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Reasons for adults' participation in work-related courses, 2002-03.



In 2002-03, approximately ap·prox·i·mate  
adj.
1. Almost exact or correct: the approximate time of the accident.

2.
 68.5 million people, or one-third of civilian, noninstitutionalized adj. 1. not committed to an institution; - op people. Opposite of institutionalized nt>.

Adj. 1. noninstitutionalized - not committed to an institution
noninstitutionalised
 adults age 16 and older in the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. , took formal courses or training that were not part of a traditional degree, certificate, or apprenticeship apprenticeship, system of learning a craft or trade from one who is engaged in it and of paying for the instruction by a given number of years of work. The practice was known in ancient Babylon, Egypt, Greece, and Rome, as well as in modern Europe and to some extent  program for reasons related to their job or career (O'Donnell 2005). This Issue Brief examines these adult learners' reasons for participation in such formal, work-related courses. While much information about adults enrolled in college/university and vocational/technical credential credential verb To determine or verify titles, qualifications, documents, completion of required training, and continuing education, in those persons who function in a professional or official capacity–eg, ER physician, neurosurgeon, etc. Cf Credentials.  programs is available from institution-based surveys, less is known about participation in formal courses outside of these traditional programs, such as those offered by an employer.

Research suggests that there has been an increased demand for work-related adult education, resulting from changes in the labor market labor market A place where labor is exchanged for wages; an LM is defined by geography, education and technical expertise, occupation, licensure or certification requirements, and job experience , technology, and management practices. These changes have placed new demands on workers, who increasingly are expected to assume multiple responsibilities, handle changing procedures, and use a broad base of knowledge on the job (U.S. Department of Commerce et al. 1999). During the 1990s there was an upward trend in participation rates in adult education programs overall, and among most subgroups identified by age, sex, race/ethnicity, educational attainment Educational attainment is a term commonly used by statisticans to refer to the highest degree of education an individual has completed.[1]

The US Census Bureau Glossary defines educational attainment as "the highest level of education completed in terms of the
, and income (Creighton Creighton may refer to: Places
United States
  • Creighton, Florida
  • Creighton, Missouri
  • Creighton, Nebraska
Canada
  • Creighton, Saskatchewan
  • Creighton Mine, Ontario
 and Hudson Hudson, towns, United States
Hudson.

1 Industrial town (1990 pop. 17,233), Middlesex co., E central Mass., on the Assabet River, in an apple-growing region; settled c.1699, inc. 1866.
 2002). While previous research has examined trends in participation rates, additional information about reasons for participation is needed to understand why adults take formal work-related courses. Such courses may help adults to respond to labor market demands, fulfill ful·fill also ful·fil  
tr.v. ful·filled, ful·fill·ing, ful·fills also ful·fils
1. To bring into actuality; effect: fulfilled their promises.

2.
 their own desires to learn and improve their skills, or satisfy employers' requirements (for example, for certification or skill development).

The data on reasons for participation in formal, work-related courses discussed in this Issue Brief come from the Adult Education for Work-Related Reasons Survey (AEWR AEWR Airborne Early Warning Radar ) of the 2003 National Household Education Surveys Program (NHES NHES National Household Education Survey
NHES National Health Examination Survey
NHES Northern Hills Elementary School (various locations) 
). NHES is a random-digit-dial telephone survey, and the sample chosen for the AEWR is representative of civilian, noninstitutionalized adults age 16 and older in the United States who were not enrolled in 12th grade or below at the time of the survey. Between January January: see month.  and April of 2003, interviews were conducted with 12,725 adults, (1) who provided information about their educational activities during the previous 12 months. The formal work-related courses that respondents In the context of marketing research, a representative sample drawn from a larger population of people from whom information is collected and used to develop or confirm marketing strategy.  described in the survey had an instructor and were reported as related to a job or career, whether or not the adult learner Adult learner is a term used to describe any person socially accepted as an adult who is in a learning process, whether it is formal education, informal learning, or corporate-sponsored learning.  was employed while taking the course. Such courses included classes taken at colleges or universities that were not part of a degree program, (2) as well as seminars, training sessions, or workshops offered by various providers including businesses, unions, and government agencies, among others. Courses categorized cat·e·go·rize  
tr.v. cat·e·go·rized, cat·e·go·riz·ing, cat·e·go·riz·es
To put into a category or categories; classify.



cat
 as work-related education could pertain to pertain to
verb relate to, concern, refer to, regard, be part of, belong to, apply to, bear on, befit, be relevant to, be appropriate to, appertain to
 any topic so long as the adult learner considered the courses to have been taken for work-related reasons. Excluded from this type of adult education are basic skills or GED GED
abbr.
1. general equivalency diploma

2. general educational development

GED (US) n abbr (Scol) (= general educational development) →
 classes, as well as courses that participants took in pursuit of a degree or diploma or as part of an apprenticeship leading to journeyman status.

All respondents who had taken formal work-related courses, regardless of employment status, were asked whether they had done so for any of a series of selected reasons: to maintain or improve skills or knowledge they already had; to learn completely new skills or knowledge; to help change their job or career field, enter the workforce, or start their own business; and to get or keep a state or industry certificate or license. In addition, participants who had been employed at some time in the previous 12 months, excluding those who were self-employed self-em·ployed
adj.
Earning one's livelihood directly from one's own trade or business rather than as an employee of another.



self
 and had no other employer, were asked whether they had taken work-related courses to receive a promotion or pay raise or because their employers had required or recommended participation.

As shown in table 1, the maintenance or improvement of skills or knowledge was the most frequently mentioned reason for taking formal work-related courses. Almost all adult participants (92 percent) indicated that they sought to maintain or improve skills or knowledge that they already had, and a majority (77 percent) also sought to learn completely new skills or knowledge. One-third took courses to get or keep a certificate or license, (3) and about one-fifth took courses to help change their job or career field, enter the workforce, or start their own business.

About 94 percent of work-related course participants were employed sometime during the period from early 2002 to early 2003 (not shown in table). (4) Among these employed participants, about three-fourths Noun 1. three-fourths - three of four equal parts; "three-fourths of a pound"
three-quarters

common fraction, simple fraction - the quotient of two integers
 took a course because their employer required or recommended that they take it, while 18 percent took a course to receive a promotion or a pay raise.

Reasons for participation varied by characteristics such as age, educational attainment, employment status, and income. The youngest participants were most likely to take classes to learn new skills or knowledge, compared to older participants. In contrast, they were less likely than those in the three middle age categories to be taking classes to maintain skills or knowledge they already had or to get or keep a certificate or license. Coursetaking to help change or get a job or start one's own business declined with age. Among employed participants, coursetaking to receive a promotion or pay raise also declined with age. Additionally, it was more common for employed participants ages 16 to 40 to take courses because of an employer's requirement or recommendation than for those over age 65 to do so.

Among participants, women were more likely than men to report taking formal work-related courses to learn completely new skills or knowledge (80 percent vs. 73 percent, respectively).

Among all participants, Whites were less likely than Blacks or Hispanics to take a course to learn new skills or knowledge or to help change their job or career field. Among employed participants, Whites (16 percent) were less likely than Blacks or Hispanics (26 percent each) to take courses to receive a promotion or a pay raise.

Reasons for coursetaking also varied by the course taker's level of education. The percentage of participants who reported taking courses to maintain or improve existing skills or knowledge increased with educational attainment, from 78 percent among high school dropouts to 96 percent among those with a graduate or professional degree. Other reasons for participation were cited less frequently by participants with graduate or professional degrees. For example, course takers with a graduate or professional degree were the least likely to take courses to help get or change a job (11 percent), while participants with less than a high school diploma A high school diploma is a diploma awarded for the completion of high school. In the United States and Canada, it is considered the minimum education required for government jobs and higher education. An equivalent is the GED.  were most likely to report this reason (41 percent). Among employed participants, the most highly educated workers were less likely than those with less than a bachelor's bach·e·lor's  
n.
A bachelor's degree.
 degree to take courses in order to receive a promotion or pay raise (9 percent vs. 21-27 percent).

Reasons for participation also varied by the course taker's employment status. Participants who held a job at some time in the 12 months prior to the survey were more likely (93 percent) than those who were not employed (83 percent) to take courses to maintain or improve existing skills or knowledge, while employed participants were about half as likely (18 percent) as those not employed (38 percent) to take courses to help get or change a job, enter the workforce, or start a business.

Among participants who were employed in the 12 months prior to the survey, there were some differences in reasons for coursetaking by occupational group (classified as professional/managerial, sales/service/clerical, or trades and labor). Across the three occupational groups, most participants took work-related courses to maintain or improve skills or knowledge they already had. However, participants in professional or managerial jobs were the least likely to take courses in order to get or change a job (12 percent), because their employers required or recommended participation (73 percent), or to receive a promotion or pay raise (13 percent), compared to participants in other occupations. Additionally, participants working in sales/service/clerical occupations were less likely than participants in other types of occupations to report taking formal work-related courses to get or keep a certificate or license.

Household income was associated with differences in reasons for course participation. Participants in higher income households were more likely than those in lower income households to take courses to maintain skills or knowledge they already had. Conversely con·verse 1  
intr.v. con·versed, con·vers·ing, con·vers·es
1. To engage in a spoken exchange of thoughts, ideas, or feelings; talk. See Synonyms at speak.

2.
, participants in higher income households were less likely than those in lower income households to take courses to learn completely new skills or knowledge or to take courses to get or change a job. Among employed participants, those with lower household incomes were more likely than those with higher household incomes to take a course in pursuit of a promotion or pay raise.

Summary

More than 90 percent of adults who took formal work-related courses in 2002-03 reported doing so in order to maintain or improve skills or knowledge they already had, while fewer than 20 percent took such courses to get or change a job or career field. Among employed adults, the majority took courses because their employer required or recommended participation, while about a fifth did so in order to get a promotion or pay raise.

The likelihood of taking classes for the selected reasons examined in this brief generally varied by participants' age, education, employment status, occupation, and household income. A few differences also were found between participants of different races/ethnicities and between men and women. Participants who were older, the most highly educated, employed, or living in higher income households were more likely to say they took work-related courses to maintain or improve the skills they already had and less likely to report doing so in order to get or change a job. Among employed course takers, participation to fulfill an employer's requirement or recommendation, or to get a promotion or pay raise, was less common among the oldest, most highly educated, and professional/managerial workers.

References

Creighton, S., and Hudson, L. (2002). Participation Trends and Patterns in Adult Education: 1991-1999 (NCES NCES National Center for Education Statistics
NCES Net-Centric Enterprise Services (US DoD)
NCES Network Centric Enterprise Services
NCES Net Condition Event Systems
 2002-119). U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.

Hagedorn, M., Montaquila Montaquila is a town and commune in the province of Isernia, in the Molise region of southern Italy. External links
  • Montaquila


    
, J., Vaden-Kiernan, N., Kim Kim

orphan wanders streets of India with lama. [Br. Lit.: Kim]

See : Adventurousness
, K., and Chapman CHAPMAN. One whose business is to buy and sell goods or other things. 2 Bl. Com. 476. , C. (2004). National Household Education Surveys of 2003: Data File User's Manual, Volume I (NCES 2004-101). U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.

O'Donnell, K. (2005). Tabular Summary of Adult Education for Work-Related Reasons: 2002-2003 (NCES 2005-044). U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. U.S. Departments of Commerce, Education, and Labor, the National Institute for Literacy literacy

Ability to read and write. The term may also refer to familiarity with literature and to a basic level of education obtained through the written word. In ancient civilizations such as those of the Sumerians and Babylonians, literacy was the province of an elite
, and the Small Business Administration. (1999). 21st Century Skills for 21st Century Jobs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Footnotes

(1) The weighted sample represents approximately 206.5 million civilian, noninstitutionalized adults age 16 or older and not enrolled in 12th grade or below. The overall response rate for the 2003 AEWR, which is the product of the response rate for a screener questionnaire questionnaire,
n a series of questions used to gather information.

questionnaire,
n a form usually filled out by patients that provides data concerning their dental and general health.
 and the response rate for the AEWR interview, is 52.1 percent. For further detail about the NHES survey methodology and response rates, see Hagedorn et al. (2004).

(2) Enrollment in college/university degree programs is ascertained as·cer·tain  
tr.v. as·cer·tained, as·cer·tain·ing, as·cer·tains
1. To discover with certainty, as through examination or experimentation. See Synonyms at discover.

2.
 separately from enrollment in work-related courses that are not taken in pursuit of a formal degree. Therefore, estimates included here do not include adults enrolled in programs in pursuit of a college or university degree.

(3) Examples of such certificates or licenses include teaching certificates; licenses for physicians, nurses, and cosmetologists; commercial driver's licenses; and industry certifications such as A+ certification for computer technicians.

(4) In this report, adults referred to as employed are those who had worked at some time in the previous 12 months. These adults were not necessarily employed either at the time they took the course or on the date the interview was conducted. Additionally, respondents who were self-employed and had no other employer are not included in the group of employed participants, because they were not asked reasons for participation having to do with an employer.

Data source: The Adult Education for Work-Related Reasons Survey of the 2003 National Household Education Surveys Program.

Author affiliations: M. DeBell, Education Statistics Services Institute; G. Mulligan, NCES.

For questions about content, contact Gail Mulligan (gail.mulligan@ed.gov See .gov and GovNet.

(networking) gov - The top-level domain for US government bodies.
).

To obtain this Issue Brief (NCES 2005-088), call the toll-free ED Pubs number (877-433-7827) or visit the NCES Electronic Catalog catalog, descriptive list, on cards or in a book, of the contents of a library. Assurbanipal's library at Nineveh was cataloged on shelves of slate. The first known subject catalog was compiled by Callimachus at the Alexandrian Library in the 3d cent. B.C.  (http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch).
Table 1. Percentage of adult participants who gave selected reasons for
participation in work-related courses, by adult characteristics:
2002-03

                                             Reasons for participation

                                             To maintain       To learn
                                Number of    or improve      completely
                                   adults     skills or      new skills
Characteristic                 (thousands)    knowledge    or knowledge

  Total                             68,499            92             77
Age
  16 to 30 years                    16,781            88             84
  31 to 40 years                    16,429            94             77
  41 to 50 years                    19,304            93             74
  51 to 65 years                    14,012            95             70
  66 years or older                  1,973            84             75
Sex
  Male                              32,458            93             73
  Female                            36,041            92             80
Race/ethnicity
  White, non-Hispanic               51,552            92             75
  Black, non-Hispanic                7,245            93             85
  Hispanic                           6,150            91             83
  Asian or Pacific Islander,         2,414            90             66
    non-Hispanic
  Other race,                        1,139            90             76
    non-Hispanic
Highest education level completed
  Less than a high school            2,972            78             82
    diploma/equivalent
  High school diploma/              14,268            89             78
    equivalent
  Some college/vocational/          21,183            92             79
    associate's degree
  Bachelor's degree                 18,740            94             74
  Graduate or                       11,336            96             72
    professional degree
Employment and occupation
  Employed in last                  64,559            93             76
    12 months
  Professional/managerial           29,207            96             75
  Sales/service/clerical            26,433            91             79
  Trades and labor                   8,919            87             75
  Not employed in                    3,940            83             78
    last 12 months
Household income
  $20,000 or less                    5,099            82             84
  $20,001 to $35,000                 8,921            89             78
  $35,001 to $50,000                10,574            92             82
  $50,001 to $75,000                17,351            93             78
  $75,001 or more                   26,553            95             71

                                 Reasons for participation

                                  All adult participants

                                  To help
                               change job   To get or keep
                                or career      certificate
Characteristic                  field (1)    or license (2)

  Total                                19               33
Age
  16 to 30 years                       29               27
  31 to 40 years                       18               37
  41 to 50 years                       16               34
  51 to 65 years                       13               35
  66 years or older                     7               35
Sex
  Male                                 17               35
  Female                               20               32
Race/ethnicity
  White, non-Hispanic                  16               34
  Black, non-Hispanic                  28               39
  Hispanic                             30               28
  Asian or Pacific Islander,           24               26
    non-Hispanic
  Other race,                          19               31
    non-Hispanic
Highest education level completed
  Less than a high school              41               25
    diploma/equivalent
  High school diploma/                 22               34
    equivalent
  Some college/vocational/             20               33
    associate's degree
  Bachelor's degree                    16               32
  Graduate or                          11               36
    professional degree
Employment and occupation
  Employed in last                     18               33
    12 months
  Professional/managerial              12               35
  Sales/service/clerical               23               30
  Trades and labor                     19               37
  Not employed in                      38               34
    last 12 months
Household income
  $20,000 or less                      42               33
  $20,001 to $35,000                   26               37
  $35,001 to $50,000                   21               36
  $50,001 to $75,000                   17               32
  $75,001 or more                      12               32

                               Employed adult participants (3)

                               Because employer   To receive a
                                    required or   promotion or
Characteristic                   recommended it      pay raise

  Total                                      76             18
Age
  16 to 30 years                             79             26
  31 to 40 years                             79             18
  41 to 50 years                             74             14
  51 to 65 years                             74             13
  66 years or older                          68             11
Sex
  Male                                       77             19
  Female                                     76             17
Race/ethnicity
  White, non-Hispanic                        76             16
  Black, non-Hispanic                        75             26
  Hispanic                                   78             26
  Asian or Pacific Islander,                 72             19
    non-Hispanic
  Other race,                                80             23
    non-Hispanic
Highest education level completed
  Less than a high school                    75             22
    diploma/equivalent
  High school diploma/                       77             27
    equivalent
  Some college/vocational/                   79             21
    associate's degree
  Bachelor's degree                          77             13
  Graduate or                                69              9
    professional degree
Employment and occupation
  Employed in last                           76             18
    12 months
  Professional/managerial                    73             13
  Sales/service/clerical                     78             22
  Trades and labor                           83             21
  Not employed in                    ([dagger])     ([dagger])
    last 12 months
Household income
  $20,000 or less                            70             27
  $20,001 to $35,000                         81             24
  $35,001 to $50,000                         77             19
  $50,001 to $75,000                         79             18
  $75,001 or more                            74             14

([dagger]) Not applicable.

(1) Full text as worded in the survey: "To help you change your job or
career field, enter the workforce, or start your own business."

(2) Full text as worded in the survey: "To get or keep a state or
industry certificate or license."

(3) These items were asked only of adults who reported having worked in
the past 12 months and who were not only self-employed.

NOTE: Formal work-related courses include any training, courses, or
classes that had an instructor and were related to a job or career,
whether or not the respondent had a job when he or she took them.
Excluded from this type of adult education are basic skills or GED
classes, as well as courses that participants took in pursuit of a
formal postsecondary credential or as part of an apprenticeship
program. Information was collected on up to four work-related courses
or trainings taken in the previous 12 months and reported as
work-related. If an adult took more than four courses, four were
sampled for data collection. Detail may not sum to totals due to
rounding. Standard errors for this table are available at
http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2005/2005088_se.pdf.

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education
Statistics, Adult Education for Work-Related Reasons Survey of the
2003 National Household Education Surveys Program.
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Title Annotation:Lifelong Learning
Author:DeBell, Matthew; Mulligan, Gail
Publication:Education Statistics Quarterly
Article Type:Survey
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Feb 1, 2006
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