Raising achievement test scores of early elementary school students through comprehensive school counseling programs.
While the trajectory Trajectory
The curve described by a body moving through space, as of a meteor through the atmosphere, a planet around the Sun, a projectile fired from a gun, or a rocket in flight. of institutional change tends to be more gradual in American education, elementary and secondary schools have not been immune to the accelerating pace of societal so·ci·e·tal
Of or relating to the structure, organization, or functioning of society.
Adj. evolution (e.g., socio-technological advances or changes in the family structure). Moreover, the publication of A Nation at Risk: The Imperative for Educational Reform (National Commission on Excellence in Education The National Commission on Excellence in Education produced the 1983 report titled A Nation at Risk. It was chaired by David P. Gardner and included prominent members such as Nobel prize-winning chemist Glenn T. Seaborg. , 1983) and the subsequent passage of the Goals 2000: Educate America Act (U.S. Congress, 1994), have further hastened the pace of school reorganization and reform already underway in various states. Genuine modifications, however, to the industrial model of schooling and traditional pedagogy are often times difficult to detect, especially in secondary buildings (Herr, 2002), and educational scholars and pundits remain unconvinced that American schools will ever truly remake re·make
tr.v. re·made , re·mak·ing, re·makes
To make again or anew.
1. The act of remaking.
2. Something in remade form, especially a new version of an earlier movie or song. themselves for the better (e.g., Kinsler & Gamble, 2001; McNeil, 2000).
During the past two or so decades, the school counseling profession has transitioned through a reorganizational process as well, with its traditional emphases yielding to a more broad-based broad-based
Of or relating to an index or average that provides a good representation of the overall market. The S&P 500 and NYSE Composite are generally regarded as broad-based stock indexes, while the popular Dow Jones Industrial Average is biased structure of assisting schoolchildren schoolchildren school npl → écoliers mpl;
(at secondary school) → collégiens mpl; lycéens mpl
schoolchildren school and their caregivers (see Erford, House, & Martin, 2003; Gysbers, 2001; Gysbers & Henderson, 2000; MacDonald & Sink, 1999; Sink, 2002; Sink & MacDonald, 1998, for further discussions). Paralleling to some extent school reform, the comprehensive school counseling movement introduced a programmatic pro·gram·mat·ic
1. Of, relating to, or having a program.
2. Following an overall plan or schedule: a step-by-step, programmatic approach to problem solving.
3. orientation to working with students and their caregivers (American School Counselor A school counselor is a counselor and educator who works in schools, and have historically been referred to as "guidance counselors" or "educational counselors," although "Professional School Counselor" is now the preferred term. Association, 2003; Campbell & Dahir, 1997; Dahir, 2001; Dahir, Sheldon, & Valiga, 1998; Gysbers; Gysbers & Henderson).
In order for school reform to be deemed efficacious ef·fi·ca·cious
Producing or capable of producing a desired effect. See Synonyms at effective.
[From Latin effic , student performances in a variety of areas must demonstrate real improvement. Similarly, leading scholars in the school counseling profession have argued that counselors must show student growth across these developmental domains: academic, career, and personal-social (e.g., Adelman & Taylor, 2002; Gysbers, 2001; Herr, 2002; House & Hayes, 2002; Paisley Paisley (pāz`lē), town (1991 pop. 84,330), Renfrewshire, W Scotland, on the White Cart Water, a stream. It has a thriving textile industry and is an extremely large producer of thread. & Hayes, 2003). To realize this difficult goal, schools need to realign re·a·lign
tr.v. re·a·ligned, re·a·lign·ing, re·a·ligns
1. To put back into proper order or alignment.
2. To make new groupings of or working arrangements between. their counseling interventions and services within the context of a comprehensive school counseling program or CSCP CSCP Certified Supply Chain Professional (APICS)
CSCP Cambridge School Classics Project
CSCP Collaborating Centre on Sustainable Consumption and Production (UNEP/Wuppertal Institute) (Gysbers & Henderson, 2001; Lehr & Sumarah, 2002; Sink, 2002).
Over the past decade or so, this programmatic approach to school counseling has emerged as the most commonly deployed organizational structure This article has no lead section.
To comply with Wikipedia's lead section guidelines, one should be written. for the profession (Sink & MacDonald, 1998), endorsed strongly by national leaders in the field and the professional guild guild
Association of craftsmen or merchants formed for mutual aid and for the advancement of their professional interests. Guilds flourished in Europe between the 11th and 16th century and were of two types: merchant guilds, including all the merchants of a particular town , the American School Counselor Association (e.g., ASCA ASCA American School Counselor Association
ASCA Australian Shepherd Club of America
ASCA Arab Society of Certified Accountants
ASCA American Swimming Coaches Association
ASCA American Society of Consulting Arborists
ASCA Association of State Correctional Administrators , 1997, 1999, 2003; Campbell & Dahir, 1997; Cobia cobia
Swift-moving, slim marine game fish (Rachycentron canadum), the only member of the family Rachycentridae. Found in most warm oceans, this voracious predator may grow as long as 6 ft (1.8 m) and weigh 150 lbs (70 kg) or more. & Henderson, 2003; Dahir, 2001; Dahir et al., 1998; Erford et al. 2003; Gysbers & Henderson, 2000; Myrick, 2003b; Schwallie-Giddis, ter Maat, & Pak, 2003; Wittmer, 2000a, 2000b). With the recent publication of The American School Counselor Association National Model: A Framework for School Counseling Programs (ASCA, 2003) school counselors now possess a user-friendly blueprint blueprint, white-on-blue photographic print, commonly of a working drawing used during building or manufacturing. The plan is first drawn to scale on a special paper or tracing cloth through which light can penetrate. to structure their work with students and their caregivers (Schwallie-Gaddis et al.).
In mechanical engineering, a system of solid, usually metallic, links (bars) connected to two or more other links by pin joints (hinges), sliding joints, or ball-and-socket joints to form a closed chain or a series of closed chains. BETWEEN COMPREHENSIVE SCHOOL COUNSELING PROGRAMS AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT
In keeping with Lapan's (2001) recent recommendations for CSCP evaluation, Green and Keys (2001) and others (e.g., Adelman & Taylor, 2002; Gysbers & Henderson, 2000; Johnson & Johnson, 2003; Johnson & Whitfield, 1991; Myrick, 2003a; Schmidt, 2000) emphasized that school counseling programs (a) align align (līn),
v to move the teeth into their proper positions to conform to the line of occlusion. their student targets with the goals of school reform, (b) use evidence-based best practices, and (c) report outcome-based data as way of ensuring accountability of their work with students and their caregivers.
Several prominent scholars in the school counseling profession have recommended that CSCPs should include results-based assessments, where school counseling program outcome data ought to be directly aimed at improving student learning (e.g., Gysbers, 2001; Lapan, 2001; Lapan, Kardash, & Turner, 2002; Paisley & Hayes, 2003). For instance, House and Martin (1998) and House and Hayes (2002), resonating res·o·nate
v. res·o·nat·ed, res·o·nat·ing, res·o·nates
1. To exhibit or produce resonance or resonant effects.
2. with the positions of Green and Keys (2001) and Gysbers, called for school counselors to provide evidence that they positively impact student achievement and other relevant outcomes (see also Paisley & Hayes). Bemak (2000) pressed the issue a bit farther. He suggested that by revising school counselors' position descriptions to include the advancement of student academic achievement, the highly publicized pub·li·cize
tr.v. pub·li·cized, pub·li·ciz·ing, pub·li·ciz·es
To give publicity to.
Adj. 1. publicized - made known; especially made widely known
publicised performance gap among low income, disadvantaged This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims.
Please help Wikipedia by adding references. See the for details.
This article has been tagged since September 2007. pupils and other student groups would diminish. As if to put a exclamation point exclamation point: see punctuation.
exclamation point - exclamation mark on the issue, a leading school counseling researcher and his colleagues (Lapan et al., 2002) posited, in the context of a CSCP: "By performing a more proactive leadership role in empowering students to become self-regulated learners, professional school counselors will both motivate young people to more fully realize their academic potential [italics added] ..." (p. 264).
Glosoff and Koprowicz (1990) offered preliminary research findings in the area of elementary school elementary school: see school. counseling and its relationship to enhancing academic achievement, student retention rates, and children's socio-emotional behaviors, attitudes, and skills. However, research attesting to the potential efficacy of CSCPs as a scaffold scaffold
Temporary platform used to elevate and support workers and materials during work on a structure or machine. It consists of one or more wooden planks and is supported by either a timber or a tubular steel or aluminum frame; bamboo is used in parts of Asia. for improving academic achievement, is scarce (House & Hayes, 2002). Program evaluation Program evaluation is a formalized approach to studying and assessing projects, policies and program and determining if they 'work'. Program evaluation is used in government and the private sector and it's taught in numerous universities. studies conducted in Missouri Missouri, state, United States
Missouri (mĭzr`ē, –ə), one of the midwestern states of the United States. (see Gysbers, 2001; House & Hayes; Lapan, 2001, for summaries), and to a lesser extent in Utah (Nelson & Gardner, 1998), indicate that CSCPs can have a positive influence on various noncognitive and cognitive student outcomes, including achievement. It is unclear, however, whether CSCPs affect boys and girls boys and girls
mercurialisannua. differently. As such, these issues are examined in the current study.
CSCP studies tend to be correlational in nature and rely heavily on self-report surveys which measure student and staff perceptions of self-efficacy self-efficacy (selfˈ-eˑ·fi·k or change (Lapan, Gysbers, Multon, & Pike pike, in zoology
pike, common name for the family Esocidae, freshwater game and food fishes of Europe, Asia, and North America. The pike, the muskellunge, and the pickerel form a small but well-known group of long, thin fishes with spineless dorsal fins, , 1997). For instance, in a large state-wide study of seventh-graders (13- to 14-year-olds), Lapan, Gysbers, and Petroski (2001) reported that in more fully implemented comprehensive school counseling programs, no matter what the socio-economic status (SES) of the surrounding sur·round
tr.v. sur·round·ed, sur·round·ing, sur·rounds
1. To extend on all sides of simultaneously; encircle.
2. To enclose or confine on all sides so as to bar escape or outside communication.
n. community, middle school students "felt" they were doing better in school (earning higher marks) and were safer. These results appear to be largely consistent with previous CSCP studies conducted by Gysbers, Lapan, Hughey, and their research colleagues (e.g., Hughey, Gysbers, & Starr, 1993; Lapan, Gysbers, Hughey, & Arni arni
see ammotragus lervia. , 1993; Lapan, Gysbers, & Sun 1997). Other research reviewed in the school counseling literature support these findings (Borders & Drury, 1992; Whiston, 2003; Whiston & Sexton sex·ton
An employee or officer of a church who is responsible for the care and upkeep of church property and sometimes for ringing bells and digging graves. , 1998).
To recap re·cap 1
tr.v. re·capped, re·cap·ping, re·caps
1. To replace a cap or caplike covering on: recapped the bottle.
2. , initial research has shown that CSCPs are making a difference in students' lives. Modest improvements have been reported largely by secondary students across a variety of developmental domains. The literature, however, has provided little direct evidence that academic achievement is improving in schools with a well-established CSCE CSCE
See Coffee, Sugar and Cocoa Exchange (CSCE). In addition, there is a paucity pau·ci·ty
1. Smallness of number; fewness.
2. Scarcity; dearth: a paucity of natural resources. of research conducted using elementary school students. The findings reported here from a large investigation conducted in Washington state's elementary schools begin to fill this void.
RESEARCH AIM AND HYPOTHESES
In this causal causal /cau·sal/ (kaw´z'l) pertaining to, involving, or indicating a cause.
relating to or emanating from cause. comparative study, we attempt to answer in part this broad question: Does school counselors' work in elementary schools with well-established CSCPs promote higher academic achievement in students? To respond to this research query, the following alternative hypotheses were examined: (1) After accounting for SES differences, third and fourth grade students enrolled in elementary schools with a CSCP will significantly out perform those children who were attending schools with no systemic systemic /sys·tem·ic/ (sis-tem´ik) pertaining to or affecting the body as a whole.
1. Of or relating to a system.
2. guidance and counseling guidance and counseling, concept that institutions, especially schools, should promote the efficient and happy lives of individuals by helping them adjust to social realities. program on various formal measures of academic achievement (e.g., reading, mathematics, and listening); (2) After accounting for SES differences, third and fourth grade students enrolled continuously (3 or more years) in elementary schools with at least 5 years of CSCP implementation (i.e., a well-established CSCP) will significantly out perform those children who were attending schools with no systemic guidance and counseling program on various formal measures of academic achievement; (3) After accounting for student differences in SES, there are significant gender differences across achievement domains in schools with or without a well-established CSCP.
School level. One hundred and fifty public elementary schools from Washington state were randomly selected to participate in the study. The buildings represented small (enrollment from 1 to 365 students, n = 49, or 33%), medium (enrollment from 366 to 499 students, n = 57, 38%), and large (enrollment of 500 or more students, n = 44, 29%) schools and were distributed across the state in rural (n = 59, 39%), suburban (n = 57, 38%), and urban (n = 34, 23%) areas. Schools reported an average of 39% of their students eligible for a U.S. government financial assistance program for low income or "disadvantaged" families. Qualified pupils receive a free or reduced cost lunch, and in some cases, breakfast as well. This percentage has been used as an estimate of a family's level of poverty in several statewide educational studies (personal communication with researchers at the Washington School Many schools are named Washington School including:
1. Not strictly accurate or precise; not exact: an inexact quotation; an inexact description of what had taken place.
2. estimate of SES or a poverty index.
School personnel. Of the 150 elementary schools, 31 did not have a formally educated counselor on staff, and therefore, these schools were a priori a priori
In epistemology, knowledge that is independent of all particular experiences, as opposed to a posteriori (or empirical) knowledge, which derives from experience. categorized cat·e·go·rize
tr.v. cat·e·go·rized, cat·e·go·riz·ing, cat·e·go·riz·es
To put into a category or categories; classify.
cat as non-CSCP buildings and further questioning was not needed. Of the original 150 schools contacted, 119 school personnel were surveyed by telephone. They were primarily female (79%) and European American A European American (Euro-American) is a person who resides in the United States and is either the descendant of European immigrants or from Europe him/herself.
Overall, as the largest group, European Americans have the lowest poverty rate  or White (93%), with an average age of 45.5 years (SD = 9.6), representing the general state-wide demographics The attributes of people in a particular geographic area. Used for marketing purposes, population, ethnic origins, religion, spoken language, income and age range are examples of demographic data. for school counselors. Most respondents In the context of marketing research, a representative sample drawn from a larger population of people from whom information is collected and used to develop or confirm marketing strategy. (95%) also reported having at least one graduate degree (e.g., master's). Those more fully queried about their counseling programs either were Washington State Educational Services Agreement (ESA 1. (architecture) ESA - Enterprise Systems Architecture.
2. (body) ESA - European Space Agency. ) certificated school counselors (n = 99 out of 119 or 83%), non-certificated but formally trained counselors (2.5%), ESA certificated school psychologists This list includes notable psychologists and contributors to psychology, some of whom may not have thought of themselves primarily as psychologists but are included here because of their important contributions to the discipline. (10%), ESA certificated counselors who were also teachers (2.5%), or ESA certificated social workers (1.7%). Not uncommon in elementary schools, some respondents reported working full time (58%), while others indicated that they were employed only part time (42%). The school personnel's caseloads averaged 451 students and they had worked on average 9 years total in their specific profession and 5 years in their current educational position. Finally, of the original 150 schools contacted, 67 schools were identified as having implemented a CSCP (i.e., the research group) and 83 schools were identified as not using a CSCP (i.e., the comparison group).
Students--total sample. During the 2000-2001 school year, data on students (N = 20,131) within each of the 150 participating elementary schools were also collected. Specifically, information was garnered from schoolchildren in Grades 3 (n = 9,863, 49%) and 4 (n = 10,268, 51%). In general, the students reflected the ethnic diversity of the state (European American, 72%; Hispanic Hispanic Multiculture A person of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race Social medicine Any of 17 major Latino subcultures, concentrated in California, Texas, Chicago, Miam, NY, and elsewhere , 12%; Asian American A·sian A·mer·i·can also A·sian-A·mer·i·can
A U.S. citizen or resident of Asian descent. See Usage Note at Amerasian.
A , 6%; African American African American Multiculture A person having origins in any of the black racial groups of Africa. See Race. , 5%; Native American, 3%; other, 2%). The gender distribution was 51% males and 49% female, with less than 1% missing data.
Research and comparison groups. The total student sample was divided into research (CSCP, n = 9,816) and comparison (non-CSCP, n = 10,315) groups. Overall, the research sample (European American, 68%; Hispanic, 11%; African American, 7%; Asian American, 8%; Native American, 3%; other, 2%) was slightly more ethnically diverse than the comparison group (European American, 76%; Hispanic, 12%; Asian American, 5%; African American, 3%; Native American, 2%; other, 2%). The former group comprised 4,999 (51%) males, 4,805 (49%) females, and another 12 (0.1%) students who did not indicate a particular gender. A similar gender breakdown was reported for the comparison group: 5,308 (52%) males, 4,975 (48%) females, and 35 (0.3%) non-identified students.
In regards to total building enrollment, 46% of the research group's students were enrolled in large elementary schools (enrollment of 500 or more students, n = 4,464), 40% in medium-sized schools (enrollment of 366 to 499 students, n = 3,941), and 14% in small schools (enrollment of i to 365 students, n = 1,411). Thirty-eight percent of the comparison group's students attended large schools, 42% were enrolled in medium-sized schools, and 20% attended small schools. The research sample's schools represented a more even distribution of urban (31%), suburban (42%), and rural (26%) buildings than the comparison group's schools (urban, 16%; suburban, 38%; rural, 44%). Schools in the research group reported an average of 39% of their students eligible for a U.S. government program for low income families that involves receiving a free or reduced cost lunch as compared to an average of 37% for the non-CSCP group.
Research subgroup sub·group
1. A distinct group within a group; a subdivision of a group.
2. A subordinate group.
3. Mathematics A group that is a subset of a group.
tr.v. . The CSCP sample was further broken down into a group of "high" CSCP implementation (5 or more years, n = 3,027). In general, the students in these buildings reflected the ethnic diversity of the larger research group from which it was comprised (European American, 68%; Asian American, 12%; African American, 10%; Hispanic, 8%; Native American, 2%; other, 1%); males (51%) slightly outnumbered Outnumbered is a British sitcom that aired on BBC One in 2007. It stars Hugh Dennis and Claire Skinner as a mother and father who are outnumbered by their three children. females (49%). Students in these well-established CSCP schools represented large schools (500 or more students, n = 1,391 or 46%), medium schools (366 to 499 students; n = 1,295, 43%) and small schools (1 to 365 students, n = 341, 11%). Students in these high-implementation schools represented rural (n = 743, 25%), suburban (n = 1,487, 49%), and urban (n = 797, 26%) areas of the state and reported an average of 37% of their students eligible for a federal lunch assistance program for economically disadvantaged pupils.
Instrumentation instrumentation, in music: see orchestra and orchestration.
In technology, the development and use of precise measuring, analysis, and control equipment.
The Comprehensive Guidance and Counseling Programs and Student Success in Washington State Elementary Schools Telephone Survey was constructed by the researchers for this study. The questionnaire, administered to the respondents over the telephone, consists of items that solicit various background (e.g., current educational position, full time equivalent, age, gender, ethnicity ethnicity Vox populi Racial status–ie, African American, Asian, Caucasian, Hispanic , academic degree, years as a school counselor, years in current position) and school data (e.g., location [urban, suburban, or rural], grade levels served, total caseload case·load
The number of cases handled in a given period, as by an attorney or by a clinic or social services agency.
Noun ). If the school or district had a CSCP in place that was aligned largely with the "standard" Gysberian-type model (Gysbers, 2001; Gysbers & Henderson, 2000), school personnel answered additional questions about program specifics.
The Iowa Tests of Basic Skills-Form M (ITBS ITBS Iowa Test of Basic Skills
ITBS Iliotibial Band Syndrome
ITBS Industrial Technologies Business Solutions ) are a series of norm-referenced achievement measures designed to provide a broad assessment of student progress in basic academic skills. It is administered annually to Washington state's third, sixth, and ninth grade students. The well-established and widely used group-administered test battery has produced internal consistency In statistics and research, internal consistency is a measure based on the correlations between different items on the same test (or the same subscale on a larger test). It measures whether several items that propose to measure the same general construct produce similar scores. and other reliability coefficients in the satisfactory range of low .70s to mid .90s (Hoover, Hieronymus, Frisbie, & Dunbar, 1996). In addition, numerous research studies have generally confirmed the validity of the ITBS (see Riverside Publishing Riverside Publishing is a division of Houghton Mifflin Company and provides testing packets for educators. It is based in Itasca, Illinois and is a charter member of the Association of Test Publishers. External links
The Washington Assessment of Student Learning The Washington Assessment of Student Learning, or "WASL", is a standards-based assessment (not to be confused with a standardized test) used as a high school graduation examination in Washington State. (WASL WASL Washington Assessment of Student Learning (Washington State)
WASL Wisconsin Association of School Librarians ) is a relatively new criterion-referenced test A criterion-referenced test is one that provides for translating the test score into a statement about the behavior to be expected of a person with that score or their relationship to a specified subject matter. (CRT (1) (C RunTime) See runtime library.
(2) (Cathode Ray Tube) A vacuum tube used as a display screen in a computer monitor or TV. The viewing end of the tube is coated with phosphors, which emit light when struck by electrons. ) group-administered annually to Washington state's fourth, seventh, and tenth grade Tenth grade is a year of education in many nations. United States
The tenth grade is the tenth school year after kindergarten and is called Grade 10 in some regions. Students are usually 15–16 years old. students (Taylor, 2000). A modified Rasch model Rasch models are used for analysing data from assessments to measure things such as abilities, attitudes, and personality traits. For example, they may be used to estimate a student's reading ability from answers to questions on a reading assessment, or the extremity of a person's (Masters'  partial credit scoring Credit scoring
A statistical technique that combines several financial characteristics to form a single score to represent a customer's creditworthiness. approach; see Taylor for details) was used in developing an equal interval scoring system Noun 1. scoring system - a system of classifying according to quality or merit or amount
classification system - a system for classifying things , where a theta Theta
A measure of the rate of decline in the value of an option due to the passage of time. Theta can also be referred to as the time decay on the value of an option. If everything is held constant, then the option will lose value as time moves closer to the maturity of the option. value ([theta]) was computed for each examinee and then transformed to a positive, whole number scale through a linear conversion procedure. The possible scale score range for the WASL's four subtests (Mathematics, Reading, Listening, and Writing) is 150 to 600. The general standard for passing the test is 400; however, this cutoff varies to some extent depending on the subtest and year of test administration. The actual range of scale scores in the content areas can also vary slightly each year.
Recently, Taylor (2000), one of the statistical specialists investigating the instrument, reported on the psychometric psy·cho·met·rics
n. (used with a sing. verb)
The branch of psychology that deals with the design, administration, and interpretation of quantitative tests for the measurement of psychological variables such as intelligence, aptitude, and properties of the WASL administered to fourth-graders in 1999. The validity of the WASL scores was examined using the intercorrelations among WASL strand Strand, street in London, England, roughly parallel with the Thames River, running from the Temple to Trafalgar Square. It is a street of law courts, hotels, theaters, and office buildings and is the main artery between the City and the West End.
1. scores (rs ranged from .42 to .75) and an exploratory factor analysis. The latter analysis revealed three underlying dimensions, that is, language arts language arts
The subjects, including reading, spelling, and composition, aimed at developing reading and writing skills, usually taught in elementary and secondary school. , mathematics, and writing (factor loadings ranging from .62 to .79; Taylor). Internal consistency reliability coefficients for the 1999 Grade 4 WASL were generally satisfactory for the Listening ([alpha] = .61), Reading ([alpha] = .86), Mathematics ([alpha] = .88), and Writing ([alpha] = .81) tests. Inter-rater reliability Inter-rater reliability, Inter-rater agreement, or Concordance is the degree of agreement among raters. It gives a score of how much , or consensus, there is in the ratings given by judges. coefficients for the open-ended questions A closed-ended question is a form of question, which normally can be answered with a simple "yes/no" dichotomous question, a specific simple piece of information, or a selection from multiple choices (multiple-choice question), if one excludes such non-answer responses as dodging a on the different subtests were high (rs ranged from .97 to .98). Since this CRT continues to be refined each year, the psychometric properties for the other versions of the WASL have not been reported in the professional literature or by the State of Washington's Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction (OSPI OSPI Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction (Washington State)
OSPI Open Source E-Portfolio Initiative
OSPI Office of Strategic Planning and Integration (Social Security Administration) ).
Telephone surveys were administered in the spring of 2001 by three trained school counseling doctoral students at a western Washington university Western Washington UniversityWWU or Western) is one of six state-funded, four-year universities of higher education in the U.S. state of Washington. It is located in Bellingham and offers bachelor's and master's degrees. . Initially, those schools in the sample without an identified school counselor only completed the demographics section of the telephone survey. These schools were classified as non-CSCP schools. The rationale rationale (rash´nal´),
n the fundamental reasons used as the basis for a decision or action. behind this classification was derived from the work of Gysbers and Henderson (e.g., Gysbers & Henderson, 2000; Henderson & Gysbers, 1998). These writers indicated that school counselors are the chief program coordinators. Hence, it was assumed that schools without a school counselor would not have a CSCP. The other respondents (most likely school counselors) were directly queried about whether the building or district had in place a CSCP. If it was a "CSCP school," the respondents were asked further questions about their programs.
Various data for the 2000-2001 school year were collected from the Washington School Research Center's database (e.g., percentage of students eligible for a free or reduced cost school lunch, the school's enrollment, and the district's total enrollment). The Center yearly receives school census information from Washington's OSPI. Participant demographic data were garnered from the Center's database, including the schoolchildren's gender, ethnicity, number of years enrolled in the school building, and number of years enrolled in the district. Additionally, 2000-2001 student test scores from the ITBS and WASL were collected (i.e., Grade 3 ITBS Vocabulary, Comprehension comprehension
Act of or capacity for grasping with the intellect. The term is most often used in connection with tests of reading skills and language abilities, though other abilities (e.g., mathematical reasoning) may also be examined. , Reading, and Mathematics standard scores, and Grade 4 WASL Listening, Reading, Writing, and Mathematics scale scores). It should be noted that Grade 3 students must take the ITBS, but not the WASL; whereas, the opposite is true for the fourth-graders.
Telephone surveys were coded and tabulated and the numerical data Numerical data (or quantitative data) is data measured or identified on a numerical scale. Numerical data can be analysed using statistical methods, and results can be displayed using tables, charts, histograms and graphs. were analyzed an·a·lyze
tr.v. an·a·lyzed, an·a·lyz·ing, an·a·lyz·es
1. To examine methodically by separating into parts and studying their interrelations.
2. Chemistry To make a chemical analysis of.
3. for normality normality, in chemistry: see concentration. . The parametric See parametric modeling, parametric symbol and PTC. assumptions underlying the multivariate The use of multiple variables in a forecasting model. procedures were also checked using standard techniques (Gall, Gall, & Borg, 2003; Green & Salkind, 2003; Grimm & Yarnold, 1995).
Using the general linear model (GLM GLM Global Language Monitor
GLM Global Marine (stock symbol)
GLM Graduated Length Method (ski instruction)
GLM Good Looking Mom (used in pediatric practices)
GLM God Loves Me ), the hypotheses were tested using a series of factorial factorial
For any whole number, the product of all the counting numbers up to and including itself. It is indicated with an exclamation point: 4! (read “four factorial”) is 1 × 2 × 3 × 4 = 24. multivariate analyses of covariances (MANCOVAs; see Green & Salkind, 2003 and Tabachnick & Fidell, 2000, for details). The independent variables included, for example, group (participants in CSCP vs. non-CSCP schools), length of enrollment (i.e., length of time students were continuously enrolled in their particular schools), and gender. To correct for possible Type I errors, Bonferonni adjustments to the alpha level were made as needed as needed prn. See prn order. . The dependent measures included the student ITBS or WASL achievement test scores. In each multivariate analysis multivariate analysis,
n a statistical approach used to evaluate multiple variables.
n a set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. , the percentage of students receiving a free or reduced cost lunch was used as the covariate covariate
predictors during the allocation of experimental units in a randomized design. . This concomitant variable concomitant variable
see concomitant variable. correlated cor·re·late
v. cor·re·lat·ed, cor·re·lat·ing, cor·re·lates
1. To put or bring into causal, complementary, parallel, or reciprocal relation.
2. largely in the moderate range with each dependent measure ([r.sub.M]= .35). Partial eta squares ([[eta].sub.p.sup.2]) were reported as estimates of the effect sizes.
The majority (54.6%) of the participating schools with high CSCP implementation used as their template (1) A pre-designed document or data file formatted for common purposes such as a fax, invoice or business letter. If the document contains an automated process, such as a word processing macro or spreadsheet formula, then the programming is already written and embedded in the a Gysberian-type program called the Washington State Guidelines guidelines,
n.pl a set of standards, criteria, or specifications to be used or followed in the performance of certain tasks. for Comprehensive Counseling and Career Guidance Programs from Kindergarten kindergarten [Ger.,=garden of children], system of preschool education. Friedrich Froebel designed (1837) the kindergarten to provide an educational situation less formal than that of the elementary school but one in which children's creative play instincts would be through Community and Technical College (Coats, Ash, & Dorsey, 1998). On average these schools had their CSCP in place for over 6.5 years (M = 6.64, SD = 2.17), almost double the amount of time the non-high usage or general CSCPs had implemented their programs (M = 3.66, SD = 4.96). The mean length of time respondents in the general CSCP group and high CSCP sample worked in their current positions were 4.96 and 5.46 years, respectively, and their total number of years of educational service were comparable (Ms = 9.4 and 10.5 years, respectively). All counselors in CSCP schools generally viewed themselves as moderately to highly involved in their program. For example, the mean rating for counselors in the high-usage CSCP subsample sub·sam·ple
A sample drawn from a larger sample.
tr.v. sub·sam·pled, sub·sam·pling, sub·sam·ples
To take a subsample from (a larger sample). was 6.27, as opposed to 5.85 for the general CSCP group. The perceived levels of CSCP importance and student impact were similar as well, ranging in the moderate to high levels (Ms > 5).
While not specifically tabled here, the magnitude of the average intercorrelations among the dependent variables was in the moderate to strong range. For the third and fourth grade students, the correlations among the covariate and the dependent measures were on average .58 and .43, respectively.
Means and standard deviations In statistics, the average amount a number varies from the average number in a series of numbers.
(statistics) standard deviation - (SD) A measure of the range of values in a set of numbers. were first calculated by Group (general CSCP vs. non-CSCP), Length of Enrollment, and Gender for Grade 3 ITBS standard scores and Grade 4 WASL scale scores (see Tables 1 and 2). These statistics were also computed by Group (high usage CSCP vs. non-CSCP), Length of Enrollment, and Gender for the Grade 3 ITBS standard scores and Grade 4 WASL scale scores (see Tables 3 and 4). Tables 5 and 6 reveal the descriptive statistics descriptive statistics
see statistics. for only those third and fourth grade students, respectively, who reported being enrolled in their particular high-CSCP or non-CSCP schools for at least three years. Preliminary trends in these data can be discerned. For example, students enrolled for several years in high usage CSCP schools tended to perform better on various achievement tests than those pupils in non-CSCP buildings. Various gender differences and interaction effects on several dependent variables are noticeable as well.
Grade 3 Findings
To examine the hypotheses, first, a 2 (Group: CSCP vs. non-CSCP) X 4 (Length of Enrollment) X 2 (Gender) MANCOVA MANCOVA Multivariate Analysis of Covariance with the poverty index as a covariate was computed on Grade 3 ITBS Vocabulary, Comprehension, Reading, and Mathematics standardized test A standardized test is a test administered and scored in a standard manner. The tests are designed in such a way that the "questions, conditions for administering, scoring procedures, and interpretations are consistent"  scores. The statistical procedure produced significant (ps = .00, [[eta].sub.p.sup.2] = .00) main effects for Group (favoring favoring
an animal is said to be favoring a leg when it avoids putting all of its weight on the limb. A part of being lame in a limb. the non-CSCP sample on all dependent measures), Length of Enrollment (i.e., the longer the enrollment, the higher the test scores), and Gender. Furthermore, for Gender, only ITBS Vocabulary score was nonsignificant non·sig·nif·i·cant
1. Not significant.
2. Having, producing, or being a value obtained from a statistical test that lies within the limits for being of random occurrence. (p >. 10), with the girls scoring significantly higher than the boys on the Comprehension and Reading subscales; whereas, the males did significantly better than the females on the Mathematics test. The Group X Length of Enrollment and Group X Gender interactions were significant (ps = .00, [[eta].sub.p.sup.2] = .00) across the four ITBS Grade 3 subtests. While the latter interaction is not particularly germane ger·mane
Being both pertinent and fitting. See Synonyms at relevant.
[Middle English germain, having the same parents, closely connected; see german2. to the study, the former shows, not surprisingly, that the longer the students in either group remain in their schools, the higher their test scores. Interestingly, across the four content areas, students in CSCP schools consistently scored lower than pupils in the non-CSCP buildings, but the performance gap disappears gradually over time such that by about the second year of enrollment, students' mean test scores in both groups are virtually identical.
Second, a 2 (Group: high CSCP implementation vs. non-CSCP) X 4 (Length of Enrollment) X 2 (Gender) MANCOVA with the poverty index as a covariate generated a significant main effect for Length of Enrollment across each of the dependent measures (ps = .00, [[eta].sub.p.sup.2] = .01) and a significant Gender effect for ITBS Comprehension, F (1, 5961) = 5.81, p = .02, [[eta].sub.p.sup.2] = .00, and Mathematics, F (1, 5961) = 14.11, p = .00, [[eta].sub.p.sup.2] = .00, subtests. Similar to the results above, these indicate the longer the students in either sample remain in their schools, the better their performances. The Group X Length of Enrollment interaction effects for Vocabulary, Comprehension, Reading, and Mathematics scores were significant (ps = .00, M [[eta].sub.p.sup.2] = .01), where students who were enrolled for several years or more in high usage CSCP schools scored significantly higher on these ITBS measures than comparable students in non-CSCP schools (see Figures 1, 2, 3, and 4, for interaction graphs). The significant Gender effect showed that females significantly outperformed the males on Comprehension and males did better than females on Mathematics.
[FIGURES 1-4 OMITTED]
Third, to examine further the significant Group (high usage CSCP vs. non-CSCP) main effect reported above, a one-way MANCOVA (with poverty index as covariate) was computed on Grade 3 ITBS subtest scores (Vocabulary, Comprehension, Reading, and Mathematics) of schoolchildren who had been continuously enrolled (3 or more years) in their schools. A significant main effect for Group was found, Wilks' A = .99, F (4, 2355) = 5.76, p < .000, [[eta].sub.p.sup.2] = .01. Moreover, significant Group differences favoring the high CSCP students were found for all four of the dependent measures: Vocabulary, F (1, 2358) = 4.16, p < .042, [[eta].sub.p.sup.2] = .002; Comprehension, F (1, 2358) = 6.32, p < .012, [[eta].sub.p.sup.2] = .003; Reading, F (1, 2358) = 5.85, p < .016, [[eta].sub.p.sup.2] = .002; and Mathematics, F (1, 2358) = 17.81, p < .000, [[eta].sub.p.sup.2] = .01.
Grade 4 Findings
Fourth, a 2 (Group: CSCP vs. non-CSCP) X 5 (Length of Enrollment) X 2 (Gender) MANCOVA with the percentage of students receiving a free or reduced cost lunch as a covariate was computed using Grade 4 WASL Listening, Reading, Writing, and Mathematics scale scores as dependent variables. Significant main effects favoring the non-CSCP sample on all dependent measures were found for Group (ps = .00, [[eta].sub.p.sup.2] = .00) and Length of Enrollment (ps = .00, [[eta].sub.p.sup.2] = .01). Additionally, a significant Gender effect favoring the girls for the WASL Reading, F (1, 8952) = 133.20, p = .02, [[eta].sub.p.sup.2] = .00, and Writing, F (1, 8952) = 321.62, p = .00, ,qp2 = .03, measures were found. The MANCOVA also yielded significant Group X Length of Enrollment interactions for Grade 4 WASL Listening, F (4, 8952) = 4.91, p = .00, [[eta].sub.p.sup.2] = .00, Reading, F(4, 8,952) = 3.81, p = .00, [[eta].sub.p.sup.2] = .00, and Mathematics, F(4, 8952) = 3.60, p = .00, [[eta].sub.p.sup.2] = .00, scale scores. These interactions reflect those reported for the Grade 3 ITBS data, in that, for Grade 4 WASL Listening, Reading, and Mathematics scores, students in CSCP schools consistently scored lower than pupils in the non-CSCP buildings in the first few years of school enrollment, but the initial significant mean differences diminished di·min·ish
v. di·min·ished, di·min·ish·ing, di·min·ish·es
a. To make smaller or less or to cause to appear so.
b. over time. By at least the third year of school attendance, students' scores in the high-implementation CSCP group were on par with the performances of the non-CSCP participants.
Fifth, a 2 (Group: high CSCP implementation vs. non-CSCP) X 5 (Length of Enrollment) X 2 (Gender) MANCOVA with the poverty index as a covariate was generated. The analysis indicated a significant Group effect for Grade 4 WASL Writing scale scores, F (1, 6100) = 4.54, p = .03, [[eta].sub.p.sup.2] = .00. The high-implementation CSCP students significantly outperformed those participants in the comparison group. Like the earlier MANCOVAs, Length of Enrollment was a significant main effect across each of the WASL subtests (ps = .00, [[eta].sub.p.sup.2] = .01), where students who were enrolled the longest in their particular school outperformed all others on each of the dependent measures. Significant Gender effects were also found for Listening, F (1, 6100) = 4.78, p = .03, [[eta].sub.p.sup.2] = .00, Reading, F (1, 6,100) = 61.65, p = .00, [[eta].sub.p.sup.2] = .01, and Writing, F (1, 6,100) = 141.66, p = .00, [[eta].sub.p.sup.2] = .02, subtests. The gifts had significantly higher achievement than the boys on the Reading and Writing WASL tests, whereas the boys produced superior mean Listening scores than their female counterparts. Finally, as with the third grade students attending a high implementation CSCP school, those Grade 4 pupils enrolled for multiple years in the same high usage CSCP school significantly outperformed comparable children in non-CSCP schools. Significant Group X Length of Enrollment interaction effects for Grade 4 WASL Listening, F (4, 6,100) = 7.54, p = .00, [[eta].sub.p.sup.2] = .01, Reading, F(4, 6,100) = 4.73, p = .00, [[eta].sub.p.sup.2] = .00, and Mathematics, F (4, 6,100) = 3.87, p = .00, [[eta].sub.p.sup.2] = .00, scale scores were found (see Figures 5, 6, and 7 for interaction graphs).
[FIGURES 5-7 OMITTED]
Sixth, to examine further the significant Group (high usage CSCP vs. non-CSCP) main effect reported above, a one-way MANCOVA (with poverty index as covariate) was computed on Grade 4 WASL subtest scores (Listening, Reading, Writing, and Mathematics) of participants who had been continuously (3 or more years) enrolled in their schools. A significant main effect for Group was generated, Wilks' A = .99, F (4, 3251) = 6.30, p < .00, [[eta].sub.p.sup.2] = .01. Significant Group differences favoring the high CSCP students were also found for each dependent variable: Listening, F (1, 3254) = 6.41, p < .011, [[eta].sub.p.sup.2] = .002; Reading, F(1, 3254) = 6.97, p < .008, [[eta].sub.p.sup.2] = .002; Writing, F (1, 3254) = 13.71, p < .000, [[eta].sub.p.sup.2] = .004; and Mathematics, F (1, 3254) = 21.10, p < .000, [[eta].sub.p.sup.2] = .01.
To review the most salient findings, in their first few years of school enrollment, CSCP students largely obtained significantly lower achievement test scores than those students attending schools with no systemic school counseling program. However, the longer students remained in their CSCP schools, this achievement gap between groups significantly narrowed or disappeared altogether. Moreover, a significant interaction between Group and Length of Enrollment in high usage CSCP versus non-CSCP schools was found for both grade levels. Over several years, participants who stayed in high usage CSCP schools significantly outperformed their counterparts in the comparison schools on the Grade 3 ITBS Vocabulary, Comprehension, Reading, and Mathematics, and Grade 4 WASL Listening, Reading, Writing, and Mathematics tests. While of lesser import here, the Gender main effects for Grades 3 and 4 were generally consistent across achievement dimensions. Females in the non-CSCP and CSCP schools tended to do better on the verbally-loaded measures (e.g., Comprehension, Reading, and Writing), while the boys in both type of schools consistently outperformed girls on the mathematics tests.
The principal aim of this study was to examine whether students attending elementary schools with comprehensive school counseling programs would produce higher academic achievement than those children enrolled in non-CSCP buildings. Since there have been no other CSCP investigations published with a comparable participant base and methodology, it is difficult to directly apply the findings reported here to existing school counseling research. Nevertheless, the findings do provide some causal comparative evidence for the research question and have implications for the practical use of CSCPs.
Specifically, the investigation's key findings provide support for the first two hypotheses. For instance, even when early elementary-age children (Grades 3 and 4, ages 8 to 11) attend a school with a less than totally engaged CSCP and have significantly lower initial academic achievement than similar pupils in the comparison group, the CSCP participants, over a 2 to 3 year time period, close the achievement gap. Furthermore, children benefit academically, whether they are economically disadvantaged or not, by remaining in schools for multiple years (at least 3 years) with a well-established (5 or more years of implementation) comprehensive school counseling program. In summary, over time, younger students appear to do better on a variety of norm-referenced and criterion-referenced tests of academic achievement than their peers in schools without a CSCP in place. The findings are now examined in light of previous research.
First, this study extends the general efficacy research conducted in grade schools (see Glosoff & Koprowicz, 1990; Whiston, 2003; Whiston & Sexton, 1998, for reviews). These reviewers concluded that students are helped academically and interpersonally by attending schools with elementary counselors in place. CSCP elementary school counselors' are most likely contributing to students' development.
Second, the results augment aug·ment
v. aug·ment·ed, aug·ment·ing, aug·ments
1. To make (something already developed or well under way) greater, as in size, extent, or quantity: the CSCP studies carried out with middle/junior and senior high school students (see e.g., Gysbers, 2001; Lapan, 2001, for reviews). In fact, they reinforce Gysbers' informed view:
[W]hen certified See certification. professional school counselors have the time, the resources, and the structure of a comprehensive guidance program in which to work, they contribute to positive student academic and career development as well as the development of positive and safe learning climates in schools. (p. 103)
The differences, however, between the studies cited in Gysbers (2001) and Lapan (2001) and the current investigation not only concern the age range of the samples, but also their design and foci. As mentioned earlier, the empirical studies Empirical studies in social sciences are when the research ends are based on evidence and not just theory. This is done to comply with the scientific method that asserts the objective discovery of knowledge based on verifiable facts of evidence. conducted in Missouri were largely self-report- and correlational/prediction-focused, rather than, as in the current study, directed at testing potential group differences among CSCP and non-CSCP schools across an array of achievement measures. Thus, the evidence provided here supplements the Utah and Missouri CSCP research and should encourage those scholars who advocate for school counseling programs to promote academic and nonacademic gains in students (e.g., House & Hayes, 2002; Lapan et al., 2002; Paisley & Hayes, 2003).
Third, it is unclear from the study why in both groups, female students generally outperformed boys on the verbal academic measures and the boys surpassed the girls on the mathematics tests (see hypothesis 3). While previous research has shown that elementary-age gifts tend to earn higher classroom grades than boys in stereotypically ster·e·o·type
1. A conventional, formulaic, and oversimplified conception, opinion, or image.
2. One that is regarded as embodying or conforming to a set image or type.
3. "feminine feminine /fem·i·nine/ (fem´i-nin)
1. pertaining to the female sex.
2. having qualities normally asociated with females. " subjects like reading and writing and boys get better mathematics grades, recent studies conducted in elementary schools using standardized standardized
pertaining to data that have been submitted to standardization procedures.
standardized morbidity rate
see morbidity rate.
standardized mortality rate
see mortality rate. measures of achievement report inconsistent results (see e.g., Hay, Ashman, & Van Kraayennoord, 1998; Pomerantz, Altermatt, & Saxon Saxon
Any member of a Germanic people who lived along the Baltic coast in ancient times and later migrated west as far as the British Isles. The Saxons became pirates in the North Sea during the decline of the Roman empire, and in the early 5th century they spread through , 2002 for reviews). An earlier investigation, however, provided convincing evidence that there are gender and developmental differences in academic study behaviors of elementary schoolchildren and these may be one of key reasons for gender differences found on educational achievement measures (Hancock & Stock, 1996). We can only speculate here that findings from this study may reflect disparities in academic study strategies between boys and girls. Clearly, further research is needed.
Implications for School Counseling Practice
The findings presented in this article have implications for school counseling practice. Elementary school counselors would do well, in collaboration Working together on a project. See collaborative software. with other building and district-wide personnel, to design, implement, and further refine their comprehensive programs so that all children are adequately served. The use of the ASCA National Model (ASCA, 2003) in conjunction with Gysbers and Henderson's (2000) text, Developing and Managing Your School Guidance Program, would be an excellent first step. The ASCA National Model is a sound framework with a solid theoretical and research foundation. The publication outlines (a) how to deliver and manage the program, (b) accountability procedures and processes, (c) student developmental competencies, and (d) school counselors' key CSCP responsibilities.
Once the model is firmly established in all elementary schools--hopefully within 3 to 5 years--school counselors can then strategically focus their work on the academic domain. While it is beyond the scope of this article to provide extensive suggestions for practice, there are many resources and publications to assist CSCP school counselors meet this goal (see Clark & Stone, 2000; Cobia & Henderson, 2003; Erford et al., 2003; Gysbers & Henderson, 2000; Henderson & Gysbers, 1998; Myrick, 2003b; Ripley, Erford, Dahir, & Eschbach, 2003; Vanzandt & Hayslip, 2001, for details).
It is important that classroom gnidance and small groups target, in part, student academic competencies. Previous research has shown the positive impact of classroom guidance lessons on student achievement (e.g., Carns& Carns, 1991; Evans Ev·ans , Herbert McLean 1882-1971.
American anatomist who isolated four pituitary hormones and discovered vitamin E (1922). & Burck, 1992; Hadley, 1988; Lapan et al. 1993; Lee, 1993). Elementary students can benefit from mastering a "how to succeed in school" guidance curriculum, which could involve, for example, study skills (e.g., self-assessment, organization, and planning), positive attitudes and behaviors toward school and learning, test-taking strategies, effective writing, and homework completion skills. Counselors could also assist other educators in conducting peer tutoring A peer tutor is anyone who is of a similar status as the person being tutored. In an undergraduate institution this would usually be other undergraduates, as distinct from the graduate students who may be teaching the writing classes. groups for students at risk for school failure. Providing relevant educational interventions, workshops, and in-services for parents, teachers, and staff on methods of enhancing student learning are beneficial as well.
Most importantly Adv. 1. most importantly - above and beyond all other consideration; "above all, you must be independent"
above all, most especially , perhaps, for a comprehensive school counseling program to be effective in fostering academic achievement of all schoolchildren, concerted efforts at collaboration, as recommended by Keys, Bemak, and their colleagues (Bemak, 2000; Green & Keys, 2001; Keys, Bemak, & Lockhary, 1998; Keys & Lockhart, 1999) and others (e.g., Rowley, 2001; Sink & Yillik-Downer, 2001), should be facilitated by the district- and school-level administrative staff. The team approach is a consistent theme in these publications, where members of the larger community, school, parent groups, and student associations work systemically to promote healthy student development. School counselors must continue to take on the role of coordinating and leading these partnerships (see, e.g., Cobia & Henderson, 2003; Keys, Green, Lockhart, & Luongo, 2003, for practical details).
Finally, ongoing evaluation is also required to ensure that school counseling programs are fostering important academic outcomes (Lapan, 2001; Myrick, 2003a; Johnson & Johnson, 2003; Thompson Thompson, city, Canada
Thompson, city (1991 pop. 14,977), central Man., Canada, on the Burntwood River. A mining town, it developed after large nickel deposits were discovered in the area in 1956. , 2002). Although school counselors and their comprehensive programs should not be held directly accountable for the rise or fall of student test scores or grades, action research involving, for instance, relatively simple pretest-posttest designs can be conducted for activities like classroom guidance and small group counseling. Improvement overtime provides evidence that students are mastering various educational/academic competencies. Moreover, the use of student, parent, faculty, and community leader surveys can document perceived changes in student performances across a variety of developmental domains, including academic achievement (Schmidt, 2000). Grades and standardized test scores can be tracked from year to year, showing that students who participated in educationally focused CSCPs are actually learning school curricula. In short, program accountability should be encouraged.
Research Limitations and Suggestions for Future CSCP Investigations
The investigation's shortcomings A shortcoming is a character flaw.
Shortcomings may also be:
In terms of other recommendations for subsequent CSCP research, studies need to be conducted in "high-achieving" CSCP elementary schools in order to clarify which factors explain the most variance The discrepancy between what a party to a lawsuit alleges will be proved in pleadings and what the party actually proves at trial.
In Zoning law, an official permit to use property in a manner that departs from the way in which other property in the same locality in academic performance and perceptions of school climate. Once these dimensions are better understood, they should be set up in "underachieving" CSCP schools. Subsequent research should determine whether positive student outcomes are similar between disparate subgroups of students (e.g., majority vs. minority children or regular education vs. special education students). Finally, potential gender differences on various CSCP student competencies may need to be further explored.
CLOSING REMARKS AND SUMMARY
The findings from this CSCP study and those discussed in previous articles (e.g., Borders & Drury, 1992; Gysbers, 2001; Lapan, 2001) provide school counseling personnel with a body of evidence that supports the usefulness of comprehensive programs to augment the educational objectives of schools. Hopefully, the results documented here will be sustained in other states and at different grade levels. Even though results are promising, we believe CSCP leadership teams for now should target those evaluative dimensions in which important data (e.g., truancy rates, number of discipline referrals, short-term Short-term
Any investments with a maturity of one year or less.
1. Of or relating to a gain or loss on the value of an asset that has been held less than a specified period of time. outcomes from guidance and counseling interventions) can be more readily obtained by very busy school personnel. Raising the bar too high and hastily hast·y
adj. hast·i·er, hast·i·est
1. Characterized by speed; rapid. See Synonyms at fast1.
2. Done or made too quickly to be accurate or wise; rash: a hasty decision. based on the results of several positive empirical studies, particularly in terms of "guaranteeing" achievement gains in CSCP schools, is not yet fully defensible de·fen·si·ble
Capable of being defended, protected, or justified: defensible arguments.
de·fen . Evaluation procedures and processes as suggested by Hughes and James (2001) and Schmidt (2000) are workable approaches for current school counseling leadership teams to use in their daily practice (see also Thompson, 2002). CSCPs should promote measurable changes in the student performances, but the assessment goals and tools need to be deliberate and contextual.
In summary, the current study reveals that early elementary-age students enrolled for several years in well-established CSCP schools produce higher achievement test scores over and above those continuously enrolled children in non-CSCP schools. It is perhaps now appealing for elementary school counselors and administrators, in response to mounting public and administrative pressures, to reprioritize program objectives, centering more on improving academic achievement scores rather than on those less "objectifiable" and "marketable Marketable are securities that can be easily converted into cash. Such securities will generally have highly liquid markets allowing the security to be sold at a reasonable price very quickly. " student competencies (e.g., emotional competence Emotional competence refers to a person's competence in expressing or releasing their emotions. It implies an ease around emotions which results in emotionally competent people being relaxed about other people being emotional. , personal-social, multicultural mul·ti·cul·tur·al
1. Of, relating to, or including several cultures.
2. Of or relating to a social or educational theory that encourages interest in many cultures within a society rather than in only a mainstream culture. and critical thinking skills, citizenship/character development). Yielding to the educational policies and forces of the "high stakes High Stakes is a British sitcom starring Richard Wilson that aired in 2001. It was written by Tony Sarchet. The second series remains unaired after the first received a poor reception. " testing movement, in advance of a solid CSCP research base, will place school counselors in the difficult position of requiting too much from their programs too soon. In our view, give the ASCA National Model time to become firmly established and researched before program administers and leaders are required to show demonstrable de·mon·stra·ble
1. Capable of being demonstrated or proved: demonstrable truths.
2. Obvious or apparent: demonstrable lies. gains in student academic performance. This is a noble and important goal, but one that the school counseling profession must move cautiously toward.
Table 1. Mean Scores and Standard Deviations for Third Grade ITBS Standard Scores as a Function of Group (CSCP vs. no CSCP), Enrollment, and Gender Enrolled in Student Vocabulary Comprehension Group Building Gender M SD M SD CSCP This year Male 181.02 19.23 181.65 20.64 Female 179.64 19.61 182.70 19.40 1 year ago Male 182.12 21.01 182.58 20.07 Female 184.05 20.77 187.10 20.08 2 years ago Male 184.29 20.75 184.07 22.06 Female 185.71 19.66 186.18 21.02 3 years ago Male 187.47 18.10 188.10 20.04 Female 186.71 19.14 189.28 19.12 No CSCP This year Male 184.68 20.97 185.43 22.50 Female 187.24 21.43 18,871 21.17 1 year ago Male 183.93 19.88 184.98 19.80 Female 184.92 18.68 189.08 20.75 2 years ago Male 187.79 19.38 187.79 21.89 Female 187.65 19.93 189.54 20.47 3 years ago Male 188.59 18.95 189.05 21.16 Female 189.04 19.83 191.24 20.43 Enrolled in Student Reading Math Group Building Gender M SD M SD CSCP This year Male 181.31 18.86 184.87 18.21 Female 181.14 18.28 181.55 16.72 1 year ago Male 182.35 19.26 186.33 17.94 Female 185.57 19.25 186.44 18.81 2 years ago Male 184.18 20.05 187.21 18.76 Female 185.91 18.97 186.32 17.88 3 years ago Male 187.77 17.68 192.96 17.87 Female 187.97 17.91 188.86 17.90 No CSCP This year Male 185.03 20.46 189.01 18.97 Female 18,793 20.05 187.99 18.94 1 year ago Male 184.45 18.54 190.74 17.97 Female 186.97 18.37 188.02 18.32 2 years ago Male 187.76 19.47 192.03 18.76 Female 188.54 18.87 190.33 17.98 3 years ago Male 188.82 18.73 193.54 17.29 Female 190.14 18.72 190.20 17.90 Table 2. Mean Scores and Standard Deviations for Fourth Grade WASL Scale Scores as a Function of Group (CSCP vs. no CSCP), Enrollment, and Gender Enrolled in Student Vocabulary Comprehension Group Building Gender M SD M SD CSCP This year Male 401.83 54.82 396.89 18.42 Female 395.88 57.29 402.48 18.14 1 year ago Male 408.82 49.69 400.55 17.62 Female 407.88 58.95 406.34 18.12 2 years ago Male 410.06 49.81 399.58 17.51 Female 408.58 55.21 404.93 19.48 3 years ago Male 419.90 44.89 404.40 18.84 Female 416.59 59.21 409.00 18.74 4 years ago Male 418.23 48.65 404.84 17.08 Female 417.26 51.98 409.42 17.38 No CSCP This year Male 410.71 51.65 401.58 17.78 Female 410.22 55.64 406.53 17.52 1 year ago Male 416.78 52.41 404.07 19.29 Female 415.17 56.91 408.46 19.17 2 years ago Male 416.01 54.71 404.55 18.47 Female 410.13 56.12 407.67 18.67 3 years ago Male 411.15 47.67 403.97 16.49 Female 414.89 54.32 409.96 19.08 4 years ago Male 420.31 47.46 405.85 17.78 Female 420.25 53.42 410.37 18.15 Enrolled in Student Reading Math Group Building Gender M SD M SD CSCP This year Male 7.10 2.21 382.77 34.86 Female 7.92 2.07 383.38 36.28 1 year ago Male 7.30 2.01 387.69 31.36 Female 8.32 210 389.58 32.91 2 years ago Male 7.10 2.07 383.45 33.24 Female 8.31 2.17 391.16 36.27 3 years ago Male 7.69 2.31 395.80 34.03 Female 8.43 1.87 395.51 34.64 4 years ago Male 7.75 2.08 396.01 33.02 Female 8.53 1.97 397.55 33.38 No CSCP This year Male 7.46 2.08 389.08 34.73 Female 8.17 205 390.31 33.64 1 year ago Male 7.61 2.06 393.77 34.81 Female 8.53 2.05 393.82 36.02 2 years ago Male 7.69 2.12 395.28 35.70 Female 8.32 2.01 392.90 34.12 3 years ago Male 7.64 1.98 396.31 32.72 Female 8.60 1.93 396.82 35.69 4 years ago Male 7.75 2.05 397.37 32.81 Female 8.66 1.94 397.57 34.56 Table 3. Mean Scores and Standard Deviations for Third Grade ITBS Standard Scores as a Function of Group (high CSCP vs. no CSCP), Enrollment, and Gender Enrolled in Student Vocabulary Comprehension Group Building Gender M SD M SD High This year Male 178.91 20.68 180.02 20.20 CSCP Female 181.70 19.50 184.55 19.88 Use 1 year ago Male 183.51 21.21 184.52 20.02 Female 185.63 20.78 185.71 20.53 2 years ago Male 189.50 17.05 190.29 18.11 Female 186.85 16.53 188.90 20.81 3 years ago Male 192.00 18.13 193.19 20.57 Female 189.82 18.57 192.55 19.56 No CSCP This year Male 184.68 20.97 185.43 22.50 Female 187.24 21.43 188.71 21.17 1 year ago Male 183.93 19.88 184.98 19.80 Female 184.92 18.68 189.08 20.75 2 years ago Male 187.79 19.38 187.79 21.89 Female 187.65 19.93 189.54 20.47 3 years ago Male 188.59 18.95 189.05 21.16 Female 189.04 19.83 191.24 20.43 Enrolled in Student Reading Math Group Building Gender M SD M SD High This year Male 179.41 19.40 186.08 18.76 CSCP Female 183.09 18.25 184.20 17.86 Use 1 year ago Male 184.03 19.23 189.56 18.77 Female 185.65 19.83 191.23 18.82 2 years ago Male 190.09 15.75 191.98 18.37 Female 187.86 17.37 189.48 16.32 3 years ago Male 192.60 17.97 198.95 17.79 Female 191.10 17.98 191.93 18.08 No CSCP This year Male 185.03 20.46 189.01 18.97 Female 187.93 20.05 187.99 18.94 1 year ago Male 184.45 18.54 190.74 17.97 Female 186.97 18.37 188.02 18.32 2 years ago Male 187.76 19.47 192.03 18.76 Female 188.54 18.87 190.33 17.98 3 years ago Male 188.82 18.73 193.54 17.29 Female 190.14 18.72 190.20 17.90 Table 4. Mean Scores and Standard Deviations for Fourth Grade WASL Scale Scores as a Function of Group (high CSCP vs. no CSCP), Enrollment, and Gender Enrolled in Student Vocabulary Comprehension Group Building Gender M SD M SD High This year Male 412.58 55.88 400.10 20.22 CSCP Female 389.60 58.26 400.10 19.15 Use 1 year ago Male 402.83 48.09 399.46 16.19 Female 401.60 54.95 406.11 15.19 2 years ago Male 421.60 46.12 398.53 19.82 Female 414.68 53.45 408.31 19.47 3 years ago Male 427.47 47.22 406.29 19.96 Female 426.05 55.46 410.69 16.01 4 years ago Male 424.95 47.80 408.17 16.26 Female 423.36 49.84 413.10 16.42 No CSCP This year Male 410.71 51.65 401.58 17.78 Female 410.22 55.64 406.53 17.52 1 year ago Male 416.78 52.41 404.07 19.29 Female 415.17 56.91 408.46 19.17 2 years ago Male 416.01 54.71 404.55 18.47 Female 410.13 56.12 407.67 18.67 3 years ago Male 411.15 47.67 403.97 16.49 Female 414.89 54.32 409.96 19.08 4 years ago Male 420.31 47.46 405.85 17.78 Female 420.25 53.42 410.37 18.15 Enrolled in Student Reading Math Group Building Gender M SD M SD High This year Male 7.66 2.09 390.76 32.99 CSCP Female 8.04 2.18 383.88 37.87 Use 1 year ago Male 7.51 1.84 389.84 28.11 Female 8.60 1.72 392.79 29.34 2 years ago Male 7.29 2.17 382.76 37.52 Female 8.79 2.18 395.74 38.20 3 years ago Male 8.17 2.24 403.98 32.97 Female 8.56 1.75 401.75 32.90 4 years ago Male 8.11 1.93 404.60 29.74 Female 9.02 1.90 404.98 32.82 No CSCP This year Male 7.46 2.08 389.08 34.73 Female 8.17 2.05 390.31 33.64 1 year ago Male 7.61 2.06 393.77 34.81 Female 8.53 2.05 393.82 36.02 2 years ago Male 7.69 2.12 395.28 35.70 Female 8.32 2.01 392.90 34.12 3 years ago Male 7.64 1.98 396.31 32.72 Female 8.60 1.93 396.82 35.69 4 years ago Male 7.75 2.05 397.37 32.81 Female 8.66 1.94 397.57 34.56 Table 5. Descriptive Statistics for Grade 3 ITBS Standard Scores as a Function of Group (high CSCP vs. no CSCP) With Only Continuously Enrolled Students Vocabulary Comprehension Reading Group M SD M SD M SD High CSCP Use (a) 191.01 18.34 192.90 20.19 191.92 17.98 No USCP (b) 188.81 19.38 190.11 20.83 189.46 18.73 Math Group M SD High CSCP Use (a) 195.77 18.24 No USCP (b) 1.91.92 17.66 Note. Continuously enrolled students were those participants who attended the same school for three or more years. (a) N = 552 (b) N = 1809 Table 6. Descriptive Statistics for Grade 4 WASL Scale Scores as a Function of Group (high CSCP vs. no CSCP) With Only Continuously Enrolled Students Listening Reading Writing Group M SD M SD M SD High CSCP Use (a) 424.80 49.48 410.12 16.93 8.52 1.98 No CSCP (b) 418.63 50.66 407.79 18.10 8.17 2.04 Math Group M SD High CSCP Use (a) 404.30 31.68 No CSCP (b) 397.26 33.78 Note. Continuously enrolled students were those participants who attended the same school for three or more years. (a) N = 786 (b) N = 2471
The authors sincerely appreciate the assistance they received from the Washington School Research Center and from Rich Lapan (University of Missouri, Columbia) and Ken Hughey (Kansas State University Kansas State University, main campus at Manhattan; coeducational; land-grant and state supported; chartered and opened 1863. There is an additional campus at Salina. Among the university's research facilities are the J. R. ).
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The results of this study were first presented at the 2002 annual conference of the British Educational Research Association (University of Exeter, UK). An earlier version of the study is available as a research report through the Washington School Research Center (http://www.spu.edu/orgs/research/index.html).
Christopher A. Sink, PhD, NCC NCC
See National Clearing Corporation (NCC). , LMHC LMHC Licensed Mental Health Counselor
LMHC Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation
LMHC Lakeview Manor Healthcare Center (Tawas City, Michigan)
LMHC Low Mass High Cost , is professor and chair, Department of School Counseling and Psychology at Seattle Pacific University External links
• • , WA. E-mail: email@example.com
Heather R. Stroh is a researcher with the Washington School Research Center, Lynnwood, WA, and a doctoral student in school counseling at Seattle Pacific University.