Prophetic Rome in the High Renaissance Period.
The New Jerusalem or the New Babylon, the City of God or the Great Whore on her seven hills, Julian and Medicean Rome emerges from this rich collection of essays by various authorities not as the antique city of the humanists, but in what the editor aptly describes as "a paradoxical double role": as the city both of providential prophecy and of dreadful apocalypse, the future seat of the Angelic Pope and of Antichrist, the mystical subject of flagellatio and of transfiguratio. Prominent, as one might expect given Marjorie Reeves' own seminal work, is the multi-faceted impact of the vision of the twelfth century Calabrian abbot, Joachim of Fiore Joachim of Fiore (jō`əkĭm), c.1132–1202, Italian Cistercian monk. He was abbot of Corazzo, Italy, but withdrew into solitude. He left scriptural commentaries prophesying a new age. . His tripartite division of world history culminating in the Age of the Spirit - particularly as it was articulated in the early fourteenth century in the Vaticinia de summis pontificibus A series of manuscript prophecies concerning the Papacy, under the title of Vaticinia de Summis Pontificibus, a Latin text which assembles portraits of popes and prophecies related to them, - led his Renaissance followers to expect a renewed and triumphant papacy under a Pastor Angelicus who would purge the Church, restore the Greeks to Latin obedience, and preside over the conversion or destruction of all infidels, preeminently the Turks. Along with the expectation of such a pope came the call in the 1380s for a second Charlemagne - whether French or German remained at issue - who would be the chastiser chas·tise
tr.v. chas·tised, chas·tis·ing, chas·tis·es
1. To punish, as by beating. See Synonyms at punish.
2. To criticize severely; rebuke.
3. Archaic To purify. of Antichrist and the restorer of a truly holy Roman empire Holy Roman Empire, designation for the political entity that originated at the coronation as emperor (962) of the German king Otto I and endured until the renunciation (1806) of the imperial title by Francis II. .
Nineteen essays - three of them by Reeves, including the introduction on the medieval heritage - are organized under seven categories and address the proliferation and circulation of new prophecies; prophecy and its relationships to the councils, popular culture, political themes, and iconography; and five interpreters of prophecy. Reeves provides each section with a brief preface and William Hudon's essay on the twenty-two day pontificate of Marcellus II serves nicely as an epilogue. There is an excellent bibliography and an index of MSS as well as a general index.
Anna Morisi-Guerra, the authority on the topic, takes us through the necessary initiation: an account of the Apocalypsis Nova, "the summa of the culture of a time of crisis," with its prophecy in its fourth raptus of the coming of a Pastor Angelicus. It was attributed to the Portuguese knight, Amadeus, who joined the Minorites, and eventually ended up in Rome in 1472 as Confessor to Sixtus IV, spending much of his time in a cave on the Janiculum near the monastery of San Pietro in Montorio History
The church of San Pietro in Montorio was built on the site of an earlier ninth-century church dedicated to St. Peter on Rome's Janiculum hill. Commissioned by Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain, it marks a traditional location of St. Peter's crucifixion. , a Franciscan congregation with a special role to play, as this volume makes clear. It was not, however, until 1502, when Cardinal Carvajal, patron of this congregation and a man with papal ambitions, unsealed the Apocalypsis in San Pietro with great ceremony, that the book began to circulate widely, acquiring in the process corruptions and a number of "frenzied interpolations," some of the most important of which came from the hand of Salviati, the conventual friar of Bosnian origin who had been a pupil of Bessarion.
In the subsequent essays Aldo Landi deals with the Council of Pisa The Council of Pisa was an unrecognized ecumenical conference of the Roman Catholic Church held in 1409 that attempted to end the Western Schism. Preliminaries
The Great Schism of the West had lasted thirty years (since 1378), and none of the means employed to bring it to (1511-1513); and Nelson Minnich with the Fifth Lateran Council Noun 1. Fifth Lateran Council - the council in 1512-1517 that published disciplinary decrees and planned (but did not carry out) a crusade against Turkey
Lateran Council - any of five general councils of the Western Catholic Church that were held in the Lateran Palace (1512-1517), the roles of Egidio of Viterbo and Cajetan, the controversy over the saintliness of Savonarola, and the council's various deliberations on the status of prophesying along with the restrictions it placed on prophets using specific dates. Marjorie Reeves writes on Egidio and his prophetic view of history, his debts to the cabbala Noun 1. cabbala - an esoteric or occult matter resembling the Kabbalah that is traditionally secret
cabala, cabbalah, kabala, kabbala, kabbalah, qabala, qabalah
arcanum, secret - information known only to a special group; "the secret of Cajun cooking" , his interpretation of the first twenty psalms as a prophecy of the ten pre- and ten post-Christian ages, his hailing Leo X as the first pontiff of the dawning Tenth Age, and his identification of Charles V as the last world emperor. Nelson Minnich then addresses the role of prophecy in the career of Cardinal Carvajal, the prime-mover behind the Council of Pisa, who saw himself as Amadeus' Pastor Angelicus. Cesare Vasoli writes in some detail on the roles of Salviati, the chief elaborator of the Apocalypsis Nova, and one of the chief defenders of Savonarola, while Roberto Rusconi treats interestingly of Pietro Galatino, his voluminous collection of prophetic manuscripts, his self-identification too with the Pastor Angelicus and his pro-Hapsburg orientation. Bernard McGinn looks at Paulus Angelus, the prolix pro·lix
1. Tediously prolonged; wordy: editing a prolix manuscript.
2. Tending to speak or write at excessive length. See Synonyms at wordy. author of In Sathan ruinam tyrannidis (1524); and Ottavia Niccoli explores "low" prophetic culture in Rome at the onset of the Cinquecento cin·que·cen·to
The 16th century, especially in Italian art and literature.
[Italian, from (mil) cinquecento, (one thousand) five hundred : cinque, five (from Latin , concentrating particularly on monstrous births. Angus MacKay propositions the subject of Roman whores (Rome - the Whore of Babylon) and Delicado's picaresque novel La Lozana Andaluza - I found this sally rather tangential however - while Thomas Cohen cohen
(Hebrew: “priest”) Jewish priest descended from Zadok (a descendant of Aaron), priest at the First Temple of Jerusalem. The biblical priesthood was hereditary and male. considers another minor hermit-prophet, the irascible Fra Pelagio. John Headley, in a major piece, turns again to the career of Charles V's Grand Chancellor Gattinara and to his imperial, Dantean messianism mes·si·a·nism
1. Belief in a messiah.
2. Belief that a particular cause or movement is destined to triumph or save the world.
3. Zealous devotion to a leader, cause, or movement. , which, in invoking the image of a Second Charlemagne, effectively applied "scriptural texts properly pertaining to the Messiah" to the Saviour-Emperor. Marjorie Reeves has a note on the prophecies accompanying the Sack of Rome The city of Rome has been sacked on several occasions. Among the most famous:
Finally, three suggestive studies explore the impact of Joachimite ideas on iconography: Malcolm Bull looks at the program of the Sistine Chapel ceiling The Sistine Chapel ceiling, painted by Michelangelo between 1508 and 1512, is one of the most renowned artworks of the High Renaissance. The ceiling is that of the large Sistine Chapel built within the Vatican by Pope Sixtus IV, begun in 1477 and finished by 1480. and Joachimite typology; and Josephine Jungic at two Transfigurations "Transfigurations" is the title of an episode from the third season of . Plot
The Enterprise discovers a crashed escape pod in an unexplored star system. Investigating, they find there is one critically injured passenger in the pod, and the crew brings him aboard the ship. , Raphael's and Sebastiano del Piombo's, which, in the early sixteenth century at least, were both in San Pietro in Montorio. She turns in a second essay to Sebastiano's group portrait now known as Cardinal Bandinello Sauli and Three Companions (Sauli was allegedly part of the Conspiracy of Cardinals to poison Leo X in 1517, but also a prophecy's candidate for the Pastor Angelicus).
A wide-ranging collection, this volume is exceptionally stimulating, well edited and well proofed, and, granted the recurring Joachimist motifs, contains little repetition. It is a pity it costs so much.
M.J.B. Allen UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, LOS ANGELES