Printer Friendly
The Free Library
22,741,889 articles and books

Promoting women's sexual rights: a pan-African movement.



The year 2003 will surely go down in history as the year women's sexual and reproductive health Within the framework of WHO's definition of health[1] as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, reproductive health, or sexual health/hygiene  and fights were put irrevocably onto the pan-African agenda. Early February saw the largest gathering so far of policy makers, researchers, health care providers, activists, academics, lawyers and advocates working on women's health Women's Health Definition

Women's health is the effect of gender on disease and health that encompasses a broad range of biological and psychosocial issues.
 and fights from 22 African countries. They came together in Johannesburg for a conference celebrating African women's fights to healthy bodies, minds and souls.

The African Women's Sexual & Reproductive Health & Rights Conference: "Prosperity through Empowerment", was organised by AMANITARE, a pan-African partnership working towards the recognition of African women's and girls' sexual and reproductive health and fights as fundamental to their civil and human rights.

Who is AMANITARE?

AMANITARE was launched in Uganda in 2000 and has three main focuses of work:

* Advocating for freedom from gender-based violence (coordinated by the Isis Women's International Cross-Cultural Exchange, Uganda);

* Integrating women's rights The effort to secure equal rights for women and to remove gender discrimination from laws, institutions, and behavioral patterns.

The women's rights movement began in the nineteenth century with the demand by some women reformers for the right to vote, known as suffrage, and
 into health care delivery (coordinated by the Reproductive Health Research Unit, South Africa South Africa, Afrikaans Suid-Afrika, officially Republic of South Africa, republic (2005 est. pop. 44,344,000), 471,442 sq mi (1,221,037 sq km), S Africa. ); and

* Reaching out to new generations (coordinated by Girl's Power Initiative, Nigeria).

The AMANITARE partnership is based on the principle that all women and girls, regardless of citizenship, class, age, culture, religion, marital status marital status,
n the legal standing of a person in regard to his or her marriage state.
, ethnic identity, sexual orientation sexual orientation
n.
The direction of one's sexual interest toward members of the same, opposite, or both sexes, especially a direction seen to be dictated by physiologic rather than sociologic forces.
 and physical and mental ability, have the right to:

* bodily integrity and sexual autonomy;

* sexual enjoyment and healthy reproduction;

* protection from the threat of death and disease as a result of their reproductive functions, and freedom from coercion, violence or punishment as a means of controlling sexuality and fertility.

Tribute to a great queen

The name AMANITARE was chosen to pay homage to a great queen among a ruling legacy of African queens known for their fighting spirit Fighting Spirit may refer to:
  • Fighting Spirit (anime), a boxing anime and manga series
  • Victorious Boxers 2: Fighting Spirit, a boxing video game for the PlayStation 2 based on the anime/manga series.
 and strength in ancient Nubia. While they were the first women rulers in recorded history Recorded history can be defined as history that has been written down or recorded by the use of language, whereas history is a more general term referring simply to information about the past.[1] It starts in the 4th millennium BC, with the invention of writing. , their role and contribution to human civilisation has been historically underplayed until recently. South African storyteller Gcina Mhlophe fittingly opened the sexual rights conference with a rousing praise poem to Amanitare and all women in Africa whose bodies have borne the brunt of sexual oppression and yet whose bodies have had the power and strength to bear, nurture and protect future generations.

The conference agenda reflected the broad spectrum of women's sexual and reproductive health and rights in the framework of international and regional agreements on health and women's rights. Among the many high ranking See Google bomb.  participants, Angela Melo, Special Rapporteur Special Rapporteur is a title given to individuals working on behalf of various regional and international organizations who bear specific mandates to investigate, monitor and recommend solutions to specific human rights problems.  on the Rights of Women in Africa for the African Commission on Human & People's Rights, and Mary Maboreke, Director of the Women, Gender and Development Directorate of the African Union African Union (AU), international organization established in 2002 by the nations of the former Organization of African Unity (OAU). The AU is the successor organization to the OAU, with greater powers to promote African economic, social, and political integration, , supported and applauded the event.

While it is impossible to share the knowledge and inspiration of the many different sessions conducted during the four days of the conference, a few will be highlighted here. The session on "the role of Islam in enabling sexual and reproductive health and rights", moderated by Ayesha Imam of Women Living Under Muslim Laws, assessed alternative Islamic theological perspectives on women's rights, sexuality and identity and presented the work of progressive Muslim organisations to break taboos around women's sexuality.

Under the theme "Women's realities: Vulnerabilities, violations and violence, sessions focussed on expressions of gender based violence" including trafficking in women, female genital mutilation female genital mutilation: see circumcision.  and domestic violence, and the development of integrated strategies to better address them, including changing male socialisation and sexual stereotypes. The importance of different systems of law, constitutional and customary, and their role in securing and protecting individual women's rights was considered in this context. Women's vulnerability to HIV HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus), either of two closely related retroviruses that invade T-helper lymphocytes and are responsible for AIDS. There are two types of HIV: HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is responsible for the vast majority of AIDS in the United States.  and Aids due to gendered social and economic inequalities was a central issue, as was the need to combat the unacceptably high rates of maternal mortality in Africa resulting from unsafe abortion. It was stressed that we need to assess how gender affects health in order to improve women and men's health Men's Health Definition

Men's health is concerned with identifying, preventing, and treating conditions that are most common or specific to men.
 and promote their human rights

Sister Namibia participated in the panel "Sexual Rights: Reality or Fantasy?" with a presentation analysing nationalism, homophobia and the well-being of lesbian women. This was well received and participants agreed that the needs and rights of sexual minorities deserved greater attention from the sexual rights movement.

Saving women's lives from unsafe abortion

Just a month after the AMANITARE conference, more than 100 African leaders from 15 countries came together in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia in early March to deliberate on the causes and effects of unsafe abortion, which results in the deaths of about 30,000 African women every year.

The "Action to Reduce Maternal Mortality in Africa" conference brought together health ministers, parliamentarians, health-care professionals, women's rights advocates, lawyers and femenist nuns. They shared a wealth of research on the extent and effects of unsafe abortion in their various countries and presented information on the latest technologies for safe abortion.

They called on African governments to uphold commitments under numerous international agreements to address unsafe abortion effectively, by increasing the availability of information and services to help prevent unwanted pregnancy unwanted pregnancy Obstetrics A pregnancy that is not desired by one or both biologic parents. See Teen pregnancy.  and by making safe abortion available to the full extent of local and national laws.

Finding political will

"The primary interest of everyone involved in this conference is to save women's lives from unsafe abortion--something we know how to do but for which the global community has lacked political will," said Dr. Eunice Brookman-Amissah, a former Minister of Health of Ghana who now heads the Ipas Africa Alliance for Women's Reproductive Health and Rights.

Participants also called on African governments and the global community to oppose the Global Gag Rule gag rule

Parliamentary device to limit debate; specifically, one of a series of resolutions passed by the U.S. Congress that tabled without discussion petitions regarding slavery (1836–40).
 imposed in January 2001 by the administration of U.S. President George W. Bush. This policy disqualifies nongovernmental organisations outside the United States from receiving U.S. family planning family planning

Use of measures designed to regulate the number and spacing of children within a family, largely to curb population growth and ensure each family’s access to limited resources.
 funding if they provide counseling on abortion, provide legal abortion services except in very narrow circumstances, or participate in political debate surrounding abortion.

"By reducing funds available for preventive family planning, the Global Gag Rule clearly impedes efforts to reduce unsafe abortion," said Brookman-Amissah. "Contrary to its stated intentions, the policy results in more unwanted pregnancies, more unsafe abortions, and more deaths of women and girls. We who have seen those effects first-hand can no longer tolerate silence about the gag rule's tragic effects."

Participants decried the lack of attention to reproductive health in general and to unsafe abortion in particular in programmes to achieve the Millennium Development Goals “MDG” redirects here. For other uses, see MDG (disambiguation).

The Millennium Development Goals are eight goals that 192 United Nations member states have agreed to try to achieve by the year 2015.
, which United Nations member nations adopted in 2000. "Maternal mortality cannot and will not be reduced by 75 percent by 2015, nor will goals related to poverty reduction and economic development be achieved, without attention to unsafe abortion," Brookman-Amissah said.

"We recognise that, worldwide, restrictive abortion laws and lack of safe abortion services are major factors contributing to the disproportionately high mortality of women from unsafe abortion. Most African countries operate under archaic abortion laws that were imposed by former colonial powers and which have long since been changed in those countries.

In most countries where abortion laws are liberalised, there are almost no deaths from unsafe abortions. We note that legislation in most African countries legally permits abortion in limited circumstances--such as in cases of rape, incest or to save a woman's life--but that the majority of women and health-care providers remain uninformed of their legal rights and obligations. We further recognise that many of the root causes of unsafe abortion are the same as those underlying the HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome  pandemic pandemic /pan·dem·ic/ (pan-dem´ik)
1. a widespread epidemic of a disease.

2. widely epidemic.


pan·dem·ic
adj.
Epidemic over a wide geographic area.

n.
."

(From the Communique of the 'Action to reduce maternal mortality in Africa conference, adopted on 7 March in Addis Ababa.) See www.amanitare.org and www.ipas.org for more information.
COPYRIGHT 2003 Sister Namibia
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2003, Gale Group. All rights reserved. Gale Group is a Thomson Corporation Company.
bjluchion
BJ Luchion (Member): Security Threats to the african Race 1/13/2008 9:31 PM
Security Threats to the African Race.
An African-centered Assessment of Human Security
Violations against the African Race.
What happens when the Security of the African Race is
threatened? Nothing… no action. The International
community is complicit by not responding to threats
against the African Race.

History illustrates the fact that a security focus
relevant to Africans does not exist.
Africans are confronted with Security violations since
the era of the Atlantic slave trade; no security is
provided for us, and importantly there is no
discussion of African security within the body
Politic.

We make Pronouncement for African
Security!
It is imperative that we advance African Security
concerns! The African Race is the most endangered; and
violated Race of people on the planet, yet no one is
pronouncing African-Security. We need a comprehensive
security focus & actions to safe guard the future of
our race. It is important that, future movement
contain the words African Security clearly in the
conversation, and on the agenda…We can not allow
African People to be violated any longer. It is
logical that we advance African Security protocols.

Atrocities in East Africa: Sudan, Uganda, Congo,
Rwanda, Chad, and Somalia are clearly threats to the
security of the African Race.
But no State in the world, or the United Nations, have
acted to stop the genocidal slaughter. The world
fellows...the Hegelian doctrine that Africans are
"mere things" whoes lives have no value. Even we
Africans are in neglect of recognizing the import of
Security for the African Race--our greatest value.
We've hardly begun to voice the concept of African
Security. Presently the world-tongue is following
African American speech idiom…now let them copy the
phase African Security. Let all pronounce African
Security!

We demand African Security Now! We demand that the
assault against Africans cease and desist. Establish
African Security Councils: International, National,
Regional, Communal and local etc…establish African
Security councils that will constitute intelligence
interlinks, to track security violations, criminal
assault and injury etc...against African people and
holdings. Advance justice designs. We demand the
Security of Justice. We pledge to uphold The
Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the
Crime of Genocide. Adopted by Resolution 260 (III) A,
of the United Nations General Assembly. Africans are
the progenitors of Earth's Human family. We must stop
and prevent Genocide now once and for all.

Partial List of Threats to African Security:
1. Threat of Genocide, 2 Assassination of Africans in
Leadership positions,
3. Infectious disease campaigns, 4 Negative Impacts
of…vicious criminal capitalist economy,
5. Armed wars against the African Race, 6 HIV-AIDS,
7. Globalism: threats to the African Earth-based
Economy, 8 Crimes against African youth. Rape…of both
female & male African youth, taking of African youth:
9. Incarceration, 10 Biological warfare, 11
Psychological warfare, 12. Chemical assault and
injury: environmental racism the practice of dumping
hazardous waste, and locating landfills, incinerators,
and other environmental hazards in communities of
color,
13. Attacks against welfare mothers and the homeless
14. Land Thief, 15. Sex exploitation, 16.Economic
exploitation, stealing the Black economy and
over-charging for goods and services, 17. Violent
arrest by police, police brutality--which constitute
corporal punishment…a crime against humanity, 18.
Assault against the African Continent: land-thief and
non-African control of land & resources, 19. Toxic
chemical assault against African people, and the
environment, including flora, and fauna. (See our web
page for a more comprehensive list)
The initiative for African Security
African Security Advocate Group
Dr. BJ Luchion D.Sci.
Email: Bjluchion@yahoo.com
This Paper is located at:
http://www.geocities.com/bjluchion/AvocacyforAfricanSecurity.html
Resources
United Nations Commission on Human Security:
http://www.humansecurity-chs.org/ and UN Convention on
Genocide.
A Common Subregional Agenda for Peace Human Security
and Conflict Prevention:
http://www.iss.co.za/Pubs/Books/Unesco/Dzimba.html
Genocide Intervention Network
<http://www.genocideintervention.net/advocate/tenthings.php>;
The Save Darfur Coalition www.savedarfur.org
Africa Action:
<http://www.africaaction.org/index.php>;
Amnesty International: <http://www.amnesty.org/>;
Human Genome Project Information
<http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/minorities.shtml>;
Genocide in Sudan:
<http://www.sudanreeves.org/Article145.htm

 Reader Opinion

Title:

Comment:



 

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:Frank, Liz
Publication:Sister Namibia
Geographic Code:6NAMI
Date:Jan 1, 2003
Words:1249
Previous Article:Abortion law reform ruled out for now.
Next Article:Sweet Honey Nights.
Topics:



Related Articles
Challenging sexual norms with the sexual rights campaign.
Dear readers.
A preventable tragedy: maternal mortality.
Women's access to health campaign: Women's Global Network for Reproductive Rights.
Promoting Women's Citizenship.
Moving forward, backward or on the same spot?
Statement from the Diverse Sexualities Caucus to the 49th Session of the Commission on the Status of Women.
Ana Guezmes Garcia: Reforma del Sector Salud y Derechos Sexuales y Reproductivos.

Terms of use | Copyright © 2014 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters