. Furthermore, several other patients are on this treatment protocol and appear to be doing well. The authors believe that this treatment protocol should be studied and considered, given its lack of toxicity and limited but impressive results. (38)


Researchers have also studied the effects of lipoic acid on abnormal ovarian cell development. They found that lipoic acid selectively inhibits the growth of tumorigenic tu·mor·i·gen·ic
Capable of causing tumors.
 ovarian cells by increasing levels of a marker that halts abnormal cell division and reducing levels of proinflammatory cytokines Cytokines
Chemicals made by the cells that act on other cells to stimulate or inhibit their function. Cytokines that stimulate growth are called "growth factors.
 in the body. (39)


in extreme old age, restored to youth by Medea. [Rom. Myth.: LLEI, I: 322]

apples of perpetual youth

by tasting the golden apples kept by Idhunn, the gods preserved their youth. [Scand. Myth.

In addition to its disease-protective benefits, lipoic acid can also help fight the 'cosmetic' ravages rav·age  
v. rav·aged, rav·ag·ing, rav·ages
1. To bring heavy destruction on; devastate: A tornado ravaged the town.

 of aging. For instance, one study investigated whether a cream containing 5% lipoic acid could improve the appearance of skin damaged by photoaging pho·to·ag·ing
1. The process by which skin is changed or damaged as a result of exposure to ultraviolet radiation in sunlight and other sources.

. The investigators took 33 women, average age 54 years, and treated half their faces twice daily with the lipoic acid cream and the other half using a control cream without lipoic acid. They discovered that after 12 weeks of treatment, lipoic acid improved clinical characteristics related to photoaging of facial skin, according to the women's self-evaluation as well as clinical and photographic evaluations. (40)

Scientists are still unraveling the clues behind the impact of aging on cellular and tissue responses, which may result from unchecked inflammation, an altered balance of protein synthesis and degradation, and subsequent downstream effects on the rate and quality of wound healing. (41)


Lipoic acid has demonstrated multiple beneficial biological effects that make it a must-have in every aging human's supplement "toolbox."

If you have any questions on the scientific content of this article, please call a Life Extension Health Advisor at 1-800-226-2370.


* Cumulative damage inflicted by free radical reactions in the body's mitochondria can have numerous age-related effects by increasing oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage.

* Mitochondrial damage is a major contributor to aging and to degenerative diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, immune system decline, and brain dysfunction.

* One of the secrets to slowing down aging is to aggressively combat this oxidative damage with long-acting antioxidants.

* Lipoic acid is the most versatile and powerful antioxidant in the entire antioxidant defense network. Studies show that lipoic acid in combination with acetyl-L-carnitine can reverse mitochondrial decay and restore mitochondrial function to youthful levels.

* Some of the most impressive research on lipoic acid involves its role in fighting type 2 diabetes. Numerous studies have shown that lipoic acid improves glucose tolerance as well as the peripheral nerve complications associated with full- blown diabetes.

* Lipoic acid has a wide range of other health benefits, including preventing and treating atherosclerotic vascular diseases, helping to slow the progression of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, and having possible anticancer effects.

* As the amount of lipoic acid produced by the body decreases with aging, supplementation may be necessary to maintain adequate levels.

* A dramatic new study has unveiled an advanced new formulation of lipoic acid called sodium-R-lipoic acid, which is more potent and stable than pure R-lipoic acid. Sodium-R-lipoic acid is the next-generation lipoic acid, which reaches higher plasma levels of lipoic acid sooner than pure R-lipoic acid.


As the amount of lipoic acid produced by the body decreases with aging, supplementation may be necessary to maintain adequate levels. Scientific studies showing the health benefits of alpha-lipoic acid have used doses ranging from 300 to 1,800 mg/day. For optimal benefits, some nutritionists recommend that it is taken with biotin biotin: see vitamin; coenzyme.

Organic compound, part of the vitamin B complex, essential for growth and well-being in animals and some microorganisms.
 and vitamin B complex vitamin B complex

Water-soluble organic compounds with loosely similar properties, distribution in natural sources, and physiological functions. Most are coenzymes, and all appear essential to the metabolic processes of all animal life.
. Remember that R-lipoic acid is twice as potent as alpha-lipoic acid. That's because alpha lipoic acid consists of only 50% active R-lipoic and 50% inactive S-lipoic acid.

While there are several forms of lipoic acid on the market, many of them have been shown to be relatively unstable in the body. This property undermines their bioavailability bioavailability /bio·avail·a·bil·i·ty/ (bi?o-ah-val?ah-bil´i-te) the degree to which a drug or other substance becomes available to the target tissue after administration.

, which leads to poor absorption. (44)

In a dramatic new study, researchers have overcome these polymerization polymerization

Any process in which monomers combine chemically to produce a polymer. The monomer molecules—which in the polymer usually number from at least 100 to many thousands—may or may not all be the same.
 problems by developing an advanced new formulation of lipoic acid, which is being referred to as the next-generation lipoic acid. This new discovery converts the biologically active "R" form of lipoic acid to sodium-R-lipoic acid (NaRLA) to create a more stable, potent product.

A preliminary study has indicated that NaRLA is superior to other forms of lipoic acid by achieving dramatically higher plasma levels of lipoic acid sooner than pure R-lipoic acid. (44) The authors of this study refer to this unique formulation as the most bioavailable form of lipoic acid. This enhanced potency, says one of the study's co-authors, reflects a maximum plasma concentration that is 10-30 times higher than pure R-lipoic acid. (45)

Unlike other forms of lipoic acid, NaRLA is completely water-soluble, which offers an innovative solution in that it does not have to be restricted to capsules and tablets, but can also be taken as a powdered drink mix.

These impressive findings offer an effective and well-tolerated application for the vast array of health benefits conferred by lipoic acid.


Although not typically thought of as a 'weight-loss' agent, lipoic acid does exert effects that might be worthwhile for those looking to trim their waistlines. Studies have shown that lipoic acid supplementation can decrease fat accumulation in mice. (42,43) Lipoic acid also reduces body weight and prevents the development of diabetes in diabetes-prone obese rats by reducing triglyceride accumulation in non-adipose tissues thus improving insulin sensitivity. (43) So should you take lipoic acid if you want to lose weight? From a general health standpoint, it is wise to take lipoic acid anyhow. And if your waistline shrinks, then even better!


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1. origin of life, or of living organisms.

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(35.) Novotny L, Rauko P, Cojocel C. alpha-Lipoic acid--the potential for use in cancer therapy. Neoplasma. 2008;55(2):81-6.

(36.) Simbula G, Columbano A, Ledda-Columbano GM, Sanna L, Deidda M, Diana A, Pibiri M. Increased ROS generation and p53 activation in alpha-lipoic acid-induced apoptosis of hepatoma hepatoma /hep·a·to·ma/ (hep?ah-to´mah)
1. a tumor of the liver.

2. hepatocellular carcinoma (malignant h.).

n. pl.
 cells. Apoptosis. 2007 Jan;12(1):113-23.

(37.) Larghero P, Vene R, Minghelli S, Travaini G, Morini M, Ferrari N, Pfeffer U, Noonan DM, Albini Albini or de Albini (of white) is a surname, and may refer to:
  • Roger Albini
  • Steve Albini
  • William de Albini or William d'Albini

This page or section lists people with the surname Albini.
 A, Benelli R. Biological assays and genomic analysis reveal lipoic acid modulation of endothelial cell behavior and gene expression. Carcinogenesis car·ci·no·gen·e·sis
The production of cancer.


production of cancer.

biological carcinogenesis
viruses and some parasites are capable of initiating neoplasia.
. 2007 May;28(5): 1008-20.

(38.) Berkson BM, Rubin DM, Berkson AJ. The long-term survival of a patient with pancreatic cancer with metastases Metastasis (plural, metastases)
A tumor growth or deposit that has spread via lymph or blood to an area of the body remote from the primary tumor.

Mentioned in: Malignant Melanoma
 to the liver after treatment with the intravenous alpha-lipoic acid/low-dose naltrexone protocol. Integr Cancer Ther. Mar 2006;5(1):83-9.

(39.) Vig-Varga E, Benson EA, Limbil TL, Allison BM, Goebl MG, Harrington MA. Alpha-lipoic acid modulates ovarian surface epithelial cell growth. Gynecol Oncol. Oct 2006;103(1):45-52.

(40.) Beitner H. Randomized ran·dom·ize  
tr.v. ran·dom·ized, ran·dom·iz·ing, ran·dom·iz·es
To make random in arrangement, especially in order to control the variables in an experiment.
, placebo-controlled, double blind study on the clinical efficacy of a cream containing 5% alpha-lipoic acid related to photoageing of facial skin. Br J Dermatol. Oct 2003;149 (4):841-9.

(41.) Ashcroft GS, Mills SJ, Ashworth JJ. Ageing and wound healing. Biogerontology. 2002;3(6):337-45.

(42.) Shen QW, Jones CS, Kalchayanand N, Zhu MJ, Du M. Effect of dietary alpha-lipoic acid on growth, body composition, muscle pH, and AMP-activated protein kinase 5'AMP-activated protein kinase or AMPK consists of three proteins (subunits) that together make a functional enzyme, conserved from yeast to humans, that plays a role in cellular energy homeostasis.  phosphorylation phosphorylation, chemical process in which a phosphate group is added to an organic molecule. In living cells phosphorylation is associated with respiration, which takes place in the cell's mitochondria, and photosynthesis, which takes place in the chloroplasts.  in mice. J Anim Sci. Nov 2005;83(11):2611-17.

(43.) Spencer JP, Jenner P, Daniel SE, Lees AJ, Marsden DC, Halliwell B. Conjugates of catecholamines Catecholamines
Family of neurotransmitters containing dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine, produced and secreted by cells of the adrenal medulla in the brain.
 with cysteine and GSH in Parkinson's disease: possible mechanisms of formation involving reactive oxygen species reactive oxygen species,
n molecules and ions of oxygen that have an unpaired electron, thus rendering them extremely reactive. Many cellular structures are susceptible to attack by ROS contributing to cancer, heart disease, and cerebrovascular disease.
. J Neurochem. Nov 1998;71(5):211222.

(44.) Carlson DA, Smith AR, Fischer SJ, Young KL, Packer L. The plasma pharmacokinetics of R-(+)-lipoic acid administered as sodium R-(+)-lipoate to healthy human subjects. Altern Med Rev. 2007 Dec;12(4):343-51.

(45.) Carlson DA, Young KL, Fischer SJ, Ulrich H. An evaluation of the stability and plasma pharmacokinetics of R-lipoic acid (RLA RLA Residential Landlords Association (UK)
RLA Registered Landscape Architect
RLA Redevelopment Land Agency
RLA Regional Learning Alliance (Cranberry Township, PA)
RLA Rated Load Amps
) and R-dihydrolipoic acid (R-DHLA) dosage forms in human plasma from healthy subjects. In: Packer L, Patel M, eds. Lipoic Acid: Energy Production, Antioxidant Activity and Health Effects. London, England: Taylor & Francis Publishers; 2008:23570.

By Jose Antonio, PhD, FACSM FACSM Fellow of the American College of Sports Medicine.

Fellow of the American College of Sports Medicine
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Title Annotation:REPORT
Author:Antonio, Jose
Publication:Life Extension
Article Type:Clinical report
Geographic Code:4EUUK
Date:Jun 1, 2008
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