Psychopaths may come in two varieties.Some men and women regularly prey on the people around them. Through charm and manipulation, they take what they want and do as they please. Even the vilest acts leave these predators remorseless.
People with this personality, who are known to psychologists as psychopaths, sometimes pay for their deeds by going to jail or psychiatric facilities for criminals. In the August JOURNAL OF ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY Journal of Abnormal Psychology is a scientific journal published by the American Psychological Association. It has previously been entitled Journal of Abnormal & Social Psychology
• , researchers report finding that psychopaths who evade the law may constitute a breed apart from those who at some point end up behind bars.
In previous studies, imprisoned im·pris·on
tr.v. im·pris·oned, im·pris·on·ing, im·pris·ons
To put in or as if in prison; confine.
[Middle English emprisonen, from Old French emprisoner : en- psychopaths speaking in front of a camera or performing other stressful tasks expressed little emotion, either verbally or as signaled by increases in heart rate and other bodily measures. They also displayed problems in planning ahead, thinking flexibly, and controlling their impulses.
In the new study, a stressful task induced sharper heart-rate hikes in male psychopaths who had eluded criminal conviction than in their previously convicted counterparts or in nonpsychopathic men, reports a team of psychologists led by Sharon S. Ishikawa and Adrian Raine Adrian Raine is a British psychologist. He currently holds the chair of Richard Perry University Professor of Criminology & Psychiatry in the Department of Criminology of the School of Arts and Sciences and in the Department of Psychiatry of the School of Medicine at the University , both of the University of Southern California The U.S. News & World Report ranked USC 27th among all universities in the United States in its 2008 ranking of "America's Best Colleges", also designating it as one of the "most selective universities" for admitting 8,634 of the almost 34,000 who applied for freshman admission in Los Angeles Los Angeles (lôs ăn`jələs, lŏs, ăn`jəlēz'), city (1990 pop. 3,485,398), seat of Los Angeles co., S Calif.; inc. 1850. . Moreover, nonconvicted psychopaths scored highest on a test of decision-making skills and impulse control impulse control Psychology The degree to which a person can control the desire for immediate gratification or other; IC may be the single most important indicator of a person's future adaptation in terms of number of friends, school performance and future . The three groups scored comparably on an IQ test.
"Heightened physiological reactivity to stress may improve the ability of some psychopaths to evaluate risky situations and make decisions that benefit their criminal careers," Raine says.
The researchers recruited men from five temporary-employment agencies in the Los Angeles area. Participants, aged 21 to 45, were assured that they couldn't be subpoenaed regarding uninvestigated crimes they revealed.
A total of 29 volunteers were identified as psychopaths on a self-report questionnaire. The test probes for characteristics such as superficial charm, frequent lying, shallow emotions, impulsiveness, a need for excitement, and a tendency toward violent outbursts.
Court records showed that 17 of these men had past criminal convictions. Another 26 men recruited from the same agencies weren't psychopaths and had no previous convictions.
Each participant had 2 minutes to prepare a speech detailing his personal faults before presenting it in front of a researcher while being videotaped, a task intended to elicit embarrassment and guilt. During this exercise, non-convicted psychopaths experienced a much greater rise in heart rate than men in the other groups did, the researchers say.
This apparent higher emotional sensitivity to risky situations may also have allowed nonconvicted psychopaths to outscore Verb 1. outscore - score more points than one's opponents
beat, beat out, vanquish, trounce, crush, shell - come out better in a competition, race, or conflict; "Agassi beat Becker in the tennis championship"; "We beat the competition"; "Harvard their peers on a card-sorting task that requires subtle judgments, the researchers add.
"The stress-induced heart-rate rise in nonconvicted psychopaths is a big surprise," remarks psychologist Scott O. Lilienfeld of Emory University in Atlanta. These results don't establish that there are basic differences among psychopaths, Lilienfeld cautions.
It may be that the traits underwriting success in society are the very ones that help some psychopaths evade capture, Lilienfeld speculates. Having the moxie (language, music) Moxie - A language for real-time computer music synthesis, written in XPL.
["Moxie: A Language for Computer Music Performance", D. Collinge, Proc Intl Computer Music Conf, Computer Music Assoc 1984, pp.217-220]. to found and run large companies, for example, would put a smart psychopath psy·cho·path
A person with an antisocial personality disorder, especially one manifested in perverted, criminal, or amoral behavior. in a position to get away with the crimes he or she commits.
Psychologist Robert D. Hare of the University of British Columbia Locations
The Vancouver campus is located at Point Grey, a twenty-minute drive from downtown Vancouver. It is near several beaches and has views of the North Shore mountains. The 7. in Vancouver is skeptical of the new findings. Jumps in heart rate could indicate that nonconvicted psychopaths simply tried harder on the speech test and may not reflect differences in their core personality traits, he says.