Rates of Computer and Internet use by children in nursery school and students in kindergarten through twelfth grade: 2003.The use of computers and the Internet Internet
Publicly accessible computer network connecting many smaller networks from around the world. It grew out of a U.S. Defense Department program called ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network), established in 1969 with connections between computers at the by students has increased rapidly in recent years (U.S. Department of Education 1999; U.S. Department of Commerce 2002). In 2001, computer and internet use was more widespread among school-age children and adolescents than among adults (DeBell and Chapman 2003). The now commonplace use of these technologies follows the installation of computers and internet access See how to access the Internet. in nearly all public schools and in a majority of households with children by 2000 (Kleiner and Lewis 2003; Newburger 2001).
The use of computers and the Internet may improve people's everyday lives and improve their labor market labor market A place where labor is exchanged for wages; an LM is defined by geography, education and technical expertise, occupation, licensure or certification requirements, and job experience prospects. Because these technologies have the potential to improve access to information, help to get tasks done better or more quickly, and facilitate communication (see National Research Council 1999), computer and internet use rates may be considered indicators of the standard of living. Also, the use of computers helps students gain experience with this technology, so use rates may indicate how well prepared the current generation of students is to enter a workforce where the ability to use a computer is expected (U.S. Department of Education 1999).
This Issue Brief describes the percentages of students in grades 12 or below who used computers or the Internet in 2003. Data for this Issue Brief come from the October October: see month. 2003 Computer and Internet Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (CPS (1) (Characters Per Second) The measurement of the speed of a serial printer or the speed of a data transfer between hardware devices or over a communications channel. CPS is equivalent to bytes per second. ). The CPS is a sample survey representative of the civilian noninstitutional adj. 1. not institutional. Opposite of institutional nt>.
Adj. 1. noninstitutional - not institutional
institutional - organized as or forming an institution; "institutional religion" population in the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. . The survey is conducted in approximately 56,000 households each month. In October 2003 it collected information regarding 29,075 children enrolled in nursery school nursery school, educational institution for children from two to four years of age. It is distinguishable from a day nursery in that it serves children of both working and nonworking parents, rarely receives public funds, and has as its primary objective to promote through 12th grade. (1) A member of each household who is at least 15 years old provided information about household members. As a result of this data collection method, data regarding computer and internet use by students were not collected directly from students in most cases, but from another member of the household; this method is a potential source of error. Computer users are identified by questions that ask if the subject uses computers at home, at work, or at school. Internet users are identified by questions that ask if the subject uses the Internet at any location. (For further detail about CPS survey methods, see U.S. Census Bureau Noun 1. Census Bureau - the bureau of the Commerce Department responsible for taking the census; provides demographic information and analyses about the population of the United States
Bureau of the Census 2002.)
As shown in table 1, the majority of students use computers and the Internet. (2) Overall, 91 percent used computers and 59 percent used the Internet in 2003. The use of these technologies begins at young ages; 67 percent of children in nursery school were computer users, as were 80 percent of those in kindergarten kindergarten [Ger.,=garden of children], system of preschool education. Friedrich Froebel designed (1837) the kindergarten to provide an educational situation less formal than that of the elementary school but one in which children's creative play instincts would be . About one-quarter (23 percent) of children in nursery school used the Internet, and about one-third (32 percent) of kindergarteners did so. By high school, nearly all students (97 percent) used computers, and a majority (80 percent) used the Internet.
Table 1 shows that the use of these technologies varied by several interrelated in·ter·re·late
tr. & intr.v. in·ter·re·lat·ed, in·ter·re·lat·ing, in·ter·re·lates
To place in or come into mutual relationship.
in characteristics. (3) Computer and internet use varied by race/ethnicity, disability status, parent educational attainment Educational attainment is a term commonly used by statisticans to refer to the highest degree of education an individual has completed.
The US Census Bureau Glossary defines educational attainment as "the highest level of education completed in terms of the , household language, poverty status, and family income. Differences by these characteristics have been found in previous analyses (U.S. Department of Commerce 1995; U.S. Department of Commerce 1999; Rathbun The name Rathbun may refer to the following people, places or vessels:
Current differences in computer use among students are smaller than those found among adults in previous analyses (e.g., U.S. Department of Commerce 1999), reflecting the fact that most students now use computers. For example, in 2001, adults with graduate education were four times more likely than adults with less than a high school credential credential verb To determine or verify titles, qualifications, documents, completion of required training, and continuing education, in those persons who function in a professional or official capacity–eg, ER physician, neurosurgeon, etc. Cf Credentials. to use computers, and adults living in families making over $75,000 per year were three times as likely as those in families making less than $20,000 per year to use computers, reflecting differences of 66 and 58 percentage points, respectively (DeBell and Chapman 2003). In contrast, in 2003 students with a parent with some graduate education were about 1.2 times more likely to use computers than students whose parents had not completed high school, reflecting a difference of 13 percentage points (table 1). Students living in families making over $75,000 per year in 2003 were 1.1 times as likely to use computers as those in families making less than $20,000 per year, reflecting a difference of 9 percentage points. Thus, these group differences in student computer use are smaller than differences observed among adults in recent years.
Differences in internet use among students are also smaller than some of the differences recently reported for adults. Adults with graduate education in 2001 were five times more likely than adults with less than a high school credential to use the Internet, and adults with family incomes of $75,000 or more were 3.4 times more likely than adults with incomes below $20,000 to use the Internet, reflecting differences of 68 and 58 percentage points, respectively (DeBell and Chapman 2003). In contrast, in 2003 students with a parent with some graduate education were twice as likely as students whose parents had not completed high school to use the Internet, and students from families with incomes of $75,000 or more were 1.8 times more likely than students from families with incomes below $20,000 to use the Internet. These reflect differences of 36 and 33 percentage points, respectively.
Although differences among students in both computer and internet use are smaller than differences among adults, rates of internet use are more varied than rates of computer use. The differences in internet use are at least twice as large as those in computer use when making comparisons based on poverty status, household language, race/ethnicity for Blacks and Whites, and the highest and lowest categories of income and parent educational attainment. For family income and parent education, differences in computer use are 9 and 13 percentage points, respectively, while differences in internet use are 33 and 36 points, respectively. Another way of looking at the data is to consider that although most students now use computers, a majority of students with selected characteristics still do not use the Internet. These include students whose family income is under $20,000, students in poverty, students whose parents have less than a high school credential, Black (non-Hispanic) and Hispanic Hispanic Multiculture A person of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race Social medicine Any of 17 major Latino subcultures, concentrated in California, Texas, Chicago, Miam, NY, and elsewhere students, and students in households where Spanish Spanish, river, c.150 mi (240 km) long, issuing from Spanish Lake, S Ont., Canada, NW of Sudbury, and flowing generally S through Biskotasi and Agnew lakes to Lake Huron opposite Manitoulin island. There are several hydroelectric stations on the river. is the only language spoken.
The use of computers and the Internet by students is commonplace and begins early. In upper grade levels, nearly all students use computers and a substantial majority use the Internet. Even before kindergarten, a majority of nursery school children use computers, and 23 percent use the Internet. Differences exist in computer use among students, but differences by characteristics such as income and education are smaller--about 9 percentage points between the highest and lowest income categories and about 13 percentage points between the highest and lowest categories of parental education--than differences that have been observed among adults. The differences among students are broader for internet use than computer use. Differences between groups by family income and parental education are as large as 33 and 36 percent, respectively, making students from the most advantaged backgrounds about twice as likely to use the Internet as those from the least advantaged backgrounds.
DeBell, M., and Chapman, C. (2003). Computer and Internet Use by Children and Adolescents in the United States, 2001 (NCES NCES National Center for Education Statistics
NCES Net-Centric Enterprise Services (US DoD)
NCES Network Centric Enterprise Services
NCES Net Condition Event Systems 2004-014). U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.
Kleiner, A., and Lewis, L. (2003). Internet Access in U.S. Public Schools and Classrooms: 1994-2002 (NCES 2004-011). U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. National Research Council. (1999). Being Fluent fluent /flu·ent/ (floo´int) flowing effortlessly; said of speech. With Information Technology. Washington, DC: Author.
Newburger, E. (2001). Home Computers and Internet Use in the United States: August 2000 (U.S. Census Bureau Special Study P23-207). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce.
Rathbun, A., and West, J. (2003). Young Children's Access to Computers in the Home and at School in 1999 and 2000 (NCES 2003-036). U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.
U.S. Census Bureau (2002). Technical Paper 63 Revised: Current Population Survey-Design and Methodology (TP63RV). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce.
U.S. Department of Commerce. (1995). Falling Through the Net: A Survey of the "Have Nots" in Urban and Rural America America [for Amerigo Vespucci], the lands of the Western Hemisphere—North America, Central (or Middle) America, and South America. The world map published in 1507 by Martin Waldseemüller is the first known cartographic use of the name. . Washington, DC: Author.
U.S. Department of Commerce. (1999). Falling Through the Net: Defining the Digital Divide. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
U.S. Department of Commerce. (2002). A Nation Online: How Americans Are Expanding Their Use of the Internet. Washington, DC: Author.
U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. (1999). The Condition of Education 1998 (NCES 98-013). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
(1) The weighted sample represents approximately 58.3 million noninstitutionalized children age 3 and older in nursery school through 12th grade in October 2003. These estimates exclude children in long-term medical care facilities and juvenile detention The act of keeping back, restraining, or withholding, either accidentally or by design, a person or thing.
Detention occurs whenever a police officer accosts an individual and restrains his or her freedom to walk away, or approaches and questions an individual, or stops an facilities, as well as those who have dropped out of school. The Current Population Survey defines nursery school as a group or class organized to provide education for children before kindergarten. It includes preschool and prekindergarten. For ease of presentation, the population enrolled in nursery school through the 12th grade is referred to as "students" in this Issue Brief.
(2) Reported usage may involve the cooperation or assistance of an adult or older child, but that information was not collected.
(3) All differences cited in this report are significant at the .05 level using Student's t statistic t statistic, t distribution
the statistical distribution of the ratio of the sample mean to its sample standard deviation for a normal random variable with zero mean. . When analyzing data from large samples, many differences (no matter how substantively minor) can be statistically significant. The discussion is limited to differences of at least 5 percentage points.
Data source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey (CPS), October 2003.
For more information on the CPS, visit http://nces.ed.gov/surveys/cps.
Author affiliation: M. DeBell, Education Statistics Services Institute.
For questions about content, contact Chris Chapman (email@example.com).
To obtain this Issue Brief (NCES 2005-111rev), call the toll-free ED Pubs number (877-433-7827) or visit the NCES Electronic Catalog catalog, descriptive list, on cards or in a book, of the contents of a library. Assurbanipal's library at Nineveh was cataloged on shelves of slate. The first known subject catalog was compiled by Callimachus at the Alexandrian Library in the 3d cent. B.C. (http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch).
Table 1. Percentage of children enrolled in grade 12 or below who use computers and the Internet, by child and family/household characteristics: 2003 Number of Percent Percent students (in using using the Characteristic thousands) computers Internet Total 58,273 91 59 Child characteristics Enrollment level Nursery school (1) 4,928 67 23 Kindergarten 3,719 80 32 Grades 1-5 20,043 91 50 Grades 6-8 12,522 95 70 Grades 9-12 17,062 97 80 Sex Female 28,269 91 61 Male 30,005 91 58 Race/ethnicity (2) White, non-Hispanic 35,145 93 67 Hispanic 10,215 85 44 Black, non-Hispanic 8,875 86 47 Asian or Pacific Islander, 2,293 91 58 non-Hispanic American Indian, Aleut, or 346 86 47 Eskimo, non-Hispanic More than one race, non-Hispanic 1,400 92 65 Disability status Disabled 646 82 49 Not disabled 47,949 91 61 Family & household characteristics Parent educational attainment (3) Less than high school 5,691 82 37 credential High school credential 13,804 89 54 Some college 16,548 93 63 Bachelor's degree 8,590 92 67 Some graduate education 10,713 95 73 Household language Spanish-only 2,840 80 28 Not Spanish-only 55,434 91 61 Poverty status (4) In poverty 10,173 84 40 Not in poverty 39,016 93 66 Family income Under $20,000 8,815 85 41 $20,000-34,999 9,273 87 50 $35,000-49,999 7,499 93 62 $50,000-74,999 9,834 93 66 $75,000 or more 13,769 95 74 (1) Data on "nursery school" enrollment may not reflect enrollment in all kinds of early childhood programs. (2) American Indian includes Alaska Native, Black includes African American, Asian or Pacific Islander includes Native Hawaiian, and Hispanic includes Latino. (3) Parent educational attainment measures the highest level of education of either of the child's parents. (4) Poverty status is derived from household size and income. Households with incomes below the poverty threshold for their household size (as defined by the U.S. Census Bureau for 2003) were classifed as poor. Some households reported incomes in a range that straddles the poverty threshold; these households were classified as poor. The 2003 poverty threshold for a four-person household was $18,810. NOTE: Detail may not sum to total due to rounding or missing data. Population estimates in this table apply to children age 3 and older who are enrolled in nursery school or in grades K-12. SOURCE: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, October 2003.