Psychiatric Rehabilitation: A Survey of Rehabilitation Counseling Education Programs.An estimated 4 to 5 million adults in the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. are considered to have a serious mental illness. Although some gains have been made in service provision for individuals with severe mental illness (SMI (1) (Storage Management Initiative) The initiative developed by the SNIA in 2003 to create a single standard interface for storage management technologies used by multiple vendors and networking communities. ), the increasing number of individuals with severe and life-long psychiatric psy·chi·at·ric
Of or relating to psychiatry.
psychiatric adjective Pertaining to psychiatry, mental disorders disabilities continues to challenge rehabilitation rehabilitation: see physical therapy. professionals. Along with other human service workers, rehabilitation counselors are being challenged by the large number of people with severe and life-long mental disorders mental disorders: see bipolar disorder; paranoia; psychiatry; psychosis; schizophrenia. (Garske, 1999). According to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. McDonald Wilson, Revell, Jr., Nguyen, and Peterson (1991), vocational rehabilitation programs Noun 1. vocational rehabilitation program - a program of rehabilitation through job training with an eye to gainful employment
rehabilitation program - a program for restoring someone to good health have demonstrated limited success for people with psychiatric disability, a population that represents the next-to-largest category of disability served by the state-federal vocational rehabilitation Noun 1. vocational rehabilitation - providing training in a specific trade with the aim of gaining employment
rehabilitation - the restoration of someone to a useful place in society (VR) system.
Individuals with severe mental illness may experience deficits in social skills, personal management, symptom symptom /symp·tom/ (simp´tom) any subjective evidence of disease or of a patient's condition, i.e., such evidence as perceived by the patient; a change in a patient's condition indicative of some bodily or mental state. management, cognition cognition
Act or process of knowing. Cognition includes every mental process that may be described as an experience of knowing (including perceiving, recognizing, conceiving, and reasoning), as distinguished from an experience of feeling or of willing. , and coping with stress (Bond, 1995; Corrigan, Rao, & Lam, 1999). While such individuals may possess the necessary functional competencies, educational qualifications, and have a strong desire to work, many have not been successful in the labor market labor market A place where labor is exchanged for wages; an LM is defined by geography, education and technical expertise, occupation, licensure or certification requirements, and job experience (Garske, 1999). While there appears to be a consensus among rehabilitation professionals that employment is an important part of life for persons with mental illness (VandenBoom & Lustig, 1997), estimates of unemployment for the working-age members of this population are at a rate of around 85% (National Institute of Disability and Rehabilitation Services, 1993). Even when persons with serious psychiatric disability seek vocational services, they have success rates only about half of those with physical disabilities (Marshak, Bostick, & Turton, 1990).
To help people with severe mental illnesses become and remain contributing members of society, rehabilitation, vocational training, and assistance in work settings are essential. Comprehensive psychiatric rehabilitation Psychiatric rehabilitation, also known as Psychosocial rehabilitation, is the process of restoration of community functioning and wellbeing of an individual who has a psychiatric disability (been diagnosed with a mental disorder). programs combined with effective medication management help such individuals meet the challenges of severe mental illness (Liberman, Corrigan, & Schade, 1989). The mission of psychiatric rehabilitation, as defined by Anthony, Cohen cohen
(Hebrew: “priest”) Jewish priest descended from Zadok (a descendant of Aaron), priest at the First Temple of Jerusalem. The biblical priesthood was hereditary and male. , and Farkas (1990), is to assist persons with long-term psychiatric disabilities increase their functioning so they are successful and satisfied in the environments of their choice with the least amount of ongoing professional assistance. Psychiatric rehabilitation typically involves helping individuals gain or improve skill levels, as well as identify and obtain resources and support required to attain their goals (Garske, 1999).
Although it appears that rehabilitation professionals understand the relationship between life adjustment and physical disabilities, rehabilitationists may not understand the principles and practices of psychiatric rehabilitation (Anthony, 1991). Many clients require comprehensive services dealing with a variety of psychosocial psychosocial /psy·cho·so·cial/ (si?ko-so´shul) pertaining to or involving both psychic and social aspects.
Involving aspects of both social and psychological behavior. and emotional issues before they can focus effectively on vocational issues (Garske, 1999). From a rehabilitation counselor's point of view, it is understandable that the major focus of rehabilitation may be on improving vocational outcomes for people with severe psychiatric disabilities. However, clients who have poor social skills, limited peer relationships and who have difficulty adjusting to community living need more than vocational counseling services.
Today many rehabilitation counselors are working in community mental health centers, psychiatric hospitals psychiatric hospital
A hospital for the care and treatment of patients affected with acute or chronic mental illness. Also called mental hospital. , community residential programs, supported employment programs, and community support programs. Based on current trends, qualified rehabilitation counselors will continue to be in demand to work with persons with severe psychiatric disabilities. Psychiatric rehabilitation and case management services are very demanding and complex. Therefore, psychiatric rehabilitation professionals must have advanced training in an array of knowledge areas, including psychopathology psychopathology /psy·cho·pa·thol·o·gy/ (-pah-thol´ah-je)
1. the branch of medicine dealing with the causes and processes of mental disorders.
2. abnormal, maladaptive behavior or mental activity. , psychopharmacology psychopharmacology (sī'kōfär'məkŏl`əjē), in its broadest sense, the study of all pharmacological agents that affect mental and emotional functions. , medical and psychosocial aspects of disabilities, vocational aspects of disabilities, assessment, intervention A procedure used in a lawsuit by which the court allows a third person who was not originally a party to the suit to become a party, by joining with either the plaintiff or the defendant. techniques, and community resource utilization (Chan, et al., 1999).
According to Anthony, Cohen, and Farkas (1990), a review of the literature attests to the historical omission omission n. 1) failure to perform an act agreed to, where there is a duty to an individual or the public to act (including omitting to take care) or is required by law. Such an omission may give rise to a lawsuit in the same way as a negligent or improper act. of psychiatric disabilities in the curricula of most professional training programs. Garske (1992, 1999) recommended that graduate level rehabilitation counselor education programs assess the adequacy of their curricula regarding this specialized spe·cial·ize
v. spe·cial·ized, spe·cial·iz·ing, spe·cial·iz·es
1. To pursue a special activity, occupation, or field of study.
2. preparation. According to Weinberger and Greenwald (1982), only 7 of 59 surveyed graduate level rehabilitation counselor training programs offered a specialty preparation in psychiatric rehabilitation.
The purpose of this research effort was to determine the current status of training in psychiatric rehabilitation provided through CORE accredited accredited
recognition by an appropriate authority that the performance of a particular institution has satisfied a prestated set of criteria.
cattle herds which have achieved a low level of reactors to, e.g. rehabilitation counselor education programs. In addition, survey respondents In the context of marketing research, a representative sample drawn from a larger population of people from whom information is collected and used to develop or confirm marketing strategy. were asked to provide feedback concerning a perceived need for additional training and/or emphasis in psychiatric rehabilitation for future training needs of rehabilitation counselors.
A survey design was employed to ascertain the provision of psychiatric rehabilitation training within the rehabilitation counselor education programs. Data were collected via questionnaires mailed to the 85 rehabilitation counselor education programs identified in the 1997-1998 issue of CORE-Recognized Masters Programs in Rehabilitation Counselor Education.
The brief questionnaire consisted of nine items eliciting specific information concerning (1) course availability and description, (2) where the course is offered (i.e., through the rehabilitation counselor education program or outside the program), and (3) if the course is considered part of a specialty or emphasis area within the rehabilitation counselor education program. Additional items in the questionnaire were designed to obtain information on future training needs in the psychiatric rehabilitation area.
The results of the investigation are based on a return of 61 out of 85 questionnaires, representing a 72% return rate. Of the 61 responses, 24 (39%) of the programs indicated that they offer at least one course related to psychiatric rehabilitation while 37 (61%) do not. Course titles used by these programs are listed in Table 1. Of the 24 programs offering at least one course in psychiatric rehabilitation, 23 of the 24 programs (96%) offer the course through the rehabilitation counselor education program. Six of the 24 (25%) program respondents indicated the psychiatric rehabilitation course is considered part of a specialty or emphasis area within the rehabilitation counselor education program.
Psychiatric Rehabilitation Related Course Titles Psychiatric Rehabilitation (listed 4 times) Fundamentals of Psychological Rehabilitation Vocational Implications of Psychiatric Disability Rehabilitation Approach for Persons with Severe Mental Illness Medical Aspects of Disabilities (part of course) Rehabilitation of those with Mental Illness DSM-IV Diagnosis and Treatment Implications for Counselors Psychopathology Principles of Psychiatric Rehabilitation Vocational Psychiatric Rehabilitation
Twenty-one of the 24 respondents (those providing a course in psychiatric rehabilitation) provided additional information on future training. For example, the titles of textbooks used in courses were listed (see Table 2). Of the 21 respondents, 18 (86%) indicated that psychiatric rehabilitation should be considered an area of specialization A career option pursued by some attorneys that entails the acquisition of detailed knowledge of, and proficiency in, a particular area of law.
As the law in the United States becomes increasingly complex and covers a greater number of subjects, more and more attorneys are in rehabilitation counselor education programs. Of the 24 programs indicating coursework coursework
work done by a student and assessed as part of an educational course
Noun 1. coursework - work assigned to and done by a student during a course of study; usually it is evaluated as part of the student's offerings, 14 (58%) indicated a need for additional emphasis (one indicated the emphasis area was already in place), six (25%) indicated no further emphasis was needed, and four (17%) did not respond to the question.
Table 2 Textbooks Used in Psychiatric Rehabilitation Related Courses American Psychological Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author. Andreasen, N., & Black, D. (1995). Introductory textbook of psychiatry (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association. Anthony, W. A., Cohen, M., & Farkas, M. (1990). Psychiatric rehabilitation. Boston: Boston University. Anthony W., & Spaniol, L. (1995). Readings in psychiatric rehabilitation. Boston: Boston University. Carling, P. J. (1995). Return to community: Building support systems for people with psychiatric disabilities. New York: Guilford Press. Comer, R. J. (1998). Abnormal psychology. New York: W. H. Freeman & Company. Ford, L. H. (1995). Providing employment support for people with long term mental illness. Baltimore: P. H. Brooks. Hatfield, A. B., & Leftley, H. P. (1993). Surviving mental illness. New York: Guilford Press. Kaplan, H. I., & Sadock, B. J. (1998). Kaplan and Sadock's synopsis of psychiatry: Behavioral sciences, clinical psychiatry. Baltimore: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins. Liberman, R. P. (Ed.). (1992). Handbook of psychiatric rehabilitation. New York: Macmillan. Maxmen, J. S., & Ward, N. G. (1995). Essential psychopathology and its treatment (2nd ed.). New York: Norton & Company. Morrison, J. (1995). The First Interview: A Guide for Clinicians. New York: Guilford Press. Spaniol, L., Gague, C., & Kochler, M. (1997). Psychological and social aspects of psychiatric disability. Boston: Boston University. Torrey, E. F. (1988). Nowhere to go: The tragic odyssey of the homeless mentally ill. New York: Macmillan. Vinogradov, S., & Yalom, I. D. (1991). Concise guide to group psychotherapy. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.
Survey findings reveal that 39% of the rehabilitation counselor education programs responding to the survey provide at least one training course related to psychiatric rehabilitation, while the majority (61%) of the responding programs do not. The call for an emphasis in psychiatric rehabilitation has clearly been made by a number of researchers spanning more than a decade (Anthony, Cohen, & Farkas, 1990; Chan, Kamnetz, & Jones, 1997; Chan, et al., 1998; Cook & Bolton, 1992; Farkas, O'Brien, & Nemec, 1988; Garske, 1992; Leahy, Chan, Shaw, & Lui, 1997; Leahy, et al., 1997; Szymanski, 1991; Szymanski & Parker, 1989).
With the ever-present pressure to reduce in-patient in·pa·tient or in-pa·tient
A patient who is admitted to a hospital or clinic for treatment that requires at least one overnight stay. treatment costs, psychiatric rehabilitation offers great potential in balancing cost containment cost containment,
n the features of a dental benefits program or of the administration of the program designed to reduce or eliminate certain charges to the plan. while providing quality services in managed care systems. According to Anthony (1996a, 1996b), research evidence demonstrates that psychiatric rehabilitation interventions are effective when applied with individuals who have been diagnosed with severe mental illness. The use of traditional approaches alone (e.g., medications, hospitalization hospitalization /hos·pi·tal·iza·tion/ (hos?pi-t'l-i-za´shun)
1. the placing of a patient in a hospital for treatment.
2. the term of confinement in a hospital. , dynamic psychotherapy psychotherapy, treatment of mental and emotional disorders using psychological methods. Psychotherapy, thus, does not include physiological interventions, such as drug therapy or electroconvulsive therapy, although it may be used in combination with such methods. ) has limited effectiveness when applied to the work and socialization socialization /so·cial·iza·tion/ (so?shal-i-za´shun) the process by which society integrates the individual and the individual learns to behave in socially acceptable ways.
n. aspects of individuals with serious mental illness (Chan, et al., 1998).
Persons with psychiatric disabilities want access to the same housing, work, recreational, and interpersonal in·ter·per·son·al
1. Of or relating to the interactions between individuals: interpersonal skills.
2. experiences as any other member of society (Corrigan, Rao, & Lam, 1997; Deegan, 1992). To facilitate the achievement of such goals, rehabilitation counselors must be knowledgeable of the various types of interventions designed to assist individuals with severe mental illness to overcome disability-related challenges. Such interventions can include skills training (i.e., coping skills A coping skill is a behavioral tool which may be used by individuals to offset or overcome adversity, disadvantage, or disability without correcting or eliminating the underlying condition. Virtually all living beings routinely utilize coping skills in daily life. , interpersonal skills "Interpersonal skills" refers to mental and communicative algorithms applied during social communications and interactions in order to reach certain effects or results. The term "interpersonal skills" is used often in business contexts to refer to the measure of a person's ability ), medication and symptom management, instrumental and social support, family education and support, transfer training (i.e., generalization gen·er·al·i·za·tion
1. The act or an instance of generalizing.
2. A principle, a statement, or an idea having general application. ), and cognitive rehabilitation cognitive rehabilitation,
n therapy that connects memory failure with a person's relationship, anxiety, and self-concept issues. Has been used for traumatic brain injury. (Corrigan, Rao, & Lam, 1999). The goal of training rehabilitation professionals must flow from the goal of rehabilitation. In other words Adv. 1. in other words - otherwise stated; "in other words, we are broke"
put differently , the goal of training would be to have the practitioners learn the knowledge, skills, and values necessary to effect positive client outcome (Farkas & Anthony, 1980).
Based on the findings of this brief study, only 24 of the 61 responding rehabilitation counselor education programs indicated that they offer at least one course related to psychiatric rehabilitation. These findings appear to be somewhat low considering that the Barden LaFollette Act was passed in 1943. This legislation passed by Congress extended the range of disabilities eligible for rehabilitation services to mental disabilities, including psychiatric disorders. However, the commitment of the state-federal vocational rehabilitation (VR) system to persons with psychiatric disabilities has never seemed complete, even with later legislation (e.g., the Rehabilitation Act of 1973) intended to make this mandate for services clearer (Bond, 1995). The preparation of rehabilitation counselors to provide services for persons with severe mental disorders does not appear appropriate and may contribute to client outcome results. According to McDonald-Wilson, Revell, Jr., Nguygen, and Peterson (1992), vocational rehabilitation programs have demonstrated limited success for people with psychiatric disability, considering that this population is the second largest category reported to be served by the VR system.
Psychiatric rehabilitation can be a complex and formidable task for the rehabilitation counselor. Individuals with severe mental illness often struggle with a wide variety of challenges and needs which likewise challenge the rehabilitation counselor. Such challenges and needs can include assisting the person to learn social skills, interpersonal skills, coping skills, personal hygiene personal hygiene person n → Körperhygiene f and self-care, as well as symptom and medication management (Corrigan, Rao, & Lam, 1999). The relationship of each of these issues to the rehabilitation process, which may vary from the more traditional process, may cause many rehabilitation counselors to be reluctant to work with this population. For a rehabilitation counselor, the task can seem daunting daunt
tr.v. daunt·ed, daunt·ing, daunts
To abate the courage of; discourage. See Synonyms at dismay.
[Middle English daunten, from Old French danter, from Latin , especially if adequate training in the complexities and nuances of working with individuals with severe mental illness has not been provided. While the involvement of rehabilitation counselors in psychiatric rehabilitation may prove to be stressful, their involvement seems both appropriate and necessary (Garske, 1992).
Based on the current trend, qualified rehabilitation counselors will continue to be increasingly in demand as part of the community integration team. To make the task faced by rehabilitation counselors easier when working within psychiatric rehabilitation, the following recommendations would appear appropriate. Graduate level rehabilitation counselor training programs should assess the adequacy of their curricula regarding psychiatric disabilities and psychiatric rehabilitation (Garske, 1999). There should be a concerted effort to increase the value of severe psychiatric rehabilitation programming within each rehabilitation counselor education program. These efforts may take a variety of avenues, ranging from establishing a specialized track related to psychiatric rehabilitation to establishing a greater proportion of programming related to severe mental illness within the existing rehabilitation education programs. For such curriculum changes to be made, the current training paradigm will have to be revised. According to Chan, et al. (1999), "Given the demand of the CORE-prescribed rehabilitation curriculum, there may not be room to add these psychiatric rehabilitation-related courses" (p. 342).
A program that cannot provide additional courses within the framework of rehabilitation counseling rehabilitation counseling,
n counseling started in the United States in 1920 to assist individuals disabled by industrial accidents; originally included physical, psychologic, and occupational training; expanded over the next 70 years and laid the might include these venues of encouraging rehabilitation counselor students' involvement with psychiatric areas: (1) allow and encourage students to elect courses related to understanding severe mental illness, (2) encourage research papers and projects related to psychiatric rehabilitation in the basic rehabilitation counseling curriculum, and (3) allow students to opt for internship internship /in·tern·ship/ (in´tern-ship) the position or term of service of an intern in a hospital.
n the course work or practicum conducted in a professional dental clinic. settings which emphasize rehabilitation practices in community psychiatric facilities.
It is clear from the survey that a very limited number of rehabilitation counseling programs offer a specialization in the area of severe psychiatric illness. It is proposed that the Rehabilitation Services Administration (RSA (1) (Rural Service Area) See MSA.
(2) (Rivest-Shamir-Adleman) A highly secure cryptography method by RSA Security, Inc., Bedford, MA (www.rsa.com), a division of EMC Corporation since 2006. It uses a two-part key. ) should be encouraged to direct more training dollars to develop academicians with psychiatric rehabilitation training and experience. Additional program specialization in the area of severe mental illness will not occur without additional qualified or trained faculty. This training might take various forms such as through doctoral training grants or post-doctoral opportunities for existing faculty.
Further, the graduate student leaving a rehabilitation counselor education program needs to be adequately equipped to work with people with severe mental illness. It is recommended that professional organizations be encouraged to request both the certification and accreditation accreditation,
n a process of formal recognition of a school or institution attesting to the required ability and performance in an area of education, training, or practice. bodies relating to relating to relate prep → concernant
relating to relate prep → bezüglich +gen, mit Bezug auf +acc rehabilitation counseling to place more emphasis on the need for knowledge regarding basic psychiatric care and the rehabilitation services related to individuals with severe mental illness.
Finally, the existing faculties in rehabilitation counseling programs nationwide need to recognize the lack of diversity within the faculty regarding understanding and perception of severe mental illness. It is recommended that existing faculty strive to balance their numbers so that appropriate value is placed on providing information and knowledge to students wishing to pursue careers in psychiatric rehabilitation. As Farkas and Anthony (1980) have noted, "Knowledge, attitudes, and skills are all necessary components in preparing students to positively effect client outcome. Training programs need, therefore, to be comprehensive and realistic. If not, they cannot produce practitioners capable of increasing client skill levels or modifying the clients' environments -- the two tasks most relevant to psychiatric rehabilitation outcome" (p. 141).
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New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of : Springer springer
a North American term commonly used to describe heifers close to term with their first calf. Publishing Company.
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Gregory G. Garske Bowling Green State University Joseph O. Turpin California State University - San Bernardino
Connie J. McReynolds, Ph.D., CRC (Cyclical Redundancy Checking) An error checking technique used to ensure the accuracy of transmitting digital data. The transmitted messages are divided into predetermined lengths which, used as dividends, are divided by a fixed divisor. , Rehabilitation Counseling Program, Center for Disability Studies, Department of Educational Foundations and Special Services, Kent State University, 405 White Hall, Kent, OH 44242-0001.