Recruitment and retention of highly qualified teachers.
THE SECRET, A RECENT movie, promotes the law of attraction For other uses, see: Laws of attraction (affinity); Laws of Attraction (movie); Laws of science (physics)
The Law of Attraction is commonly associated with New Thought and New Age theories, beliefs, and practices. , the notion that we attract what we think about. Can district leaders attract great teachers by simply thinking about what their schools would be like if all positions were filled with highly qualified individuals? It might be a good exercise for vision setting, but research suggests that schools need to match recruitment and retention efforts to the characteristics and motivations of teachers and teaching candidates.
Very little research focuses on the selection of effective teachers, so this discussion will focus on highly qualified teachers. To attract highly qualified teachers, district leaders can partner with teacher preparation programs, streamline the hiring process, and offer a locally competitive compensation package. Some research suggests that schools could retain more teachers if school leaders promote good working conditions, an atmosphere of collegial col·le·gi·al
a. Characterized by or having power and authority vested equally among colleagues: "He . . . support, meaningful involvement in decision making, and a focus on student learning.
Partnerships with regional teacher preparation programs can be especially beneficial for hard-to-staff schools and schools in rural or urban settings. We know that nationally, teaching positions are hardest to fill in science, mathematics and special education. Such partnerships can support a "grow-your-own" approach by establishing pathways to the teaching profession for local high school students, out-of-field teachers, school paraprofessionals and second-career adults. This approach increases the pool of teacher candidates who are motivated mo·ti·vate
tr.v. mo·ti·vat·ed, mo·ti·vat·ing, mo·ti·vates
To provide with an incentive; move to action; impel.
mo to seek local employment because of ties to the community. Districts should concentrate their efforts on subject areas in which teacher shortages are acute. A district can also team with institutions of higher education higher education
Study beyond the level of secondary education. Institutions of higher education include not only colleges and universities but also professional schools in such fields as law, theology, medicine, business, music, and art. to ensure that teacher candidates are prepared to work in its local setting.
Hiring practices, and not a small applicant pool, may be the problem in some districts. When The New Teacher Project studied hiring in four hard-to-staff urban districts, researchers found that strategic recruitment yielded a multitude of applicants, but many of the best candidates withdrew their applications before hiring decisions were made in mid- mid-
Middle: midbrain. to late summer. Withdrawers "had significantly higher GPAs and were 40 percent more likely to have a degree in their teaching field than new hires." The majority of those who withdrew cited late hiring as their reason for accepting employment elsewhere. The researchers recommended that district leaders work with teacher unions and others toward requiring earlier notification by teachers who plan to retire or resign, reforming collective bargaining collective bargaining, in labor relations, procedure whereby an employer or employers agree to discuss the conditions of work by bargaining with representatives of the employees, usually a labor union. transfer requirements, addressing budget barriers, and streamlining the hiring process.
RAND researcher Cassandra Cassandra (kəsăn`drə), in Greek legend, Trojan princess, daughter of Priam and Hecuba. She was given the power of prophecy by Apollo, but because she would not accept him as a lover, he changed her blessing to a curse, causing her Guarino and associates recently reviewed the empirical literature on teacher recruitment and retention and confirmed that teacher compensation is also a factor, noting that teachers' job decisions can be influenced by salaries offered in other districts and in fields outside of teaching. However, dissatisfaction with salary is not the only reason teachers switch jobs. According to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. Sabrina Laine, director of the National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality, "Research shows that teachers often leave high-poverty, low-performing, at-risk schools because they have not been adequately prepared to teach in such challenging environments and lack much-needed support from administrators."
Support for new teachers often takes the form of induction induction, in electricity and magnetism
induction, in electricity and magnetism, common name for three distinct phenomena.
Electromagnetic induction and mentoring programs. Guarino and associates' analyses of recent Schools and Staffing Surveys found lower turnover rates among beginning teachers in schools with induction and mentoring programs, especially when the programs emphasized collegial support. The Education Commission of the States The Education Commission of the States (ECS) was founded as a result of the creation of the Compact for Education, supported by all 50 states and approved by Congress in 1965. The original idea of establishing an interstate compact on education and creating an operational arm to follow up found limited evidence of their effectiveness in its 2005 review of 91 studies on recruitment and retention.
Interview data from a recent study conducted by Pamela Angelle suggest that principals' involvement in teacher induction Induction (educator)
Induction is the support and guidance provided to novice teachers and school administrators in the early stages of their careers. Induction encompasses orientation to the workplace, socialization, mentoring, and guidance through beginning teacher can improve retention. For example, principals can provide "professional socialization socialization /so·cial·iza·tion/ (so?shal-i-za´shun) the process by which society integrates the individual and the individual learns to behave in socially acceptable ways.
n. " in the form of frequent discussion, monitoring and feedback, which can lead to such gains. "Findings indicate socializing into an ineffective school will either promulgate To officially announce, to publish, to make known to the public; to formally announce a statute or a decision by a court. ineffective practices or will produce an internal conflict. At schools where principals were 'all about the kids,' teachers demonstrated loyalty and voiced intentions to remain in teaching."
Working conditions and personal satisfaction play a role in both novice and veteran teachers' decisions about whether to stay. After surveying 2,000 current and former teachers in California California (kăl'ĭfôr`nyə), most populous state in the United States, located in the Far West; bordered by Oregon (N), Nevada and, across the Colorado River, Arizona (E), Mexico (S), and the Pacific Ocean (W). , researcher Ken Futernick concluded that teachers felt greater personal satisfaction when they believed in their own efficacy, were involved in decision making, and established strong collegial relationships. In addition, Guarino and associates found that schools are more likely to keep teachers if they offer them greater autonomy and administrative support.
Who's Leaving the Profession?
Empirical studies Empirical studies in social sciences are when the research ends are based on evidence and not just theory. This is done to comply with the scientific method that asserts the objective discovery of knowledge based on verifiable facts of evidence. find that teachers with these characteristics are more likely to leave the profession:
[check] Have taught for less than five years
[check] Are near retirement
[check] Are white
[check] Teach math or science
[check] Have higher measured ability
[check] Are female
Source: Guarino, Santibanez & Daley 2006
Research summaries and recommendations National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality www.ncctq.org
Grant opportunities for local education agencies U.S. Department of Education Teacher/Principal Quality Initiatives www.ed.gov/admins/tchrqual/ learn/tpr/resources_pg3.html
Online job board for special education teachers Council for Exceptional Children www.specialedcareers.org
Edvantia is an education research organization (www.edvantia.org). For references used in this article, go to the DA Web site: www.districtadministration.com.