Programming, Staffing And Managing the Violent Juvenile Offender.March 7, 2001 -- Caucasian eighth-grader Elizabeth Catherine Bush
Catherine Bush (born 1961 in Toronto) is a Canadian novelist.
Her debut novel, 1993's Minus Time of Williamsport, Pa., was arrested and held in custody after allegedly shooting her classmate in the shoulder.
March 13, 2001 -- At the request of Florida's Department of Corrections, the Department of Juvenile Justice A Department of Juvenile Justice is found in many places. Examples of such a department are:
See also Isolation.
former federal maximum security penitentiary, near San Francisco; “escapeproof.” [Am. Hist.: Flexner, 218]
German prison ship in World War II. [Br. Hist. for the murder of a 6-year-old girl.
March 26, 2001 -- A judge postponed the arraignment A criminal proceeding at which the defendant is officially called before a court of competent jurisdiction, informed of the offense charged in the complaint, information, indictment, or other charging document, and asked to enter a plea of guilty, not guilty, or as otherwise permitted of 15-year-old Caucasian Charles "Andy" Williams, charged with killing two students and injuring 13 others in a suburban San Diego high school San Diego High School is an urban public high school located on the southern edge of Balboa Park, in San Diego, California. The school was established in 1882, and initially named Russ High after lumberman Joseph Russ who offered to donate the lumber to build the school. , to give his attorneys time to challenge a California law California Law consists of 29 codes, covering various subject areas, the State Constitution and Statutes. See also
From California, to a small town in Pennsylvania, to Florida, the media is obsessed ob·sess
v. ob·sessed, ob·sess·ing, ob·sess·es
To preoccupy the mind of excessively.
v.intr. with the seemingly mindless, heartless heart·less
1. Devoid of compassion or feeling; pitiless.
2. Archaic Devoid of courage or enthusiasm; spiritless.
heart and emotionless e·mo·tion·less
Devoid of emotion; impassive.
Adj. 1. violent acts of juveniles -- male or female, white or black -- who, one would surmise, at a minimum, lack spiritual guidance and respect for human life. A review of the media coverage of these juveniles and violent events reveals that all reports and stories focus on one or more of the following:
* Why some children snap and who is to blame;
* Should youths who commit violent crimes be tried and sentenced as adults?;
* The prevalence of ethnic minority children in the criminal justice system; and
* The long-lasting effect violent acts have on victims.
Those issues certainly are important and debates may improve policies or systemwide developments. However, there are few discussions about another important consequence of violent juvenile crime and sentencing -- how to manage violent juvenile offenders once they have been committed or sentenced to a residential or correctional facility.
Discussions about the issues corrections professionals face in juvenile or adult systems typically are absent from media reports. Journalists rarely demonstrate an interest in or an understanding of the challenges corrections personnel deal with every day. Regardless of the correctional setting, whether it is a juvenile correctional facility or an adult prison that houses young violent offenders, correctional staff, administrators and policy-makers nationwide struggle to find ways to best manage this difficult population.
From 1986 to 1995, violent personal offenses handled by U.S. juvenile courts juvenile court
Special court handling problems of delinquent, neglected, or abused children. Two types of cases are processed by a juvenile court: civil matters, often concerning care of an abandoned or impoverished child, and criminal matters, arising from antisocial increased 98 percent, according to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (or OJJDP) is an office of the United States Department of Justice and a component of the Office of Justice Programs. . The good news is that most states have been experiencing a decline in such offenses in recent years. The bad news is that the numbers still are significantly higher than earlier decades, and the number of juvenile arrests for violent index crimes still is 43 percent above 1986 figures. The Josephson Institute of Ethics conducted a national survey last year of 15,000 teens. The study found that one out of five high school boys carried a weapon to school, one out of three high school students are afraid at school, 27 percent of middle school students and 31 percent of high school students say they think it is OK to hit or threaten someone, and 70 percent have hit someone at least once in the past year. These statistics, along with the fact that the at-risk youth population is expected to continue to increase this decade, prove it is essential to address management strategies for violent juvenile offenders.
A review of existing literature suggests there is not one significant cause for violent juvenile offenders and that until someone discovers a magic pill, any attempt to treat such offenders should be multidimensional mul·ti·di·men·sion·al
Of, relating to, or having several dimensions.
multi·di·men and individualized in·di·vid·u·al·ize
tr.v. in·di·vid·u·al·ized, in·di·vid·u·al·iz·ing, in·di·vid·u·al·iz·es
1. To give individuality to.
2. To consider or treat individually; particularize.
3. to increase the potential for success, however it may be measured. Dr. Hans Steiner, professor of child psychiatry child psychiatry
Branch of medicine concerned with mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders of childhood. It arose as a separate field in the 1920s, largely because of the pioneering work of Anna Freud. and child development at Stanford University Medical Center Stanford University Medical Center (Stanford Hospital & Clinics) is one of four hospitals affiliated with Stanford University and Stanford University School of Medicine, along with the Lucile Packard Children's Hospital, the Veteran's Administration Hospital in Palo Alto, and Santa , in Palo Alto Palo Alto, city, California
Palo Alto (păl`ō ăl`tō), city (1990 pop. 55,900), Santa Clara co., W Calif.; inc. 1894. Although primarily residential, Palo Alto has aerospace, electronics, and advanced research industries. , Calif., and an advocate for improving research in this area, says, "When you call someone a violent offender, you are talking about an extremely heterogeneous group of people."
There is little argument among treatment experts that a comprehensive approach will consider all four dimensions of young people -- biological, psychological, social/emotional and spiritual. This asks the question: How do corrections professionals get to know offenders? A sequential diagnostic/assessment system that identifies variables unique to each offender and then accurately tracks treatment progress is the best way to get to know juvenile offenders and prescribe appropriate changes to subsequent treatment and sanctions. Each assessment should not be treated as an isolated event, but as information to be connected with previous knowledge and assessments so that decisions in managing violent juvenile offenders are well-informed. That approach allows corrections professionals to adjust the intensity of treatment, the level of security and the severity of sanctions with full knowledge of each individual's history and changing condition. Unfortunately, many factors often limit corrections professionals' abi lities to be that comprehensive, including use of outdated or inappropriate instruments, lack of staff training on the application and use of assessment tools, real or perceived costs associated with a systematic approach, and the failure of some administrators and policy-makers to recognize the value of quality screening, assessment and diagnosis.
Depending on the size, complexity and diversity of correctional jurisdictions, if, as a result of assessments, there is a sufficient number of violent juvenile offenders to manage, specialized program units with reduced staff-to-offender ratios are the preferred program approach. Frequent face-to-face contact between staff and offenders should be an important component of programs or facilities designed for violent juvenile offenders. Critical attention to staff selection for specialized units, programs and facilities that manage violent juvenile offenders can- not be underestimated, particularly when assessments suggest the existence of significant biological impairments among juvenile offenders. "Some individuals may have an organic impairment Impairment
1. A reduction in a company's stated capital.
2. The total capital that is less than the par value of the company's capital stock.
1. This is usually reduced because of poorly estimated losses or gains.
2. that contributes to their violent offending of·fend
v. of·fend·ed, of·fend·ing, of·fends
1. To cause displeasure, anger, resentment, or wounded feelings in.
2. ," says Dr. William Davidson, staff psychiatrist for the Virginia and Washington, D.C., departments of correction.
Correctional staff in such programs must have a high tolerance for frustration, exhibit emotional stability and present a calm demeanor The outward physical behavior and appearance of a person.
Demeanor is not merely what someone says but the manner in which it is said. Factors that contribute to an individual's demeanor include tone of voice, facial expressions, gestures, and carriage. . Staff should receive special training and be knowledgeable in all aspects of domestic violence, since it is a common occurrence in violent juvenile offender histories.
Scientific knowledge about the potential biological causes and other causes of violence are increasing rapidly. Yet tremendous gaps requiring more research still exist. The treatment implications of scientific advancements are enormous for corrections. Maternal exposure to toxic substances, poor prenatal prenatal /pre·na·tal/ (-na´tal) preceding birth.
Preceding birth. Also called antenatal.
preceding birth. nutrition and extreme stress during pregnancy can have a damaging influence on the developing brain. Davidson believes that, "A deadly triad of increased noradrenaline noradrenaline /nor·adren·a·line/ (nor?ah-dren´ah-lin) norepinephrine.
noradrenaline (nōrˈ· , decreased serotonin serotonin (sĕr'ətō`nĭn), organic compound that was first recognized as a powerful vasoconstrictor occurring in blood serum. It was partially purified, crystallized, and named in 1948, and its structure was deduced a year later. and increased testosterone testosterone (tĕstŏs`tərōn), principal androgen, or male sex hormone. One of the group of compounds known as anabolic steroids, testosterone is secreted by the testes (see testis) but is also synthesized in small quantities in the results in chronic, uncontrolled violence."
Forensic psychiatrist Dr. Albert Globus suggests that abnormal temporal lobe temporal lobe
The lowest of the major subdivisions of the cortical mantle of the brain, containing the sensory center for hearing and forming the rear two thirds of the ventral surface of the cerebral hemisphere. functioning is involved in violent offending and has found statistically significant differences in temporal lobe activity between violent and nonviolent research subjects. Many treatment professionals see the use of psychotropic drug psychotropic drug Psychoactive drug Pharmacology A drug that affects brain activities associated with mental processes and behavior Categories Anti-psychotics; antidepressants; antianxiety drugs or anxiolytics; hypnotics. treatments, though highly controversial, as promising. Steiner has reported on the effective use of anti-kindling/anti-seizure medications to combat "short-fuse syndrome."
A comprehensive approach to treatment establishes goals for treatment interventions with the understanding that many factors may contribute to violent offending. John Platt Dr John Platt is a senior researcher in the Knowledge Tools Group at Microsoft Corporation. Platt has worked for Microsoft since 1997. Prior to Microsoft, Platt had served as Director of Research at Synaptics. , a juvenile justice consultant and former youth correctional administrator in Illinois suggests 10 targets for treatment in:
* Change anti-social attitudes;
* Change anti-social emotions;
* Increase self-control, self-management and problem-solving skills;
* Replace aggression, lying and stealing "skills" with pro-social alternatives;
* Remove chemical dependencies chemical dependency
A physical and psychological habituation to a mood- or mind-altering drug, such as alcohol or cocaine.
chemical dependency and substance abuse;
* Shift costs and rewards so that noncriminal activities are viewed as more rewarding than criminal activities;
* Ensure offenders can recognize situations that promote criminal behavior and have a plan for dealing with those situations;
* Reduce anti-social peer associations;
* Promote family affection and communication; and
* Promote identification and association with noncriminal role models.
Recidivism recidivism: see criminology. studies conducted by the Family Services Research Center of the Medical University of South Carolina “MUSC” redirects here. For Abel Santa María airport in Santa Clara, Cuba (ICAO code MUSC), see Abel Santa María Airport.
The Medical University of South Carolina support goals for treatment interventions and the multitargeted approach.
Educational efforts within specialized program units that teach offenders parenting skills, and attempt to reduce domestic violence and other behaviors that lead to childhood trauma, may reduce intergenerational in·ter·gen·er·a·tion·al
Being or occurring between generations: "These social-insurance programs are intergenerational and all transmission of violent offending. Many correctional administrators report on other programs that have made a positive impact on violent juvenile offenders -- including program on anger management, conflict resolution training, gang awareness and the impact of crime on victims -- pioneered in the California Youth Authority and being used in facilities nationwide.
Reality of Transition
With the relatively rare exception of offenders who are sentenced to life in prison without the possibility of parole or release, violent juvenile offenders eventually re-enter re·en·ter also re-en·ter
v. re·en·tered, re·en·ter·ing, re·en·ters
1. To enter or come in to again.
2. To record again on a list or ledger.
v.intr. their communities.Case management and community corrections supervision takes over responsibility for successful reintegration reintegration /re·in·te·gra·tion/ (-in-te-gra´shun)
1. biological integration after a state of disruption.
2. restoration of harmonious mental function after disintegration of the personality in mental illness. into a society and, according to Platt, "... is a very strong protective mechanism against future violent acts."
Program components to enhance violent offender transition to the community should include continuation of targeted treatment interventions, intense supervision to ensure maximum compliance with aftercare/ parole/conditional release requirements, gradual reduction of structure with an opportunity for increased responsibility and self-control, services consistent with individualized case planning, activities to develop competencies and skills, and opportunities for offenders to recognize obligations to victims and to repay their debts to society.
The key to any effective treatment program for violent juvenile offenders is competent staff. Clearly certain personality types are preferred over others in managing such difficult offenders. But once staff has been selected, retaining, training, developing, testing and evaluating them on an ongoing basis is of equal or even greater importance.
Dealing with the increasing numbers of violent juvenile offenders in juvenile and adult facilities requires a new set of skills for staff, even for those who, up until now, have been extremely effective in dealing with other nonviolent juvenile offenders. A new training paradigm is needed to address curriculum development, competency COMPETENCY, evidence. The legal fitness or ability of a witness to be heard on the trial of a cause. This term is also applied to written or other evidence which may be legally given on such trial, as, depositions, letters, account-books, and the like.
2. testing and training evaluation. This shift in thinking should begin with a thorough review of the training methods and curriculum, and an occupational analysis to determine the actual tasks and skills associated with each job in an effective program that manages violent offenders. Involving individuals from all organizational levels will engage everyone in quality assurance and it will allow a wide variety of experienced perspectives to be taken into account. Such insights will improve training curriculum.
There is a growing realization that even with significant advancements in correctional training academies in some states and improved use of technologies, most learning in corrections takes place outside the classroom and, by necessity and practice, probably always will. This suggests that structured on-the-job experiences are extremely important and should be linked to classroom-based instruction whenever possible. Many staff members have not been exposed to violent individuals. Training and education about the causes and treatment of violent offenders and course work in human development, criminal personality and domestic violence will help staff gain of a basic understanding and insight this population. Teaming new staff with veteran staff who are role models will make structured on-the-job experiences both real and constructive. Cross-training staff from different classifications and disciplines, who work with violent juvenile offenders, reinforces the teamwork necessary to accomplish objectives and furt her strengthens learning opportunities. It also helps everyone gain a better appreciation for the big picture.
Training efforts should not overlook the needs of veteran staff members. Existing staff in some cases may have the most difficulty adjusting to changes in the level of violence exhibited by offenders. Competency standards will help clearly define job expectations and give veteran staff the opportunity to identify their strengths and weaknesses. A system should be established that officially recognizes participants for successfully attaining new competencies.
The issue of staff safety and wellness must be addressed. Obviously a safe and secure operation is going to be more conducive to effective staff and programming. Even in the best circumstances, these specialized units or facilities can be very stressful. There is strong evidence to suggest that individuals who work with violent offenders are at risk of becoming involved in domestic violence or other inappropriate coping responses. Training efforts should help staff understand and appropriately manage job stress. This will help to promote a psychologically well-adjusted and healthy staff.
Just as it is important to assess and know violent juvenile offenders and review training curriculum, techniques and tasks in programs, it is equally as important to conduct comprehensive facility assessments. While the federal Violent Offender Incarceration Confinement in a jail or prison; imprisonment.
Police officers and other law enforcement officers are authorized by federal, state, and local lawmakers to arrest and confine persons suspected of crimes. The judicial system is authorized to confine persons convicted of crimes. and Truth in Sentencing Truth in Sentencing (or TIS) is a collection of different but related ideas about justice and fairness in the sentencing of criminals. Unlike earlier and better-known debates about what constitutes just sentencing, TIS is relatively unconcerned with what is fair for the criminal (e. program and some state funding has provided opportunities to construct new facilities with violent juvenile offenders in mind, the vast majority of facilities throughout the country still tend to be facilities built in prior decades for a much different population. That makes it necessary to assess existing facilities to manage violent offenders.
Again, assessments should involve a broad cross section of staff who work with violent offenders. While safety and security are foremost considerations, flexibility also is important. The ideal facility for the treatment and management of violent juvenile offenders would provide a range of correctional environments, from group living to individual lock-ups. The challenge is to provide facilities that respond to difficult security issues and assure the public's safety, while providing space that supports education and treatment programming. Whether constructing a new facility or unit, or retrofitting an existing structure, facility living environments that are perceived by the public, staff and offenders to be safe, stable and consistent, provide the best opportunities for violent offenders to respond favorably to in-custody treatment. Basic standards for facility security, program space, environmental factors, flexibility of space and encouraging staff and offender interaction, should be established.
Obviously, secure perimeters and entries, and internal movement control are essential components of operating correctional facilities whether designed for juveniles or adults. However, juvenile facilities, should not merely be carbon copies of their adult counterparts. Juvenile offenders have different programmatic pro·gram·mat·ic
1. Of, relating to, or having a program.
2. Following an overall plan or schedule: a step-by-step, programmatic approach to problem solving.
3. needs and facilities should reflect that. The American Correctional Association The American Correctional Association is an association of providers of services to prisons in the United States. It holds an annual trade show where products used in prisons are shown to prospective purchasers.
It was formerly known as the American Prison Association. recognized these differences this past year, when the standards committee adopted new accreditation standards for adult prisons that house juveniles.
Substance abuse treatment, education, job training and other programs generally are designed to prepare juvenile offenders for their return to society. Design flexibility and adaptability are very important. Many corrections professionals believe that transferring violent juvenile offenders from facility to facility may be damaging and reinforce established patterns of destructive behavior. Facilities with a range of security options and living space arrangements may reduce the need for transfers and promote effective treatment. Experience also has shown that violent juvenile offenders can be very creative in their misuse and possible destruction of equipment and facilities. This suggests that consideration be given to assure that interiors are designed to be durable.
Consideration of staff also is an important design priority. Control centers and other staff areas should be designed to encourage interaction. Natural light, varied and interesting workplaces, comfortable furnishings and acoustically buffered areas all contribute to functional work space. Staff must be able to see, hear and communicate with juveniles at all times. The facility design must be perceived as useful and convenient to staff or its use will be modified, avoided or ignored.
A discussion of facility design considerations in managing violent juvenile offenders would not be complete without mentioning parole/conditional release/aftercare office space considerations. Violent juvenile offenders are increasingly less likely to be accepted into traditional community-based programs due to public safety concerns. Their complex needs typically cannot be met with existing facilities, programs and services. A significant and important option is to lease or construct post-commitment supervision offices to accommodate multiple services for violent youths, such as educational assistance, job training and substance abuse counseling. In multiservice facilities, violent juvenile offender needs can be met while allowing for an increased level of accountability and supervision.
Technology as an Aid
The National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Advisory Committee of the National Institute of Justice's Office of Science and Technology has been researching, developing and evaluating ways that technology can make correctional staff's jobs easier. But despite the enormous impact technology can have on the design and operations of correctional facilities that house violent juvenile offenders, technology cannot replace well-trained staff. It is nevertheless common for rapidly advancing technology to easily impact the ability of correctional practitioners to keep pace.
Correctional managers looking for Looking for
In the context of general equities, this describing a buy interest in which a dealer is asked to offer stock, often involving a capital commitment. Antithesis of in touch with. solutions to better manage violent juvenile offenders sometimes are viewed as easy prey for aggressive vendors who are selling the latest gadgets. It is essential that correctional decision-makers establish guidelines for considering new technologies to avoid purchasing products that have limited value. Technology should be viewed as an aid and not as a replacement for competent staff. Of course this also applies to good information and tracking systems. The more comprehensive data systems are designed the greater opportunity to improve research and evaluation of violent juvenile offender programs. And better research and evaluation should ultimately lead to better treatment and increased accountability and public safety.
Youths like Elizabeth Bush Elizabeth Louise Kaufmann Bush (born June 19, 1922), wife of Prescott Bush, Jr., the older brother of George H. W. Bush, the 41st president of the United States. She is the aunt of George W. Bush, the 43rd president of the United States. , Lionel Tate and Andy Williams
feed for herbivorous animals, usually used to describe dried leafy material such as hay. See also forage.
a root crop grown solely as a source of feed for cattle, possibly sheep. for local and national media and talk shows. While those forums and discussions flow with the ebb and tide of the latest crime of the day, thousands of dedicated corrections professionals wake up every day knowing their job is to make a difference with violent juvenile offenders. Their efforts contribute greatly to public safety and often go unheralded. The corrections industry can show its appreciation to staff best by continually improving.
To do so, it is first necessary to make managing violent juvenile offenders a priority. Then it is essential to comprehensively assess offenders, training and facilities. Agencies are encouraged to establish properly designed specialized units, programs or facilities for violent juvenile offenders with targeted treatment interventions and carefully selected competent staff. These structures should be flexible and recognize the different needs of juveniles. These same principles should apply to post-commitment supervision offices as part of violent juvenile offender transition back to the community. Finally, every effort should be made to take advantage of appropriately selected technology as a potential aid in managing violent juvenile offenders, but always with the clear understanding that competent staff is still the most valuable resource.
Frank Alarcon is deputy secretary of the Florida Department Florida is a department (departamento) of Uruguay. Population and Demographics
As of the census of 2004, there were 68,181 people and 21,938 households in the department. The average household size was 3.1. For every 100 females, there were 100.4 males. of Juvenile Justice in Tallahassee, Fla.
American Psychological Association The American Psychological Association (APA) is a professional organization representing psychology in the US. Description and history
The association has around 150,000 members and an annual budget of around $70m. . 1997. Is youth violence just another fact of life? A briefing paper.
Armstrong, T,L. 1991. Intensive interventions with high-risk youths. Monsey, N.Y.: Criminal Justice Press.
Blanchette, K. 1996. Sex offender sex offender n. generic term for all persons convicted of crimes involving sex, including rape, molestation, sexual harassment and pornography production or distribution. assessment, treatment and recidivism: A literature review. Ottawa, Ontario: Correctional Service Canada Service Canada is part of a Government of Canada-wide service transformation initiative aimed at responding to Canadians' expressed desire for better, more responsive, less cluttered service from Canadian governments. .
Blumstein, A. 1995. Violence by young people. National Institute of Justice Journal. 229.
California Youth Authority. 1998. Violent youthful offenders youthful offenders n. under-age people accused of crimes, who are processed through a juvenile court and juvenile detention or prison facilities. In most states a youthful offender is under the age of 18. . Sacramento, Calif. (September).
Crime and Violence Prevention Center. 1995. Violence prevention. A vision of hope. Sacramento, Calif. (August).
Elliott, D. 1994. Youth violence: An overview. Paper presented at the Aspen aspen, in botany
aspen: see willow.
Aspen, city, United States
Aspen (ăs`pən), city (1990 pop. 5,049), alt. 7,850 ft (2,390 m), seat of Pitkin co., S central Colo. Institute's Children's Policy Forum Children and Violence Conference.
Family Services Research Center. 1996. Multisystemic mul·ti·sys·tem·ic
Relating to a disease or condition that affects many organ systems of the body.
affecting more than one body system. therapy using home-based services. Charleston, S.C.: Medical University of South Carolina. Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences behavioral sciences,
n.pl those sciences devoted to the study of human and animal behavior. .
Inciardi, JA. 1996. A corrections-based continuum of effective drug abuse treatment. Paper presented at the National Institute of Research in Progress Seminar Series.
Komure, S. 1981. Follow-up evaluation of the Cambria Program for Violent Offenders. Sacramento, Calif., Department of Youth Authority.
Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. 1993. Comprehensive strategy for serious, violent and chronic juvenile offenders. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice.
Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. 1998. Juvenile court statistics. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice,
Sekel, J.P. and J.K. Turner, 1980. Institutional violence reduction project. Sacramento, Ca. Department of the Youth Authority.