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Reassuring "White Australia": a Review of The Fabrication of Aboriginal History: Volume One, Van Diemen's Land 1803-1847.

In 1996, the Australian Prime Minister, John Howard For other persons of the same name, see John Howard (disambiguation).
John Winston Howard (born 26 July 1939) is an Australian politician and the 25th Prime Minister of Australia.
, used the annual Sir Robert Menzies Lecture The Sir Robert Menzies Lecture is an annual lecture delivered in Melbourne, Australia, by a prominent politician, academic or other noteworthy individual, about various aspects of modern liberalism.  to make the following observations about Australian history:
   [There is a challenge] to ensure that our history as a nation is
   not rewritten definitively by those who take the view that
   Australians should apologise for most of it. This 'black armband'
   view of our past reflects a belief that most of Australian history
   since 1788 has been little more than a disgraceful history of
   imperialism, exploitation, racism, sexism and other forms of
   discrimination. I take a very different view. I believe that
   the balance sheet of our history is one of heroic achievement
   and that we have achieved much more as a nation of which we can
   be proud than of which we should be ashamed. (1)

The Prime Minister's remarks echoed those of conservative historian Geoffrey Blainey Professor Geoffrey Blainey AC (born 11 March 1930), is one of Australia's most significant historians. He is eminent both in academic circles and in the public mind, particularly after a controversy in 1984 over immigration policy. , who in 1993 linked the "Black Armband arm·band  
A band worn around the upper arm, often as identification or as a symbol of mourning or protest.

Noun 1. armband - worn around arm as identification or to indicate mourning
 View of History" with those who celebrated multiculturalism. (2) Both Prime Minister Howard and Professor Blainey have articulated for many Australians a sense of anxiety about their place in a multicultural society. Critical of liberal immigration policies, multicultural education, and the politics of Aboriginal land rights, those on the right of Australian politics have taken issue with historians who focus on issues like racism and sexism, issues they consider to be "politically correct politically correct Politically sensitive adjective Referring to language reflecting awareness and sensitivity to another person's physical, mental, cultural, or other disadvantages or deviations from a norm; a person is not mentally retarded, but ." For Prime Minister Howard, the "facts" of Australian history have been lost amid this overemphasis o·ver·em·pha·size  
tr. & intr.v. o·ver·em·pha·sized, o·ver·em·pha·siz·ing, o·ver·em·pha·siz·es
To place too much emphasis on or employ too much emphasis.
 on "issues." (3) This self-serving position is shared by Keith Windschuttle in his new book The Fabrication fabrication (fab´rikā´shn),
n the construction or making of a restoration.
 of Aboriginal History. (4)

The Fabrication of Aboriginal History is the first volume of a projected series that will reevaluate the history of Australian Aborigines Australian aborigines, native people of Australia who probably came from somewhere in Asia more than 40,000 years ago. In 2001 the population of aborigines and Torres Straits Islanders was 366,429, 1.  since 1788. Volume one focuses on Van Diemen's Land Van Diemen's Land: see Tasmania, Australia.  (renamed Tasmania in 1855) between 1803-1847. Windschuttle rejects the last thirty years of historical scholarship that, since the 1970s, has challenged the idea of Aboriginal passivity in the face of European colonization. According to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.

2. In keeping with: according to instructions.

 the pre-1970s orthodoxy, Aborigines aborigines: see Australian aborigines.  were "driven from the more fertile parts of the continent' into the arid interior, where they 'vanished like shadows in the bush.' " (5) In the 1970s, scholars began to reassess such views. In 1972 M.C. Hartwig published an important essay that placed Aboriginal history since 1788 in the context of racism, imported to Australia by the English. (6) Similarly, in the early 1970s C.D. Rowley published a "three-volume report to the Social Sciences Research Council on 'Aboriginal Policy and Practice.' " (7) Entitled The Destruction of Aboriginal Society, Rowley's work shattered the previous orthodoxy that had rested on "the twin legends of heroic pioneers and an egalitarian society." (8) Following Hartwig and Rowley's lead, subsequent Australian historians have produced a voluminous historiography that has rescued Aborigines from their former status as "a melancholy anthropological footnote." (9) These historians portray Aboriginal people as active agents in shaping the history of European-indigenous relations.

The recent historiography of European-Aboriginal con tacts in Tasmania highlights this shift in historical focus. Historians Sharon Morgan, Henry Reynolds Henry Reynolds may be:
  • Henry Reynolds (historian), Australian historian
  • Henry Reynolds (poet), English poet and critic of the seventeenth century
  • Henry Reynolds (VC), English World War I recipient of the Victoria Cross
  • Henry Reynolds (archaeologist)
, Lloyd Robson, and Lyndall Ryan Lyndall Ryan (1943 - ) is an Australian academic. She has held positions in Australian Studies and Women's Studies at Griffith University and Flinders University and is currently Foundation Professor of Australian Studies and Head of School of Humanities at the University of  argue that colonial Van Diemen's Land was "an extremely violent society" in which the "bloody flagellation flagellation /flag·el·la·tion/ (flaj?e-la´shun)
1. whipping or being whipped to achieve erotic pleasure.

2. exflagellation.

3. the formation or arrangement of flagella on an organism or surface.
 of convicts was common, because it was a cheap and efficient method of punishment which did not lead to the victim being absent from work very long." Similarly, public execution by hanging was not unheard of Not heard of; of which there are no tidings.
Unknown to fame; obscure.
- Glanvill.

See also: Unheard Unheard
, constituting an efficient means of ridding "the colony of malefactors." (10) Despite this violence, most historians agree that the British acquisition of land did not result in major conflict with Tasmanian Aborigines The Tasmanian Aborigines were the indigenous people of the island state of Tasmania, Australia. (Aboriginal name: lutrawita or trouwunna)

In the space of thirty years (1803-1833), the population of the Tasmanian Aborigines was reduced from around 5,000 to around 300,
 until the 1820s. (11) By then, British settlements, with their fences and hedgerows, expanded into the Tasmanian bush. (12) Thereafter British pastoralism Pastoralism

mountainous region of ancient Greece; legendary for pastoral innocence of people. [Gk. Hist.: NCE, 136; Rom. Lit.: Eclogues; Span. Lit.
 grew rapidly, disrupting Aboriginal society, and sparking violent conflicts. (13) This violence fueled settler paranoia and hysteria, resulting in what contemporaries called the "Black War." Responding to Aboriginal violence, which Henry Melville described as "Guerilla war" in his 1836 book The History of Van Diemen's Land, the government of Van Diemen's Land declared martial law martial law, temporary government and control by military authorities of a territory or state, when war or overwhelming public disturbance makes the civil authorities of the region unable to enforce its law.  in 1828, a decision that gave rise to "roving search and capture parties." (14) Their "final solution," according to Lloyd Robson, was the "Black Line." By "forming a line of soldiers and civilians across the island," the British hoped that the "most hostile Aboriginal bands [could be driven] in a south-easterly direction towards and then across the narrow isthmus isthmus (ĭs`məs), narrow neck of land connecting two larger land areas. Since it commands the only land route between two large areas and is on two seas, an isthmus has great strategical and commercial importance and is a favorable situation  on to Tasman and Forestier's Peninsulas." (15) Scholars divide over the success of the Black Line, some arguing that it was a military failure (capturing only two Aborigines), (16) while others contend it achieved its objective of "clearing the settled districts of the Aborigines." (17) Historians similarly disagree over the number of Aborigines killed in the 1820s and 1830s, some estimating that the figure could be as high as 700. (18)

Keith Windschuttle challenges this historiography in The Fabrication of Aboriginal History. Roughly chronological in format, Windschuttle jumps from refuting massacres, such as Risdon Cove Risdon Cove was the site of the first British settlement in Van Diemen's Land, now Tasmania, the smallest Australian state.

In 1803 Lieutenant John Bowen was sent to establish a settlement in Van Diemen's Land.
 in 1804, to denigrating den·i·grate  
tr.v. den·i·grat·ed, den·i·grat·ing, den·i·grates
1. To attack the character or reputation of; speak ill of; defame.

 the character of Aborigines--"Black bushrangers bushrangers, bandits who terrorized the bush country of Australia in the 19th cent. The first bushrangers (c.1806–44) were mainly escaped convicts who fled to the bush and organized gangs. "--to criticizing historical scholarship, to analysis of settler opinion, to refuting the Aboriginal death toll. He concludes with an attack on Aboriginal land rights politics which sends a message to "Tasmanians of British descent that they no longer retain their founding sites, but emphasizes they are trespassers." (19) This melange mé·lange also me·lange  
A mixture: "[a] building crowned with a mélange of antennae and satellite dishes" Howard Kaplan.
 makes for a disjointed read, but for the purposes of clarity, I will assess Windschuttle's refutation ref·u·ta·tion   also re·fut·al
1. The act of refuting.

2. Something, such as an argument, that refutes someone or something.

Noun 1.
 of British massacres of Aboriginal people; a counter narrative to the "orthodox school;" and his commentary on the culture war over Aboriginal history and politics.

Windschuttle argues that claims of massacres and guerrilla warfare guerrilla warfare (gərĭl`ə) [Span.,=little war], fighting by groups of irregular troops (guerrillas) within areas occupied by the enemy.  demonstrate how the "orthodox school" has politicized Aboriginal history, taking liberties with the evidence. (20) Windschuttle accuses the "orthodox school" of being "vain and self-indulgent," and also "arrogant, patronizing and lazy." (21) Challenging their estimates of Aboriginal deaths, Windschuttle writes:
   When it comes to assessing the total number of deaths that [Chief
   Protector] Robinson recorded from both black and white informants,
   the historians of the orthodox school do not produce a head count
   but fall back on rhetoric and unsupported generalisations. The
   worst offender is, again, Lyndall Ryan who is actually a far
   greater amplifier of violence than Robinson ever dared to be. (22)

Windschuttle implies that the "orthodox school" has conspired to inflate the number of Aboriginal deaths. Thus by focusing on the moral authority of the historian, Windschuttle distracts his readers from serious consideration of the meaning and impact of European colonization on indigenous Australians Indigenous Australians are descendants of the first known human inhabitants of the Australian continent and its nearby islands. The term includes both the Torres Strait Islanders and the Aboriginal People, who together make up about 2.5% of Australia's population. . This strategy is consistent with Windschuttle's political agenda which is embodied in his discomfort with the way the "orthodox school," by inflating Aboriginal massacres, impugns Australian identity and its virtuous Anglo-Saxon origins. (23) In contrast, Windschuttle aims to construct a history of Australia The history of Australia began when people first migrated to the Australian continent from the north, at least 40,000-45,000 years ago. The written history of Australia began when Dutch explorers first sighted the country in the 17th century.  that highlights the nation's "virtues," which had their antecedents in "the calibre of civilization Britain brought to these shores in 1788." (24) Windschuttle thus positions himself as an objective student of the "facts" of Aboriginal history, but as E. H. Carr “Edward Carr” redirects here. For the English footballer, see Eddie Carr.
Edward Hallett Carr (28 June 1892 – 3 November 1982) was a British historian, journalist and international relations theorist, and fierce opponent of empiricism within historiography.
 has noted, the historian "is necessarily selective" in deciding which facts to emphasize. (25) Indeed, Windschuttle privileges the opinions of settlers and colonial officials, found primarily in the British Parliamentary Papers, and at the same time, rejects Aboriginal oral histories.

For example, Winsdschuttle begins his reassessment of massacres in Aboriginal historiography at Risdon Cove in May 1804. (26) Official sources, Windschuttle argues, do not report a massacre. As Windschuttle sees it, the violence at Risdon Cove was a misunderstanding. He argues:
   Overall, the weight of the evidence does not support the
   interpretation about the Risdon Cove conflict now current
   in history books and the news media. It was not a slaughter
   of 'up to fifty' innocent men, women, and children. It was a
   defensive action by the colonists in which three Aborigines
   were shot dead and at least one, though possibly more, wounded.

Only decades after the event, when settlers reminisced about the early years of settlement, Windschuttle asserts, did the death toll at Risdon Cove rise to levels suggestive of suggestive of Decision making adjective Referring to a pattern by LM or imaging, that the interpreter associates with a particular–usually malignant lesion. See Aunt Millie approach, Defensive medicine.  a massacre. Windschuttle depicts Risdon Cove as an example of beleaguered be·lea·guer  
tr.v. be·lea·guered, be·lea·guer·ing, be·lea·guers
1. To harass; beset: We are beleaguered by problems.

2. To surround with troops; besiege.
 settlers forced to defend themselves against capricious and uncivilized indigenes. That the British Parliamentary Papers record nothing that resembles a massacre is, for Windschuttle, proof enough that none occurred. (28) This is a very different story from the one told by historians Henry Reynolds and Lloyd Robson. Drawing from similar evidence, Reynolds and Robson note that Aborigines were indeed fired upon. According to Lloyd Robson, the "onslaught on the Aborigines," ordered by Lt. William Moore William Moore is also the name of:
  • William Moore (pirate) (d. 1697), murdered by Captain Kidd
  • William Moore (statesman) (c.1735-1793), jurist and politician; President (i.e. Governor) of Pennsylvania (1781-82)
  • William Moore (British mathematician) (fl. c.
, was remembered by eyewitnesses to be a product of the Lieutenant's intoxication intoxication, condition of body tissue affected by a poisonous substance. Poisonous materials, or toxins, are to be found in heavy metals such as lead and mercury, in drugs, in chemicals such as alcohol and carbon tetrachloride, in gases such as carbon monoxide, and . Robson explains, "some thought it was the effect of a half-drunken spree and that the firing arose from a brutal desire 'to see the Niggers run.' (29) By ignoring such data, Windschuttle demonstrates how he too eschews documentary evidence A type of written proof that is offered at a trial to establish the existence or nonexistence of a fact that is in dispute.

Letters, contracts, deeds, licenses, certificates, tickets, or other writings are documentary evidence.
 that contradicts his own ideology and argument.

Windschuttle challenges other massacre stories, targeting especially Henry Reynolds's Fate of a Free People, which emphasized the "infamous Cape Grim Cape Grim is the northwestern point of Tasmania, Australia.  massacre in the far north-west of the colony" in 1828. (30) While not denying Aborigines died at Cape Grim, Windschuttle again minimizes the number killed. He thus challenges Chief Protector Robinson's account which claimed that thirty Aborigines had been killed at Cape Grim. (31) Interpreting photographs, Windschutde contends that "Aborigines would have seen [an attack] coming and would have had time to escape by swimming to the other side of the bay or out to sea." (32) Windschuttle also dismisses eyewitness accounts, gathered after the massacre from Aboriginal women and recorded in the diaries of Chief Protector Robinson. Windschuttle insists that these women, like Wayler "the Aboriginal amazon," had massacred "both whites and other Aborigines," and had lived in concubinage concubinage

Cohabitation of a man and a woman without the full sanctions of legal marriage. In the Judeo-Christian tradition, the term concubine has been generally applied exclusively to women; Western studies of non-Western societies use it to refer to partners who are
 with white sealers. By bringing into question the moral authority of Aboriginal women--and Aboriginal oral sources generally--Windschuttle both assails the "orthodox school"--whose scholars have used Aboriginal oral evidence--and positions his own narrative as an objective retelling re·tell·ing  
A new account or an adaptation of a story: a retelling of a Roman myth. 
 of the facts. (33)

Windschuttle's counter narrative expresses three broad themes: first, he posits that British settlers in Van Diemen's Land adhered to the principles of the Enlightenment, with its emphasis on the equality of all men; second, he argues that Van Diemen's Land was settled at a time when Evangelical Christianity dominated British thought; finally, Windschuttle argues that British settlers cherished the idea of equality before the law Noun 1. equality before the law - the right to equal protection of the laws
human right - (law) any basic right or freedom to which all human beings are entitled and in whose exercise a government may not interfere (including rights to life and liberty as well as
. (34) According to Windschuttle, these three themes rendered British settlement humane and just. On the first of these themes, Enlightenment thinking, Windschuttle writes:
   In Australia, as in the United States of America, the
   Enlightenment's belief in human equality was held not in
   opposition to Christianity but, rather, was a principle
   disseminated through the churches themselves and through their
   campaigns for social reform. (35)

In fact, comparison with the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area.  is more revealing than Windschuttle intends. Consider, for example, Thomas Jefferson, the most famous student of Enlightenment thinking in the United States. The author of the Declaration of Independence, and third President of the United States The head of the Executive Branch, one of the three branches of the federal government.

The U.S. Constitution sets relatively strict requirements about who may serve as president and for how long.
, Jefferson saw in African slaves a people whose "difference is fixed in nature, and is as real as if its seat and cause were better known to us." The Negro, marked by his "colour," had been endowed by the Creator, Jefferson claimed, with an inferior beauty, emitted a "disagreeable odour," was "ardent" in the realm of love, and lacked reason. (36) While Jefferson held that Native Americans could be elevated to a higher level of civilization--arguing in 1803 that Native Americans must "blend together, to intermix in·ter·mix  
tr. & intr.v. in·ter·mixed, in·ter·mix·ing, in·ter·mix·es
To mix or become mixed together.

[Back-formation from obsolete intermixt, from Latin
" with white Americans or be crushed (37)--his social reformism re·form·ism  
A doctrine or movement of reform.

re·formist n.
 was not guided by principles of racial egalitarianism, writing:
   No inferior race of men can exist in these United State without
   becoming subordinate to the will of the Anglo-Americans, or
   foregoing many of the necessities and comforts of life. They must
   either be our equals or our dependents. It is so with the negroes
   in the South; it is so with the Irish in the North; it was so
   with the Indians in New England; and it will be so with the
   Chinese in California. (38)

For Windschuttle, the Black Line of 1830-1831 (see above) exemplified "humanitarian" thinking in Van Diemen's Land. He argues that it aimed to drive the "Big River and Oyster Bay Oyster Bay, uninc. area (1990 pop. 6,687) of the Town of Oyster Bay, Nassau co., SE N.Y., on N Long Island, on Long Island Sound; settled 1653. It is chiefly residential.  tribes" out of "the southern midlands and south-east regions." (39) Achieving this objective, Governor Arthur then hoped to "put the two tribes he was targeting onto a closed reserve where they could practice their traditional way of life but would not be able to harass white settlers." (40) Windschuttle fails to recognize that these reserves were racialized spaces, designed to keep Aborigines from disrupting the lives of British settlers and the Anglo-Saxon narrative of community they were constructing. Aborigines were considered unworthy members of British settler society in Van Diemen's Land, constituted a form of social pollution--attacking and stealing from innocent settlers--and carrying biological pollutants like venereal disease venereal disease (vənēr`ēəl): see sexually transmitted disease. . (41) If the reserves embodied Enlightenment ideas, then they also highlighted its darker side of classification and racial hierarchy.

The rise of pastoralism in the 1820s, and the development of reservations, according to the "orthodox school," dosed white society to Aborigines. Windschuttle takes issue with this view, arguing that pastoralism did not consume Aboriginal hunting grounds and did not result in their dispossession The wrongful, nonconsensual ouster or removal of a person from his or her property by trick, compulsion, or misuse of the law, whereby the violator obtains actual occupation of the land. Dispossession encompasses intrusion, disseisin, or deforcement. . Windschuttle even denies the existence of fences or hedgerows, meant to excluding Aborigines from the land. (42) Windschuttle asserts that violence was perpetuated by Aborigines possessing a "savage spirit." (43) Aborigines, like the non-tribal (read: inauthentic) Musquito, were outlaws, stealing commodities like flour, and destroying livestock not because of starvation, but because they were common criminals. (44) If Aborigines were really starving, Windschuttle asks, why did they not eat the sheep and cattle that they had killed? Surely a "leg of lamb and fillet fillet /fil·let/ (fil´et)
1. a loop, as of cord or tape, for making traction on the fetus.

2. in the nervous system, a long band of nerve fibers.

 of beef" would have been to their liking? (45) In fact, Sharon Morgan has shown that Aborigines often did eat the sheep and cattle they killed. She notes that in "November 1815 it was reported that Natives had killed and eaten 930 sheep." (46) It is also true, as historians note, that hunger does not simply refer to an absence of food. Eating is often a communal activity and as such the expansion of British settlement and the creation of reservations shattered previous communal bonds. In this sense, Aboriginal hunger may have been a longing for something more than simply food. (47) Second, the absence offences and hedgerows did not mean that English settlers lacked an understanding of their property and who should and should not be allowed to pass over it. In The Road to Botany Bay Botany Bay, inlet, New South Wales, SE Australia, just S of Sydney. It was visited in 1770 by James Cook, who proclaimed British sovereignty over the east coast of Australia. The site of the landing is marked by a monument on Inscription Point. , Paul Carter Paul Carter is the name of:
  • Paul Carter (academic) (born 1951), historian, writer, artist and interdisciplinary scholar at the University of Melbourne
  • Paul Carter (politician), councillor on Stockport Metropolitan Borough Council
 makes this clear, observing that in Australia, "the extensive enclosure the name 'plain' implied was visible, finite, fixed and possessable. In consequence, the traveler could locate himself in a landscape. He could possess the view merely by looking." (48)

Thus, despite Windschuttle's denials, the rise of pastoralism ushered in an era of heightened racial animus Animus - ["Constraint-Based Animation: The Implementation of Temporal Constraints in the Animus System", R. Duisberg, PhD Thesis U Washington 1986].  towards Aborigines. This made it difficult for Aborigines, many of whom had made attempts to adapt and incorporate British culture into their understanding of the world, to sustain a reasonable standard of living. (49) Aboriginal attacks, therefore, were driven by desperation and frustration, the products of being locked out of the society many had endeavored to accommodate themselves to, as much as they embodied resistance. (50)

Windschuttle also insists that Christian Evangelicalism evangelicalism

Protestant movement that stresses conversion experiences, the Bible as the only basis for faith, and evangelism at home and abroad. The religious revival that occurred in Europe and America during the 18th century was generally referred to as the evangelical
 informed British attitudes towards Aborigines. Such beliefs ensured "a culture that fostered restraint" existed in colonial Van Diemen's Land. (51) He reasons that if settlers reacted violently, it must have been in self-defense (Law) in protection of self, - it being permitted in law to a party on whom a grave wrong is attempted to resist the wrong, even at the peril of the life of the assailiant.
- Wharton.

See also: Self-defense
. As Windschuttle puts it: "In every case, even the hardest attitudes were generated solely by the desire to stop the blacks from assaulting and murdering whites." (52) Windschuttle contends that Christian Evangelicalism led settlers in Van Diemen's Land to help and protect the natives. Such expressions appeared in Colonial Office instructions regarding the treatment of Aborigines, and in missionary efforts to civilize civ·i·lize  
tr.v. civ·i·lized, civ·i·liz·ing, civ·i·liz·es
1. To raise from barbarism to an enlightened stage of development; bring out of a primitive or savage state.

 Aborigines. In 1810, for example, instructions from the Colonial Office to Lieutenant-Governor David Collins, ordered Collins to use the full force of the law to prosecute those who "shall in cool blood murder" Aboriginal people. (53) However, Collins's instructions gave settlers a compelling motive to cover-up racial violence. (54) Indeed, settlers often suppressed evidence about the massacre of Aboriginal people. Even in personal diaries, self-censorship on such matters was not uncommon. (55)

Windschuttle highlights the Evangelical desire to convert the Aborigines. From Chief Protector Robinson to the average landowner, Windschuttle posits that the Evangelical spirit imbued English settlers with the sense that Aborigines were their "brothers" under God, deserving the joys of Christianity and the light of civilization. (56) Placed on Flinders Island Flinders Island, Australia: see Furneaux Group. , the Aboriginal people came under the protection of Chief Protector Robinson who vowed to protect the Aborigines from the colonists---contradicting Windschuttle's construction of settlers as honest, moral and virtuous. (57) On Flinders Island, Windschuttle claims that Aboriginal people enjoyed warmer and dryer weather than that experienced in Van Diemen's Land, were well fed, and generally treated better than the white convicts present on the island. (58) Such descriptions stand in stark contrast to the "orthodox school" who, like Lyndall Ryan, refer to "gaol-like conditions" on Flinders Island. (59)

The desire to convert Aborigines to Christianity was consistent with a deep-seated British ethno-centrism. (60) Ideas about religious difference constituted an important element in British racism, expressed through cultural forms like Christianity. This made it possible to come to terms with the duality of a religion preaching equality before God, but which presided over inequality on earth. To the British, however, this duality was not a contradiction, for as Winthrop Jordan Winthrop Donaldson Jordan (November 11, 1931 – February 23, 2007) was an American history professor and renowned writer of American Civil War and racial history of the United States.

Jordan was born in Worcester, Massachusetts.
 explains: "Social stability always depended upon maintenance of rigid distinction between two spheres, a distinction which rationalized the equality of souls with the inequality of persons." (61) Moreover, the evangelical mission to convert indigenous people represented no desire on the part of European colonizers to foster racial equality. John and Jean Comaroff demonstrate this in their study of South Africa South Africa, Afrikaans Suid-Afrika, officially Republic of South Africa, republic (2005 est. pop. 44,344,000), 471,442 sq mi (1,221,037 sq km), S Africa. , arguing that "social amelioration a·me·lio·ra·tion  
1. The act or an instance of ameliorating.

2. The state of being ameliorated; improvement.

Noun 1.
" was driven by a desire to heal the "blighted body" of the indigene which "served as a graphic symptom of moral disorder Moral Disorder (ISBN 0-747-58162-2) is a collection of connected short stories by Margaret Atwood published on 4 September 2006[1]. It chronicles the hidden pains of a troubled Canadian family over a 60 year span. ." This brings us back to my earlier point about Aboriginal pollution, and explains why missionary efforts focused intensively on indigenous women. By treating "the black female physique as a natural site for explorations in pathology," exploring and mastering that pathology stood as a sign that Europeans could master the unknown, thereby gaining control over it. (62) Moreover, such control made it possible for the British to instill in·still
To pour in drop by drop.

instil·lation n.
 in Aboriginal people a sense of obligation toward their racial superiors. Michael Marrus Michael Robert Marrus (born February 3, 1941) is a Canadian historian of France, the Holocaust and Jewish history. He was born in Toronto and received his BA at the University of Toronto in 1963 and his MA and PhD at the University of California, Berkeley in 1964 and 1968.  has discussed this psychology in his insightful study of the Jewish community in France in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, arguing that not only is a sense of obligation and dependence created among racialized groups, but that such a construct made it possible for the dominant social group to blame subordinate social group for social ills. (63) This psychology appeared in master/slave relationships throughout the Americas in the nineteenth century, in attitudes throughout the British Empire British Empire, overseas territories linked to Great Britain in a variety of constitutional relationships, established over a period of three centuries. The establishment of the empire resulted primarily from commercial and political motives and emigration movements  in the 1840s and 1850s after "the apparent 'failure' of [slave] emancipation in the West Indies West Indies, archipelago, between North and South America, curving c.2,500 mi (4,020 km) from Florida to the coast of Venezuela and separating the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico from the Atlantic Ocean. ," and in the "humanitarian" and evangelical ideals of British settlers in Van Diemen's Land. (64)

Finally, Windschuttle emphasizes the formal equality of Aborigines before the law. Echoing current debates about the Stolen Generation of Aboriginal children in the twentieth century, Windschuttle argues that ideas of equality before the law appeared in 1813 when Lieutenant-Governor Thomas Davey
for the New Zealand politician see Thomas Davey (New Zealand)

Thomas Davey (c. 1758 - May 2 1823) was the second Lieutenant Governor of Van Diemens Land.
 "issued a proclamation about reports that settlers had stolen Aboriginal children." The proclamation railed against those committing such "barbarous crimes" for they had "stained the honour of his country and himself." (65) Documents of this nature, however, do not sustain Windschuttle's virtuous settler thesis. Instead, they demonstrate that citizenship was hollow for Aborigines. As John Chesterman and Brian Galligan explain, the
   Australian people have never, at the colonial, state or
   Commonwealth level, adopted a constitutional or legislative
   statement outlining the rights and responsibilities of British
   subjecthood or Australian citizenship. Rather, 'British subject'
   and then 'Australian citizen' have been empty categories to which
   citizenship rights and entitlements have been attached, or in the
   case of 'aboriginal natives' denied, in supplementary legislation.

While Aborigines enjoyed equality before the law in theory, in practice the opposite was clearly the case. As the Australian colonies developed this pattern could be seen in government desires to protect Aborigines, while denying them the rights of citizenship. In Victoria, as in Van Diemen's Land, Aborigines "occupied the special position of 'protected persons' rather than citizens." (67) Nineteenth century liberalism, with its emphasis on equality before the law, was therefore elitist e·lit·ism or é·lit·ism  
1. The belief that certain persons or members of certain classes or groups deserve favored treatment by virtue of their perceived superiority, as in intellect, social status, or financial resources.
 and conservative. Historian George Fredrickson makes this point in relation to the United States, noting:
   In October 1865, the Nation, edited by the transplanted Englishman
   E.L. Godkin, described Northern Reconstruction aims in the
   following terms: 'What we do seek for the negro is equality before
   the law, such as prevails between a Parisian water-carrier and the
   Duc de Rohan, or between a London cabman and the Earl of Derby.

Equality before the law, therefore, was congruent with racial inequality racial inequality Racial disparity Social medicine, public health
A disparity in opportunity for socioeconomic advancement or access to goods and services based solely on race. See Women and health.
, making it possible for the British to incorporate indigenous people into their society, while ensuring the racial privilege of white settlers. (69)

The Fabrication of Aboriginal History is the most recent scholarly contribution in an Australian culture war over Aboriginal land rights and the place of indigenous people in Australia's historical narrative. The debate over Aboriginal politics and history involves a struggle over how we "order our lives together," and by implication, "a clash over national life itself." (70) Windschuttle's position in this debate should by now be clear, but it should be noted that this book synthesizes views that Windschuttle has expressed in the conservative publications Quadrant and The New Criterion. In these publications he has railed against "hardened ideologues" who espouse multiculturalism in education and emphasize the "struggle against discrimination, exploitation, and hostility" in Western countries. (71) This contempt for the "politically correct" is revisited in the epilogue of The Fabrication of Aboriginal History. Titled "Heritiage, Genealogy and Black Intellectual Authoritarianism," this chapter expresses the right wing populism populism

Political program or movement that champions the common person, usually by favourable contrast with an elite. Populism usually combines elements of the left and right, opposing large business and financial interests but also frequently being hostile to established
 of white Australians who feel their racially privileged position in society is under attack. Consider, for example, Windschuttle's discussion of the increasing Aboriginal population in Tasmania. While acknowledging that Aboriginal ancestry is no longer a badge of inferiority, the main reason for the increase is the "more generous welfare payments available to Aborigines than to whites." (72) He presents no evidence to support this claim. More serious is Windschuttle's argument that Aboriginal land rights victories tell "Tasmanians of British descent that they no longer retain their founding site, but emphasizes they are trespassers." (73) That these land claims are made by Aboriginal people of dubious ancestry increases Windschuttle's anger. But there is indeed a mixed race population in Tasmania today, most of whom are descended from unions between white sealers and Aborigines in the nineteenth century. (74) They embody the dynamic nature of cultural and social change, representing a continual presence in Tasmania that strengthens indigenous land rights claims. Land claims in Australia are predicated, among other things, on the assumption that Aborigines can prove continued occupation of that land and the maintenance of traditional customs. (75) But no social group maintains a static culture in this way. Culture is dynamic, changing over time. Aboriginal adaptation to settler culture exemplifies this process, resulting in cultural changes for both Aboriginal people and settlers. (76) Viewed from this perspective, Aborigines have enjoyed a continuous occupation of the land. Failure to acknowledge this occupation is, put simply, racist. This conceptualization con·cep·tu·al·ize  
v. con·cep·tu·al·ized, con·cep·tu·al·iz·ing, con·cep·tu·al·iz·es
To form a concept or concepts of, and especially to interpret in a conceptual way:
 of the land rights issue would no doubt trouble many white Australians. It also explains the popularity of the "static-fragile conception of 'tribal' society" among many white Australians, which, as Denis Byrne Denis Byrne is a former Kilkenny senior hurling captain. He is currently skills training the Dublin Senior Hurling team.[1] Denis won an All-Ireland Under 21 Hurling Championship with Kilkenny in 1994.  explains, constitutes a "wishful vision of a precolonial pre·co·lo·ni·al or pre-co·lo·ni·al  
Of, relating to, or being the period of time before colonization of a region or territory.
 order swept away":
   The notion of a precolonial Indigenous intelligence persisting in
   'settled' eastern Australia in the form of a signified landscape
   'inside' the colonial landscape is in some ways subversive; that
   this signification might include the borrowing and
   recontextualisation of elements of the coloniser's own culture
   threatens the perceived solidity of that culture and hence, in a
   sense, its right to be there. (77)

This brings us to the heart of the issue. Windschuttle, like Prime Minister Howard, wishes to portray Australia as a virtuous, moral, and heroic nation. He does this by denying the existence of Aboriginal massacres, and by implication, that Aborigines had any reason to resist. Moreover, his use of historical sources, as I have shown, is at times anachronistic a·nach·ro·nism  
1. The representation of someone as existing or something as happening in other than chronological, proper, or historical order.

. The Fabrication of Aboriginal History, then, is a therapeutic history for white (Anglo-Saxon) Australians that distorts and distracts. (78)


I wish to thank Brian Behnkin, John Smolenski, Alan Taylor, and Clarence Walker for their insightful comments on early drafts of this paper.

(1.) Prime Minister Howard quoted in Jon Stratton, Race Daze: Australia in Identity Crisis (Annandale, NSW NSW New South Wales

Noun 1. NSW - the agency that provides units to conduct unconventional and counter-guerilla warfare
Naval Special Warfare
, 1998), 122.

(2.) Quoted in Ibid., 120.

(3.) Ray Cassin, "Memo Mr Howard: Facts can Interfere with a Good Story," The Sunday Age, April 30, 2000, 14.

(4.) Keith Windschuttle, The Fabrication of Aboriginal History: Volume One, Vand Diemen's Land 1803-1847 (Sydney, 2002).

(5.) A.G.L. Shaw, The Story of Australia (London, 1961), 24, and M. Barnard, History of Australia (Sydney, 1962, 651 quoted in R.H.W. Reece, "The Aborigines in Australian Historiography in John A. Moses (ed.), Historical Disciplines and Culture in Australasia: An Assessment (St. Lucia, QLD QLD or Qld Queensland , 1979), 253. Reece draws this information from the Australian Encyclopedia (Sydney, 1958, vol. 1), 187. The view that Aborigines were a dying race was widely held. See for instance Ernest Scott, A Short History of Australia (7th Edition, Melbourne, 1947). For the most recent historical analysis of the "doomed race" theory see Russell McGregor, Imagined Destinies: Aboriginal Australians and the Doomed Race Theory, 1880-1939 (Melbourne, 1997).

(6.) M.C. Hartwig, "Aborigines and Racism: An Historical Perspective" in F.S. Stevens (ed.), Racism: The Australian Experience (vol. II, Sydney, 1972). English attitudes about the blackness of Australian Aborigines can be glimpsed in Tim Flannery (ed.), Watkin Tench: 1788 (Melbourne, [1789] 1996), 52-53; Lloyd Robson, A History of Tasmania The history of Tasmania begins at the end of the most recent ice age (approximately 10 000 years ago) when it is believed that the island was joined to the Australian mainland. : Volume I, Van Diemen s Land from the Earliest Times to 1855 (Melbourne, 1983), 13-14.

(7.) Reece, "The Aborigines in Australian Historiography," 266.

(8.) Rowley's The Destruction of Aboriginal Society: Aboriginal Policy and Practice (Canberra, 1970), quoted in Reece, "The Aborigines in Australian Historiography," 267.

(9.) J.A. La Nauze,"The Study of History, 1929-1959," Historical Studies, 9,33 (November 1959), 11.

(10.) Lloyd Robson, A Short History of Tasmania (Melbourne, 1985), 20-21.

(11.) Sharon Morgan, Land Settlement in Early Tasmania: Creating an Antipodean an·tip·o·des  
1. Any two places or regions that are on diametrically opposite sides of the earth.

2. (used with a sing. or pl. verb) Something that is the exact opposite or contrary of another; an antipode.
 England (Cambridge, 1992), 143; N.J.B. Plomley, The Aboriginal Settler Clash in Van Diemen's Land, 1803-1831 (Launceston, 1992), 6; Henry Reynolds, Fate of a Free People (Ringwood, VIC VIC Victor
VIC Victoria (State of Australia)
VIC Victory
VIC Victim (police slang)
VIC Vicinity
VIC Vicar
VIC Vicarage
VIC Virtual Information Center (APAN) 
, 1995), 28-30.

(12.) Reynolds, Fate of a Free People, 31.

(13.) Lyndall Ryan, The Aboriginal Tasmanians (2nd Edition, Crows Nest, 1996), 83.

(14.) Henry Melville, The History of Van Diemen's Land: From the Year 1824 to 1835, Inclusive During the Administration of Lieutenant-Governor George Arthur (Book One, edited by George Mackaness, Sydney, 1959), 27 [emphasis in original]. See also Reynolds, Fate of a Free People, 66; Lloyd Robson, A History of Tasmania, 212; Ryan, The Aboriginal Tasmanians, 101.

(15.) Robson, A History of Tasmania, 215,218-220; Reynolds, Fate of a Free People, 117.

(16.) Robson, A History of Tasmania, 220; Reynolds, Fate of a Free People, 78, 118.

(17.) Ryan, The Aboriginal Tasmanians, p. 112.

(18.) Ibid., 174. Henry Reynolds notes that the best historians can do in this respect is to come up with estimates. See Reynolds, Fate of a Free People, 76, 81.

(19.) Windschuttle, The Fabrication, p. 418.

(20.) Ibid., 4, 402, passim PASSIM - A simulation language based on Pascal.

["PASSIM: A Discrete-Event Simulation Package for Pascal", D.H Uyeno et al, Simulation 35(6):183-190 (Dec 1980)].

(21.) Ibid., 404,406.

(22.) Ibid., 284.

(23.) It is not uncommon to hear Australians in our time talk of their nation's Anglo-Celtic heritage; however, it must be stressed that this is not part of Windschuttle's conceptualization of a virtuous Australian nation. Windschuttle's construction of an Anglo-Saxon Australia goes back to nineteenth century images of the Irish as convicts and of peasant origin. See for example Beverley Kingston, The Oxford History of Australia: Glad, Confident Morning 1860-1900 (Volume 3, Melbourne, 1993), 124. This point can also be seen in James Bischoff, Sketch of the History of Van Diemens Land, Illustrated by a Map of the Island, and an Account of the Van Diemens Land Company (London, 1832), 35, which argues that "Bushrangers," who were often ex-convicts, and Aborigines, were the most significant early difficulties encountered by settlers in Van Diemen's Land.

(24.) Windschuttle, The Fabrication, 3. Windschuttle's conceptualization of early Australia is in stark contrast to earlier accounts, like that of Manning Clark, who described early colonial Australia as a society in which "life was brutish brut·ish  
1. Of or characteristic of a brute.

2. Crude in feeling or manner.

3. Sensual; carnal.

 and short, that it was one of wretchedness and squalor." C.M.H. Clark, A History of Australia: From the Earliest Times to the Age of Macquarie (Volume I, Melbourne, 1962), 243. Contemporaries, like the Reverend Samuel Marsden, senior chaplain of New South Wales New South Wales, state (1991 pop. 5,164,549), 309,443 sq mi (801,457 sq km), SE Australia. It is bounded on the E by the Pacific Ocean. Sydney is the capital. The other principal urban centers are Newcastle, Wagga Wagga, Lismore, Wollongong, and Broken Hill. , complained in 1829 that "Drunkenness and whoredom are the two sins to which the unguarded missionary is the most exposed, and particularly the latter sin amongst the heathen [Aborigines]." Marsden quoted in Ronald Hyam, Empire and Sexuality: The British Experience (Manchester, 1992), 100-101. See also Robert Aldrich, Colonialism and Homosexuality (London, 2003), chapter 7. On the issue of historical objectivity Windschuttle cites, for example, Henry Reynolds, who in his 1981 book The Other Side of the Frontier claimed that his "book was not conceived, researched or written in a mood of detached scholarship. It is inescapably political dealing as it must with issues that have aroused deep passions since 1788 and will continue to do so into the foreseeable future. Ibid., 6. Windschuttle fails to point out that Reynolds went on to say that "Many people may find it an uncomfortable book. It will challenge myths and prejudices embraced by both white and black communities and in so doing may please neither" Henry Reynolds, The Other Side of the Frontier: Aboriginal Resistance to the European Invasion of Australia (Ringwood, VIC, [1981] 1996), 1.

(25.) Edward Hallett Cart, What is History? (New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of
, 1963), 10. See also Hayden White, Tropics of Discourse: Essays in Cultural Criticism (Baltimore, 1978), chapter 2; Leo Spitzer, Lives in Between: The Experience of Marginality in a Country of Emancipation (New York, 1989), 8-9; Mark Beivr, 'Objectivity in History, History and Theory, 33, 3 (October 1994), 329-332; Richard J. Evans

For other people named Richard Evans, see Richard Evans (disambiguation).
Professor Richard Evans (born 1947) is a British historian of Germany.
, In Defence of History (London, 1997), 76.

(26.) For examples of "orthodox school" historiography concerning the Risdon Cove massacre see for example Ryan, The Aboriginal Tasmanians, 75, 174; Reynolds, Fate of a Free People, 76-77; Robson, A History of Tasmania, chapter 3.

(27.) Windschuttle, The Fabrication, 26.

(28.) Windschuttle, The Fabrication, 26, 40-42, 58.

(29.) Robson, A History of Tasmania, 46; Reynolds, Fate of a Free People, 76-77.

(30.) Reynolds, Fate of a Free People, 79-80.

(31.) Windschuttle, The Fabrication, 253. On Robinson's work with Aborigines more generally see Vivienne Rae-Ellis, Black Robinson: Protector of Aborigines The role of Protectors of Aborigines resulted from a recommendation of the report of the Select Committee of the House of Commons on Aborigines (British Settlements). On 31 January 1838, Lord Glenelg, Secretary of State for War and the Colonies sent Governor Gipps the report.  (Carlton South, VIC,1988).

(32.) Windschuttle, The Fabrication, 282,259-261,259.

(33.) Denying the reliability of historical evidence of racialized groups is a tactic used by historians to discredit historical accounts that do not fit with their presentist Noun 1. presentist - a theologian who believes that the Scripture prophecies of the Apocalypse (the Book of Revelation) are being fulfilled at the present time  morality. This has been the case in the United States, where debate has raged over the relationship between Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings. See Annette Gordon-Read, Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings: An American Controversy (Charlottesville, 1997), 114, 116.

(34.) Windschuttle, The Fabrication, 187, 189,298.

(35.) Ibid., 298.

936.) Thomas Jefferson, Notes on the State of Virginia (edited by William Peden, Chapel Hill, 1982), 138-139. Jefferson was clearly drawn to the ardent love making of African-American women given his lengthy relationship with one of his slaves, Sally Hemings. See Joseph J. Ellis, American Sphinx sphinx (sfĭngks), mythical beast of ancient Egypt, frequently symbolizing the pharaoh as an incarnation of the sun god Ra. The sphinx was represented in sculpture usually in a recumbent position with the head of a man and the body of a lion, : The Character of Thomas Jefferson (New York, 1997), 216219,303-309; Winthrop D. Jordon, Hemings and Jefferson: Redux Refers to being brought back, revived or restored. From the Latin "reducere." " in Jan Lewis & Peter S. Onuf (eds.), Sally Hemings and Thomas Jefferson: History, Memory, and Civic Culture (Charlottesville, 1999); Gordon-Read, Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings, especially chapter 4; Fawn M. Brodie Fawn McKay Brodie (September 15, 1915 – January 10, 1981) was a biographer and professor of history at UCLA, best known for Thomas Jefferson: An Intimate History, a work of psychobiography, and No Man Knows My History , Thomas Jefferson: An Intimate History (New York, 1974).

(37.) Thomas Jefferson, Writings: Autobiography, A Summary View of the Rights of British America, Notes on the State of Virginia, Public Papers, Addresses, Messages and Replies, Miscellany, Letters (New York, 1984), 1115, 1118.

(38.) Jefferson quoted in Robert G. Lee, Orientals: Asian Americans in Popular Culture (Philadelphia, 1999), 49.

(39.) Windschuttle, The Fabrication, 172.

(40.) Ibid., 172.

(41.) Rae-Ellis, Black Robinson, 50. On the concept of unworthiness and pollution see Mary Douglas, Purity and Danger: An Analysis of Concepts of Pollution and Taboo (New York, 1966). On racialized space see David Theo Goldberg David Theo Goldberg, PhD was born and raised in South Africa, where he later received degrees in philosophy and economics from the University of Capetown. He also holds a PhD in philosophy from City University of New York. , Racist Culture: Philosophy and the Politics of Meaning (Oxford, 1995), chapter 8.

(42.) Windschuttle, The Fabrication, 61-64, 78, 80.

(43.) Ibid., 116-118. Windschuttle derives the words "savage spirit" from his uncritical examination of testimony before the Broughton Committee, appointed by Governor Arthur in February 1830.

(44.) Ibid., 66-70, 124. Windschuttle's argument turns on its head the meaning of violent actions perpetuated by subaltern SUBALTERN. A kind of officer who exercises his authority under the superintendence and control of a superior.  groups. Slaves in the American South used a variety of violent techniques to resist their oppression, such as theft, arson and poison. See for example, Eugene D. Genovese Eugene Dominic Genovese (born May 19, 1930) is a noted historian of the American South and American slavery.

Genovese was born in Brooklyn and was awarded a BA from the Brooklyn College in 1953, a MA from Columbia University in 1955, and a PhD in 1959.
, Roll Jordan, Roll: The Worlds the Slaves Made, (New York, [19721 1976), book 4, especially 599-621.

(45.) Windschuttle, The Fabrication, 95.

(46.) Morgan, Land Settlement in Tasmania, 155. Windschuttle criticizes Morgan for arguing that Aborigines killed livestock for reasons other than to attain food. This is indicative of his simplistic sim·plism  
The tendency to oversimplify an issue or a problem by ignoring complexities or complications.

[French simplisme, from simple, simple, from Old French; see simple
 analytical approach to Aboriginal history. Windschuttle, The Fabrication, 95.

(47.) On this point see Cynthia Brantley, Feeding Families: British Ideas of Nutrition and Development in Early Colonial Africa (Portsmouth, 2002).

(48.) Paul Carter, The Road to Botany Bay,: An Essay in Spatial History (London, 1987), 147 [emphasis added]. See also Patricia Seed s Ceremonies of Possession in Europe s Conquest of the New World Conquest of the New World is a computer game produced by Interplay Entertainment in the mid-1990s. The game is a strategy game, involving single player playing, or multi-player playing either on LAN, modem, or even PBEM (play-by-email).  1492-1640 (Cambridge,1995), chapter 1.

(49.) See Reynolds, Fate of a Free People, 38, 4445, which suggests that the items Aborigines took from English settlers reflected the degree to which they had endeavored to adapt to settler society. See also Henry Reynolds, With The White People: The Crucial Role of Aborigines in the Exploration and Development of Australia (Ringwood, 1990).

(50.) On the escalation of Aboriginal attacks on settlers see Reynolds, Fate of a Free People, 28-29.

(51.) Windschuttle, The Fabrication, 341.

(52.) Ibid., 348.

(53.) Quoted in Ibid., 189.

(54.) Alan Lester, "British Settler Discourse and the Circuits of Empire," History Workshop Journal, 54 (2002), 39.

(55.) Carter, The Road to Botany Bay, 343.

(56.) Windschuttle, The Fabrication, 172,210, 299-300.

(57.) Ibid., 210.

(58.) Ibid., 230-231.

(59.) Ryan, The Aboriginal Tasmanians, 162.

(60.) On this point see Linda Colley, Britons: Forging the Nation 1707-1837 (New Haven, 1992).

(61.) Jordan, White Over Black, 363.

(62.) John L. Comaroff and Jean Comaroff, Of Revelation and Revolution: The Dialectics of Modernity on a South African Frontier, Volume Two (Chicago, 1997), 324,354-355.

(63.) Michael R. Marrus, The Politics of Assimilation: A Study of the French Jewish Community at the Time of the Dreyfus Affair (Oxford, 1971), 92.

(64.) In twentieth century historiography of American slavery, the argument that slavery was a positive good was most forcefully expressed by Ulrich B. Phillips, American Negro Slavery: A Survey of the Supply, Employment and Control of Negro Labor as Determined by the Plantation Regime (Baton Rouge, [1918] 1994), 342-343, passim. Phillips s argument was thoroughly critiqued by Kenneth M. Stampp Kenneth Milton Stampp (b. July 12, 1912), Alexander F. and May T. Morrison Professor of History Emeritus at the University of California, Berkeley (1946-1983), is a celebrated historian of slavery, the American Civil War, and Reconstruction. , The Peculiar Institution: Slavery in the Ante-Bellum South (New York, [1956] 1984). See also Leon F. Litwack's Been in the Storm so Long: The Aftermath of Slavery (New York, 1980), 111-115, passim; Alan Lester, "British Settler Discourse and the Circuits of Empire," 40.

(65.) Windschuttle, The Fabrication, 189.

(66.) John Cheaterman & Brian Galligan, Citizens Without Rights : Aborigines and Australian Citizenship (Cambridge, 1997), especially chapters one & two.

(67.) Ibid., 16.

(68.) Godkin quoted in George M. Fredrickson, The Black Image in the White Mind: The Debate on Afro-American Character and Destiny, 1817-1914 (Hanover, NH, 1987), 178. See also Thomas R. Metcalf, Ideologies of the Raj (Cambridge, [1995] 2001), x.

(69.) See John Smolenski, "Legal Boundaries and Morality Tales: Space on the Colonial Pennsylvania Frontier" in William Pencak & Daniel K. Richter (eds.), From Native America to Penn's Woods: Colonists, Indians, and the Racial Construction of Pennsylvania (Penn State Press, forthcoming). I thank Professor Smolenski for sharing this essay with me.

(70.) My reading of the debate over Aboriginal politics and history has been informed by James Davison Hunter, Culture Wars: The Struggle to Define America (New York, 1991), 50.

(71.) James Davison Hunter, Culture Wars; Keith Windschuttle,"The Problem of Democratic History," The New Criterion, 16, 10 (June 1998), 22, 26. See similarly Lynne V. Cheney, "The End of History," The Wall Street Journal, October 20, 1994. On the culture wars generally see Hunter, Culture Wars; Gary B. Nash, Charlotte Crabtree, Ross E. Dunn, History on Trial: Culture Wars and the Teaching of the Past (New York, 1997).

(72.) Windschuttle, The Fabrication, 434.

(73.) Ibid., 418.

(74.) Ryan, The Aboriginal Tasmanians, chapter 3; Lyndall Ryan, "The Struggle for Recognition: Part-Aborigines in Bass Strait in the Nineteenth Century," Aboriginal History, 1,1 (1977), 27-51.

(75.) David Hollinsworth, Race and Racism in Australia (2nd Edition, Katoomba, NSW, 1998), 211.

(76.) Christopher Tomlins, "Introduction: The Many Legalities of Colonization" in Tomlins & Bruce Mann (ed.), The Many Legalities of Early America (Chapel Hill, 2001), 20. This process can also be seen at work in other colonial contexts. See for example James Lockhart, The Nahaus After the Conquest: A Social and Cultural History of the Indians of Central Mexico, Sixteenth Through Eighteenth Centuries (Stanford, 1992); For an Australian example see Gillian Cowlishaw, Rednecks, Eggheads and Blackfellas: A Study of Racial Power and Intimacy in Australia (St. Leonards, NSW, 1999).

(77.) Denis Byrne, "Deep Nation: Australia's Acquisition of an Indigenous Past," Aboriginal History, 20 (1996), 87.

(78.) On the perils of therapeutic history see Clarence E. Walker, We Can't Go Home Again: An Argument About Afrocentrism (New York, 2001).

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