Providing assured mobility in the unit of action."Convinced that the general advance in the weaponry of the world's armies was introducing a tactical revolution in land combat which rendered the organization of the ROAD [Reorganization Objective Army Divisions] ...obsolete, the TRADOC TRADOC Training & Doctrine Command (US Army) commander, General DePuy, set in train in 1976 a restructuring study of the heavy division." (1) General DePuy was concerned that the Army would miss the opportunity to build organizations around the newest technology of the time. From this beginning, the Army of Excellence and its doctrine, AirLand Battle, were born.
The concept is not much different today. The Army is working hard to define success in the future battlefield with the technology and doctrine of the future. The Army is reaching for flatter organizations and processes with enduring doctrine, as U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) Pamphlet 525-5, Military Operations Force XXI Operations, (2) described almost ten years ago. The Engineer Regiment has contributed heavily to the description of the future battlefield and its systems and doctrine by providing assured mobility within the maneuver support battlefield function.
Providing assured mobility is a critical imperative of the maneuver support battlefield functional area for Objective Force operations. Maneuver support is thoroughly discussed in The United States Army United States Army
Major branch of the U.S. military forces, charged with preserving peace and security and defending the nation. The first regular U.S. fighting force, the Continental Army, was organized by the Continental Congress on June 14, 1775, to supplement local Objective Force Maneuver Support Operational Concept, Coordinating Draft, (3) and incorporated in TRADOC Pamphlet 525-3-90, The United States Army Objective Force Operational and Organizational Plan Unit of Action. (4) It concentrates on two interrelated components: freedom of maneuver and force protection. The figure on page 13 displays the seven maneuver support imperatives, although the dependencies are more complicated than the simple model depicts.
Evolving an assured mobility framework to meet the needs of the Objective Force begins with the definition: "Actions that guarantee the force commander the ability to deploy, move, and maneuver where and when he desires, without interruption or delay, to achieve his intent. This includes maneuver in all types of terrain and weather, including urban terrain." (5)
Assured mobility will create a mobility differential relative to the adversary, significantly contributing to the unit of actions's (UA's) greater empowerment in small-unit tactical operations. (6) When applied near the objective, the UA forces will avoid enemy kill zones, increasing their ability to close with and destroy the enemy. (7)
The most notable automation/technology change is our ability to move from focusing on the mobility perspective of the common operational picture (COP) as an imperative to a more holistic approach holistic approach A term used in alternative health for a philosophical approach to health care, in which the entire Pt is evaluated and treated. See Alternative medicine, Holistic medicine. in developing the situation. The key is still a proactive-centric method that establishes predict-to-prevent linkages that will allow commanders to leverage analysis and collection capabilities, predict enemy actions to hinder his mobility, and then take proactive measures to prevent the enemy from impeding our maneuver. A commander may make or alter his maneuver plan to avoid known impediments. If required, he will neutralize, reduce, or overcome the impediments to his mobility that cannot be prevented or avoided. Through a structure of systems and improved processes, we will provide assured mobility to the future commander.
The imperatives--as defined in the article on page 15, "Operationalizing Assured Mobility"--change in scope and become four nested and overlapping tasks that require providing assured mobility: develop the situation; select, establish, and maintain operating areas; attack the enemy's ability to influence operating areas; and maintain mobility and momentum from standoff to greatly reduce the likelihood of traditional breaching or neutralization neutralization, chemical reaction, according to the Arrhenius theory of acids and bases, in which a water solution of acid is mixed with a water solution of base to form a salt and water; this reaction is complete only if the resulting solution has neither acidic nor .
Develop the Situation
"This is the collection and integration of imagery and geospatial, cultural, and enemy information--aided by automated mobility planning tools--to establish the mobility COP for the operating area." (8) Automated terrain products and dissemination will allow commanders at all levels to understand the total implications of the terrain and how to leverage it to a tactical advantage. Potential capabilities include a tool that quickly produces a modified combined-obstacle overlay and publishes mobility courses of action. The overlay would be dynamically updated as refinement and alterations of the terrain are reported.
Select, Establish, and Maintain Operating Areas
"With the aid of automated tools, critical mobility choke points, operating areas, and airspace are identified, and a shaping plan is developed en route to the area of operation (AO). Operating areas are designated portions within the AOs that the maneuver commander has identified as relevant to the scheme of the maneuver. This plan includes prediction of enemy actions and required sensor coverage to fill any information voids within the operating area. Through this proactive process, sensors 'stare' at critical areas to fill the voids or improve our situational awareness. In coordination with sensor-effects packages, the ability to predict, detect, prevent, avoid, and neutralize the enemy's ability to emplace em·place
tr.v. em·placed, em·plac·ing, em·plac·es
To put into place or position: emplace a fortification on the hilltop.
Verb 1. or use mines and booby booby, common name for some members of the family Sulidae, large, streamlined sea birds. Tropical and subtropical members of the family are called boobies; those of northern waters are called gannets. traps from stand-off positions sets the conditions for mobility situational understanding. For critical choke points such as bridges, sensor packages linked with brilliant munitions mu·ni·tion
War materiel, especially weapons and ammunition. Often used in the plural.
tr.v. mu·ni·tioned, mu·ni·tion·ing, mu·ni·tions
To supply with munitions. form an active protective system to eliminate the enemy's attempt to influence or degrade these cri tical points. The ability to control and monitor critical mobility areas are essential to coordinating a mobility plan in conjunction with the scheme of maneuver Description of how arrayed forces will accomplish the commander's intent. It is the central expression of the commander's concept for operations and governs the design of supporting plans or annexes. ." (9)
Attack the Enemy's Ability to Influence Operating Areas
"This task includes the specific actions to be taken to preclude, deny, or prevent enemy maneuver and facilitate the UA's movement. The commander proactively attacks those enemy systems capable of directly or indirectly impeding friendly maneuver, thus destroying route interdiction capability before it occurs. This includes precision fires and munitions, obstacles, and attack by aircraft. Precision munitions (all types) and dynamic obstacles (Intelligent Munitions Systems [IMS (1) See IP Multimedia Subsystem.
(2) (Information Management System) An early IBM hierarchical DBMS for IBM mainframes. IMS was widely implemented throughout the 1970s under MVS and continues to be used under z/OS. ]) are effective and important methods of hindering the enemy's freedom of movement. Sensor suites tied to point munitions and networked fires are also employed to protect freedom of maneuver once it is established in key operating areas or along key routes." (10)
The operational employment and utility of the IMS is discussed in the IMS Operational Employment Concept (11) and the UA O&O Plan. (12) The IMS operational requirements are outlined in the Future Combat System (FCS FCS - Frame Check Sequence ) Operational Requirements Document A formatted statement containing performance and related operational parameters for the proposed concept or system. Prepared by the user or user's representative at each milestone beginning with Milestone I, Concept Demonstration Approval of the Requirements Generation Process. Also called ORD. , (13) and the IMS is being developed within the FCS. More information on the IMS is provided at the TRADOC System Manager--Engineer Combat Systems Web site at http://www.wood.army.mil/TSM/.
Maintain Mobility and Momentum
"Most mobility impediments will be mitigated through prediction, detection, and prevention. Obviously, if operationally feasible, impediments to maneuver will simply be avoided. There will be situations in which operational requirements dictate negotiation of impeded routes. Based on FCS survivability sur·viv·a·ble
1. Capable of surviving: survivable organisms in a hostile environment.
2. That can be survived: a survivable, but very serious, illness. to antipersonnel an·ti·per·son·nel
adj. Abbr. AP
Designed to inflict death or bodily injury rather than material destruction: antipersonnel grenades. mines and some chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN CBRN Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear
CBRN Caribbean Basin Radar Network ) hazards, the commander may choose to simply detect and move through the area." (14)
As a doctrinal framework, assured mobility truly achieves General Sullivan's vision of "a doctrine today and tomorrow" (15) that he had while the Army's leadership was laying the post-Cold War foundations for doctrine we are using today. The proof of the product is that doctrine as written in FM 3-34, Engineer Operations, (see article on page 20) has been accepted throughout the Army as a standard for constructing operational thought. And as an imperative to the future maneuver support battlefield functional area, it has been accepted as hard requirements for tomorrow's Objective Force.
(1.) Romjue, John L. (1997) The Army of Excellence: The Development of the 1980s Army, Washington, D.C.: Center of Military History, p. 8.
(2.) TRADOC Pamphlet 525-5, Military Operations Force XXI Operations, August 1994.
(3.) The United States Army Objective Force Maneuver Support Operational Concept, Coordinating Draft, Volume 3,6 November 2002, Chapter 6, p. 32.
(4.) TRADOC Pamphlet 525-3-90, O&O Change 1, The United States Army Objective Force Operational and Organizational Plan Unit of Action, 25 November 2002, p. 4-68.
(5.) Maneuver Support Operational Concept, p. 32.
(6.) TRADOC Pamplet 525-3-90, p. 4-2.
(7.) TRADOC Pamplet 525-3-90, p. 4-5.
(8.) Maneuver Support Operational Concept, p. 33.
(9.) Ibid., pp. 33-34.
(10.) Ibid., p. 34.
(11.) Intelligent Munitions System Intelligent Munitions System is a smart mine system being developed by General Dynamics (likely General Dynamics Ordnance and Tactical Systems) and the US Army TACOM-ARDEC Picatinny Centre. Operational Employment Concept Paper and Briefing, Final Draft, U.S. Army Engineer School, Fort Leonard Wood Fort Leonard Wood, U.S. army post, 71,000 acres (28,700 hectares), S central Mo.; est. 1940. It is one of the largest basic-training centers in the United States and also provides training for army engineers. , Missouri 65473,23 October 2002.
(12.) TRADOC Pamphlet 525-3-90, pp. 4-15, 4-38, 4-68, 4-73, 4- 74, F-8, F-32, F-37, F-43, F-62.
(13.) Operational Requirements Document for the Future Combat Systems, Change 2 (Army Requirements Oversight Council Approved), Unit of Action Maneuver Battle Lab, Fort Knox, Kentucky 40121, 22 January 2003, p. 39.
(14.) Maneuver Support Operational Concept, p. 34.
(15.) John L. Romjue, American Army Doctrine for the Post-Cold War, Washington D.C.: Center of Military History, 1997, p. 35.
Major Read is an instructor/writer in the Department of Instruction, U.S. Army Engineer School, Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri. He was previously an engineer observer/controller at the Combat Maneuver Training Center, Hohenfels, Germany, and commanded C Company, 9th Engineer Battalion, 1st Infantry Division, in Schweinfurt, Germany. He has deployed to operations in Somalia, Haiti, the Balkans, and Afghanistan.
Major Kerley is chief of the Munitions Systems Branch, TRADOC System Manager--Engineer Combat Systems, Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri. He is the lead combat developer and project officer for the Intelligent Munitions Systems Requirements Integrated Product Team, which drafted the IMS Appendix to the Future Combat System Operational Requirements Document. Previous assignments include commander, C/299th Engineer Battalion, and Engineer Brigade Assistant S3, 4th Infantry Division, Fort Hood, Texas.