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Publications of the State Academies of Science.



J.B. Hill [1]

Since their origin, state academies of science have promoted and disseminated disseminated /dis·sem·i·nat·ed/ (-sem´i-nat?ed) scattered; distributed over a considerable area.

dis·sem·i·nat·ed
adj.
Spread over a large area of a body, a tissue, or an organ.
 regional scientific research through the publication of journals and conference proceedings. For the most part, these multi-disciplinary publications have been overshadowed by the more voluminous, specialized spe·cial·ize  
v. spe·cial·ized, spe·cial·iz·ing, spe·cial·iz·es

v.intr.
1. To pursue a special activity, occupation, or field of study.

2.
 publications of the larger scientific societies and publishers. Nevertheless, an examination of the titles currently published by the state academies of science indicates that on the basis of content, subscription levels, library ownership rates, indexing/abstracting practices and professional citation Citation

(foaled 1945) U.S. Thoroughbred racehorse. In four seasons he won 32 of 45 races, finished second in ten, and third in two. He won the 1948 Triple Crown, and became the first horse to win $1 million. He set a world record in 1950 by running a mile in 1:33 3/5.
 levels it can be concluded that the publications of the state academies of science remain an important means for the distribution of scientific research. Keywords: Periodicals, Scientific and Technical, Scientific and Technical Literature, Serial Publications, State Academies of Science, Professional Societies.

Although greatly overshadowed by the larger national and international professional societies, state academies of science play an important role in scientific research and education in the United States Education in the United States is provided mainly by government, with control and funding coming from three levels: federal, state, and local. School attendance is mandatory and nearly universal at the elementary and high school levels (often known outside the United States as the . Originally established to improve local and regional scientific communication and research, state academies of science now contribute to science education by sponsoring junior academies and science fairs as well as providing a forum for graduate students and other young researchers to make their initial research presentations at the academies' annual meetings. In addition, most academies contribute to the body of scientific literature by publishing members' research in conference proceedings and/or journals.

Just as the state academies are now overshadowed by the larger more prestigious professional societies, the publications of the state academies of science are overshadowed by the more voluminous, more prestigious specialized scientific journals published by the large societies and for-profit science publishers. Consequently, the question arises "how relevant are the publications of the state academies of science?" This is not a new question; J. McKeen Cattell argued almost 100 years ago that "there is no excuse for presenting researches on utterly diverse subjects in one volume because the authors happen to be members of the same academy" (1902). State academies of science have ignored such pronouncements and have continued actively publishing refereed journals refereed journal,
n a professional or literary journal or publication in which articles or papers are selected for publication by a panel of readers or referees who are experts in the field.
 and conference proceedings containing research from all areas of science.

HISTORY

With the exception of reports within academy publications themselves, coverage of the historical development of the state academies of science has been limited. However, two writers Bevan (1951) and Midgette (1991) provide interesting accounts of the history of the state academies. In "Science on the March: A Modern State Academy of Science," Arthur Bevan details the early history of scientific professional societies in general and state academies of science in particular. More recently in To Foster the Spirit of Professionalism professionalism

the upholding by individuals of the principles, laws, ethics and conventions of their profession.
: Southern Scientists and State Academies of Science, Nancy Smith Midgette provides an exhaustive historical account of the growth of the state academies of science in the South from the early days in the 1890's to the present day Southern academies.

While the first state academies of science were founded in the late 1700's in Maryland Maryland (mâr`ələnd), one of the Middle Atlantic states of the United States. It is bounded by Delaware and the Atlantic Ocean (E), the District of Columbia (S), Virginia and West Virginia (S, W), and Pennsylvania (N).  (1797) and Connecticut Connecticut, state, United States
Connecticut (kənĕt`ĭkət), southernmost of the New England states of the NE United States. It is bordered by Massachusetts (N), Rhode Island (E), Long Island Sound (S), and New York (W).
 (1799), most state academies of science began in the late 1800's or early 1900's. Since at that time most of the scientific research and advanced education in the United States occurred in the Northeast, it was there that professional societies were initially organized and meetings were convened. Due to limits in communication and transportation, scientists in the South, Midwest, and West were isolated from much of the national professional activities located in the Northeast. As a result, local and state academies of science played an essential role in the development of regional scientific research and education. The original objectives of the state academies of science were to cultivate cul·ti·vate  
tr.v. cul·ti·vat·ed, cul·ti·vat·ing, cul·ti·vates
1.
a. To improve and prepare (land), as by plowing or fertilizing, for raising crops; till.

b.
 a general interest in natural history and other scientific subjects, to encourage individuals to work and publish in the sciences, to increase the knowledge about each state and its resources and to collect specimens.

For the early state academies of science, the major event was an annual meeting where state scientists gathered for the presentation of papers. At that time, presenters generally appeared before the entire group of conference attendees at a large assembly hall. As transportation and communication improved and scientific research became more specialized, the need for state academies of science to serve in their original role decreased. However, as the scientific community changed so did the academies. By the 1940's most academies had created sectional sec·tion·al  
adj.
1. Of, relating to, or characteristic of a particular district.

2. Composed of or divided into component sections.

n.
 subdivisions to make the meetings more interesting to attendees. Often only the opening speech by a well-known keynote keynote /key·note/ (ke´not) in homeopathy, the characteristic property of a drug that indicates its use in treating a similar symptom of disease.  speaker or a topical topical /top·i·cal/ (top´i-k'l) pertaining to a particular area, as a topical antiinfective applied to a certain area of the skin and affecting only the area to which it is applied.

top·i·cal
adj.
 symposium symposium

In ancient Greece, an aristocratic banquet at which men met to discuss philosophical and political issues and recite poetry. It began as a warrior feast. Rooms were designed specifically for the proceedings.
 on state issues was attended by all conference attendees. To attract new members, some academies broadened their scope to include researchers in the social sciences. Other academies created junior academies of science and promoted science fairs and science education.

Today, state academies of science focus much of their attention on promoting science and science education on the state and local level. The annual meetings of the state academies of science provide a forum for young researchers, such as graduate students, to present their first papers first papers
pl.n.
The documents first filed by one applying for U.S. citizenship.
. Abstracts of these papers are often recorded in the publications of the state academies of science.

RESEARCH INTO THE PUBLICATIONS OF THE STATE ACADEMIES OF SCIENCE

To date, there has been little research into to the publications of the state academies of science. The most detailed analysis of the academies' publications

is in the work of Harry R. Skallerup, published over 40 years ago. In a column in Science (1955) and a University of Illinois University of Illinois may refer to:
  • University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (flagship campus)
  • University of Illinois at Chicago
  • University of Illinois at Springfield
  • University of Illinois system
It can also refer to:
 Library School Occasional Paper (1957), Skallerup provides a detailed evaluation of the 36 state academies of science publications that existed in the 1950's. Skallerup's study examines the publications' content and subject focus, the extent of indexing, and the number of owning libraries.

Similar to Skallerup's study in the 1950's, the intent of this study is to report on the publications of state academies of science as they exist in the 1990's. To this end, state academies of science titles have been identified by consulting Ulrich's International Periodical periodical, a publication that is issued regularly. It is distinguished from the newspaper in format in that its pages are smaller and are usually bound, and it is published at weekly, monthly, quarterly, or other intervals, rather than daily.  Directory, the "Journals Indexed" list for State Academies of Science Abstracts and the OCLC OCLC - Online Computer Library Center  bibliographic database For computer programs to manage an individual's bibliographic references, see Reference management software

A bibliographic or library database is a database of bibliographic information.
. Additional information on each title has been gathered by sending a questionnaire to each of the titles' editors, consulting "titles indexed" lists for indexing/abstracting publications, performing title searches in many of the major science databases (e.g., Agricola, BIOSIS BIOSIS Biosciences Information Service , Cab Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts, Compendex, Georef, Inspec, Medline and Zoological Record) and searching State Academies of Science Abstracts for subject content. All of this information has been entered into a Visual dBase See dBASE versions.

(language) Visual dBASE - A Rapid Application Development suite with a compiler and intranet tools to enable developers to publish data on the World-Wide Web. Originally a Borland product, the first version released by dBase, Inc. was Visual dBase 5.7.
 database. A summary of our findings follow.

TITLES PUBLISHED BY THE STATE ACADEMIES OF SCIENCE

For our study, we have identified 45 serial titles that are currently being published by one of the state academies of science:

Annals an·nals  
pl.n.
1. A chronological record of the events of successive years.

2. A descriptive account or record; a history: "the short and simple annals of the poor" 
 of the New York Academy of Sciences The New York Academy of Sciences is the third oldest scientific society in the United States. An independent, non-profit organization with more than 25,000 members in 140 countries, the Academy’s mission is to advance understanding of science and technology.  

Bulletin--Southern California Academy of Sciences The California Academy of Sciences is one of the ten largest natural history museums in the world, and one of the oldest in the United States of America. It is located in Golden Gate Park in San Francisco.  

Bulletin of the New Jersey Academy of Science The New Jersey Academy of Science (NJAS) is a society consisting of 400 professional scientists in academia, government, and industry. This also includes college students who are pursuing both graduate and undergraduate degrees in the senior academy, and high school students in the  

Bulletin of the South Carolina South Carolina, state of the SE United States. It is bordered by North Carolina (N), the Atlantic Ocean (SE), and Georgia (SW). Facts and Figures


Area, 31,055 sq mi (80,432 sq km). Pop. (2000) 4,012,012, a 15.
 Academy of Science

California California (kăl'ĭfôr`nyə), most populous state in the United States, located in the Far West; bordered by Oregon (N), Nevada and, across the Colorado River, Arizona (E), Mexico (S), and the Pacific Ocean (W).  Wild

Encyclia (Utah)

Florida Scientist

Georgia Georgia, country, Asia
Georgia (jôr`jə), Georgian Sakartvelo, Rus. Gruziya, officially Republic of Georgia, republic (2005 est. pop. 4,677,000), c.26,900 sq mi (69,700 sq km), in W Transcaucasia.
 Journal of Science

Intermountain in·ter·moun·tain  
adj.
Located between mountains or mountain systems, especially lying between the Rocky Mountains and the Sierra Nevada or Cascade Range in the western United States.
 Journal of Sciences (Montana)

Journal of the Alabama Alabama, indigenous people of North America
Alabama (ăləbăm`ə), indigenous people of North America whose language belongs to the Muskogean branch of the Hokan-Siouan linguistic stock (see Native American languages).
 Academy of Science

Journal of the Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science

Journal of the Colorado-Wyoming Academy of Science

Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Elisha Mitchell (August 19, 1793 - June 27, 1857) was born in Washington, Connecticut. As a professor at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, in 1835, he measured the height of Mt. Mitchell. Mt. Mitchell is the highest point east of the Mississippi River.  Scientific Society (North Carolina North Carolina, state in the SE United States. It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean (E), South Carolina and Georgia (S), Tennessee (W), and Virginia (N). Facts and Figures


Area, 52,586 sq mi (136,198 sq km). Pop.
)

Journal of the Idaho Academy of Science

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science

Journal of the Kentucky Academy of Science Kentucky Academy of Science (KAS) is the Kentucky affiliate of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the National Association of Academies of Science.  

Journal of the Minnesota Academy of Science

Journal of the Mississippi Mississippi, state, United States
Mississippi (mĭs'əsĭp`ē), one of the Deep South states of the United States. It is bordered by Alabama (E), the Gulf of Mexico (S), Arkansas and Louisiana, with most of the border formed by
 Academy of Sciences

Journal of the Pennsylvania Pennsylvania (pĕnsəlvā`nyə), one of the Middle Atlantic states of the United States. It is bordered by New Jersey, across the Delaware River (E), Delaware (SE), Maryland (S), West Virginia (SW), Ohio (W), and Lake Erie and New York  Academy of Science

Journal of the Tennessee Tennessee, state, United States
Tennessee (tĕn`əsē', tĕn'əsē`), state in the south-central United States.
 Academy of Science

Journal of the Washington Academy of Science (District of Columbia District of Columbia, federal district (2000 pop. 572,059, a 5.7% decrease in population since the 1990 census), 69 sq mi (179 sq km), on the east bank of the Potomac River, coextensive with the city of Washington, D.C. (the capital of the United States). )

Michigan Michigan (mĭsh`ĭgən), upper midwestern state of the United States. It consists of two peninsulas thrusting into the Great Lakes and has borders with Ohio and Indiana (S), Wisconsin (W), and the Canadian province of Ontario (N,E).  Academician

New Mexico New Mexico, state in the SW United States. At its northwestern corner are the so-called Four Corners, where Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, and Utah meet at right angles; New Mexico is also bordered by Oklahoma (NE), Texas (E, S), and Mexico (S).  Journal of Science

Ohio Journal of Science

Proceedings of the Arkansas Arkansas, river, United States
Arkansas (ärkăn`zəs, är`kənsô'), river, c.1,450 mi (2,330 km) long, rising in the Rocky Mts., central Colo.
 Academy of Science

Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences

Proceedings of the Indiana Indiana, state, United States
Indiana, midwestern state in the N central United States. It is bordered by Lake Michigan and the state of Michigan (N), Ohio (E), Kentucky, across the Ohio R. (S), and Illinois (W).
 Academy of Science

Proceedings of the Louisiana Louisiana (ləwē'zēăn`ə, lē'–), state in the S central United States. It is bounded by Mississippi, with the Mississippi R.  Academy of Sciences

Proceedings of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences

Proceedings of the North Dakota North Dakota, state in the N central United States. It is bordered by Minnesota, across the Red River of the North (E), South Dakota (S), Montana (W), and the Canadian provinces of Saskatchewan and Manitoba (N).  Academy of Science

Proceedings of the Oklahoma Academy of Science

Proceedings of the Oregon Oregon, city, United States
Oregon, city (1990 pop. 18,334), Lucas co., NW Ohio, a suburb adjacent to Toledo, on Lake Erie; inc. 1958. It is a port with railroad-owned and -operated docks. The city has industries producing oil, chemicals, and metal products.
 Academy of Science

Proceedings of the South Dakota South Dakota (dəkō`tə), state in the N central United States. It is bordered by North Dakota (N), Minnesota and Iowa (E), Nebraska (S), and Wyoming and Montana (W).  Academy of Science

Proceedings of the West Virginia West Virginia, E central state of the United States. It is bordered by Pennsylvania and Maryland (N), Virginia (E and S), and Kentucky and, across the Ohio R., Ohio (W). Facts and Figures


Area, 24,181 sq mi (62,629 sq km). Pop.
 Academy of Science

Sciences, The (New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of
)

Texas Journal of Science

Transactions of the Delaware Academy Delaware Academy is a K-12 school in Delhi, New York, the county seat of Delaware County, situated 160 miles northwest of New York City. History
The school was founded in 1819. On April 12th of that year, approval was given for the school to be built.
 of Science

Transactions of the Illinois Illinois, river, United States
Illinois, river, 273 mi (439 km) long, formed by the confluence of the Des Plaines and Kankakee rivers, NE Ill., and flowing SW to the Mississippi at Grafton, Ill. It is an important commercial and recreational waterway.
 State Academy of Science

Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science

Transactions of the Missouri Missouri, state, United States
Missouri (mĭzr`ē, –ə), one of the midwestern states of the United States.
 Academy of Science

Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences

Transactions of the New York Academy of Sciences

Transactions of the Wisconsin Wisconsin, state, United States
Wisconsin (wĭskŏn`sən, –sĭn), upper midwestern state of the United States. It is bounded by Lake Superior and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, from which it is divided by the Menominee
 Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters Arts and Letters (1966-1998) was an American Hall of Fame Champion Thoroughbred racehorse.

Owned and bred by American sportsman, and noted philanthropist Paul Mellon, and trained by future Hall of Famer Elliott Burch, the colt began racing at age two.
 

Virginia Journal of Science

Wisconsin Academy Review

In addition to these proceedings and journals, several state academies publish occasional papers (usually monographic mon·o·graph  
n.
A scholarly piece of writing of essay or book length on a specific, often limited subject.

tr.v. mon·o·graphed, mon·o·graph·ing, mon·o·graphs
To write a monograph on.
 in nature) under individual titles. Examples of these publications include Monograph of the Montana Academy Montana Academy is a small coeducational therapeutic boarding school in Marion, Montana. The school is for students age 14-18 (high school) and attendance is generally around 70 people.  of Sciences, Occasional Paper of the Missouri Academy of Science, Occasional Papers of the California Academy of Sciences and Occasional Paper of the Vermont Academy Vermont Academy is an American coeducational boarding/day school and college preparatory school for grades nine through twelve and also offers acceptance for students seeking a post-graduate year. Founded in 1876, it is located in Saxtons River, Vermont.  of Arts and Sciences. Other publications of the state academies include newsletters and bulletins, membership directories, annual reports, field trip reports, junior academy of science newsletters and meeting reports and state science fair bulletins.

PUBLICATION INFORMATION

The serial titles of the state academies of science are a diverse group (see appendix 1 for data on specific titles). However, in general, state academies produce inexpensive, peer-reviewed publications with limited circulation. The frequency of publication varies, with 17 titles being published 4 to 6 times per year, 8 being published 2 to 3 times per year, 14 being published annually and 8 being published at semi-annual or irregular HEIR, IRREGULAR. In Louisiana, irregular heirs are those who are neither testamentary nor legal, and who have been established by law to take the succession. See Civ. Code of Lo. art. 874.  intervals.

Subscribers are primarily members (who receive subscriptions with their membership) and local, state and regional libraries. Of the 45 titles examined, only two of the more popular-oriented magazines have a large readership read·er·ship  
n.
1. The readers of a publication considered as a group.

2. Chiefly British The office of a reader at a university.
. The Sciences, published by the New York Academy of Sciences, has a circulation of 75,000 and California Wild, published by the California Academy of Science, has a circulation of 30,000. The remaining 43 titles have an average circulation of under 770, yielding a combined subscription base of just over 33,000.

Libraries are important subscribers to state academies of science publications as they greatly increase the readership of the publications beyond that of the academies' members. OCLC member institutions account for over 8300 past and present subscriptions. Since state academies of science publications often focus on science research of state and regional interest, library ownership of most titles is greatest in each academy's state and region. Not surprisingly, state academies of science publications from large, heavily-populated states (e.g., New York) and regions (e.g., the Midwest) have the greatest library ownership. Overall, the median number of libraries owning a particular state academy of science publication is 137.

Despite the limited number of subscribers, the subscription price of most state academies of science titles is very low. The median price is $25.00, as all but four of the titles have subscription prices of less than $100. Only the voluminous Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences with an annual standing-order price of over $3500 can be considered expensive.

The costs of publication are kept low in part by limiting the number of pages printed. By science serials standards, state academies of science publications are small. Issues for most titles are under 100 pages with the median size being 50 pages. Many state academies also keep their costs low by relying on authors to help defray de·fray  
tr.v. de·frayed, de·fray·ing, de·frays
To undertake the payment of (costs or expenses); pay.



[French défrayer, from Old French desfrayer : des-,
 publishing costs. This is generally done by assessing page charges; these charges range anywhere from $10 to $105 per page.

Perhaps due to budget limitations, state academies of science have been relatively slow to make the transition from print to electronic publications. Currently, the full-text articles are available (free-of-charge) via the Internet for three state publications, California Wild, Journal of the Mississippi Academy of Sciences and Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science. Three additional titles, Journal of the Idaho Academy of Science, Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science and Michigan Academician, are expected to have articles available online in 1999. Other academies either currently make available or have immediate plans to make available abstracts, table of contents or indexes at the state academies' web sites. (A list of Internet addresses There are two kinds of addresses that are widely used on the Internet. One is a person's e-mail address, and the other is the address of a Web site, which is known as a URL. Following is an explanation of Internet e-mail addresses only. For more on URLs, see URL and Internet domain name.  can be found in appendix 2).

CONTENT OF COVERAGE

The publications of the state academies of science are generally peer-reviewed and multi-disciplinary in nature, with a strong emphasis on regional plant and animal studies. A few of the titles have a particularly strong interest in environmental, agricultural, geological ge·ol·o·gy  
n. pl. ge·ol·o·gies
1. The scientific study of the origin, history, and structure of the earth.

2. The structure of a specific region of the earth's crust.

3. A book on geology.
 or water research. While a couple of titles (e.g., Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences and New Mexico Journal of Science) publish volumes dedicated to a single subject, most publish multi-disciplinary issues with no particular theme.

An examination of 2097 articles and abstracts published in 40 state academies of science titles during 1997 (and indexed in State Academies of Science Abstracts) demonstrates the biological science focus of state academies of science research (see Figure 1). Of the 2097 titles, 1151 of the publications deal with topics in the life sciences (e.g., agriculture, botany botany, science devoted to the study of plants. Botany, microbiology, and zoology together compose the science of biology. Humanity's earliest concern with plants was with their practical uses, i.e., for fuel, clothing, shelter, and, particularly, food and drugs. , microbiology microbiology: see biology.
microbiology

Scientific study of microorganisms, a diverse group of simple life-forms including protozoans, algae, molds, bacteria, and viruses.
, physiology physiology (fĭzēŏl`əjē), study of the normal functioning of animals and plants during life and of the activities by which life is maintained and transmitted. It is based fundamentally on the activities of protoplasm.  and zoology zoology, branch of biology concerned with the study of animal life. From earliest times animals have been vitally important to man; cave art demonstrates the practical and mystical significance animals held for prehistoric man. ); 557 focus on areas in the physical sciences (e.g., chemistry, geology geology, science of the earth's history, composition, and structure, and the associated processes. It draws upon chemistry, biology, physics, astronomy, and mathematics (notably statistics) for support of its formulations.  and physics); 174 cover the applied sciences (e.g., math, computer science and engineering); 139 deal with topics in science education; 59 deal with social science topics (e.g., anthropology anthropology, classification and analysis of humans and their society, descriptively, culturally, historically, and physically. Its unique contribution to studying the bonds of human social relations has been the distinctive concept of culture. , psychology and sociology) and 17 deal with humanities topics (e.g., history and literature).

INDEXING

Since the circulation of most of the titles is relatively small and since browsing See browse.  by researchers at owning libraries is probably limited due to the multidisciplinary mul·ti·dis·ci·pli·nar·y  
adj.
Of, relating to, or making use of several disciplines at once: a multidisciplinary approach to teaching. 
 nature of the publications, indexing plays a particularly important role in insuring that authors publishing their research in the academies' publications are able to reach others in the scientific community.

Indexing of the publications of the state academies of science varies greatly among the titles; some titles (e.g., Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Ohio Journal of Science and Texas Journal of Science) are well indexed, but others (e.g., Inter-mountain Journal of the Sciences, Proceedings of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences, Transactions of the Delaware Academy of Science and Wisconsin Academy Review) appear to receive little indexing. Overall, the publications of state academies of science are indexed by more than 101 different indexing and abstracting sources. The average number of indexes per title is 11 (see appendix 1 for data on specific titles). Perhaps, more important than the number of indexes, is the fact that many of the publications are indexed by the major scientific indexing and abstracting sources (see Table 1).

Just as indexing varies among the titles, indexing also varies among scientific disciplines. The state academies of science publications are well indexed (approximately three fourths of the titles) in the areas of zoology, geology and the aquatic sciences. Over half of the titles are indexed in chemistry (although relatively few citations actually make it into Chemical Abstracts). Approximately a third of the titles are indexed in the general biology (i.e., Biological Abstracts) and agricultural indexes. Less than ten percent of the titles are indexed in the areas of mathematics, physics, computer science and engineering.

In addition to the lack of indexing for some titles and the lack of indexing in some subject areas there is the problem of selective indexing. Since the publications are multi-disciplinary in nature, a selective approach by the specialized indexes is reasonable. However, this lack of comprehensive indexing may cause some articles to be well indexed and others to be poorly indexed. A recognition of this problem led to the creation of a relatively new index in 1995.

The index, State Academies of Science Abstracts produced by AcadSci Incorporated, was initially issued on CD-ROM CD-ROM: see compact disc.
CD-ROM
 in full compact disc read-only memory

Type of computer storage medium that is read optically (e.g., by a laser).
. Since 1997, an Internet version of the database has been available at http://www.acadsci.com/. The database is unique as it provides complete indexing of all full-length papers and proceedings abstracts published in 40 state academies of science publications.

Since the inception of State Academies of Science Abstracts, AcadSci has worked closely with the different academies to increase the accessibility of the publications of the state academies of science. In addition to providing complete, comprehensive indexing of 40 state academy titles, the database continues to add the back files for many of the titles. While coverage of most titles begins in 1985, coverage of titles published by some academies (e.g., Illinois, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Virginia and West Virginia) goes back more than fifty years. Consequently, access to state academy research continues to improve.

CITATIONS AND IMPACT FACTORS

The level of indexing is important as it increases the degree to which the information is accessible to future researchers. The more widely an article is indexed, the more likely it will be read. Perhaps a more significant indicator of the importance of a particular piece of published research is not the degree that it is read but the degree that it is used in other research. This is best demonstrated by how often a work is cited. The primary record of scientific citation Scientific citation is the process by which conclusions of previous scientists are used to justify experimental procedures, apparatus, goals or theses. Typically such citations establish the general framework of influences and the mindset of research, and especially as "part of  levels is Science Citation Index Science Citation Index (SCI ®) is a citation index originally produced by the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) in 1960, which is now owned by Thomson Scientific. , published by the Institute of Scientific Information (ISI ISI International Sensitivity Index, see there ).

In addition to publishing the Science Citation Index, ISI publishes an annual Journal Citation Reports Journal Citation Reports (JCR) is an annual publication by the Institute of Scientific Information, a division of Thomson Scientific. It provides information about academic journals in the sciences and social sciences.  (JCR JCR Journal Citation Reports
JCR Java Content Repository (IBM)
JCR Junior Common Room (British university term)
JCR Journal of Clinical Rheumatology
JCR Journal of Circadian Rhythms
) that tabulates information from the past two years' Science Citation Index. Included for each of the more than 4500 journals covered by Journal Citation Reports is the number of articles published, number of citations, impact factor, immediacy index An immediacy index is a measure of how topical and urgent work published in a scientific journal is. Along with the better known impact factor measure, it is a calculated each year by the Institute for Scientific Information for those journals which it indexes; both impact factors  and cited half-life.

Of the measures published in Journal Citation Reports, the most commonly examined in journal evaluation is the journal impact factor. ISI calculates the impact factor by "dividing the number of current citations to articles published in the two previous years by the total number of articles published in those two years" (Impact, 1998).

Unfortunately, Science Citation Index indexes only four of the state academies of science titles (Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Ohio Journal of Science, Sciences and Texas Journal of Science). Since ISI includes in the JCR only those titles it indexes, there are no available impact factors for the remainder of the state academies of science titles. As shown in Table 2, an examination of the 1994-1996 Journal Citation Reports demonstrates that Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences has by far the greatest impact factor and level of citations. The other three titles have relatively low impact factors with their impact factors causing them to be ranked in or near the bottom 10% of all journals covered in the JCR and in the bottom 25% of multi-disciplinary science titles.

All four of the titles have lengthy cited half-lives. The cited half-life for a journal is "the number of publication years from the current year which account for 50% of current citations a journal received" (Cited, 1998). Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences has a cited half-life of greater than 7.5 years; Ohio Journal of Science, Sciences and Texas Journal of Science all have cited half-lives of greater than 10 years. These high cited half-lives are to be expected due the significant amount of plant, animal and earth science studies published in the titles.

Although no citation information is available for the other state academies of science publications, it seems reasonable to assume that they have similarly low levels of citations and impact factors and high cited half-life figures.

CONCLUSION

Today, state academies of science continue to play a valuable role in science education. Through junior academies and science fairs, young people are encouraged to become involved in the sciences. Through state meetings, the academies provide a means for young scientists to present their research. The publications of the state academies of science chronicle chronicle, official record of events, set down in order of occurrence, important to the people of a nation, state, or city. Almanacs, The Congressional Record in the United States, and the Annual Register in England are chronicles.  this research. While the publications of the state academies of science are generally not considered part of the core literature of the sciences, they are an important source of state and regional scientific research.

From our examination of the publications of the state academies of science, it is clear that they represent a relatively diverse literature. However in general, they are inexpensive, peer-reviewed publications with limited readerships and limited impact (based on citation levels). While the titles are multi-disciplinary, there is preponderance pre·pon·der·ance   also pre·pon·der·an·cy
n.
Superiority in weight, force, importance, or influence.

Noun 1. preponderance
 of articles in the life and earth sciences. Indexing varies among titles and even articles within titles but overall it is adequate (particularly with the availability of State Academies of Science Abstracts). Although many are considered minor works, the publications of the state academies of science offer researchers and librarians This is a list of people who have practised as a librarian and are well-known, either for their contributions to the library profession or primarily in some other field.  inexpensive access to state and regional scientific research, and consequently serve as a valuable resource for science and technology libraries.

(1.) Author for correspondence.

Reprinted with permission from Science & Technology Libraries, Vol. 19(1) 2000, [C]2000 by The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved.

BIBLIOGRAPHY bibliography. The listing of books is of ancient origin. Lists of clay tablets have been found at Nineveh and elsewhere; the library at Alexandria had subject lists of its books.  

Bevan, Arthur. 1951. Science On the March: A Modern State Academy of Science. Scientific Monthly 73 (October):255-60.

Cattell, J. McKeen. 1902. The Academies of Science. Science 16 (December 19): 965-973.

"Cited Half-Life," available http://www.isinet.com/cp/jcr/pictures/jcr003.gif; Internet; accessed 16 August 1998.

"Impact Factor," available http://www.isinet.com/cp/jcr/pictures/jcr001.gif; Internet; accessed 16 August 1998.

Midgette, Nancy Smith. 1991. To Foster the Spirit of Professionalism: Southern Scientists and State Academies of Science Tuscaloosa, Alabama Tuscaloosa is a city in west central Alabama in the southern United States. Located on the Black Warrior River, it is the seat of Tuscaloosa CountyGR6 and the fifth-largest city in Alabama with a population of 83,052 (2006 U.S. Census Bureau Estimate). : The University of Alabama Press The University of Alabama Press is a university press that is part of the University of Alabama. External link
  • University of Alabama Press
.

Skallerup, Harry R. 1957. American State Academy of Science Publications. University of Illinois Library School Occasional Papers, no. 50. Urbana, Illinois Urbana (pronounced [ɝˈbænə]) is the county seat of Champaign County, Illinois, United StatesGR6. As of the 2005 population estimates, the population was 38,463. : University of Illinois Library School.

Skallerup, Harry R. 1955. Some Aspects of State Academy of Science Publications. Science 121 (June 24):904-5.
Figure 1: Subject Content of 1997
Articles
Life Sciences      54.9%
Physical Sciences  26.6%
Applied Sciences    8.3%
Science Education   6.6%
Other               3.6%
Note: Table made from Pie chart
Table 1. Indexing and Abstracting
Sources.
Title                               Number of
                                    SAS Titles
State Academies of Science              40
   Abstracts
GeoRef                                  34
Zoological Record                       34
Chemical Abstracts                      25
BIOSIS                                  19
CAB Abstracts                           16
Selected Water Resources Abstracts      15
Agricola                                 4
Science Citation Index                   4
Zentralblatt fur Mathematik              4
Inspec                                   3
ISTP: Index to Scientific &              2
   Technical Proceedings
Mathematical Reviews                     2
Compendex                                1
Medline                                  1
Wilson Indexes                           1
Table 2. Impact Factors and Citations.
Title                      1994    1995    1996   Average  Avg. # of
                          Impact  Impact  Impact  Impact   Citations
Annals of the NYAS        0.868   0.868   1.030    0.922     21414
Ohio Journal of Science   0.135   0.080   0.109    0.108      198
Texas Journal of Science  0.080   0.073   0.133    0.095      130
Sciences                  0.011   0.011   0.000    0.007      243


Appendix 1: Publication Information

Title: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences

State: New York

Circulation: 1000

OCLC Libraries: 671

Price: $3050.00

Frequency: Irregular

Indexes: 45

Title: Bulletin--Southern California Academy of Sciences

State: California

Circulation: 500

OCLC Libraries: 117

Price: $35.00

Frequency: 3 times per year

Indexes: 8

Title: Bulletin of the New Jersey Academy of Science

State: New Jersey

Circulation: 425

OCLC Libraries: 66

Price: $30.00

Frequency: Semiannual Semiannual

An event that occurs twice in a calendar year.

Notes:
A bond with semiannual coupons would issue payment once every six months.
See also: Annual, Bond, Coupon Bond
 

Indexes: 5

Title: Bulletin of the South Carolina Academy of Science

State: South Carolina

Circulation: 750

OCLC Libraries: 83

Price: $25.00

Frequency: Annual

Indexes: 4

Title: California Wild

State: California

Circulation: 30000

OCLC Libraries: 204

Price: $12.95

Frequency: Quarterly

Indexes: 6

Title: Encyclia

State: Utah

Circulation: 1000

OCLC Libraries: 98

Price: $12.00

Frequency: Annual

Indexes: 11

Title: Florida Scientist

State: Florida

Circulation: 600

OCLC Libraries: 195

Price: $45.00

Frequency: Quarterly

Indexes: 12

Title: Georgia Journal of Science

State: Georgia

Circulation: 550

OCLC Libraries: 122

Price: $40.00

Frequency: Quarterly

Indexes: 10

Title: Intermountain Journal of Sciences

State: Montana

Circulation: 275

OCLC Libraries: 139

Price: $25.00

Frequency: Quarterly

Indexes: 2

Title: Journal of the Alabama Academy of Science

State: Alabama

Circulation: 900

OCLC Libraries: 135

Price: $25.00

Frequency: Quarterly

Indexes: 9

Title: Journal of the Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science

State: Arizona-Nevada

Circulation: 600

OCLC Libraries: 105

Price: $25.00

Frequency: Semiannual

Indexes: 11

Title: Journal of the Colorado-Wyoming Academy of Science

State: Colorado-Wyoming

Circulation: 300

OCLC Libraries: 105

Price: $5.00

Frequency: Annual

Indexes: 4

Title: Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society

State: North Carolina

Circulation: 800

OCLC Libraries: 287

Price: $50.00

Frequency: Quarterly

Indexes: 16

Title: Journal of the Idaho Academy of Science

State: Idaho

Circulation: 550

OCLC Libraries: 37

Price: $100.00

Frequency: Semiannual

Indexes: 3

Title: Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science

State: Iowa

Circulation: 2000

OCLC Libraries: 130

Price: $35.00

Frequency: Quarterly

Indexes: 16

Title: Journal of the Kentucky Academy of Science

State: Kentucky

Circulation: 650

OCLC Libraries: 137

Price: $45.00

Frequency: Semiannual

Indexes: 8

Title: Journal of the Minnesota Academy of Science

State: Minnesota

Circulation: 1600

OCLC Libraries: 101

Price: $20.00

Frequency: Semiannual

Indexes: 8

Title: Journal of the Mississippi Academy of Sciences

State: Mississippi

Circulation: 400

OCLC Libraries: 161

Price: $25.00

Frequency: Quarterly

Indexes: 8

Title: Journal of the Pennsylvania Academy of Science

State: Pennsylvania

Circulation: 700

OCLC Libraries: 82

Price: $40.00

Frequency: 3 times per year

Indexes: 6

Title: Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Science

State: Tennessee

Circulation: 1200

OCLC Libraries: 182

Price: $15.00

Frequency: Quarterly

Indexes: 13

Title: Journal of the Washington Academy of Science

State: District of Columbia

Circulation: 511

OCLC Libraries: 240

Price: $25.00

Frequency: Quarterly

Indexes: 12

Title: Michigan Academician

State: Michigan

Circulation: 1000

OCLC Libraries: 200

Price: $50.00

Frequency: Quarterly

Indexes: 18

Title: New Mexico Journal of Science

State: New Mexico

Circulation: 250

OCLC Libraries: 29

Price: $30.00

Frequency: Annual

Indexes: 3

Title: Ohio Journal of Science

State: Ohio

Circulation: 2000

OCLC Libraries: 329

Price: $50.00

Frequency: 5 times per year

Indexes: 27

Title: Proceedings of the Arkansas Academy of Science

State: Arkansas

Circulation: 450

OCLC Libraries: 90

Price: $45.00

Frequency: Annual

Indexes: 8

Title: Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences

State: California

Circulation: 800

OCLC Libraries: 214

Price: $40.00

Frequency: Irregular

Indexes: 12

Title: Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science

State: Indiana

Circulation: Undetermined

OCLC Libraries: 255

Price: $12.00

Frequency: Semiannual

Indexes: 18

Title: Proceedings of the Louisiana Academy of Sciences

State: Louisiana

Circulation: 600

OCLC Libraries: 105

Price: $15.00

Frequency: Annual

Indexes: 7

Title: Proceedings of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences

State: Nebraska

Circulation: 1450

OCLC Libraries: 83

Price: $20.00

Frequency: Annual

Indexes: 2

Title: Proceedings of the North Dakota Academy of Science

State: North Dakota

Circulation: 750

OCLC Libraries: 157

Price: $7.50

Frequency: Annual

Indexes: 5

Title: Proceedings of the Oklahoma Academy of Science

State: Oklahoma

Circulation: 800

OCLC Libraries: 173

Price: $27.00

Frequency: Annual

Indexes: 17

Title: Proceedings of the Oregon Academy of Science

State: Oregon

Circulation: 300

OCLC Libraries: 81

Price: $5.00

Frequency: Annual

Indexes: 3

Title: Proceedings of the South Dakota Academy of Science

State: South Dakota

Circulation: 350

OCLC Libraries: 92

Price: $12.00

Frequency: Annual

Indexes: 13

Title: Proceedings of the West Virginia Academy of Science

State: West Virginia

Circulation: 450

OCLC Libraries: 140

Price: $200.00

Frequency: Semiannual

Indexes: 13

Title: Sciences, The

State: New York

Circulation: 75000

OCLC Libraries: 4342

Price: $21.00

Frequency: Bimonthly bi·month·ly  
adj.
1. Happening every two months.

2. Happening twice a month; semimonthly.

adv.
1. Once every two months.

2. Twice a month; semimonthly.

n. pl.
 

Indexes: 18

Title: Texas Journal of Science

State: Texas

Circulation: 1000

OCLC Libraries: 240

Price: $45.00

Frequency: Quarterly

Indexes: 27

Title: Transactions of the Delaware Academy of Science

State: Delaware

Circulation: 100

OCLC Libraries: 28

Price: Undetermined

Frequency: Irregular

Indexes: 1

Title: Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science

State: Illinois

Circulation: 1100

OCLC Libraries: 201

Price: $50.00

Frequency: Quarterly

Indexes: 19

Title: Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science

State: Kansas

Circulation: Undetermined

OCLC Libraries: 110

Price: Undetermined

Frequency: Semiannual

Indexes: 4

Title: Transactions of the Missouri Academy of Science

State: Missouri

Circulation: Undetermined

OCLC Libraries: 147

Price: $18.00

Frequency: Annual

Indexes: 6

Title: Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences

State: Nebraska

Circulation: 1450

OCLC Libraries: 86

Price: $20.00

Frequency: Annual

Indexes: 9

Title: Transactions of the New York Academy of Sciences

State: New York

Circulation: Undetermined

OCLC Libraries: 525

Price: Undetermined

Frequency: Irregular

Indexes: 7

Title: Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters

State: Wisconsin

Circulation: 1550

OCLC Libraries: 261

Price: Undetermined

Frequency: Annual

Indexes: 12

Title: Virginia Journal of Science

State: Virginia

Circulation: 1300

OCLC Libraries: 157

Price: $27.50

Frequency: Quarterly

Indexes: 9

Title: Wisconsin Academy Review

State: Wisconsin

Circulation: 2000

OCLC Libraries: 125

Price: $16.00

Frequency: Quarterly

Indexes: Undetermined

Appendix 2: State Academies of Science Publications on the Internet

Full-Text

California Wild

http://www.calacademy.org/calwild/

Journal of the Idaho Academy of Science

http://www.uidaho.edu/ias/

(Full-text of back issues available in future)

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science

http://www.iren.net/ias/journal/journal.htm

(Full-text available in future)

Journal of the Mississippi Academy of Sciences http://www.msacad.org/

Michigan Academician

http://www.umich.edu/[sim]michacad

(Full-text available for subscribers in future)

Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science

http://www.emporia Emporia (ĕmpôr`ēə), city (1990 pop. 25,512), seat of Lyon co., E central Kans., in the Flint Hills between the Neosho and Cottonwood rivers; inc. 1857. .edu/www/kas/transact.htm

(Abstracts and some full-text available)

Abstracts/Table of Contents/Index

Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences

http://www.nyas.org/

(Searchable index available)

Georgia Journal of Science

http://www.gpc.peachnet.edu/[sim]jaliff/gajsci.htm

(Table of contents and abstracts available in future)

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science

http://www.iren.net/ias/journal/journal.htm

(Abstracts available)

Journal of the Pennsylvania Academy of Science

http://www.ems.psu.edu/[sim]forbes/pas/jourtofc.htm

(Table of contents available)

Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Science

http://tas.rhodes.edu/tas/journalcontents.html

(Images of journal covers include table of contents)

New Mexico Journal of Science

http://nmas.nmsu.edu/nmjs/index.html

(Images of covers and table of contents available for special editions)

Ohio Journal of Science

http://www.ohiosci.org/ojs.htm

(Abstracts from recent issues available)

Proceedings of the Louisiana Academy of Sciences

(Table of contents available in the future)

Proceedings of the Oklahoma Academy of Science

http://bmb-fs1.biochem.okstate.edu/oas/oasHomePage.html

(Table of contents available)

Sciences, The (1997-Present)

http://www.nyas.org/

(Table of contents available)

Texas Journal of Science

http://hsb.baylor.edu/html/tas/tjs.htm

(Table of contents available)

Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science

http://www.il-st-acad-sci.org/transactions/transac.html

(Table of contents and abstracts available)

Transactions of the Missouri Academy of Science

http://www2.semo.edu/naugler/mas

(Table of contents available)

Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters

http://www.wisconsinacademy.org/

(Table of contents available for current issue)

Virginia Journal of Science

http://www.vacadsci.org/

(Table of contents and abstracts available in future)

Wisconsin Academy Review

http://www.wisconsinacademy.org/

(Table of contents and "feature sample" available for current issue)
COPYRIGHT 2001 Mississippi Academy of Sciences
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2001, Gale Group. All rights reserved. Gale Group is a Thomson Corporation Company.

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Author:Madarash-Hill, Cherie
Publication:Journal of the Mississippi Academy of Sciences
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Jul 1, 2001
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