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Quantitative evaluation of German research output in Business Administration: 1992-2001.



Abstract

* The study presents a quantitative analysis Quantitative Analysis

A security analysis that uses financial information derived from company annual reports and income statements to evaluate an investment decision.

Notes:
 of publications of business scholars and practitioners in six major German-speaking journals over the period from 1992 to 2001.

* The measure of research output is used as an indicator of research performance of scholars and institutions.

* The present analysis replicates and extends a previous study conducted ten years ago.

Key Results

* Results suggest that the share of full professors and practitioners who contribute to the major journals has decreased while the share of junior academics has increased.

* As a common feature of all journals included in the study their international exposure is low.

* The ranking of business schools has not changed very much compared to the time period of the previous study.

**********

Evaluation of Research Output as a Core Element of University Controlling

During the last decades in the German-speaking countries (Germany Germany (jûr`mənē), Ger. Deutschland, officially Federal Republic of Germany, republic (2005 est. pop. 82,431,000), 137,699 sq mi (356,733 sq km). , Austria Austria (ô`strēə), Ger. Österreich [eastern march], officially Republic of Austria, federal republic (2005 est. pop. 8,185,000), 32,374 sq mi (83,849 sq km), central Europe.  and Switzerland Switzerland (swĭt`sərlənd), Fr. Suisse, Ger. Schweiz, Ital. Svizzera, officially Swiss Confederation, federal republic (2005 est. pop. 7,489,000), 15,941 sq mi (41,287 sq km), central Europe. ) there have been strong and differentiated efforts to evaluate the performance of universities and their units (Daniel Daniel, book of the Bible
Daniel, book of the Bible. It combines "court" tales, perhaps originating from the 6th cent. B.C., and a series of apocalyptic visions arising from the time of the Maccabean emergency (167–164 B.C.
 1988a, p. 93, Daniel 2000, p. 2). Although there are some concerns against such efforts performance evaluations tend to be useful since university research is primarily publicly funded, and universities are embedded Inserted into. See embedded system.  in an environment which follows market-oriented principles. Such evaluations are caused by the fact that in the 90s the resources available to the academic system have declined significantly. The academic sector has to spend limited resources extremely effectively. With respect to the German-speaking countries it can be argued that these countries belong to the knowledge-based societies which are highly dependent upon the knowledge created in their academic institutions (Campbell Campbell, city, United States
Campbell, city (1990 pop. 36,048), Santa Clara co., W Calif., in the fertile Santa Clara valley; founded 1885, inc. 1952.
 2000, p. 7).

Hence it does not come as a surprise that performance evaluations referring to the academic sector have been conducted by numerous institutions. Among others special institutions such as evaluation commissions, professional evaluation agencies, but also (business) magazines, students, and peers have become engaged in this field. Likewise the spectrum of the addressees of such studies shows a similar variety: Business firms want to identify those educational institutions which offer the best candidates for junior management positions, politicians strive for an efficient assignment of the scarce resources, high school graduates seek for transparency (1) The quality of being able to see through a material. The terms transparency and translucency are often used synonymously; however, transparent would technically mean "seeing through clear glass," while translucent would mean "seeing through frosted glass." See alpha blending.  with respect to the quality of institutions of higher learning, and junior scholars look out for places with distinct research performance (Buttner/Kraus/Rincke 2002, p. 23). Finally, the universities themselves are highly interested in such evaluations, since they alleviate Alleviate
To make something easier to be endured.

Mentioned in: Kinesiology, Applied
 the raising of third-party funds as well as an efficient internal allocation The apportionment or designation of an item for a specific purpose or to a particular place.

In the law of trusts, the allocation of cash dividends earned by a stock that makes up the principal of a trust for a beneficiary usually means that the dividends will be treated as
 of their resources. Since all these interests are legitimate academic performance evaluations are not only necessary but rather should their utilization be expanded during the coming years.

Due to the multitude of interests there is a wide spectrum of methods used in such evaluations. This methodological diversity is documented in several publications (e.g. Kostoff 1998). It can be shown that this wide spectrum of methods refers both to the research and to the teaching activities of the universities or their units. Whilst the teaching activities in spite of in opposition to all efforts of; in defiance or contempt of; notwithstanding.

See also: Spite
 some problems (Kromrey 2001, pp. 11 et seq et seq. (et seek) n. abbreviation for the Latin phrase et sequentes meaning "and the following." It is commonly used by lawyers to include numbered lists, pages or sections after the first number is stated, as in "the rules of the road are found in Vehicle Code .) can be screened relatively precisely (e.g. on the basis of the number of students or examinations), the assessment of scholars' research performance is difficult to determine because of the complex nature of the research process. It is this very nature of the research process which does not allow for an unreflecting un·re·flect·ing  
adj.
Marked by or exhibiting a lack of serious thought or consideration: unreflecting impulses.



un
 application of absolute, inter-subjective criteria. The biggest problems refer to the qualitative qualitative /qual·i·ta·tive/ (kwahl´i-ta?tiv) pertaining to quality. Cf. quantitative.

qualitative

pertaining to observations of a categorical nature, e.g. breed, sex.
 dimension of the research and its output which seems to be even more important than quantitative aspects. Scrinzi (2000, p. 16) states that "a fundamental problem of any evaluation is the contradiction CONTRADICTION. The incompatibility, contrariety, and evident opposition of two ideas, which are the subject of one and the same proposition.
     2. In general, when a party accused of a crime contradicts himself, it is presumed he does so because he is guilty for
 between the administration's need for simple "objective" criteria for the quality and quantity of research output and the necessarily complex and sometime elusive nature of creative research". Up until now this dilemma remains unsolved; there is no concept or method which would allow for a precise or valid measurement of the qualitative dimension of scholarly work.

Because of validity problems in assessing research performance a variety of indicators have been suggested (e.g. Bolsenkotter 1986, p. 45, Daniel 1988a, p. 95, Hufner/Rau 1989, pp. 728 et seq., Montada/Krampen/Burkard 1999, pp. 69 et seq.) such as

* the number of completed doctoral or post-doctoral research projects,

* the amount of risen/spent third-party funds,

* the extent of scholars' active participation at scholarly conferences,

* the number of publications (refereed journal refereed journal,
n a professional or literary journal or publication in which articles or papers are selected for publication by a panel of readers or referees who are experts in the field.
 articles, book chapters etc.),

* the total number of pages published,

* the impact factor measured by the frequency in which the publications are cited in other publications, or

* the evaluation by peers.

Each indicator has its specific disadvantages (Daniel 1988a, p. 95, Rau RAU Rand Afrikaans University (South Africa)
RAU Randse Afrikaanse Universiteit
RAU Rajendra Agricultural University (India)
RAU République Arabe Unie (French: United Arab Republic) 
 1986, pp. 70 et seq., Kieser 1998, pp. 215 et seq., Welsch/Ehrenheim 1999, pp. 455 et seq., Dilger 2000, pp. 473 et seq.). For instance, the number of completed doctoral or post-doctoral research projects is highly dependent upon the aspiration aspiration /as·pi·ra·tion/ (as?pi-ra´shun)
1. the drawing of a foreign substance, such as the gastric contents, into the respiratory tract during inhalation.

2.
 level in the respective university. The amount of risen/spent third-party funds is a problematic indicator for research performance since it is an input- rather than an output-oriented measure. Third-party funds are a difficult proxy, since large third-party funds have not always led to outstanding research results. The extent of scholars' conference activities is arguable ar·gu·a·ble  
adj.
1. Open to argument: an arguable question, still unresolved.

2. That can be argued plausibly; defensible in argument: three arguable points of law.
 since the number of conferences with low quality standards rises permanently. The number of publications might be misleading if contributions to handbooks and readers without peer-refereeing are included. The number of pages published has to be criticized since it only relies on the quantitative dimension of research (Lerbinger 1985, pp. 848 et seq.). The limitations of this method can be imposingly portrayed por·tray  
tr.v. por·trayed, por·tray·ing, por·trays
1. To depict or represent pictorially; make a picture of.

2. To depict or describe in words.

3. To represent dramatically, as on the stage.
 with Einstein's seminal seminal /sem·i·nal/ (sem´i-n'l) pertaining to semen or to a seed.

sem·i·nal
adj.
Of, relating to, containing, or conveying semen or seed.
 publication "Zur Zur (zûr), in the Bible.

1 Prince of Midian killed by the Jews.

2 Son of Jehiel.
 Elektrodynamik bewegter Korper" (1916) which is only 30 pages long but which revolutionized the science of physics in toto. The impact measure is misleading because of the existence of citation Citation

(foaled 1945) U.S. Thoroughbred racehorse. In four seasons he won 32 of 45 races, finished second in ten, and third in two. He won the 1948 Triple Crown, and became the first horse to win $1 million. He set a world record in 1950 by running a mile in 1:33 3/5.
 cartels and (self-)citation chains (Macharzina/ Wolf/Oesterle 1993, p. 67, Hennig-Thurau/Walsh/Schrader 2003b, pp. 6 et seq). Moreover since German scholars still prefer to publish in German journals and since only a few of these journals are listed in the SSCI SSCI Social Sciences Citation Index (Thompson Scientific)
SSCI Senate Select Committee on Intelligence
SSCI Steel Service Center Institute (Cleveland, Ohio)
SSCI Self Service Check-In
SSCI Scientific Systems Co.
 this method is problematic when applied to Germany, and the evaluation by peers is even more of a problem because of numerous personal networks in the academic sector.

Needless to say that some of these methods and indicators cause immense efforts for data gathering and data analysis. Therefore, claims for the parallel use of several methods and indicators (Bolsenkotter 1986, p. 47, Kieser 1998, p. 222, Daniel 2000, p. 4) have to be regarded as somewhat problematic.

Concept of the Study

The concept of the present study takes into account the strengths and weaknesses of alternative approaches to assess research performance. The study rests on the assumption that research output and research productivity are widely accepted measures for evaluating scholarly work (Welsch/Ehrenheim 1999, p. 455). Based on that it relies on the following conceptual features:

* Application of a bibliometric (quantitative, indicator-based) and not a reputation-oriented (qualitative, peer-review-based) mode of analysis (see e.g. different chapters in Fisch/Daniel 1986, Barry Barry, Welsh Barri, town (1991 pop. 45,053) and port, Vale of Glamorgan, S Wales, on the Bristol Channel. Once a major coal-exporting port, its more diversified export products include cement, flour, and steel products.  1990, p. 52, Campbell 2000, p. 8), since the latter suffers from the problem of circular conclusions (Macharzina/ Wolf/Oesterle 1993, p. 67). In the North-American prop. adj. 1. of or pertaining to or characteristic of the continent or countries of North America and their peoples.  university system publication records have played a central role for career-oriented performance evaluation Performance evaluation

The assessment of a manager's results, which involves, first, determining whether the money manager added value by outperforming the established benchmark (performance measurement) and, second, determining how the money manager achieved the calculated return
 of academics. The same is true of Australia Australia (ôstrāl`yə), smallest continent, between the Indian and Pacific oceans. With the island state of Tasmania to the south, the continent makes up the Commonwealth of Australia, a federal parliamentary state (2005 est. pop. . In Europe Europe (yr`əp), 6th largest continent, c.4,000,000 sq mi (10,360,000 sq km) including adjacent islands (1992 est. pop. 512,000,000). , too, bibliometric analyses are of increasing importance for evaluating the research of university units as the British example shows. In the Netherlands Netherlands (nĕth`ərləndz), Du. Nederland or Koninkrijk der Nederlanden, officially Kingdom of the Netherlands, constitutional monarchy (2005 est. pop. 16,407,000), 15,963 sq mi (41,344 sq km), NW Europe.  publications are the most important indicator for evaluation of university research (Kieser 1998, pp. 213 et seq.).

* Measurement of the amount of publication output and not the frequency, in which publications have been cited. This measure is widely accepted for selection or replacement decisions of professorial positions (Hufner/Rau 1989, p. 728). A striking argument for not using impact factor analysis is a high intercorrelation between the number of publications and the frequency of citations (Klingemann 1974, cited in Daniel 2000, p. 2).

* Concentration on journal publications. It has been argued that in scientific communities journal publications play a critical role in evaluating scholarly work (Hennig-Thurau/Walsh/Schrader 2003b, p. 2). This is because entry barriers are high due to limited space available and high aspiration level controlled by rigorous refereeing. Although there might be some scholars who publish a little inside and a lot outside of academic journals--Daniel (1988b, p. 238) has found no strong correlation between these two types of publications--we have selected academic journal publications as the study's data base. It is fair to assume that the large majority of scholars would prefer to publish an article in a reputable rep·u·ta·ble  
adj.
Having a good reputation; honorable.



repu·ta·bil
 journal than elsewhere. Schlinghoff has shown that the probability to get appointed as full professor much more depends on the number of journal publications than on the number of other kinds of publications (2001, p. 8 and p. 12).

* Focusing on German speaking academic journals in recognition of their high standard. Some German scholars of business administration have shown a tendency to publish their work outside Germany, especially in English-speaking adj. 1. able to communicate in English.

Adj. 1. English-speaking - able to communicate in English
communicatory, communicative - able or tending to communicate; "was a communicative person and quickly told all she knew"- W.M.
 journals. Yet, for the majority of the German scholars of business administration the German publication market still is the main "playground Playground - A visual language for children, developed for Apple's Vivarium Project. OOPSLA 89 or 90? ". According to according to
prep.
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.

2. In keeping with: according to instructions.

3.
 Schlinghoff (2001, p. 12) German-speaking universities base their decisions for filling vacant full professorships much more on German-speaking top-tier journal publications than on international top-tier journal publications. Mainly because of language reasons the number of German scholars publishing in English-speaking top-tier journals such as Administrative Science Quarterly Administrative Science Quarterly, founded in 1956, is one of the most eminent academic journals in the field of organizational studies. It is published by Cornell University.

People claimed to have been involved as founders include James D.
, Management Science, Academy of Management Journal, Academy of Management Review, Journal of Finance, or Strategic Management Journal is still low. Schlinghoff (2001, p. 12) has shown that between 1990 and 1994 60.8% of those young German academics who had qualified for a professorial career by way of a post-doctoral degree (so called Privatdozenten) had no international publication at all; recently, however, as a tendency more and more junior academics try to get their work published in English-speaking outlets.

* Concentration on six academic journals. The selection of these six journals has been guided by the following deliberations. First, we wanted to concentrate on such academic journals which are neither specialized spe·cial·ize  
v. spe·cial·ized, spe·cial·iz·ing, spe·cial·iz·es

v.intr.
1. To pursue a special activity, occupation, or field of study.

2.
 in functional areas such as marketing, finance, planning, organization, accounting nor on types of institutions such as banks or insurance companies. We argue that in general management or business administration journals there is competition among all scholars in the field and not just among those within a functionally oriented o·ri·ent  
n.
1. Orient The countries of Asia, especially of eastern Asia.

2.
a. The luster characteristic of a pearl of high quality.

b. A pearl having exceptional luster.

3.
 subgroup sub·group  
n.
1. A distinct group within a group; a subdivision of a group.

2. A subordinate group.

3. Mathematics A group that is a subset of a group.

tr.v.
. Based on that we have selected those journals out of German-speaking general business administration journals which--according to studies by Hufner and Rau (1989, p. 732 and p. 734) and Schlinghoff and Backes-Gellner (2002, pp. 343 et seq.)--were acclaimed ac·claim  
v. ac·claimed, ac·claim·ing, ac·claims

v.tr.
1. To praise enthusiastically and often publicly; applaud. See Synonyms at praise.

2.
 the highest reputation by German-speaking professors of business administration. These journals were included by Rau (1986, p. 69) in his well-known study on research performance. Moreover, in determining the group of journals, we have considered that, Germany, Austria, and Switzerland, have a highly integrated community of business scholars jointly organized in the Verband der Hochschullehrer fur Betriebswirtschaft (Association of University Professors of Management) but with the overriding (programming) overriding - Redefining in a child class a method or function member defined in a parent class.

Not to be confused with "overloading".
 majority of German professors. By concentrating on the top German-speaking academic journals (four German, one Austrian, and one Swiss journal) with rigorous refereeing processes there is a chance to also include qualitative aspects in a quantitative study such as ours (Buchholz Buchholz may refer to: Places
In Germany
  • Buchholz in der Nordheide, a town in the district of Harburg, Lower Saxony
  • Französisch Buchholz, a part of Pankow in Berlin
  • Märkisch Buchholz, in the Dahme-Spreewald district, Brandenburg
 1995, pp. 195 et seq.).

* Analysis of the research output over a rather long period of time of ten years. We chose a time-frame comparable to previous studies conducted by Ran (1986, p. 64) and Macharzina, Wolf, and Oesterle (1993, p. 67). By analyzing a data set of ten years the study easily fulfills the minimum requirements statet by Daniel (2000, p. 4). He argues that research output studies should cover at least three to five years in order to eliminate outliers.

* Reference to exactly the same group of journals which were covered by the previous study (Macharzina/Wolf/Oesterle 1993, pp. 67 et seq.). This continuity is appropriate since Schlinghoff and Backes-Gellner (2002, p. 349) have found that among German-speaking business administration journals there is a high level of qualitative stability. That means that the ranking of German-speaking academic journals according their quality is changing only very little over time. Among others Bolsenkotter (1986, p. 46) and Kieser (1998, p. 222) define such a continuity of a data base as an indicator for a good research output project.

* Evaluation of the research output both of individual scholars and institutions. By doing so the study follows the widely accepted request that research performance studies should refer to each of these dimensions. They should be characterized char·ac·ter·ize  
tr.v. character·ized, character·iz·ing, character·iz·es
1. To describe the qualities or peculiarities of: characterized the warden as ruthless.

2.
 by a "differentiation of objects" (Bolsenkotter 1986, pp. 42 et seq.).

Based on these conceptual foundations the present study

* analyzes which individuals (scholars and practitioners) have contributed most to the journals under study. This individualized in·di·vid·u·al·ize  
tr.v. in·di·vid·u·al·ized, in·di·vid·u·al·iz·ing, in·di·vid·u·al·iz·es
1. To give individuality to.

2. To consider or treat individually; particularize.

3.
 analysis might help universities to identify promising candidates (especially research assistants) for professorial positions,

* investigates to what degree practitioners have contributed to the journals. This investigation helps to recognize how far the academic journals in spite of all need for specialization A career option pursued by some attorneys that entails the acquisition of detailed knowledge of, and proficiency in, a particular area of law.

As the law in the United States becomes increasingly complex and covers a greater number of subjects, more and more attorneys are
 had been able to bridge the gap between the scientific and the practical world,

* examines to what degree persons without a higher academic degree (doctorate) have contributed to the respective journals; this can help to find out to which degree doctoral candidates would have a chance to publish in such journals,

* scrutinizes to which degree specific authors have concentrated their work on a single or a few journals. By doing so we can see if the publishing style of individual authors fits to specific journals,

* contrasts the six journals with respect to several characteristics in order to specify the journals more clearly, and

* checks the level of connection between a journal's contributors and editors.

Methodology of the Study

The data were collected computing computing - computer  the contributions in six major business research journals in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland over a period of ten years from 1992 to 2001. These journals are

* Betriebswirtschaftliche Forschung und Praxis prax·is  
n. pl. prax·es
1. Practical application or exercise of a branch of learning.

2. Habitual or established practice; custom.
 (BFuP BFuP Betriebswirtschaftliche Forschung und Praxis (German: Economical research and practice) ) [Research and Practice in Business Administration], edited by M. J. Matschke, G. Sieben, Th. Schildbach; 6 issues per volume, founded in 1949.

* Die Betriebswirtschaft (DBW DBW Decibel (referenced to 1 watt)
DBW Drive-By-Wire
DBW Department of Boating and Waterways
DBW Desirable Body Weight
DBW Dedicated Bandwidth
DBW Data Bus Wire
DBW DriveByWire (Dutch band) 
) [Business Administration], edited by A. G. Coenenberg, M. Ebers, W. Gerke, R. Kohler Kohler, village (1990 pop. 1,817), Sheboygan co., E Wis., on the Sheboygan River; inc. 1912. The Kohler plumbing-fixtures plant there, which still produces its famous stainless-steel products, has been the scene of some of the longest and most bitter labor disputes , H. Meffert. B. Pellens, G. Reber The Reber was an American automobile manufactured from 1902 until 1903. A tonneau from Reading, Pennsylvania, it was powered by a vertical-twin engine, and was the forerunner of the Acme. Reference
David Burgess Wise, The New Illustrated Encyclopedia of Automobiles.
, N. Szyperski, M. R. Theisen; 6 issues per volume, founded in 1908, inactive in·ac·tive  
adj.
1. Not active or tending to be active.

2.
a. Not functioning or operating; out of use: inactive machinery.

b.
 since 1943; revived re·vive  
v. re·vived, re·viv·ing, re·vives

v.tr.
1. To bring back to life or consciousness; resuscitate.

2. To impart new health, vigor, or spirit to.

3.
 in 1977.

* Die Unternehmung (DU) [The Firm], edited by M. Bruhn, P. Gomez Gomez or Gómez is a common Spanish surname. The Portuguese spelling is Gomes, while in Catalan it is rendered as Gomis. People
  • Alfonso Gomez (1980–), Mexican-American professional boxer
  • Andrés Gómez (1960–), Ecuadorian tennis player
, R. Gruning, M. Hilb, R. Kuhn Kuhn , Richard 1900-1967.

Austrian chemist. He won a 1938 Nobel Prize for research on carotenoids and vitamins but declined the award by order of the Nazi government.
, D. Pfaff Pfaff is a manufacturer of sewing machines and is now owned by the VSM Group AB [1]. History
Pfaff was founded in Kaiserslautern in 1862 by instrument maker Georg Michael Pfaff (1823–1893).
; 6 issues per volume, founded in 1974.

* Journal fur Betriebswirtschaft (JfB) [Journal of Business Administration], edited by H. Stremitzer, R. Bratschitsch, O. Grun, A. Grunbichler, E. Loitlsberger, J. Mugler, D. Rossl, K. Sandner, R. Schauer, U. Schneider Schnei·der   , Vreni Born 1964.

Swiss alpine skier. She won the overall World Cup in 1989, 1994, and 1995, was a four-time world champion, and earned five Olympic medals.
, G. Schweiger, G. Seicht, A. Taudes, E. Topritzhofer, K. Vodrazka; 5 issues per volume, founded in 1951.

* Zeitschrift fur Betriebswirtschaft (ZfB) [Review of Business Administration], edited by H. Albach, U. Backes-Gellner, H. E. Buschgen, G. Fandel, D. Heuskel *, D. Hunsdiek *, W. Kursten, B.-A. von Maltzan *, H. B. von Portatius *, H. Sabel, D. Schneidewind, J. Schwalbach Schwalbach can refer to several places in Germany:
  • Bad Schwalbach, in the Rheingau-Taunus-Kreis, Hesse.
  • Schwalbach am Taunus, in the Main-Taunus-Kreis, Hesse.
  • Schwalbach, Saarland, in the district of Saarlouis, Saarland.
; 12 issues per volume, founded in 1924.

* Zeitschrift fur betriebswirtschaftliche Forschung (ZfbF/sbr) [Review of Business Administration Research/Schmalenbach Business Review], edited by S. Albers Al·bers   , Josef 1888-1976.

German-born American painter whose works, such as the series Homage to the Square (1950-1959), are characterized by simple geometric patterns of various colors.

Noun 1.
, W. Ballwieser, C. Borsig *, W. Buhler Buhler, Buehler, or Bühler may stand for:
  • Buehler, manufacturer of scientific equipment
  • Buhler, Kansas, Community in Reno County
  • Bühler, Appenzell Ausserrhoden, Switzerland
  • Bühler, Swiss manufacturing company
, W. Busse v. Colbe, K. Esser, G. Franke, H. Hax, G. Lassmann, L. Muller-Hagedorn, A. Picot pi·cot  
n.
A series of small embroidered loops forming an ornamental edging on some ribbon and lace.

tr.v. pi·coted , pi·cot·ing , pi·cots
To trim with small embroidered loops.
, D. Schneider, U. Schreiber Schreiber (German and Yiddish: scribe, writer) can refer to the following: People
  • Steven Z. Schreiber (b. 1982), International male supermodel.
  • Avery Schreiber (1935-2002), American comedian
  • Bert Schreiber, German writer
, A. Wagenhofer; 12 issues per volume, founded in 1949. 12 issues per year, with 8 issues appearing in German (journal title: ZfbF) and 4 issues appearing in English 1. English - (Obsolete) The source code for a program, which may be in any language, as opposed to the linkable or executable binary produced from it by a compiler. The idea behind the term is that to a real hacker, a program written in his favourite programming language is  (journal title: sbr).

The data base comprises a total of 2,255 articles. Book reviews, short notes and comments (less than five pages) were not included in the calculations since they normally are not subject to a reviewing process. The distribution of the total number of contributions across the journals is as follows:

* BFuP: 336 (14.9%),

* DBW: 397 (17.6%),

* DU: 274 (12.1%),

* JfB: 187 (8.3%),

* ZfB: 592 (26.3%),

* ZfbF/sbr: 469 (20.8%).

The variations between journals can be explained by the number of issues per year (5, 6 or 12 issues), the average length of the articles published and the number of pages per issue.

Adjusted appearances were computed such that a contribution written by a single author received one point. Co-authored articles were given 0.5 points for each author in case of two authors, 0.33 points each in case of three authors and so forth.

Results

Evaluation by Authors

An evaluation by authors is adequate; empirical studies Empirical studies in social sciences are when the research ends are based on evidence and not just theory. This is done to comply with the scientific method that asserts the objective discovery of knowledge based on verifiable facts of evidence.  have shown that performance differences between researchers belonging to the same research unit are often bigger than performance differences between research units (Vitt 1998, pp. 248 et seq.). According to the "sacred spark spark, in electricity: see arc.

(language) SPARK - An annotated subset of Ada supported by tools supplied by Praxis Critical Systems (originally by PVL).

http://sparkada.com.
 thesis" (Wanner/Lewis/Gregorio 1981, p. 250) publication performance is highly influenced by an individual's motivation, attitudes, perseverance Perseverance
See also Determination.

Ainsworth

redid dictionary manuscript burnt in fire. [Br. Hist.: Brewer Handbook, 752]

Call of the Wild, The

dogs trail steadfastly through Alaska’s tundra. [Am. Lit.
 and specific skills. As a consequence, in many universities there is a considerable inhomogeneity in·ho·mo·ge·ne·i·ty  
n. pl. in·ho·mo·ge·ne·i·ties
1. Lack of homogeneity.

2. Something that is not homogeneous or uniform.

Noun 1.
 of the performance among their members (Heckhausen 1983, p. 11). No university can fulfill ful·fill also ful·fil  
tr.v. ful·filled, ful·fill·ing, ful·fills also ful·fils
1. To bring into actuality; effect: fulfilled their promises.

2.
 the criterion of a top research institution in its entirety (Daniel 2000, p. 4). Jaspers Jas·pers   , Karl Theodor 1883-1969.

German psychiatrist, philosopher, and theologian. A founder of modern existentialism, he was concerned with human reactions to extreme situations.
 (1961, p. 124) suggested that life of a university depends upon the people, not the institution which just is the condition. Daniel (1988b, p. 227) argues that comparative analyses of research performance should always focus on the individual scholar or the individual research team. Also there is the universities' tendency to prefer applicants with outstanding publication record in academic journals for professorial positions (Schlinghoff 2001, p. 8 and p. 12) which legitimates to conduct such an analysis.

In German academic business journals there is the peculiarity that based upon the pertinent PERTINENT, evidence. Those facts which tend to prove the allegations of the party offering them, are called pertinent; those which have no such tendency are called impertinent, 8 Toull. n. 22. By pertinent is also meant that which belongs. Willes, 319.  desire to bridge the gap between theory and practice, executives are invited to contribute as well. Research questions in business administration root in the practical world; hence we should include practitioner's contribution to academic journals. Accordingly, Table 1 reports on the appearances of scholars and of practitioners. Authors were ranked according to their publications across all journals ("total appearances"; column 4). For reasons of space only those authors are included who have acquired at least three points. Moreover, Table 1 informs about the type of author (column 3: S = scholar; P = practitioner; S/P S/P Status Post
S/P Serial to Parallel
S/P Policy Planning Staff
S/P Sound Powered
S/P Sharp & Pink (description of optic nerve in eye) 
 = both scholar and practitioner with a tendency towards scholar; etc.), it also informs about the distribution of the authors across the six journals (column 5). The last but one column of table 1 informs about the authors' total of appearances in Germany's 3 top journals (DBW, ZfB, ZfbF/ sbr). This calculation relates to studies (Hufner/Rau 1989, pp. 732 et seq.; Hennig-Thurau/Walsh/Schrader 2003a, no foliation foliation

Planar arrangement of structural or textural features in any rock type, but particularly that resulting from the alignment of constituent mineral grains of a metamorphic rock along straight or wavy planes.
) which found that German-speaking business administration professors ranked that three journals significantly higher than the other three.

Unlike in the 1993 study no author clearly stands out. Rank No. 1 is held by Professor Gerpott (14.16 points) who in the reference study (Macharzina/Wolf/ Oesterle 1993, p. 72) showed as the practitioner with the highest number of appearances. Now a professor at the University of Duisburg-Essen The University of Duisburg-Essen (German: Universität Duisburg-Essen) is a university institution situated in the German federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia.  he scored highest again. Another five authors, Professors Seicht, Weber Weber, river, United States
Weber (wē`bər), river, c.125 mi (200 km) long, rising in the Uinta Mts., N central Utah, and flowing north and northwest to join the Ogden River at Ogden. The combined stream flows to the Great Salt Lake.
, Homburg Homburg: see Bad Homburg vor der Höhe, Germany. , Schwetzler and Albach, received 10 points or more, followed by a second group with 9-7 points, and a third with 6-4 points which cuts off at rank 62.

Among those not included in the list there are 58 professors who received between 2.83 and 2 points. 412 professors received more than 0 but less than 2 points. There are many one-time authors among them. Altogether if one holds against the total of 575 professors (105 + 58 + 412) who contributed to the journals the average of 818 representing the total population of professors between 1992 and 2001, (1) about 70% have appeared (in the 1993 study, the respective value had been 82%). Only 48% of the professors had one or more appearances in the time period between 1992 and 2001. Yet this finding is not surprising at all. Daniel (1988b, p. 228) in a sample of professors of psychology found that in a five-year period 68% had no publication in academic journals at all. Our findings are also in line with Lotka's Square Root Law of Elitism e·lit·ism or é·lit·ism  
n.
1. The belief that certain persons or members of certain classes or groups deserve favored treatment by virtue of their perceived superiority, as in intellect, social status, or financial resources.
, according to which in a scientific community the number of very productive scholars is approximately the square root of the total number of individuals in that community (Daniel 1988b, p. 229).

Focusing on the three top journals (DBW, ZfB, ZfbF/sbr) the ranking of top authors changes considerably. Professors Gerpott, Homburg, and Schwetzler remain in the top positions but Professors Albach, Albers and Wildemann rank much higher than in the long list. They have concentrated their work on the top tier journals.

Among the top 142 authors there are eight practitioners and thirteen individuals with a mixed career (both as a scholar and a practitioner; the majority of these authors have published their articles during their time as university research assistants). The percentage of full-time practitioners in the ranking of the top authors is significantly lower than the percentage measured by Macharzina, Wolf, Oesterle in 1993. In between 1982 and 1991, 22 practitioners had achieved at least 3 points. Since this compares to the scores of scholars with three or more points (1993, p. 72) it can be assumed that practitioners' influence on German-speaking academic journals has vanished. Below we will test this assumption in more detail. Among the top 142 authors there are 105 professors and 16 junior academics. This relationship corresponds with the 1993 findings with a number of 93 vs. 7 respectively (see Macharzina/Wolf/Oesterle 1993, pp. 70 et seq.).

Leaders in the group of full-time practitioners are Professor Bernhardt and Dr. Kirchmann. Drs. Funk, Guserl, Paul Paul, 1901–64, king of the Hellenes (1947–64), brother and successor of George II. He married (1938) Princess Frederika of Brunswick. During Paul's reign Greece followed a pro-Western policy, and the Cyprus question was temporarily resolved.  and Liener are or were top executives in German companies, and still appear considerably in research outlets. Professor Simon served as a university professor before he became a management consultant.

In total 2,081 authors have contributed to the 2,255 appearances in the six journals. Yet only 55 of this appearances (2.4%) stem from authors outside the German-speaking countries.

Table 1 reveals that there seems to be a strong connection between certain authors and certain journals; only very few contributors show a nearly even spread over several journals.

Evaluation by Institutions

In German-speaking countries research-output-based rankings of institutions have had a rather long tradition. As early as in 1975 Spiegel-Rosing has published such a kind of list; she showed that the research productivity differs significantly among institutions. Such institutional analyses are important for the following reasons:

* It was shown that the membership to an outstanding institution positively influences the research output of its individual members ("accumulative LEGACY, ACCUMULATIVE. An accumulative legacy is a second bequest given by the same testator to the same legatee, whether it be of the same kind of thing, as money, or whether it be of different things, as, one hundred dollars, in one legacy, and a thousand dollars in another, or whether  advantage framework") (Wanner/Lewis/Gregorio 1981, p. 250).

* According to empirical studies (Schlinghoff 2001, p. 3) the reputation of an institution/faculty/department significantly improves its chances to attract outstanding candidates for vacant professorial positions.

* In important publications the quality of institutions/faculties/departments is usually operationalized on the basis of research output.

Following the above procedure the calculations were performed across all journals (see Table 2). The authors were assigned as·sign  
tr.v. as·signed, as·sign·ing, as·signs
1. To set apart for a particular purpose; designate: assigned a day for the inspection.

2.
 to those institutions which they belonged to at the time of publication of their respective articles. Since fair output-oriented performance analyses should always account for institutions' differences in size and resource endowments (Bolsenkotter 1986, p. 46, Daniel 2000, p. 4), we have included them in the computation Computation is a general term for any type of information processing that can be represented mathematically. This includes phenomena ranging from simple calculations to human thinking. . According to widely recognized studies (Fabel/Hesse 1999, pp. 197 et seq.) the number of scholars belonging to an institution is an acceptable proxy for its size and resource endowment A transfer, generally as a gift, of money or property to an institution for a particular purpose. The bestowal of money as a permanent fund, the income of which is to be used for the benefit of a charity, college, or other institution. . Therefore the last but one column of table 2 informs about the number of professors (C4/C3) who at the end of 2001 belonged to the respective institution. Table 2 informs about the institution's rank in the 1993 reference study.

As is revealed in Table 2 Mannheim Mannheim (män`hīm), city (1994 pop. 318,025), Baden-Württemberg, W central Germany, on the right bank of the Rhine River and at the mouth of the Neckar River. A bridge connects it with Ludwigshafen, on the opposite bank of the Rhine.  Faculty of Business Administration, Business Economics University of Vienna History
The University was founded on March 12, 1365 by Duke Rudolph IV and his brothers Albert III and Leopold III, hence the additional name "Alma Mater Rudolphina". After the Charles University in Prague, the University of Vienna is the second oldest university in Central
, and the Kiel Kiel (kēl), city (1994 pop. 248,930), capital of Schleswig-Holstein, N central Germany, on Kiel Bay, an arm of the Baltic Sea. Situated at the head of the Kiel Canal, the city was Germany's chief naval base from 1871 to 1945, when the naval  Institute of Business Administration top the ranks in terms of the amount of published research, followed by Cologne Cologne (kəlōn`), Ger. Köln, city (1994 pop. 962,500), North Rhine–Westphalia, W Germany, on the Rhine River. It is a commercial, financial, and industrial center, a rail and road junction, and a river port. , Zurich, and Frankfurt/Main. The ranking is influenced by ethnocentric eth·no·cen·trism  
n.
1. Belief in the superiority of one's own ethnic group.

2. Overriding concern with race.



eth
 features also. Non-German-speaking institutions are still a minority in terms of appearances as is the case with authors.

A comparison of our findings with those of the 1993 reference study (Macharzina/Wolf/Oesterle 1993, pp. 74 et seq.) indicate a high level of concordance. There is a marked level of congruence con·gru·ence  
n.
1.
a. Agreement, harmony, conformity, or correspondence.

b. An instance of this: "What an extraordinary congruence of genius and era" 
 of the institutions' ranks between the 1982-1991 and the 1992-2001 time periods (r = 0.75182; p = 0.0001). Yet among the top schools Mannheim, Kiel, Zurich, Munich, and Augsburg Augsburg (ouks`brk), city (1994 pop. 264,764), capital of Swabia, Bavaria, S central Germany, a major industrial center on the Lech River.  have gained, whilst Cologne, St. Gall, and MOnster relapsed.

Our findings fit nicely with those of other empirical studies, especially those which had been re-analyzed by Ursprung (2002, appendix). In our ranking the same institutions tend to be on top as in the six rankings re-analyzed by this author.

Table 2 shows that a consideration of the institutions' size would change their ranks significantly. This finding is also in line with earlier research results (Rau 1986, pp. 65 et seq).

Daniel (1988b, p. 226) has proven that in academic top institutions 80% of all scholars within and outside tenure track positions would publish at least one article in five years. Given the fact that in German-speaking-countries the majority of full professors have at least two research assistants only a rather small group of institutions fulfill this criterion of excellence.

Evaluation by Professional Affiliation

The phrasing of titles of journals such as "research and practice" or "business research", or explicit statements in the editorial program convey the basic philosophy of the respective journal's editorial policy. In order to find out whether the collection of contributors is in accord with the editorial policy the appearances were analyzed an·a·lyze  
tr.v. an·a·lyzed, an·a·lyz·ing, an·a·lyz·es
1. To examine methodically by separating into parts and studying their interrelations.

2. Chemistry To make a chemical analysis of.

3.
 by professional affiliation of authors, university (professors, research assistants) vs. non-university (practitioners, others). As a second step authors were classified by academic qualification, doctorate vs. non-doctorate. (2) The analysis resulted in a considerable variation between the journals under study. As can be seen from Tables 3 and 4, the DBW shows the clearest profile of a research-oriented journal mainly geared towards the academic establishment. The high share of contributors from business practice in the BFuP suggests that this journal does indeed seem to follow successfully the policy expressed in its title. A similarly marked result can be reported for the JfB with respect to the high share of authors who belong to the group of research assistants. That means that this journal fulfills an important function in terms of an outlet for junior academics.

In the ZfbF/sbr, the organ of the Schmalenbach-Gesellschaft fur Betriebswirtschaft e.V. [Schmalenbach Society of Business] whose membership mainly comprises executives (about 80%) there is an obvious conflict built into the editorial policy of this journal in that it has to cater for both parties. The description in the title of the journal, however, signals an emphasis towards "business research". This emphasis was corroborated cor·rob·o·rate  
tr.v. cor·rob·o·rat·ed, cor·rob·o·rat·ing, cor·rob·o·rates
To strengthen or support with other evidence; make more certain. See Synonyms at confirm.
 by a rather high share of academicians among the contributors. At the same time many appearances of practitioners are reported such that the ZfbF/sbr achieves the second highest value of contributions of practitioners among all journals. For the DU journal there is no marked peak position to be reported to be spoken of; to be mentioned, whether favorably or unfavorably.

See also: Report
 for any of the groups of authors; yet, there is also a majority of university affiliated contributors in the professorial and research assistants groups. The group of contributors qualified by a doctoral degree prevails as is the case with the other journals.

If we compare these findings with those of the reference study (Macharzina/ Wolf/Oesterle 1993, pp. 77 et seq.), we see a high level of time-stability of the journals. Yet what needs to be highlighted as an important finding is that in all journals, the influence of practitioners went down. Moreover, the DBW, DU, ZfB, and ZfbF/sbr became even more research oriented journals than they had been previously. This seems to be a consequence that in academia the trend towards specialization has increased considerably over recent years. Moreover it indicates that during this period of time, these four journals have continued to orientate or·i·en·tate
v.
To orient.
 their rigorous reviewing processes towards purely academic criteria. Another signal that leads us to this conclusion is that in our 1992-2001 sample the degree of participation of non-university authors is much lower (23.73%) than in Rau's (1986, p. 64) study (38.9%).

Connection of Appearances with University Location of Editors

It is suggested that the function of a scholar as an editor, co-editor or member of an editorial board may have a positive impact on the publication of research of the academic staff in the university one of the individuals is affiliated with. It is assumed that editors actively encourage and solicit manuscripts for their journal. In order to find out whether there is such a connection the following coefficient coefficient /co·ef·fi·cient/ (ko?ah-fish´int)
1. an expression of the change or effect produced by variation in certain factors, or of the ratio between two different quantities.

2.
 was constructed:

[C.sub.1] = points of contributors affiliated with editors' universities/total of appearances x 100.

As there are different numbers of editor-related universities per journal this difference was eliminated by dividing the ratio by the total number of editor-related universities (= [C.sub.1a]). As is shown in Table 5 the lowest correlation rests with the ZfB. The high ratio of 86% for JfB can be explained by the small number of business schools in Austria (nearly every university is represented in JfB's editorial board) and the central role which Vienna Vienna, city and province, Austria
Vienna (vēĕn`ə), Ger. Wien, city and province (1991 pop. 1,539,848), 160 sq mi (414 sq km), capital and largest city of Austria and administrative seat of Lower Austria, NE Austria, on
 Business Economics University plays in Austrian business education.

When comparing the [C.sub.1a]-values of the present study with those of the reference study (Macharzina/Wolf/Oesterle 1993, p. 80) it can be shown that five journals (all but JfB) have reduced their degree of connectedness. Thus the chances of authors from institutions outside the editors' universities have improved.

Concentration of Authors in Journals

With respect to longevity as a controlling variable of the frequency of appearances there is contradictory evidence. While it has been found that in some journals authors contribute either once or twice (3) over a long period for such reasons as low acceptance rate or discouraging dis·cour·age  
tr.v. dis·cour·aged, dis·cour·ag·ing, dis·cour·ag·es
1. To deprive of confidence, hope, or spirit.

2. To hamper by discouraging; deter.

3.
 length of the review process, there are other findings which suggest that the number of one-time authors is inversely related with the age of a journal. (4) Apart from longevity there may be other reasons such as prestige and editorial policy which attract authors to submit contributions to a particular journal. If such contributions would be accepted again and again this could consequentially con·se·quen·tial  
adj.
1. Following as an effect, result, or conclusion; consequent.

2. Having important consequences; significant:
 lead to a few authors influencing the profile of a journal considerably. In economic terms this phenomenon could be described as the degree of concentration of authors in a journal. The more (scarce) space is occupied by a few authors the lesser the chance for others to get in. The degree of concentration of German-speaking business journals was measured by two ratios

[C.sub.2]] = points of the 3 most frequent authors/total of appearances x 100,

[C.sub.3] = points of the 10 most frequent authors/total of appearances x 100.

The degrees of concentration for the German-speaking journals are shown in Table 6. Measured on the basis of [C.sub.2]], the highest degrees are shown for JfB, followed by DU, ZfB, and BFuP, while DBW and ZfbF/sbr seem to incorporate a wider spread of contributions from many different authors. This result is confirmed by a measurement based on [C.sub.3].

Comparing these results with those of the reference study (Macharzina/ Wolf/Oesterle 1993, p. 81) we found that in all journals the concentration of authors is significantly lower than it had been ten years ago. This might be interpreted as a result of an increased competitiveness among journals.

Summary and Conclusion

The present study uses the research output published in six major German-speaking academic journals as an indicator of scholars' and institutions' research performance. Although the number of publications in academic journals is only one element of scholarly performance this indicator seems to be appropriate. Journal publications are most competitive and domestic journal publications are the strongest predictor of academic careers. Thus the results can serve as a benchmark A performance test of hardware and/or software. There are various programs that very accurately test the raw power of a single machine, the interaction in a single client/server system (one server/multiple clients) and the transactions per second in a transaction processing system.  for evaluation and standard-setting in scholarly research.

Results of the quantitative evaluation suggested that in the 1992-2001 time period 70% of German-speaking university professors of business administration have contributed to the six major academic journals. This percentage is lower than the respective one of the 1982-1991 time period. Yet the scholars had different productivity levels. A second important finding is that the contribution of full-time practitioners in the journals is significantly lower than in the 1982-1991 time period. Third, only 2.4% of the journals' papers stem from authors outside German-speaking countries. Fourth, we found that the research output-oriented ranking of the university departments has not changed very much between the two time periods. Fifth, in five of the six journals the degree of connectedness between the location of editors and authors has declined. And sixth, in all journals the concentration of authors is lower than in the previous time period.
Table 1. Adjusted Appearances of Authors (Scholars and Practitioners)

Rank   Author                             Type of   Total
                                          Author    Appearances

  1    Gerpott           Thorsten J.      S/P       14.16
  2    Seicht            Gerhard          S         12
  3    Weber             Jurgen           S         11.94
  4    Homburg           Christian        S/P       11.65
  5    Schwetzler        Bernhard         S         10.5
  6    Albach            Horst            S         10
  7    Albers            Sonke            S          9
  7    Schildbach        Thomas           S          9
  9    Wildemann         Horst            S          8.5
 10    Franck            Egon             S          8.33
 11    Schneider         Dieter           S          8
 12    Herrmann          Andreas          S          7.48
 13    Bruhn             Manfred          S          7.25
 14    Jenner            Thomas           S          7.08
 15    Brockhoff         Klaus            S          7
 16    Pfaff             Dieter           S          6.83
 17    Buhner            Rolf             S          6.5
 17    Buhl              Hans Ulrich      S          6.49
 19    Ossadnik          Wolfgang         S          6.33
 20    Fischer           Edwin O.         S          6.16
 21    Gierl             Heribert         S          6.07
 22    Frohling          Oliver           S/P        6
 22    Windsperger       Josef            S          6
 24    Ewert             Ralf             S          5.66
 25    Schewe            Gerhard          S          5.5
 26    Hellwig           Klaus            S          5.33
 26    Sattler           Henrik           S          5.33
 26    Skiera            Bernd            S          5.33
 26    Steven            Marion           S          5.33
 30    Hruschka          Harald           S          5.25
 31    Frese             Erich            S          5.03
 32    Ballwieser        Wolfgang         S          5
 32    Benkenstein       Martin           S          5
 32    Bernhardt         Wolfgang         P          5
 32    Betz              Stefan           S          5
 32    Kirchmann         Edgar M. W.      P          5
 32    Krafft            Manfred          S          5
 32    Kursten           Wolfgang         S          5
 32    Neus              Werner           S          5
 32    Posselt           Thorsten         S          5
 32    Siegel            Theodor          S          5
 32    Theil             Michael          S          5
 32    Hering            Thomas           S          4.99
 44    Simon             Hermann          S/P        4.83
 45    Helm              Roland           S          4.74
 46    Kupper            Hans-Ulrich      S          4.53
 47    Funk              Joachim          P          4.5
 47    Meffert           Heribert         S          4.5
 47    Ruhnke            Klaus            S          4.5
 47    Schefczyk         Michael          P/S        4.5
 47    Wagenhofer        Alfred           S          4.5
 47    Winter            Stefan           S          4.5
 47    Weber             Martin           S          4.49
 54    Fritz             Wolfgang         S          4.33
 54    Krakel            Matthias         S          4.33
 54    Leker             Jens             S          4.33
 54    Ruhli             Edwin            S          4.33
 54    Schierenbeck      Henner           S          4.33
 59    Osterloh          Margit           S          4.16
 60    Bauer             Hans H.          S          4.15
 61    Volkart           Rudolf           S          4.08
 62    Alewell           Dorothea         S          4
 62    Dellmann          Klaus            S          4
 62    Diller            Hermann          S          4
 62    Guserl            Richard          P          4
 62    Karmasin          Matthias         S          4
 62    Kieser            Alfred           S          4
 62    Kopel             Michael          S          4
 62    Krulis-Randa      Jan S.           S          4
 62    Kuhner            Christoph        S          4
 62    Scherer           Andreas G.       S          4
 62    Scherm            Ewald            S          4
 62    Tscheulin         Dieter K.        S          4
 62    Wagner            Franz W.         S          4
 62    von Werder        Axel             S          4
 62    Wielenberg        Stefan           S          4
 62    Witte             Eberhard         S          4
 78    Breuer            Wolfgang         S          3.83
 78    Mandler           Udo              P          3.83
 78    Fischer           Marc             P/S        3.82
 78    Gerke             Wolfgang         S          3.82
 82    Baetge            Jorg             S          3.67
 83    Kolisch           Rainer           S          3.66
 84    Schiereck         Dirk             S          3.65
 85    Drexl             Andreas          S          3.6
 86    Hoitsch           Hans-Jorg        S          3.5
 86    Kempf             Alexander        S          3.5
 86    zu Knyphausen     Dodo             S          3.5
 86    Matzler           Kurt             S          3.5
 86    Paul              Walter           P          3.5
 86    Richter           Frank            P/S        3.5
 86    Schwalbach        Joachim          S          3.5
 86    Spremann          Klaus            S          3.5
 86    Thom              Norbert          S          3.5
 86    Wirl              Franz            S          3.5
 86    Zelewski          Stephan          S          3.5
 97    Gedenk            Karen            S          3.33
 97    Gox               Robert           S          3.33
 97    Gruning           Rudolf           S          3.33
 97    Matschke          Manfred Jurgen   S          3.33
 97    Pechtl            Hans             S          3.33
 97    Pfeiffer          Thomas           S          3.33
 97    Schaffer          Utz              S/P        3.33
 97    Salewski          Frank            S          3.33
105    Ruegg-Sturm       Johannes         S          3.25
105    Wieandt           Axel             P          3.25
107    Glaum             Martin           S          3.16
107    Haase             Knut             S          3.16
107    Hennig-Thurau     Thorsten         S          3.16
107    Herzig            Norbert          S          3.16
107    Speckbacher       Gerhard          S          3.16
107    Steiner           Manfred          S          3.16
113    Satzger           Gerhard          S/P        3.08
114    Al-Ani            Ayad             P/S        3
114    Braun             Thomas           S          3
114    Burger            Anton            S          3
114    Burr              Wolfgang         S          3
114    Drukarczyk        Jochen           S          3
114    Fischer           Thomas M.        S          3
114    Frentz            Martin H.        S/P        3
114    Grabner-Krauter   Sonja            S          3
114    Gunther           Thomas           S          3
114    Hachmeister       Dirk             S          3
114    Hempelmann        Bernd            S          3
114    Kaas              Klaus Peter      S          3
114    Klingebiel        Norbert          S          3
114    Koch              Helmut           S          3
114    Kossbiel          Hugo             S          3
114    Lehner            Franz            S          3
114    Liener            Gerhard          P          3
114    Littkemann        Jorn             S          3
114    Rammert           Stefan           S          3
114    Rau-Bredow        Hans             S/P        3
114    Schneeweiss       Christoph        S          3
114    Schreyogg         Georg            S          3
114    Swoboda           Bernhard         S          3
114    Swoboda           Peter            S          3
114    Teichert          Thorsten         S          3
114    Walgenbach        Peter            S          3
114    Wallmeier         Martin           S          3
114    Wirtz             Bernd W.         S/P        3
142    Huber             Frank            S          2.98

Rank   Author            Appearances by Journal

                         BFuP   DBW    DU     JfB    ZfB     ZfbF

  1    Gerpott           --     4.33   2      0.5     4.83    2.5
  2    Seicht            1      --     --     11     --      --
  3    Weber             3.03   2.75   3.33   --      2.33    0.5
  4    Homburg           --     2.57   2.33   --      5.75    1
  5    Schwetzler        2      3      --     --      2       3.5
  6    Albach            --     --     --     --     10      --
  7    Albers            --     3      --     --      3       3
  7    Schildbach        5      1      --     --      1       2
  9    Wildemann         --     2      --     --      6.5    --
 10    Franck            0.5    2.33   1      --      2       2.5
 11    Schneider         1      --     --     2       1       4
 12    Herrmann          --     0.33   0.5    1.5     3.32    1.83
 13    Bruhn             --     1.5    4.75   --      1      --
 14    Jenner            --     1.25   3.83   --      1       1
 15    Brockhoff         --     0.5    --     --      6       0.5
 16    Pfaff             1.83   0.5    2.5    --     --       2
 17    Buhner            0.5    1.5    0.5    --      1       3
 17    Buhl              --     0.58   --     --      3.91    2
 19    Ossadnik          2      --     2.5    0.5     1.33   --
 20    Fischer           --     0.5    --     3.66    2      --
 21    Gierl             --     --     0.25   0.33    2.83    2.66
 22    Frohling          --     1.5    --     --      4.5    --
 22    Windsperger       --     --     --     4       2      --
 24    Ewert             3.33   --     --     --      1       1.33
 25    Schewe            --     1.5    --     --      2.5     1.5
 26    Hellwig           1.33   1      --     --      3      --
 26    Sattler           --     1.5    --     --      3.33    0.5
 26    Skiera            --     --     --     --      2.33    3
 26    Steven            1.5    0.5           --      3.33   --
 30    Hruschka          --     --     --     --      3.5     1.75
 31    Frese             2      0.5    0.2    --     --       2.33
 32    Ballwieser        1      1      --     --     --       3
 32    Benkenstein       --     2      0.5    --      1.5     1
 32    Bernhardt         --     --     --     --      5      --
 32    Betz              3      1      --     --      1      --
 32    Kirchmann         --     --     1      3      --       1
 32    Krafft            --     2      --     --      2.5     0.5
 32    Kursten           --     --     --     --      4       1
 32    Neus              --     1.5    --     --      2       1.5
 32    Posselt           --     0.5    --     --      2.5     2
 32    Siegel            4      --     --     --     --       1
 32    Theil             --     --     0.5    4.5    --      --
 32    Hering            1.83   2.33   --     --      0.33    0.5
 44    Simon             --     1.33   --     --      2.5     1
 45    Helm              --     --     1.25   1       1.83    0.66
 46    Kupper            3.2    --     --     --     --       1.33
 47    Funk              --     --     --     --     --       4.5
 47    Meffert           --     2.5    --     --      2      --
 47    Ruhnke            --     2      --     --      1.5     1
 47    Schefczyk         1      1.5    --     0.5     0.5     1
 47    Wagenhofer        1.5    1      --     --      1       1
 47    Winter            --     2      --     --     --       2.5
 47    Weber             --     1.5    --     --      0.5     2.49
 54    Fritz             1      1.83   --     --      1       0.5
 54    Krakel            1      --     --     --      0.33    3
 54    Leker             0.5    0.33   --     --      0.5     3
 54    Ruhli             --     --     2.83   --      1.5    --
 54    Schierenbeck      --     0.83   2.5    --      1      --
 59    Osterloh          --     1      2.5    --      0.66   --
 60    Bauer             --     --     --     --      2.49    1.66
 61    Volkart           --     --     4.08   --     --      --
 62    Alewell           --     1      --     --      2       1
 62    Dellmann          --     --     2      --      1       1
 62    Diller            --     2      --     --      0.5     1.5
 62    Guserl            --     1      --     1       2      --
 62    Karmasin          --     --     0.5    3.5    --      --
 62    Kieser            --     3      --     --     --       1
 62    Kopel             --     --     --     --      2.5     1.5
 62    Krulis-Randa      --     --     4      --     --      --
 62    Kuhner            2      1      --     --     --       1
 62    Scherer           2      1      --     1      --      --
 62    Scherm            --     2      1      0.5    --       0.5
 62    Tscheulin         --     0.5    --     --      2       1.5
 62    Wagner            3      --     --     --     --       1
 62    von Werder        --     --     0.5    --      1.5     2
 62    Wielenberg        --     --     --     --      3       1
 62    Witte             --     2      --     --      1       1
 78    Breuer            0.33   --     --     --      1.5     2
 78    Mandler           0.83   1      --     --      2      --
 78    Fischer           --     1      --     --      1.66    1.16
 78    Gerke             --     2.33   --     --      0.33    1.16
 82    Baetge            2.5    --     0.5    --      0.17    0.50
 83    Kolisch           1      --     --     --      1.83    0.83
 84    Schiereck         --     0.33   --     --      1.83    1.49
 85    Drexl             --     --     --     --      1.99    1.61
 86    Hoitsch           --     1      --     2.5    --      --
 86    Kempf             --     1      --     --      0.5     2
 86    zu Knyphausen     --     2.5    --     --      1      --
 86    Matzler           --     0.5    1      1.75    0.25   --
 86    Paul              1      --     --     --      0.5     2
 86    Richter           0.5    1      --     --     --       2
 86    Schwalbach        1      --     --     --      0.5     2
 86    Spremann          --     --     2      --      1       0.5
 86    Thom              --     --     3.5    --     --      --
 86    Wirl              1      --     --     --      0.5     2
 86    Zelewski          1.5    --     --     --      2      --
 97    Gedenk            --     2      --     --      0.33    1
 97    Gox               --     --     --     --     --       3.33
 97    Gruning           --     --     3.33   --     --      --
 97    Matschke          2.33   --     --     --     --       1
 97    Pechtl            1      0.33   --     --      0.5     1.5
 97    Pfeiffer          0.33   --     --     --      1       2
 97    Schaffer          0.5    0.5    2.33   --     --      --
 97    Salewski          --     --     --     --      3       0.33
105    Ruegg-Sturm       --     --     3.25   --     --      --
105    Wieandt           1      --     --     --      1.25    1
107    Glaum             0.83   --     --     --      0.83    1.5
107    Haase             --     --     --     --      2.16    1
107    Hennig-Thurau     --     1.16   2      --     --      --
107    Herzig            1      0.66   --     --      0.5     1
107    Speckbacher       0.33   1.5    --     --      1.33   --
107    Steiner           --     1.33   --     --      1.33    0.5
113    Satzger           --     0.25   --     --      0.83    2
114    Al-Ani            --     --     1      2      --      --
114    Braun             1      --     --     --      2      --
114    Burger            0.5    0.5    --     0.5     1.5    --
114    Burr              --     1      --     --      1       1
114    Drukarczyk        1      2      --     --     --      --
114    Fischer           --     0.5    1      --      0.5     1
114    Frentz            --     1      --     1       1      --
114    Grabner-Krauter   --     --     --     1      --       2
114    Gunther           --     1      --     --      0.5     1.5
114    Hachmeister       --     1      --     --     --       2
114    Hempelmann        --     --     --     --     --       3
114    Kaas              --     1      --     --      1       1
114    Klingebiel        1      2      --     --     --      --
114    Koch              --     --     --     --      3      --
114    Kossbiel          --     1      --     --      2      --
114    Lehner            --     --     2      2       1      --
114    Liener            --     --     --     --      3      --
114    Littkemann        --     1      --     --      2      --
114    Rammert           --     1      --     --     --       2
114    Rau-Bredow        --     1      --     --     --       2
114    Schneeweiss       --     0.5    --     --      0.5     2
114    Schreyogg         --     1      1.5    --      0.5    --
114    Swoboda           --     2      --     --      1      --
114    Swoboda           1      --     --     1.5    --       0.5
114    Teichert          --     --     --     --      1       2
114    Walgenbach        --     3      --     --     --      --
114    Wallmeier         --     --     --     --      1       2
114    Wirtz             --     0.5    0.5    --     --       2
142    Huber             --     0.33   --     0.5     1.82    0.33

Rank   Author            Appearances   Rank in 3 Top
                         in 3 Top      Journals
                         Journals

  1    Gerpott           11.66           1
  2    Seicht            --             --
  3    Weber              5.58          11
  4    Homburg            9.32           3
  5    Schwetzler         8.5            5
  6    Albach            10              2
  7    Albers             9              4
  7    Schildbach         4             33
  9    Wildemann          8.5            5
 10    Franck             6.83           8
 11    Schneider          5             19
 12    Herrmann           5.48          15
 13    Bruhn              2.5           88
 14    Jenner             3.25          58
 15    Brockhoff          7              7
 16    Pfaff              2.5           88
 17    Buhner             5.5           12
 17    Buhl               6.49           9
 19    Ossadnik           1.33         120
 20    Fischer            2.5           88
 21    Gierl              5.49          14
 22    Frohling           6             10
 22    Windsperger        2            103
 24    Ewert              2.33          98
 25    Schewe             5.5           12
 26    Hellwig            4             33
 26    Sattler            5.33          16
 26    Skiera             5.33          16
 26    Steven             3.83          43
 30    Hruschka           5.25          18
 31    Frese              2.83          85
 32    Ballwieser         4             33
 32    Benkenstein        4.5           26
 32    Bernhardt          5             19
 32    Betz               2            103
 32    Kirchmann          1            123
 32    Krafft             5             19
 32    Kursten            5             19
 32    Neus               5             19
 32    Posselt            5             19
 32    Siegel             1            123
 32    Theil             --             --
 32    Hering             3.16          59
 44    Simon              4.83          25
 45    Helm               2.49          96
 46    Kupper             1.33         120
 47    Funk               4.5           26
 47    Meffert            4.5           26
 47    Ruhnke             4.5           26
 47    Schefczyk          3             63
 47    Wagenhofer         3             63
 47    Winter             4.5           26
 47    Weber              4.49          31
 54    Fritz              3.33          53
 54    Krakel             3.33          53
 54    Leker              3.83          43
 54    Ruhli              1.5          117
 54    Schierenbeck       1.83         115
 59    Osterloh           1.66         116
 60    Bauer              4.15          32
 61    Volkart           --             --
 62    Alewell            4             33
 62    Dellmann           2            103
 62    Diller             4             33
 62    Guserl             3             63
 62    Karmasin          --             --
 62    Kieser             4             33
 62    Kopel              4             33
 62    Krulis-Randa      --             --
 62    Kuhner             2            103
 62    Scherer            1            123
 62    Scherm             2.5           88
 62    Tscheulin          4             33
 62    Wagner             1            123
 62    von Werder         3.5           49
 62    Wielenberg         4             33
 62    Witte              4             33
 78    Breuer             3.5           49
 78    Mandler            3             63
 78    Fischer            3.82          45
 78    Gerke              3.82          45
 82    Baetge             0.67         131
 83    Kolisch            2.66          87
 84    Schiereck          3.65          47
 85    Drexl              3.6           48
 86    Hoitsch            1            123
 86    Kempf              3.5           49
 86    zu Knyphausen      3.5           49
 86    Matzler            0.75         130
 86    Paul               2.5           88
 86    Richter            3             63
 86    Schwalbach         2.5           88
 86    Spremann           1.5          117
 86    Thom              --             --
 86    Wirl               2.5           88
 86    Zelewski           2            103
 97    Gedenk             3.33          53
 97    Gox                3.33          53
 97    Gruning           --             --
 97    Matschke           1            123
 97    Pechtl             2.33          98
 97    Pfeiffer           3             63
 97    Schaffer           0.5          132
 97    Salewski           3.32          57
105    Ruegg-Sturm       --             --
105    Wieandt            2.25         101
107    Glaum              2.33          98
107    Haase              3.16          59
107    Hennig-Thurau      1.16         122
107    Herzig             2.16         102
107    Speckbacher        2.83          58
107    Steiner            3.16          59
113    Satzger            3.08          62
114    Al-Ani            --             --
114    Braun              2            103
114    Burger             2            103
114    Burr               3             63
114    Drukarczyk         2            103
114    Fischer            2            103
114    Frentz             2            103
114    Grabner-Krauter    2            103
114    Gunther            3             63
114    Hachmeister        3             63
114    Hempelmann         3             63
114    Kaas               3             63
114    Klingebiel         2            103
114    Koch               3             63
114    Kossbiel           3             63
114    Lehner             1            123
114    Liener             3             63
114    Littkemann         3             63
114    Rammert            3             63
114    Rau-Bredow         3             63
114    Schneeweiss        3             63
114    Schreyogg          1.5          117
114    Swoboda            3             63
114    Swoboda            0.5          132
114    Teichert           3             63
114    Walgenbach         3             63
114    Wallmeier          3             63
114    Wirtz              2.5           88
142    Huber              2.48          97

Table 2. Adjusted Appearances of Institutions

Rank   Location                Institution                  Appearances

 1      Mannheim               Universitat                  84.71
 2      Wien                   Wirtschaftsuniversitat       82.1
 3      Kiel                   Universitat                  72.35
 4      Koln                   Universitat                  70.47
 5      Zurich                 Universitat                  62.82
 6      Frankfurt/Main         Universitat                  61.97
 7      St. Gallen             Universitat                  48.93
 8      Munchen                Universitat                  46.45
 9      Munster                Universitat                  45.77
10      Augsburg               Universitat                  44.9
11      Koblenz                WHU                          39.22
12      Bochum                 Universitat                  33
13      Passau                 Universitat                  29.99
14      Bern                   Universitat                  26.49
15      Erlangen-Nurnberg      Universitat                  26.29
16      Wien                   Universitat                  25.66
17      Berlin                 Freie Universitat            23.47
18      Regensburg             Universitat                  23.45
19      Bonn                   Universitat                  23.15
20      Basel                  Universitat                  22.66
21      Duisburg               Universitat                  21.99
22      Eichstatt              Katholische Universitat      21.83
23      Giessen                Universitat                  20.8
24      Mainz                  Universitat                  20.29
25      Hamburg                Universitat                  19.99
26      Saarbrucken            Universitat                  19.98
27      Graz                   Universitat                  19.84
28      Berlin                 Humboldt-Universitat         19.83
29      Magdeburg              Universitat                  18.99
30      Innsbruck              Universitat                  17.98
30      Trier                  Universitat                  17.98
32      Bielefeld              Universitat                  16.83
33      Berlin                 Technische Universitat       16.52
34      Freiburg               Universitat                  16.31
35      Tubingen               Universitat                  16
36      Freiberg               Technische Universitat       15.99
37      Aachen                 RW Technische Hochschule     15.98
38      Munchen                Technische Universitdt       15.9
39      Wurzburg               Universitat                  15.48
40      Jena                   Universitat                  14.83
41      Fribourg               Universitat                  14.74
42      Linz                   Universitat                  14.58
43      Hannover               Universitat                  14.43
44      Hagen                  Fernuniversitat              14.16
45      Essen                  Universitat                  13.23
46      Dortmund               Universitat                  12.99
47      Darmstadt              Technische Universitat       12.69
48      Greifswald             Universitat                  12.65
49      Karlsruhe              Universitat                  12.3
50      Bayreuth               Universitat                  11.99
50      Ulm                    Universitat                  11.99
52      Braunschweig           Technische Universitat       11.66
53      Dresden                Technische Universitat       11.5
53      Hohenheim              Universitat                  11.5
55      Paderborn              Universitat                  11
56      Konstanz               Universitat                  10
57      Osnabruck              Universitat                   9.66
58      Leipzig                Universitat                   9.5
58      Rostock                Universitat                   9.5
60      Wien                   Technische Universitat        8.67
61      Dusseldorf             Universitat                   8.66
62      Leipzig                Handelshochschule             8
63      Stuttgart              Universitat                   7.75
64      Hamburg                Universitat der Bundeswehr    7.65
65      Kaiserslautern         Universitat                   7.5
66      Siegen                 Universitat                   7.17
67      Gottingen              Universitat                   7
67      Luneburg               Universitat                   7
69      Bamberg                Universitat                   6.99
69      Munchen                Universitat der Bundeswehr    6.99
71      Oestrich-Winkel        EBS                           6.48
72      Halle-Wittenberg       Universitat                   6
72      Ilmenau                Technische Universitat        6
72      Klagenfurt             Universitat                   6
75      Bremen                 Universitat                   5.98
76      Lausanne               Universitat                   5.5
77      Witten-Herdecke        Universitat                   5.33
78      Clausthal-Zellerfeld   Technische Universitat        4.99
79      Frankfurt/Oder         Europa-Universitat            4
80      Zurich                 ETH                           3.74
81      Oldenburg              Universitat                   3.5
82      Kassel                 Universitat                   3
82      Maribor, SLO           University                    3
82      Neuchatel              Universitat                   3
85      Chemnitz               Technische Universitat        2.99
86      Boston, USA            Harvard University            2.5
87      Rotterdam              University                    2.32
88      Erfurt                 Universitat                   2.25
89      Berlin                 WZB (Wissenschaftszentrum)    2
89      Cambridge, USA         MIT (Massachusetts            2
                               Institute of Technology)
89      Heidelberg             Universitat                   2
89      Istanbul, TR           University                    2
89      Potsdam                Universitat                   2
89      Wuppertal              Universitat                   2
95      Uppsala, S             University                    1.75
96      Bergen. N              Norwegian School of           1.5
                               Economics and Business
                               Administration
96      Genf                   Universitat                   1.5
96      Hamburg-Harburg        Technische Universitat        1.5
96      Urbana-Champaign,      University of Illinois        1.5
        USA
100     Philadelphia, USA      University of Pennsylvania    1.17
101     Ann Arbor, USA         University of Michigan        1
101     Berlin                 Max-Planck-Institut           1
101     Birmingham, UK         University                    1
101     Boston, USA            Northeastern University       1
101     Charlottesville, USA   University of Virginia        1
101     Columbus, USA          Ohio State University         1
101     Cottbus                Technische Universitat        1
101     Durham, USA            Duke University               1
101     Frederiksberg, DK      University                    1
101     Groningen, NL          University                    1
101     Helsinki, SF           School of Economics           1
101     Kobe, J                University                    1
101     Krems                  Donau-Universitat             1
101     Leicester, UK          University                    1
101     Louvain, B             University                    1
101     Namur, B               University                    1
101     Oviedo, E              University                    1
101     Oxford, UK             University                    1
101     Beijing, PRC           University                    1
101     Pittsburgh, USA        University                    1
101     Santa Cruz, USA        University of California      1
101     Santiago de Chile,     University                    1
        RCH
101     St. Petersburg, RUS    Academy of Sciences           1
101     Stillwater, USA        Oklahoma State University     1
101     Strasbourg, F          University                    1
101     Tokyo, J               Waseda University             1

Rank    Location               Number of    Rank in
                               Professors   1993 Study

 1      Mannheim               21            3
 2      Wien                   34            2
 3      Kiel                    8           11
 4      Koln                   19            1
 5      Zurich                 12            8
 6      Frankfurt/Main         20            6
 7      St. Gallen             38            5
 8      Munchen                14           10
 9      Munster                15            4
10      Augsburg               12           22
11      Koblenz                11           27
12      Bochum                 10            9
13      Passau                  9           12
14      Bern                    7           47
15      Erlangen-Nurnberg      16            7
16      Wien                   13           30
17      Berlin                  6           16
18      Regensburg              9           14
19      Bonn                    4           13
20      Basel                   4           24
21      Duisburg               10           53
22      Eichstatt              10           90
23      Giessen                 9           29
24      Mainz                   9           59
25      Hamburg                16           28
26      Saarbrucken            10           18
27      Graz                   12           15
28      Berlin                 13           --
29      Magdeburg              12           --
30      Innsbruck              13           42
30      Trier                   8           21
32      Bielefeld               6           26
33      Berlin                  7           40
34      Freiburg                5           63
35      Tubingen                8           33
36      Freiberg                9           --
37      Aachen                  8           31
38      Munchen                 3 + 9       50
39      Wurzburg                7           66
40      Jena                    8           93
41      Fribourg                8           25
42      Linz                   13           23
43      Hannover               10           20
44      Hagen                   8           35
45      Essen                  12           55
46      Dortmund                7           34
47      Darmstadt               9           19
48      Greifswald              7           --
49      Karlsruhe               6           60
50      Bayreuth                8           57
50      Ulm                     5           48
52      Braunschweig            9           51
53      Dresden                11           93
53      Hohenheim              13           36
55      Paderborn              10           41
56      Konstanz                7           39
57      Osnabruck               8           51
58      Leipzig                11           --
58      Rostock                 9           93
60      Wien                    0           56
61      Dusseldorf              9           93
62      Leipzig                 8           --
63      Stuttgart               8           36
64      Hamburg                11           17
65      Kaiserslautern          6           63
66      Siegen                 16           43
67      Gottingen              13           38
67      Luneburg               12           46
69      Bamberg                 8           32
69      Munchen                 9           44
71      Oestrich-Winkel        19           88
72      Halle-Wittenberg        9           93
72      Ilmenau                 6           --
72      Klagenfurt              8           72
75      Bremen                 10           60
76      Lausanne               47           45
77      Witten-Herdecke         8           --
78      Clausthal-Zellerfeld    4           67
79      Frankfurt/Oder                      --
80      Zurich                              --
81      Oldenburg                           49
82      Kassel                              91
82      Maribor, SLO                        --
82      Neuchatel                           --
85      Chemnitz                            --
86      Boston, USA                         80
87      Rotterdam                           --
88      Erfurt                              --
89      Berlin                              53
89      Cambridge, USA                      --
89      Heidelberg                          93
89      Istanbul, TR                        --
89      Potsdam                             --
89      Wuppertal                           83
95      Uppsala, S                          --
96      Bergen. N                           93
96      Genf                                67
96      Hamburg-Harburg                     --
96      Urbana-Champaign,                   72
        USA
100     Philadelphia, USA                   93
101     Ann Arbor, USA                      --
101     Berlin                              --
101     Birmingham, UK                      --
101     Boston, USA                         --
101     Charlottesville, USA                134
101     Columbus, USA                       --
101     Cottbus                             --
101     Durham, USA                         --
101     Frederiksberg, DK                   --
101     Groningen, NL                       81
101     Helsinki, SF                        67
101     Kobe, J                             71
101     Krems                               --
101     Leicester, UK                       --
101     Louvain, B                          --
101     Namur, B                            93
101     Oviedo, E                           --
101     Oxford, UK                          --
101     Beijing, PRC                        --
101     Pittsburgh, USA                     --
101     Santa Cruz, USA                     --
101     Santiago de Chile,                  --
        RCH
101     St. Petersburg, RUS                 --
101     Stillwater, USA                     --
101     Strasbourg, F                       83
101     Tokyo, J                            --

Table 3. Professional Affiliation of Authors

           University   Research
           Professors   Assistants   Practitioners   Others   Total

BFuP        125.00       77.00       118.00          16.00     336.00
DBW         273.00       78.00        36.00          10.00     397.00
DU          133.00       97.00        38.00           6.00     274.00
JfB          57.00       97.00        27.00           6.00     187.00
ZfB         229.00      237.00        87.00          39.00     592.00
ZfbF/sbr    184.00      178.00       100.00           7.00     469.00

Total      1001.00      764.00       406.00          84.00    2255.00

           University   Research
           Professors   Assistants   Practitioners   Others   Total

BFuP       37.20%       22.92%       35.12%          4.76%    100.0%
DBW        68.77%       19.65%        9.07%          2.52%    100.0%
DU         48.54%       35.40%       13.87%          2.19%    100.0%
JfB        30.48%       51.87%       14.44%          3.21%    100.0%
ZfB        38.68%       40.03%       14.70%          6.59%    100.0%
ZfbF/sbr   39.23%       37.95%       21.32%          1.49%    100.0%

Total      44.39%       33.88%       18.00%          3.73%    100.0%

Table 4. Share of Authors with Academic Qualification

           Doctorate   No Doctorate   Total

BFuP        251.00      85.00          336.00
DBW         312.00      85.00          397.00
DU          226.00      48.00          274.00
JfB         140.00      47.00          187.00
ZfB         473.00     119.00          592.00
ZibF/sbr    375.00      94.00          469.00

Total      1777.00     478.00         2255.00

           Doctorate   No Doctorate   Total

BFuP       74.70%      25.30%         100.0%
DBW        78.59%      21.41%         100.0%
DU         82.48%      17.52%         100.0%
JfB        74.87%      25.13%         100.0%
ZfB        79.90%      20.10%         100.0%
ZibF/sbr   79.96%      20.04%         100.0%

Total      78.80%      21.20%         100.0%

Table 5. Connection of Appearances with University Location of Editors

                          BFuP         DBW             DU

University affiliation    Clausthal    Augsburg        Basel
of editors                Greifswald   Bochum          Bern
                          Koln         Erl.-Nurnberg   Fribourg
                          Passau       Koln            HS St. Gallen
                                       Linz            Zurich
                                       Mannheim
                                       U Munchen
                                       Munster

Points of contributors     40.15        66.45          103.13
affiliated with
editors' universities

Total appearances         336          397             274

Percentage of              11.95        16.74           37.64
appearances ([C.sub.1])

Percentage of               2.99         2.09            7.53
appearances / Number of
editors' universities
([C.sub.1a])

                          JfB             ZfB         ZfbF/sbr

University affiliation    Graz            HU Berlin   Bochum
of editors                Innsbruck       Bonn        Frankfurt
                          Linz            Hagen       Graz
                          HS St. Gallen   Jena        Kiel
                          U Wien          U Munchen   Koln
                          WU Wien         Zurich      Konstanz
                                                      Mannheim
                                                      U Munchen

Points of contributors    161.13           40.90      121.44
affiliated with
editors' universities

Total appearances         187             592         469

Percentage of              86.17            6.91       25.89
appearances ([C.sub.1])

Percentage of              14.36            1.15        3.24
appearances / Number of
editors' universities
([C.sub.1a])

Table 6. Concentration of Authors in Journals

            BFuP    DBW     DU       JfB      ZfB     ZfbF/sbr

[C.sub.2]   3.67%   2.60%    4.68%   10.45%   3.80%   2.55%
[C.sub.3]   9.35%   7.26%   12.92%   20.72%   9.11%   7.10%


Endnotes

* indicates practitioners.

(1) This data were given to us by the "Verband fur Hochschullehrer fur Betriebswirtschaft e.V." (Association of University Professors of Management).

(2) Note that in the German context a doctoral degree is the necessary entry qualification for an academic career; a post-doctoral research qualification ("Habilitation") had been the precondition pre·con·di·tion  
n.
A condition that must exist or be established before something can occur or be considered; a prerequisite.

tr.v.
 for the career of a university professor (Professorial ranks [C.sub.2], [C.sub.3], C4 are equivalent to Assistant, Associate, Full Professor) in the majority of the fields. But this is changing since the rank of Junior Professor has been introduced. Also it should be noted that unlike in the Anglo-American An·glo-A·mer·i·can
n.
An American, especially an inhabitant of the United States, whose language and ancestry are English.

adj.
1. Of, relating to, or between England and America, especially the United States.

2.
 context many executives carry a doctoral degree.

(3) E.g. Chandy/Gopalakrishna (1992) for Management International Review.

(4) E.g. Heck/Cooley (1988) for finance journals.

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interj.
Used as a mild oath.

n. Slang
Used as an intensive: had a heck of a lot of money; was crowded as heck.



[Alteration of hell.
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a North American term commonly used to describe heifers close to term with their first calf.
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Authors

Professor Dr. Dr. h.c. Klaus Klaus is a German given name and surname. It originated as a short form of Nikolaus, a German form of the given name Nicholas. Notable persons whose family name is Klaus
  • Billy Klaus, baseball player
 Macharzina, Chair of Management, and Director, Center for Export and Technology Management (EXTEC), University of Hohenheim Stuttgart-Hohenheim is a neighborhood of Stuttgart in the state of Baden-Württemberg, Germany.

Between 1771 and 1793, Duke Karl Eugen built the Castle Hohenheim in Hohenheim.
, Stuttgart Stuttgart, city, Germany
Stuttgart (shtt`gärt), city (1994 pop. 594,406), capital of Baden-Württemberg, SW Germany, on the Neckar River.
, Germany. Professor Dr. Joachim Wolf, Chair of Organization Theory and Design, University of Kiel The University of Kiel (German Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, CAU) is a university in the city of Kiel, Germany. It was founded in 1665 as the Academia Holsatorum Chiloniensis , Germany.

Dipl.-Psych. Anne Anne, British princess
Anne (Anne Elizabeth Alice Louise), 1950–, British princess, only daughter of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, duke of Edinburgh. She was educated at Benenden School.
 Rohn, Doctoral Candidate, University of Kiel, Germany.
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