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Profile of rubber plantations in Indonesia.

Current Issues

The government is set to see Indonesia Indonesia (ĭn'dənē`zhə), officially Republic of Indonesia, republic (2005 est. pop. 241,974,000), c.735,000 sq mi (1,903,650 sq km), SE Asia, in the Malay Archipelago.  becomes the world's largest producer of rubber in 2011. Indonesia is already the largest in plantation Plantation, city (1990 pop. 66,692), Broward co., SE Fla., a residential suburb of Fort Lauderdale; inc. 1953. The city has grown rapidly along with the development of S Florida.  area with rubber plantations PLANTATIONS. Colonies, (q.v.) dependencies. (q.v.) 1 Bl. Com. 107. In England, this word, as it is used in St. 12, II. c. 18, is never applied to, any of the British dominions in Europe, but only to the colonies in the West Indies and America. 1 Marsh. Ins, B. 1, c. 3, Sec. 2, page 64.  totaling 3.4 million hectares in 2009 as against Thailand's 2.67 million hectares and Malaysia's 1.02 million hectares.

However, the country is only the second largest in production with production totaling 2.4 million tons in 2009 as against Thailand's 3.1 million tons t per year. Malaysia Malaysia (məlā`zhə), independent federation (2005 est. pop. 23,953,000), 128,430 sq mi (332,633 sq km), Southeast Asia. The official capital and by far the largest city is Kuala Lumpur; Putrajaya is the adminstrative capital.  came third with production of 951,000 tons.

Indonesia is lower in productivity as many of the country's rubber trees have been too old and the plantations are not well tended. The government, therefore, has planned replanting in 50,000 hectares of plantations in a number of production centers. Replanting will be launched in South Sumatra South Sumatra or Sumatera Selatan is a province of Indonesia. It is on the island of Sumatra, and borders the provinces of Lampung to the south, Bengkulu to the west, and Jambi to the north. , Bengkulu For the city, see .

For the language, see .

Bengkulu is a province of Indonesia. It is on the southwest coast of the island of Sumatra, and borders the provinces of West Sumatra, Jambi, South Sumatra and Lampung.
, and Jambi Jambi or Djambi (both: jäm`bē), city (1990 est. pop. 340,066), SE Sumatra, capital of Jambi prov., Indonesia, a port at the head of navigation on the Hari River. . The replanting is aimed at improving the productivity. The productivity is to be increased from 901 kilograms per hectare hectare (hĕk`târ, –tär), abbr. ha, unit of area in the metric system, equal to 10,000 sq m, or about 2.47 acres.  per year to 1,500 kilograms, per hectare per year.

* Rubber price hit record level

Dry rubber price in international market in April 2010 hit a record high at US$3.33 per kilogram kilogram, abbr. kg, fundamental unit of mass in the metric system, defined as the mass of the International Prototype Kilogram, a platinum-iridium cylinder kept at Sèvres, France, near Paris.  in a number of decades. In 2000, rubber price was only US$0.5/kg; the price of natural rubber fell more than 66% to 110 US cents per kilogram in July July: see month.  and December December: see month.  2008.

In April, 2010 in Medan, the price of dry rubber of the TSR (Terminate and Stay Resident) Refers to a program that remains in memory when the user exits it in order that it be immediately available at the press of a hotkey.  20 type for May delivery was recorded at US$ 3.33 per kg and US$ 3.32 per kg for June delivery. The price of the RSS (Really Simple Syndication) A syndication format that was developed by Netscape in 1999 and became very popular for aggregating updates to blogs and the news sites. RSS has also stood for "Rich Site Summary" and "RDF Site Summary.  3 type was US$ 3.99 per kg in May and US$3.86 per kg in June.

The price of rubber continued to scale up triggered by the soaring soaring: see flight; glider.
 or gliding

Sport of flying a glider or sailplane. The craft is towed behind a powered airplane to an altitude of about 2,000 ft (600 m) and then released.
 oil price amid speculation that the US economy would grow.

* Exports up but supply limited

In the first quarter of 2010, exports of rubber and tuber tuber, enlarged tip of a rhizome (underground stem) that stores food. Although much modified in structure, the tuber contains all the usual stem parts—bark, wood, pith, nodes, and internodes.  goods shot up. In the first quarter of 2009, exports were valued only at US$ 934.7 million, but in the same period in 2010, the exports value shot up to US$ 1,963.5 million. Rubber price that continues to climb resulted in an increase in Indonesia's earning from natural rubber exports.

Scarcity Scarcity

The basic economic problem which arises from people having unlimited wants while there are and always will be limited resources. Because of scarcity, various economic decisions must be made to allocate resources efficiently.
 in supply caused difficulty in meet demands for exports which have continued to increase in the past two years resulted in scarcity.

Revitalization re·vi·tal·ize  
tr.v. re·vi·tal·ized, re·vi·tal·iz·ing, re·vi·tal·iz·es
To impart new life or vigor to: plans to revitalize inner-city neighborhoods; tried to revitalize a flagging economy.
 of the country's rubber plantations has come too late to meet the market demand at present.

Industrial structure

Plantations by ownership (Smallholders, State Comp, Private Comp)

Rubber plantations in Indonesia are dominated by smallholders. For over 15 years (1994-2009), the country's rubber plantations have virtually been unchanged in size. The plantation areas even shrank shrank  
A past tense of shrink.


a past tense of shrink

shrank shrink
 during the 2007-2004 periods.

When the rubber prices fell in the world market late the 1990s, many private companies converted their rubber plantations into oil palm plantations, which were considered more profitable. Astra Argo Argo (är`gō), in Greek mythology, ship in which Jason and the Argonauts sailed in quest of the Golden Fleece. Most legends say that Argus, son of Phrixus, was the builder, with the help of Athena.  Lestari and the Bakrie group, for example, have grown oil palm trees in their rubber plantations or sold their rubber plantations to concentrate on expansion of oil palm plantations. However, in the past two years they begun to set eye on rubber plantations when the price of rubber climbed.

In 2009, Indonesia still had 3.4 million hectares of rubber plantations but with lower productivity compared with Thailand's rubber plantations of 2.67 million hectares.


Sumatra Sumatra (smä`trə), island (1990 pop. 36,471,731), c.183,000 sq mi (473,970 sq km), Indonesia, in the Indian Ocean along the equator, S and W of the Malay Peninsula (from which it  has the largest plantations of rubber plantations with 2.4 million hectares or 70% of the total area of rubber plantations in Indonesia. The largest rubber plantation by province is in South Sumatra totaling 672,000 hectares in 2009, followed by rubber plantations in North Sumatra North Sumatra (Indonesian: Sumatera Utara) is a province of Indonesia. Its capital is Medan. Geography and population
The province of North Sumatra stretches across the island of Sumatra between the Indian Ocean and the Strait Malacca.
, Riau For other uses, see Riau (disambiguation).

Riau is a province of Indonesia, located in the center of Sumatra island along the Strait of Malacca. The provincial capital and largest city is Pekanbaru. Other major cities includes Dumai, Bangkinang and Siak Sri Indrapura.
 and Jambi. Other larges plantations are found in West Kalimantan West Kalimantan (Indonesian: Kalimantan Barat often abbreviated to Kalbar) is a province of Indonesia. It is one of four Indonesian provinces in Kalimantan, the Indonesian part of the island of Borneo. Its capital city Pontianak is located right on the Equator line.  and Central Kalimantan Central Kalimantan (Indonesian: Kalimantan Tengah often abbreviated to Kalteng) is a province of Indonesia, one of four in Kalimantan - the Indonesian part of the island of Borneo. Its provincial capital is Palangkaraya.

The province has a population of 1.
, and in Central Java Central Java (Indonesian: Provinsi Jawa Tengah) is a province of Indonesia. The administrative capital is Semarang. It is one of the six provinces of the island of Java. Central Java is both a political entity and a cultural concept.  and West Java.

Unlike in Sumatra and Kalimantan Kalimantan: see Borneo. , rubber plantations in Java are dominated by state plantation companies and private plantation companies. Smallholders account for only a small part of rubber plantations in Java. Sumatra and Kalimantan the plantations are dominated by smallholders.


Condition of plants

When the price of rubber fell such as in the 1997-2003 period. Many plantations were left lying idle untended for year and some of them were converted into more profitable plantations such as oil palm plantations. The rubber price began to scale up in 2008 to follow the soaring oil prices.

At that time, however many of the plantations had been damaged. Rubber plantations in Indonesia. Therefore were much less productive than those of Malaysia and Thailand Thailand (tī`lănd, –lənd), Thai Prathet Thai [land of the free], officially Kingdom of Thailand, constitutional monarchy (2005 est. pop. 65,444,000), 198,455 sq mi (514,000 sq km), Southeast Asia.  two other major rubber producing countries.

Improving productivity. Therefore is the main target if the country wants to become the world's largest producer of natural rubber. The country has the largest plantations much larger than Thailand's plantations but Thailand is the largest producer.

The agriculture ministry said rubber trees in around 400.000 hectares of plantations have been too old and damaged and need replanting. Director General of Plantations Achmad Mangga Barani A Barani can refer to:
  • Barani - a gymnastics move used in gymnastics and martial arts
  • Barani - a department of the Kossi Province located in the African nation, Burkina Faso
  • Barani - a newly discovered species of snake
 said the country's rubber plantations have low productivity with production averaging 901 kg/hectare. The country's production of rubber totals only 2.4 million tons per year. As against Thailand's 3.1 million tons.

Replanting. Therefore is needed to improve the productivity of the rubber plantations. The government has set a replanting target over 400.000 hectares.

Development of the country rubber plantations is to be launched through the Plantation Revitalization Program including expansion. Replanting and rehabilitations of plantations. The program will be supported with subsidized sub·si·dize  
tr.v. sub·si·dized, sub·si·diz·ing, sub·si·diz·es
1. To assist or support with a subsidy.

2. To secure the assistance of by granting a subsidy.
 investment credits.

The government will also provide support through non revitalization program in the form of fertilizer fertilizer, organic or inorganic material containing one or more of the nutrients—mainly nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, and other essential elements required for plant growth.  and procurement The fancy word for "purchasing." The procurement department within an organization manages all the major purchases.  of seedlings for replanting.

The government is to launch revitalization program in rubber plantations covering 10.000 hectares of the plantations in 2010. Up from 4.631 hectares in 2009 and expansion through non revitalization program to cover 18.688 hectares up from 11.667 hectares in 2009.

State rubber plantations

Rubber plantations owned by state companies and private companies are generally well tended

Among the state plantation companies. PT PN III in North Sumatra has the largest rubber plantations of 45.327 hectares. PTPN PTPN Physical Therapy Provider Network
PTPN Protein-Tyrosine Phosphatase, Nonreceptor-Type
PTPN Preemptive Time Petri Net
 III also has rubber plasma plantations totaling 9.150.8 hectares cultivated cultivated,
n in herbal medicine, used to describe plants that are commercially farmed rather than collected from the wild.
 by local farmers. In addition, PTPN III has oil palm and cacao plantations. Altogether its plantations total 166.000 hectares.

PT PN VII has 34.439 hectares of rubber plantations in South Sumatra and Lampung or the second largest. But if combined with its plasma plantations of 31.467 hectares. It has the largest rubber plantations totaling 65.800 hectares.

Rubber plantations owned by private companies

The areas of rubber plantations owned by private companies have been reduced in size over the past decade as many of the plantations have been used to grow oil palm trees. Among the companies maintaining its rubber plantations is PT Perusahaan Perkebunan London Sumatera Indonesia Tbk and PT Socfin.

PT Perusahaan Perkebunan London Sumatera Indonesia Tbk

PT Perusahaan Plantations London Sumatra Indonesia Tbk has one of the largest rubber plantations among private companies. This company was established more than century ago that was in 1906 by Harrisons & Crossfield Plc. a London-based plantation and trading company. Perkebunan London-Sumatera. Better known as "Lonsum". Expanded to become one of the world's leading plantation companies with 100.000 hectares of plantations of oil palm, Rubber, Tea and cacao in four Indonesia's main islands.

After the Indonesian independence Lonsum focused more on expanding its rubber plantations and in 1980 it began to concentrate more on oil palm plantations. At the end of this decade palm oil because it's main commodity instead of rubber.

Lonsum has 38 nucleus nucleus, in physics
nucleus, in physics, the extremely dense central core of an atom. The Nature of the Nucleus
 plantations and 14 plasma plantations in Sumatra. Java. Kalimantan and Sulawesi. It plantation business include plant breeding plant breeding, science of altering the genetic pattern of plants in order to increase their value. Increased crop yield is the primary aim of most plant-breeding programs; advantages of the hybrids and new varieties developed include adaptation to new agricultural . Planting. Harvesting processing and sales of commodities that include palm oil. Rubber. Cacao and tea. The company has 20 processing factories in Sumatra. Java and Sulawesi.

In 1994. Harrisons & Crossfield sold its entire Lonsum assets to PT Pan London Sumatra Plantations (PPLS PPLS Pesticide Product Label System
PPLS Pre Paid Legal Services, Inc.
PPLS Provincial Pharmacy Locum Services (UK) 
). This later listed Lonsum on the Jakarta Stock Exchange Jakarta Stock Exchange

Established in 1977, the largest securities exchange in Indonesia.
 and Surabaya Stock Exchange in 1996. In October 2007. Indofood Agri Resources Ltd. a subsidiary of the food giant PT Indofood Sukses Makmur Tbk. became the majority shareholder of the company through PT Salim Ivomas Pratama.

Toward the end of December 2009. Its nucleus estates exceeded 100.000 hectares with oil palm plantations making up 70%. Rubber plantations 17% and other plantations making up the rest. Currently Lonsum had rubber plantations totaling 17.394 hectares in North Sumatra. South Sumatra and South Sulawesi South Sulawesi is a province of Indonesia, located on the western southern peninsula of Sulawesi island. The province is bordered by Central Sulawesi province to the north, South East Sulawesi province to the east and West Sulawesi province to the west (West Sulawesi province was . PT Lonsum also cooperates with local farmer in 36.209 hectares of plasma plantations including oil palm plantations making up 89% and rubber plantations 11%.

Lonsum has seven factories producing sheet rubber and crumb rubber Crumb rubber is generally manufactured from automotive and truck scrap tires. During the manufacturing process steel and fluff is removed leaving tire rubber with a granular consistency.  for both domestic sales and export. In 2009. Sold 22.110 tons of rubber down slightly from 22.870 tons in 2008.


PT. Socfin Indonesia is a foreign investment (PMA PMA (papillary-marginal-attached),
n a system of epidemiologic scoring of periodontal disease devised by Schour and Massler in which the symbols denote the areas involved in gingival inflammation.

PMA Progressive muscular atrophy
) company with plantations in North Sumatra and Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam.

PT. Socfin Indonesia was established December 1930 with the name of Socfin Medan S.A. In 1965. PT. Socfin Indonesia was put under the supervision of the government based on a presidential decision No. 6 Year 1965.

In 1968. PT. Socfin Indonesia became a joint venture company between Plantation Nord Sumatra S.A.--Belgium (the owner of Socfin) and the Indonesian government with the name of PT. Socfin Indonesia (Socfindo). Based on the foreign investment law No. 01/1967 with 60% of the shares held by Plantation Nord Sumatra and 40% by the government of Indonesia.

On 13 December 2001. Under privatization privatization: see nationalization.

Transfer of government services or assets to the private sector. State-owned assets may be sold to private owners, or statutory restrictions on competition between privately and publicly owned
 program 90% of Socfindo is owned by Plantation Nord Sumatra with 10% retained by the government.

PT. Socfin Indonesia has 5 rubber plantations totaling 10.000 hectares. Located in North Sumatra. It has secured the certificates of ISO (1) See ISO speed.

(2) (International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland, An organization that sets international standards, founded in 1946. The U.S. member body is ANSI.
 9001-2008. ISO 14001-2007 and OHSAS OHSAS Occupational Health and Safety Management System
OHSAS Occupational Health & Safety Assessment Series
OHSAS Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Scheme (UK) 
 18000 in recognition of the quality of its products.

PT. Socfin Indonesia planted high yield clone clone, group of organisms, all of which are descended from a single individual through asexual reproduction, as in a pure cell culture of bacteria. Except for changes in the hereditary material that come about by mutation, all members of a clone are genetically  such as PB 260. PB 340. PB 217. And RRIM RRIM Reinforced Reaction Injection Molding  712.

The use of the clones has contributed to increasing the productivity and production of its rubber plantations. The clones are more resistant to diseases and change in climate.

Bakrie Sumatera Plantation

PT Bakrie Sumatera Plantation Tbk (UNSP). This has rubber and oil palm plantations. Was established in 1911 as a rubber plantation company with the name of NV Hollandsch-Amerikanse Plantege Maatschpij. By the Dutch colonial administration. It was acquired by Uniroyal Inc. In 1957 and it was renamed United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area.  Rubber Sumatra Plantation (USRSP).

In 1965 it was nationalized. But later it was taken over by Uniroyal and its name was changed with PT Uniroyal Sumatra Plantations (UnSp). In 1986. PT Bakrie and Brother acquired the majority share of the company and its name was changed with PT Bakrie Sumatra Plantation and it began to start business in oil palm plantations.

The company has plantations in North Sumatra. Riau. West Sumatra West Sumatra (Indonesian: Sumatera Barat, abbreviated to Sumbar) is a province of Indonesia. It lies on the west coast of the island Sumatra, and borders the provinces of North Sumatra (Sumatera Utara) to the north, Riau and Jambi to the east, and . Jambi. South Sumatra. Batam and Central Kalimantan. Its cultivated plantations totaled 79.338 hectares. Its largest plantations are in North Sumatra totaling 24.600 hectares. Including rubber plantations making up 75% and oil palm plantation making up the rest.

Rubber plantations account for 24% or 18.8.000 hectares of its cultivated plantations.

The company also cooperates with local farmers under nucleus smallholder Noun 1. smallholder - a person owning or renting a smallholding
Britain, Great Britain, U.K., UK, United Kingdom, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland - a monarchy in northwestern Europe occupying most of the British Isles; divided into England and
 scheme with 14.500 hectares of plasma plantations.

Rubber Production

In the period of 1994-2003. The country's rubber production was almost stagnant stagnant /stag·nant/ (stag´nant)
1. motionless; not flowing or moving.

2. inactive; not developing or progressing.
. Increase was recorded only since 2004 when production reached 2.06 million tons from 1.79 million tons in 2003. The production rose again to reach 3.04 million tons in 2009.

Increase was recorded mainly by smallholder plantations. The increase in price encouraged the farmers to boost production through productivity improvement or expansion of plantations. Meanwhile. The plantations owned by the state and private companies recorded no significant change was they already reach their maximum productivity with no expansion of plantations.

Production by locations and plantation owners

Sumatra accounted for the largest part or 72% or 2.23 million tons of country's total rubber production in 2009. By province South Sumatra relegated North Sumatra as the largest producer. In 2009. South Sumatra produced 593.000 tons. The second largest producer is North Sumatra. Followed by Riau and Jambi.


Productivity of the country's rubber plantations is lower than those of Thailand and Malaysia. The productivity of the country's rubber plantations, based on the total plantation areas, averages only 812 kg per hectare per year, but based on the productive areas, the productivity is around 954 kg per hectare per year.

With good maintenance and using high quality clones the production of the country rubber plantations could reach 1,500-2,000 kg per hectare per year.

Smallholder plantations are lower in productivity compared with those of state plantation companies (PBN PBN Paint By Number
PBN Procurement Business Number
PBN Pyrolytic Boron Nitride
PBN Policy-Based Networking
PBN Performance-Based Navigation
PBN Progressive Bengali Network
PBN Paintball Nation
PBN Permanent Background Notices
) and private plantation companies (PBS PBS
 in full Public Broadcasting Service

Private, nonprofit U.S. corporation of public television stations. PBS provides its member stations, which are supported by public funds and private contributions rather than by commercials, with educational, cultural,
). Averagely, smallholder rubber plantations have a productivity of around 954 kg/hectare as against PBN's 1409 kg/hectare and PBS' 1666 kg/hectare. Only in Sulawesi, smallholder plantations have a fairly high productivity exceeding PBN and PBS merely as the three in the plantations owned by both PBN and PBS have not reach the productive age

Plantation director general Achmad Mangga Barani said smallholder plantations need replanting to improve their productivity outside the program of revitalization.

The development target for non-revitalization rubber plantations in 2010 is set at 8,688 hectares in 51 regencies in 16 provinces. Implementation in 2009 reached 7,035 hectares in 43 regencies in 13 provinces.

The development program for non-revitalization rubber plantations is financed subsidy subsidy, financial assistance granted by a government or philanthropic foundation to a person or association for the purpose of promoting an enterprise considered beneficial to the public welfare.  of Rp20 billion per hectare from state budget as much or Rp173.7 billion for the 8,688 hectare target in 2010. Development of non-revitalization smallholder plantation will add to the country's total rubber plantations of 2.4 million hectares at present.

Types of Natural Rubber

Natural rubber commodities include latex latex, emulsion of a polymer (e.g., rubber) in water (see colloid). Natural latexes are produced by a number of plants, are usually white in color, and often contain, in addition to rubber, various gums, oils, and waxes. , block rubber, sheet and crumb rubber--all as basic materials in downstream From the provider to the customer. Downloading files and Web pages from the Internet is the downstream side. The upstream is from the customer to the provider (requesting a Web page, sending e-mail, etc.).  industry.

Conventional natural rubber

The processed product of natural rubber is known in trade as conventional natural rubber that includes sheet and crepe crepe (krāp), thin fabric of crinkled texture, woven originally in silk but now available in all major fibers. There are two kinds of crepe. . The types of natural rubber categorized cat·e·go·rize  
tr.v. cat·e·go·rized, cat·e·go·riz·ing, cat·e·go·riz·es
To put into a category or categories; classify.

 as conventional include Ribbed rib  
1. Anatomy
a. One of a series of long curved bones occurring in 12 pairs in humans and extending from the spine to or toward the sternum.

b. A similar bone in most vertebrates.

 smoked sheet (RSS). White crepe and pale crepe are the crepe types in white color either thin or thick.

Thick Latex

Thick latex enters the market after the process of creaming and centrifugation Centrifugation

A mechanical method of separating immiscible liquids or solids from liquids by the application of centrifugal force. This force can be very great, and separations which proceed slowly by gravity can be speeded up enormously in centrifugal
 to turn out creamed latex and centrifuged latex. Generally thick latex is used only for thin rubber materials with high quality such as medical rubber hand gloves.

Block Rubber

Block rubber is crumb rubber after being dried and milled into bales in certain sizes. Some bock Noun 1. bock - a very strong lager traditionally brewed in the fall and aged through the winter for consumption in the spring
bock beer

lager beer, lager - a general term for beer made with bottom fermenting yeast (usually by decoction mashing); originally
 rubber has light color but each category has different colors.

Rubber with technical specifications (Crumb Rubber)

Rubber with technical specifications or crumb rubber is specially processed that the quality is guaranteed. The quality is determined based on technical characteristics. The quality and category of crumb rubber are not base don visual evaluation such as in the case of sheet, crepe and thick latex.

Production of crumb rubber

The types of rubber products produced and exported by Indonesia are not many and dominated by primary products (raw material) and semi finished products. Indonesia is still behind Thailand and Malaysia, in developing rubber products.

Most of the country's rubber production is processed into crumb rubber with codification The collection and systematic arrangement, usually by subject, of the laws of a state or country, or the statutory provisions, rules, and regulations that govern a specific area or subject of law or practice.  of "Standard Indonesian Rubber' (SIR). Others are RSS and latex.

Currently, the country has 23 units of latex-based rubber processing facilities with a total capacity of 144,520 ton/year, and 87 units of crumb rubber plants with a capacity of 1,957,400 ton/year. The capacity of crumb rubber processing facilities is enough to process the basic material produced in the country.

The agriculture ministry recommended temporarily stop issuing license for new crumb rubber plant as the country still has capacity, which is larger than the country's rubber production.

Indonesia's rubber production per year is around 2.6 million to 2.7 million tons. Around 15% or more than 300,000 tons of the total production is for domestic consumption mainly tire industry. The rest are exported.


The country exports most of its rubber production. In 2003, around 2.3 million tons of the total productions of 2.9 million ton were exported.

Exports have fluctuated in volume from 1999 to 2008 but tended to increase in the latter four years.

Prices predicted to remain high

The price of rubber in the world market hit a 20-month record in April. 2010 on short fall in supply. The price is predicted to rise still as supply is expected to remain scarce with protracted pro·tract  
tr.v. pro·tract·ed, pro·tract·ing, pro·tracts
1. To draw out or lengthen in time; prolong: disputants who needlessly protracted the negotiations.

 dry season.

Encouraging trend of the economy especially the US economy will also push up demand for natural rubber from tire makers.

In the past two years. Rubber producers gained form the strong rubber market after years of being in the doldrums doldrums (dŏl`drəmz) or equatorial belt of calms, area around the earth centered slightly north of the equator between the two belts of trade winds. . In 2004 the rubber prices averaged Rp 7.200 kilograms. The price surged to Rp13.500 per kilogram in 2005. In September 2006, the export price averaged Rp17.550 per kilogram and the prices received by farmers averaged Rp14.500 per kilogram for raw rubber.

The price of natural rubber once dropped by more than 66% to 110 US cents per kilogram in July and December 2008. The decline followed weak demand amid the global economic slowdown. The price shot up to 287 cents per kg in December 2009.

The North Sumatra's Association of rubber companies (Gapkindo) said in April 2010. The price of dry rubber of the TSR 20 type was US$3.33 per kg for May's delivery. down to US$ 3.32 per kg for June delivery. The price of RSS 3 was US$3.99 per kg for May delivery and US$3.86 per kg for June delivery.

The price of natural rubber is considered too high. It is the highest since the World War II. Producers of natural rubber said if the price remained high tire factories may choose to use synthetic rubber synthetic rubber: see rubber. . threatening the survival of the natural rubber industry.

The price. However. Is expected to remain high with the improved condition of the world's economy.

Three countries to control the price.

The high price of natural rubber since 2003 is determined partly by the success of three world's largest producers Thailand. Indonesia and Malaysia--in establishing cartel to control production and exports.

The tripartite TRIPARTITE. Consisting of three parts, as a deed tripartite, between A of the first part, B of the second part, and C of the third part.  cooperation succeeded in shoring up Noun 1. shoring up - the act of propping up with shores
propping up, shoring

supporting, support - the act of bearing the weight of or strengthening; "he leaned against the wall for support"
 the price of natural rubber in previous years. Toward the end of 2001 (before the signing of the Bali Declaration 2001) the price of natural rubber was only around 46 US cents to 52 cents/kg. After the implementation of AETS AETS Adult Education and Training Survey (Canada)
AETS Association for the Education of Teachers in Science
AETS Airborne Electronic Threat Simulator
 (Agreed Export Tonnage TONNAGE, mar. law. The capacity of a ship or vessel.
     2. The act of congress of March 2, 1799, s. 64, 1 Story's L. U. S. 630, directs that to ascertain the tonnage of any ship or vessel, the surveyor, &c.
 Scheme) and SMS (1) (Storage Management System) Software used to routinely back up and archive files. See HSM.

(2) (Systems Management Server) Systems management software from Microsoft that runs on Windows NT Server.
 (Supply Management Scheme). The price was picking up. In January 2002, the price rose to 53.88 cents/kg and in August 2003 it was 83.06 cents/kg.

After the signing of a MOU (Minutes Of Usage) A metric used to compute billing and/or statistics for telephone calls or other network use.  on 8 August 2002, the price scaled up again to reach 89.55 cent per kg in September 2002. In March 2003, the price peaked at 96.50 cents/kg after the 1997 crisis. Before falling to 81 cents/kg in April. In May that year it rose again to 82 cents/kg.

Since 2004, the price began to leapfrog to follow the soaring prices of oil that made synthetic rubber too expensive and less competitive facing natural rubber.

The three countries Indonesia. Malaysia. And Thailand agreed to continue cooperation in controlling the price of natural rubber in the world market.

In a meeting early 2010, the three countries grouped in the Association of Natural Rubber Producing Countries (ANRPC ANRPC Association of Natural Rubber Producing Countries ) agreed to keep the price in international market at US$ 2 to US$ 3 per kilogram (kg). In order to maintain the price level. The three countries arrange supply management.

The International Tripartite Rubber Council (ITRC ITRC Identity Theft Resource Center
ITRC Instructional Technology Resource Center
ITRC Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council
ITRC Interstate Technology and Regulatory Cooperation
ITRC Information Technology Research Centre (Canada) 
) meeting also discussed proposal of Vietnam to join the ITCR ITCR Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica . Currently the three countries of the ANRPC account for 70% of the world supply of natural rubber. Indonesia alone accounts for 25%-27%. If Vietnam joins. The organization would control 90%-95% of the world market of natural rubber.

Investment in rubber plantation small

Difficulty in securing cheap fund is still the main problem hampering expansion of the country's rubber plantation. Low and sharp fluctuations of rubber prices in the past discouraged dis·cour·age  
tr.v. dis·cour·aged, dis·cour·ag·ing, dis·cour·ag·es
1. To deprive of confidence, hope, or spirit.

2. To hamper by discouraging; deter.

 long term investment in the sector.

In a bid to cope with the problem, the government launched a program to revitalize re·vi·tal·ize  
tr.v. re·vi·tal·ized, re·vi·tal·iz·ing, re·vi·tal·iz·es
To impart new life or vigor to: plans to revitalize inner-city neighborhoods; tried to revitalize a flagging economy.
 the plantation sector including in oil palm, cacao and rubber plantations especially smallholder plantations.

However, after the launch of the program in 2007, realization is far from expectation especially in the rubber sector. Rubber plantations had only a share of Rp 146.34 billion of the total spending of Rp 5.56 trillion One thousand times one billion, which is 1, followed by 12 zeros, or 10 to the 12th power. See space/time.

(mathematics) trillion - In Britain, France, and Germany, 10^18 or a million cubed.

In the USA and Canada, 10^12.
 on the program until 2009. The bulk of the fund or Rp 5.39 trillion went to the oil palm sector with the cacao plantation sector having the smallest share of Rp 35.14 billion.

The implementation of the program covered a total area of 146,092 hectares. Oil palm plantations totaled 140,488 hectares, rubber plantations 4,147 hectares and cacao plantations 1,457 hectares.

The realization was still far way from the target of 2 million hectares with credit allocation The apportionment or designation of an item for a specific purpose or to a particular place.

In the law of trusts, the allocation of cash dividends earned by a stock that makes up the principal of a trust for a beneficiary usually means that the dividends will be treated as
 of Rp 76 trillion until the end of 2010.

Under the program, which is to end this year, the government hopes to see an expansion of 1.37 million hectares of oil palm plantations and replanting over 125,000 hectares. Expansion of rubber plantation is projected at 50,000 hectares with replanting covering 250,000 hectares. Expansion target for cacao plantations is 110,000 hectares with replanting to cover 90,000 hectares and rehabilitation rehabilitation: see physical therapy.  36,000 hectares.

In 2010, the government sets revitalization target at 364,100 hectares including expansion around 225,500 hectares, replanting 127,600 hectares and rehabilitation 11,000 hectares.

Banks feel safer to deal with farmers in oil palm sector than with those in rubber or cacao plantations as oil palm farmers have their guarantors in plantation companies as the nucleus companies. There is no such cooperation in the rubber and cacao plantations. Therefore, the bulk of the bank credits go to the oil palm plantation sector.

Under the program of plantation revitalization, the government provides subsidy on credit interest. The interest rate is 6% on rubber farmers' credits and 7% on the credits for oil palm and cacao farmers. The government pays the difference with him rate set by banks. A number of major banks have pledged credits for the program including Bank BRI See ISDN.

BRI - Basic Rate Interface
, Bank Mandiri Bank Mandiri (JSX : BMRI) is the largest bank in Indonesia in term of assets, loans and deposits. Total assets as of Q3 2006 were IDR 253.7 trillion (or USD 25.7 billion). It also has Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR) of 23% (including market risk), Return on Asset (RoA) of 0. , Bank Bukopin, Bank Agro, Bank Niaga, Bank BCA, and banks owned by regional administrations such as BPD Borderline personality disorder (BPD)
A pattern of behavior characterized by impulsive acts, intense but chaotic relationships with others, identity problems, and emotional instability.
 Sumbar, BPD Sumsel, BPD Sumut, BPD Riau, BPD Papua and BPD Kaltim.

The year 2010 is the last year for the program, but there has not been much headway head·way  
1. Forward movement or the rate of forward movement, especially of a ship.

2. Progress toward a goal.

3. The clear vertical space beneath a ceiling or archway; clearance.

 made in the implementation of the program. In addition, smallholder plantations have yet to complete administrative matters. Many smallholder plantations have no certificate which is needed as one of the requirements set by banks as collateral for credits.

New License for Crumb Rubber Industry Stopped Temporarily

The association of rubber companies (Gapkindo) has asked the government to stop issuing new license for crumb rubber industry as the capacity of 1 million tons a year the existing factories has exceeded the country's rubber production. The proposal was supported by the agriculture ministry that the country's crumb rubber industry already has idle capacity.

In addition, the government has no intention of expanding the country's tuber plantation in line with the policy agreed by the three countries--Indonesia, Thailand and Malaysia which are group in the International Tripartite Rubber Council (ITRC) to control the price of that commodity in international markets. The government wants only replanting to improve the productivity. The three countries agreed that if the price fell below USS USS
1. United States Senate

2. United States ship

USS abbr (= United States Ship) → Namensteil von Schiffen der Kriegsmarine
 1.6 per kg, they would not release their stocks to the market to prop up the price.

In 2008, the price of natural rubber was around US$1.36 per kg. The three countries, therefore, formed ITRC and agreed to cut production by at least 250,000 tons each in 2009. Thailand and Malaysia were required to cut production by 200,000 tons and Indonesia 50,000 tons. The policy succeeded in pushing up the price to US$ 2.8 per kg in December that year.

Prospects of Rubber Agribusiness agribusiness

Agriculture operated by business; specifically, that part of a modern national economy devoted to the production, processing, and distribution of food and fibre products and byproducts.

The greater awareness of the people of the importance of friendly environment would contribute to better prospects of natural rubber. Tire factories would be led to producing green tires that have higher content of natural rubber that synthetic rubber from oil.

Polymer factories are also expected to use more natural rubber as their basic material. This will help reduce the exploitation of non-renewable natural resources of oil and coal as the basic material for synthetic rubber. Demand for natural rubber, therefore, is expected to be higher in the future.

Indonesia wants to regain position as world's largest producer

Indonesia's production of rubber has continued to scale up since 2004 when the price of that commodity began to rise. Farmers are encouraged to tend their long abandoned rubber plantations. Meanwhile, Malaysia's production is expected to scale down as more rubber plantations have been converted into oil palm plantations.

Thailand is also expected to face difficulty in expanding its rubber plantations on limited availability When customers of the PSTN make telephone calls, they commonly make use of a telecommunications network called a switched-circuit network. In a switched-circuit network, devices known as switches are used to connect the caller to the callee.  of suitable land.

Indonesia faces no such problem. The country already has large plantations. It needs only to improve the productivity through replanting in old and damaged plantations.


* The prospects of business in natural rubber are encouraging with the greater awareness of the people of the importance of maintaining healthy environment. Tire factories are expected to use more natural rubber as the basic material to produce what is called green tire.

* Since 2004, the price of natural rubber in the world market has continued to scale up. A decline was recorded only in 2008 as a result of the global economic slowdown and financial crisis. The price, however, remained high at around US$ 3 per kg

* With the oil price soaring and is expected to remain high at around US$75 per barrel, the price of natural rubber is expected to remain high that the prospects of long term investment in rubber plantations at present are more encouraging.

* Indonesia has the opportunity become the world's largest producer of natural rubber again because it already has the largest plantation areas. It only needs to improve its productivity through replanting.

* With the price remaining high the farmers are encouraged to grow rubber and seek to boost their productivity.

* The government has launched what is called program of revitalization in the plantation sector including rubber plantations. However, there has not been much headway made in the implementation of the program, which already started in 2007. There are a number of factors coming in the way including administrative matter like land certificate. Many plantations owned by the farmers have no certificate that could be use as collateral for bank loan. There is no company to serve as nucleus estate such as in oil palm plantations to provide guarantee for bank loans.

* The government has also launched a program of non revitalization in the rubber plantation sector using fund of state budget for development of smallholder rubber plantations. The amount, however, is too small and would not be enough to meet the requirement.

* The government has no plan for expansion of the country's rubber plantations and issue license for new crumb rubber factories as the capacity of the existing factories already exceeded the country's rubber production. New investment, therefore, is encouraged more in the downstream sector to process more rubber in the country.
Table - 1

Rubber plantations all over Indonesia, 1994 -2010

Year                       Areas (Hectares)

                  PR          PBN          PBS        Total

1994       2.892.994      280.543      298.842    3.472.379
1995       2.952.684      248.393      294.824    3.495.901
1996       2.978.507      246.246      293.688    3.518.441
1997       2.957.538      226.839      290.025    3.474.402
1998       3.082.330      229.809      295.156    3.607.295
1999       3.086.543      218.344      290.173    3.595.060
2000       2.882.795      212.617      277.009    3.372.421
2001       2.838.421      221.876      284.470    3.344.767
2002       2.825.476      221.228      271.655    3.318.359
2003       2.772.490      241.625      275.997    3.290.112
2004       2.747.899      239.118      275.250    3.262.267
2005       2.767.021      237.612      274.758    3.279.391
2006       2.832.982      238.003      275.442    3.346.427
2007       2.899.679      238.246      275.792    3.413.717
2008       2.910.208      238.210      275.799    3.424.217
2009 *)    2.913.960      238.161      275.860    3.427.981
2010 **)   2.936.181      235.922      273.214    3.445.317


PR: Smallholder plantations

PBN: State plantations, PBS : Private plantation companies

Source: Statistics of the plantation directorate general

Table - 2

Areas of rubber plantations in Indonesia by provinces
And owners, 2009

No.    Province                     PR (Ha)     PBN (Ha)

1      Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam      74.480       31.048
2      North Sumatra                306.011       68.295
3      West Sumatra                 127.557            0
4      Riau                         355.576       12.735
5      Riau Islands                  29.300            0
6      Jambi                        444.662            0
7      South Sumatra                627.999       22.422
8      Kep. Bangka Belitung          30.926            0
9      Bengkulu                      62.506        6.874
10     Lampung                       53.291       18.603

       SUMATRA                    2.112.308      159.977

11     DKI Jakarta                        0            0
12     West Java                      7.078       25.003
13     Banten                        16.312        2.067
14     Central Java                   1.456       23.433
15     D.I. Yogyakarta                    0            0
16     East Java                          0       16.711

       JAVA                          24.846       67.214

17     Bali                               0            0
18     West Nusa Tenggara                 0            0
19     East Nusa Tenggara                 0            0

       NUSATENGGARA                       0            0

20     West Kalimantan              402.542        1.099
21     Central Kalimantan           269.934        4.745
22     South Kalimantan             117.121       10.455
23     East Kalimantan               45.375        2.282

       KALIMANTAN                   834.972       18.581

24     North Sulawesi                     0            0
25     Gorontalo                          0            0
26     Central Sulawesi               2.060        1.100
27     South Sulawesi                13.237            0
28     West Sulawesi                    400            0
29     Southeast Sulawesi                 0            0

       SULAWESI                      15.697        1.100

30     Maluku                             0            0
31     North Maluku                       0            0
32     Papua                          5.127            0
33     West Papua                        35            0

       MALUKU + PAPUA                 5.162            0

       INDONESIA                  2.992.985      246.872

No.    Province                    PBS (Ha)    Total (Ha)

1      Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam      17.543      123.071
2      North Sumatra                106.284      480.590
3      West Sumatra                   3.297      130.854
4      Riau                          23.779      392.090
5      Riau Islands                   3.224       32.524
6      Jambi                          6.955      451.617
7      South Sumatra                 21.869      672.290
8      Kep. Bangka Belitung               0       30.923
9      Bengkulu                       6.014       75.394
10     Lampung                       14.073       85.967

       SUMATRA                      203.038    2.475.320

11     DKI Jakarta                        0            0
12     West Java                     21.624       53.705
13     Banten                         5.189       23.568
14     Central Java                   6.271       31.160
15     D.I. Yogyakarta                    0            0
16     East Java                      9.119       25.830

       JAVA                          42.203      134.263

17     Bali                              95           95
18     West Nusa Tenggara                 0            0
19     East Nusa Tenggara                 0            0

       NUSATENGGARA                      95           95

20     West Kalimantan                8.112      411.753
21     Central Kalimantan             2.834      277.513
22     South Kalimantan              11.260      138.836
23     East Kalimantan               10.567       58.224

       KALIMANTAN                    32.773      886.326

24     North Sulawesi                     0            0
25     Gorontalo                          0            0
26     Central Sulawesi                   0        3.160
27     South Sulawesi                 5.808       19.045
28     West Sulawesi                    809        1.209
29     Southeast Sulawesi                 0            0

       SULAWESI                       6.617       23.414

30     Maluku                             0            0
31     North Maluku                       0            0
32     Papua                              0        5.127
33     West Papua                         0           35

       MALUKU + PAPUA                     0        5.162

       INDONESIA                    284.726    3.524.580

Source: Statistics of the plantation directorate general

Table - 3

Areas of plantations by owners and condition of crops, 2003 - 2009


Year/owners      Immature      Mature     Damaged       Total

* Smallholders    739.700    1.985.930     46.860    2.772.490
* State co.        41.849      187.060     12.716      241.625
* Private co.      84.269      171.017     20.711      275.997
* Total           865.818    2.344.007     80.287    3.290.112
* Smallholders    610.453    2.099.739     37.707    2.747.899
* State co.        40.014      189.226      9.878      239.118
* Private co.      82.161      173.251     19.838      275.250
* Total           732.628    2.462.216     67.423    3.262.267
* Smallholders    497.912    2.247.544     21.565    2.767.021
* State co.        27.993      201.332      8.287      237.612
* Private co.      70.292      185.318     19.148      274.758
* Total           596.197    2.634.194     49.000    3.279.391
* Smallholders    466.588    2.333.874     32.520    2.832.982
* State co.        24.974      204.560      8.469      238.003
* Private co.      68.151      187.424     19.867      275.442
* Total           559.713    2.725.858     60.856    3.346.427
* Smallholders    486.669    2.381.466     31.544    2.899.679
* State co.        24.558      205.303      8.384      238.246
* Private co.      67.487      188.778     19.527      275.792
* Total           578.714    2.775.547     59.455    3.413.717
* Smallholders    429.558    2.486.250     27.923    2.943.731
* State co.        24.040      214.336      7.422      245.798
* Private co.      66.062      197.084     17.285      280.431
* Total           519.660    2.897.670     52.630    3.469.960
* Smallholders    454.123    2.517.825     25.037    2.996.985
* State co.        23.159      217.058      6.655      246.872
* Private co.      65.640      199.587     15.499      280.726
* Total           542.922    2.934.470     47.191    3.524.583

Source: Statistics of the plantation directorate general

Table - 4

Rubber plantation areas and production of state companies, 2009

Companies       Location           Areas of rubber plantations

PT Perkebunan   NAD (Aceh)         Nucleus estate
Nusantara I                        11.918 hectares
(PTPNI)                            Plasma 10.118

PTPN II         North Sumatra      11.265 hectares

PTPN III        North Sumatra      Nucleus estate
                                   45.327 hectares
                                   Plasma 9.150

PTPN V          North Sumatra      Nucleus estate
                                   14.322 hectares
                                   Plasma 17.861

PTPN VI         North Sumatra      Nucleus estate
                                   6.384 hectares
                                   Plasma 35.878

PTPN VII        Southern Sumatra   Nucleus estate
                                   34.439 hectares
                                   Plasma 31.467

PTPN VIII       West Java          Nucleus estate
                                   27.245 hectares
                                   Plasma 2.446

PTPN IX         Central Java       Nucleus estate
                                   23.546 hectares

PTPN XII        East Java          Nucleus estate
                                   14.943 hectares

PTPN XIII       Kalimantan         Nucleus estate
                                   14.898 hectares
                                   Plasma 46.342

PTPN XIV        Sulawesi           Nucleus estate
                                   2.513 hectares
                                   Plasma 2.556

Companies       Production per year

PT Perkebunan   RSS : 1.906 tons
Nusantara I     SIR : 14.328 tons

PTPN II         RSS: 4.200 tons
                SIR 3 L: 600 tons
                SIR 10/20: 1.600
                BSR: 200 tons
                C.L. : 2.100 tons
                Thick latex : 2.224

PTPN III        RSS : 2.885 tons
                SIR 3 CV : 2.329
                SIR 3 L : 1.250 tons
                SIR 3 WF : 155 tons
                SIR 10 : 12.334 tons
                SIR 20 : 1.370 tons
                Sediment : 1.496 to

PTPN V          SIR - 3L: 4.221 tons
                SIR - 3 WF: 469 tons
                SIR 1 and 10:
                11.041 tons
                RSS: 45 tons

PTPN VI         SIR - 3L: 139 tons
                SIR - 3 WF: 2.121
                SIR 10: 6.269 tons
                SIR 20: 5.274 tons

PTPN VII        SIR: 38.393 tons
                RSS: 4.016 tons

PTPN VIII       RSS : 6.624 tons
                TPC : 1.620 tons
                Thick latex : 3.979
                SIR : 8.098 tons

PTPN IX         Rubber: 12.529 tons
                Thick latex : 4.500

PTPN XII        Rubber : 10.351 tons

PTPN XIII       RSS : 5.124 tons
                SIR : 24.956 tons
                Br. crepe : 1.212

PTPN XIV        RSS : 1.299 tons
                SIR : 3.076 tons
                Br. crepe : 430 tons

Source: Statistics of the plantation directorate general

Table Areas of rubber plantations of PT PP London Sumatra
Indonesia, 2008 -2009

Nucleus           Mature            Immature          Total
                  (hectares)        (hectares)        (hectares)

2008              12.854            4.476             17.330

2009              12.858            4.537             17.394

Source: PT Lonsum. annual report

Table - 5

Rubber production by plantation owners

Year                               Production (Tons)

                                PR                    PBN

1998                        1.242.751               192.512
1999                        1.206.410               181.522
2000                        1.125.161               169.866
2001                        1.209.284               182.578
2002                        1.226.647               186.535
2003                        1.396.244               191.699
2004                        1.662.016               196.088
2005                        1.723.318               196.673
2006                        2.082.597               265.813
2007                        2.176.686               277.200
2008                        2.308.385               293.972
2009 *)                     2.401.798               305.868

Year                           PBS                   Total

                             226.635               1.661.898
                             216.427               1.604.359
1998                         206.401               1.501.428
1999                         215.599               1.607.461
2000                         217.177               1.630.359
2001                         204.405               1.792.348
2002                         207.713               2.065.817
2003                         208.432               2.128.423
2004                         288.821               2.637.231
2005                         301.286               2.755.172
2006                         319.515               2.921.872
2007                         332.444               3.040.110
2009 *)

Note:*) provisional figure

Source: Directorate general of plantations

Table - 6

Rubber production by provinces and owners, 2009 *

No.    Provinces                         PR          PBN
                                     (Tons)       (Tons)

1      Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam      62.635       27.869
2      North Sumatra                269.142       88.396
3      West Sumatra                  97.344            0
4      Riau                         342.745       17.616
5      Riau Islands                  23.337            0
6      Jambi                        345.252            0
7      South Sumatra                533.417       28.780
8      Bangka Belitung               21.346            0
9      Bengkulu                      44.531        9.954
10     Lampung                       43.687       26.992

       SUMATRA                    1.783.436      199.607

11     DKI Jakarta                        0            0
12     West Java                      4.672       33.415
13     Banten                        10.324        1.566
14     Central Java                     594       26.241
15     D.I. Yogyakarta                    0            0
16     East Java                          0       20.723

       JAVA                          15.590       81.945

17     Bali                               0            0
18     West Nusa Tenggara                 0            0
19     East Nusa Tenggara                 0            0

       NUSA TENGGARA                      0            0

20     West Kalimantan              289.195        1.654
21     Central Kalimantan           199.824        5.651
22     South Kalimantan              86.027       13.781
23     East Kalimantan               21.348        1.609

       KALIMANTAN                   596.394       22.695

24     North Sulawesi                     0            0
25     Gorontalo                          0            0
26     Central Sulawesi               2.104        1.621
27     South Sulawesi                 2.082            0
28     West Sulawesi                    401            0
29     Southeast Sulawesi                 0            0

       SULAWESI                       4.587        1.621

30     Maluku                             0            0
31     North Maluku                       0            0
32     Papua                          1.764            0
33     West Papua                        27            0

       MALUKU + PAPUA                 1.791            0

       INDONESIA                  2.401.798      305.868

No.    Provinces                        PBS        Total
                                     (Tons)   Production

1      Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam       9.533      100.037
2      North Sumatra                151.510      509.048
3      West Sumatra                   4.287      101.631
4      Riau                          35.832      396.193
5      Riau Islands                   1.319       24.656
6      Jambi                          3.752      349.004
7      South Sumatra                 31.050      593.247
8      Bangka Belitung                    0       21.346
9      Bengkulu                       1.844       56.329
10     Lampung                        8.540       79.219

       SUMATRA                      247.667    2.230.710

11     DKI Jakarta                        0            0
12     West Java                     27.739       65.826
13     Banten                         5.197       17.087
14     Central Java                   6.912       33.747
15     D.I. Yogyakarta                    0            0
16     East Java                      6.424       27.147

       JAVA                          46.272      143.807

17     Bali                             118          118
18     West Nusa Tenggara                 0            0
19     East Nusa Tenggara                 0            0

       NUSA TENGGARA                    118          118

20     West Kalimantan                7.669      298.518
21     Central Kalimantan             2.550      208.025
22     South Kalimantan              13.870      113.678
23     East Kalimantan                6.183       29.140

       KALIMANTAN                    30.272      649.361

24     North Sulawesi                     0            0
25     Gorontalo                          0            0
26     Central Sulawesi                   0        3.725
27     South Sulawesi                 7.108        9.190
28     West Sulawesi                  1.006        1.407
29     Southeast Sulawesi                 0            0

       SULAWESI                       8.114       14.322

30     Maluku                             0            0
31     North Maluku                       0            0
32     Papua                              0        1.764
33     West Papua                         0           27

       MALUKU + PAPUA                     0        1.791

       INDONESIA                    332.444    3.040.110

Note: *) provisional figure

Source: Directorate general of plantations

Table - 7

Plantation areas and production (PR + PBN + PBS) by provinces and
condition of plants

No.   Province                    Area (Hectares)
                                 TBM/           TM/
                             Immature        Mature

1     NAD                      13,794       104,834
2     North Sumatra            44,653       430,940
3     West Sumatra             29,671        95,881
4     Riau                     32,369       357,511
5     Riau Islands              5,439        26,533
6     Jambi                    66,789       381,197
7     South Sumatra           106,538       562,479
8     Bangka Belitung           8,526        22,363
9     Bengkulu                 15,312        59,151
10    Lampung                  21,742        64,058

      SUMATRA                 344,833     2,104,947

11    DKI Jakarta                   0             0
12    West Java                 5,773        44,825
13    Banten                    2,173        19,604
14    Central Java              7,650        23,511
15    D.I. Yogyakarta               0             16
East Java                 6,795        18,004

      JAVA                     22,391       105,944

17    Bali                          0            94
18    West Nusa Tenggara            0             0
19    East Nusa Tenggara            0             0

      NUSA TENGGARA                 0            94

20    West Kalimantan          59,427       348,087
21    Central Kalimantan       60,441       215,085
22    South Kalimantan         25,269       112,686
23    East Kalimantan          18,737        30,991

      KALIMANTAN              163,874       706,849

24    North Sulawesi                0             0
25    Gorontalo                     0             0

26    Central Sulawesi              0         3,157
27    South Sulawesi           11,818         7,224
28    West Sulawesi                 0         1,209
29    Southeast Sulawesi            0             0

      SULAWESI                 11,818        11,590

30    Maluku                        0             0
31    North Maluku                  0             0
32    Papua                         0         5,018
33    West Papua                    6            29

      MALUKU + PAPUA                6         5,047

      INDONESIA               542,922     2,934,471

                                  Area (Hectares)

No.   Province                Damaged         Total

1     NAD                       4,443       123,071
2     North Sumatra             4,996       480,590
3     West Sumatra              5,302       130,854
4     Riau                      2,210       392,090
5     Riau Islands                552        32,524
6     Jambi                     3,630       451,617
7     South Sumatra             3,272       672,290
8     Bangka Belitung              37        30,926
9     Bengkulu                    931        75,394
10    Lampung                     167        85,967

      SUMATRA                  25,540     2,475,323

11    DKI Jakarta                   0             0
12    West Java                 3,170        53,705
13    Banten                    1,791        23,568
14    Central Java                  0        31,160
15    D.I. Yogyakarta               0             0
16    East Java                 1,032        25,830

      JAVA                      5,993       134,263

17    Bali                          1            95
18    West Nusa Tenggara            0             0
19    East Nusa Tenggara            0             0

      NUSA TENGGARA                 1            95

20    West Kalimantan           4,240       411,753
21    Central Kalimantan        1,988       277,513
22    South Kalimantan            881       138,836
23    East Kalimantan           8,496        58,224

      KALIMANTAN               15,605       886,326

24    North Sulawesi                0             0
25    Gorontalo                     0             0

26    Central Sulawesi              3         3,160
27    South Sulawesi                3        19,045
28    West Sulawesi                 0         1,209
29    Southeast Sulawesi            0             0

      SULAWESI                      6        23,414

30    Maluku                        0             0
31    North Maluku                  0             0
32    Papua                       109         5,127
33    West Papua                    0            35

      MALUKU + PAPUA              109         5,162

      INDONESIA                47,254     3,524,583

                                         Production to total

No.   Province             Production            TM
                                (Ton)       (Kg/ha)

1     NAD                     100,037           954
2     North Sumatra           509,048         1,181
3     West Sumatra            101,631         1,060
4     Riau                    396,193         1,108
5     Riau Islands             24,656           929
6     Jambi                   349,004           916
7     South Sumatra           593,247         1,055
8     Bangka Belitung          21,346           955
9     Bengkulu                 56,329           952
10    Lampung                  79,219         1,237

      SUMATRA               2,230,710         1,060

11    DKI Jakarta                   0             0
12    West Java                65,826         1,469
13    Banten                   17,087           872
14    Central Java             33,747         1,435
15    D.I. Yogyakarta               0             0
16    East Java                27,147         1,508

      JAVA                    143,807         1,357

17    Bali                        118         1,255
18    West Nusa Tenggara            0             0
19    East Nusa Tenggara            0             0

      NUSA TENGGARA               118         1,255

20    West Kalimantan         298,518           858
21    Central Kalimantan      208,025           967
22    South Kalimantan        113,678         1,009
23    East Kalimantan          29,140           940

      KALIMANTAN              649,361           919

24    North Sulawesi                0             0
25    Gorontalo                     0             0

26    Central Sulawesi          3,725         1,180
27    South Sulawesi            9,190         1,272
28    West Sulawesi             1,407         1,164
29    Southeast Sulawesi            0             0

      SULAWESI                 14,322         1,236

30    Maluku                        0             0
31    North Maluku                  0             0
32    Papua                     1,764           352
33    West Papua                   27           936

      MALUKU + PAPUA            1,791           355

      INDONESIA             3,040,109         1,036

No.   Province             Production to total


1     NAD                         813
2     North Sumatra             1,059
3     West Sumatra                777
4     Riau                      1,010
5     Riau Islands                758
6     Jambi                       773
7     South Sumatra               882
8     Bangka Belitung             690
9     Bengkulu                    747
10    Lampung                     922

      SUMATRA                     901

11    DKI Jakarta
12    West Java                 1,226
13    Banten                      725
14    Central Java              1,083
15    D.I. Yogyakarta
16    East Java                 1,051

      JAVA                      1,071

17    Bali                      1,242
18    West Nusa Tenggara
19    East Nusa Tenggara

      NUSA TENGGARA             1,242

20    West Kalimantan             725
21    Central Kalimantan          750
22    South Kalimantan            819
23    East Kalimantan             500

      KALIMANTAN                  733

24    North Sulawesi
25    Gorontalo

26    Central Sulawesi          1,179
27    South Sulawesi              483
28    West Sulawesi             1,164
29    Southeast Sulawesi

      SULAWESI                    612

30    Maluku
31    North Maluku
32    Papua                       344
33    West Papua                  771

      MALUKU + PAPUA              347

      INDONESIA                   863

Note: TBM = Plantations not yet producing

TM = Producing plantations

Source: Plantation Directorate General, Data Consult/ICN

Table - 8

Productivity of rubber plantations by owners, 2004 - 2009


Year      Smallholders   Government   Private   Total

2004              792        1,036    1,199       839

2005              818        1,042    1,200       862

2006              892        1,299    1,541       967

2007              914        1,350    1,596       993

2008              928        1,372    1,621     1,008

2009 *)           954        1,409    1,666     1,036

Source: Data Consult/ICN

Table - 9

Production of crumb rubber, 2004 - 2007

Year                   Prod. Capacity         Production
                       (tons/year)            (tons)

2004                   2060000                1907768

2005                   2246000                1900023

2006                   2470000                2174334

2007                   2470000                2270000

Source: Ministry of Industry, Data Consult processed

Table - 10

Rubber exports, 1999 - 2008

                Export                    Imports

Year       Volume        Value       Volume        Value
           (Tons)    (000 US$)       (Tons)    (000 US$)

1999    1.494.543      849.200       17.962       10.727
2000    1.379.612      888.623       32.548       18.120
2001    1.453.382      786.197        9.298        6.557

                Export                    Imports

Year       Volume        Value       Volume        Value
           (Tons)    (000 US$)       (Tons)    (000 US$)

2002    1.495.987    1.037.562        9.911        7.334
2003    1.662.210    1.494.811       17.840       15.555
2004    1.874.261    2.180.029        7.648        6.876
2005    2.024.593    2.582.875        6.687        6.441
2006    2.286.897    4.321.525        6.905       12.926
2007    2.407.972    4.868.700        9.915       13.327
2008    2.283.154    6.023.296       12.570       24.204

Source: BPS

Table - 11

Rubber prices in the world market (US$/lb), 1994 - 2009

Year              Type of rubber in quality


1994                                  57.68
1995                                  78.81
1996                                  70.01
1997                                  52.32
1998                                  38.61
1999                                  34.68
2000                                  36.64
2001                                  33.18
2002                                  41.18
2003                                  55.55
2004                                  66.99
2005                                  65.55
2006                                 105.09
2007                                 112.00
2008                                  69.44
2009                                  85.41

Source: Weekly report of Bank Indonesia
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Title Annotation:AGRICULTURE
Publication:Indonesian Commercial Newsletter
Article Type:Statistical data
Geographic Code:9INDO
Date:May 1, 2010
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