Profile of rubber plantations in Indonesia.
The government is set to see Indonesia Indonesia (ĭn'dənē`zhə), officially Republic of Indonesia, republic (2005 est. pop. 241,974,000), c.735,000 sq mi (1,903,650 sq km), SE Asia, in the Malay Archipelago. becomes the world's largest producer of rubber in 2011. Indonesia is already the largest in plantation Plantation, city (1990 pop. 66,692), Broward co., SE Fla., a residential suburb of Fort Lauderdale; inc. 1953. The city has grown rapidly along with the development of S Florida. area with rubber plantations PLANTATIONS. Colonies, (q.v.) dependencies. (q.v.) 1 Bl. Com. 107. In England, this word, as it is used in St. 12, II. c. 18, is never applied to, any of the British dominions in Europe, but only to the colonies in the West Indies and America. 1 Marsh. Ins, B. 1, c. 3, Sec. 2, page 64. totaling 3.4 million hectares in 2009 as against Thailand's 2.67 million hectares and Malaysia's 1.02 million hectares.
However, the country is only the second largest in production with production totaling 2.4 million tons in 2009 as against Thailand's 3.1 million tons t per year. Malaysia Malaysia (məlā`zhə), independent federation (2005 est. pop. 23,953,000), 128,430 sq mi (332,633 sq km), Southeast Asia. The official capital and by far the largest city is Kuala Lumpur; Putrajaya is the adminstrative capital. came third with production of 951,000 tons.
Indonesia is lower in productivity as many of the country's rubber trees have been too old and the plantations are not well tended. The government, therefore, has planned replanting in 50,000 hectares of plantations in a number of production centers. Replanting will be launched in South Sumatra South Sumatra or Sumatera Selatan is a province of Indonesia. It is on the island of Sumatra, and borders the provinces of Lampung to the south, Bengkulu to the west, and Jambi to the north. , Bengkulu For the city, see .
For the language, see .
Bengkulu is a province of Indonesia. It is on the southwest coast of the island of Sumatra, and borders the provinces of West Sumatra, Jambi, South Sumatra and Lampung. , and Jambi Jambi or Djambi (both: jäm`bē), city (1990 est. pop. 340,066), SE Sumatra, capital of Jambi prov., Indonesia, a port at the head of navigation on the Hari River. . The replanting is aimed at improving the productivity. The productivity is to be increased from 901 kilograms per hectare hectare (hĕk`târ, –tär), abbr. ha, unit of area in the metric system, equal to 10,000 sq m, or about 2.47 acres. per year to 1,500 kilograms, per hectare per year.
* Rubber price hit record level
Dry rubber price in international market in April 2010 hit a record high at US$3.33 per kilogram kilogram, abbr. kg, fundamental unit of mass in the metric system, defined as the mass of the International Prototype Kilogram, a platinum-iridium cylinder kept at Sèvres, France, near Paris. in a number of decades. In 2000, rubber price was only US$0.5/kg; the price of natural rubber fell more than 66% to 110 US cents per kilogram in July July: see month. and December December: see month. 2008.
In April, 2010 in Medan, the price of dry rubber of the TSR (Terminate and Stay Resident) Refers to a program that remains in memory when the user exits it in order that it be immediately available at the press of a hotkey. 20 type for May delivery was recorded at US$ 3.33 per kg and US$ 3.32 per kg for June delivery. The price of the RSS (Really Simple Syndication) A syndication format that was developed by Netscape in 1999 and became very popular for aggregating updates to blogs and the news sites. RSS has also stood for "Rich Site Summary" and "RDF Site Summary. 3 type was US$ 3.99 per kg in May and US$3.86 per kg in June.
The price of rubber continued to scale up triggered by the soaring soaring: see flight; glider.
Sport of flying a glider or sailplane. The craft is towed behind a powered airplane to an altitude of about 2,000 ft (600 m) and then released. oil price amid speculation that the US economy would grow.
* Exports up but supply limited
In the first quarter of 2010, exports of rubber and tuber tuber, enlarged tip of a rhizome (underground stem) that stores food. Although much modified in structure, the tuber contains all the usual stem parts—bark, wood, pith, nodes, and internodes. goods shot up. In the first quarter of 2009, exports were valued only at US$ 934.7 million, but in the same period in 2010, the exports value shot up to US$ 1,963.5 million. Rubber price that continues to climb resulted in an increase in Indonesia's earning from natural rubber exports.
The basic economic problem which arises from people having unlimited wants while there are and always will be limited resources. Because of scarcity, various economic decisions must be made to allocate resources efficiently. in supply caused difficulty in meet demands for exports which have continued to increase in the past two years resulted in scarcity.
tr.v. re·vi·tal·ized, re·vi·tal·iz·ing, re·vi·tal·iz·es
To impart new life or vigor to: plans to revitalize inner-city neighborhoods; tried to revitalize a flagging economy. of the country's rubber plantations has come too late to meet the market demand at present.
Plantations by ownership (Smallholders, State Comp, Private Comp)
Rubber plantations in Indonesia are dominated by smallholders. For over 15 years (1994-2009), the country's rubber plantations have virtually been unchanged in size. The plantation areas even shrank shrank
A past tense of shrink.
a past tense of shrink
shrank shrink during the 2007-2004 periods.
When the rubber prices fell in the world market late the 1990s, many private companies converted their rubber plantations into oil palm plantations, which were considered more profitable. Astra Argo Argo (är`gō), in Greek mythology, ship in which Jason and the Argonauts sailed in quest of the Golden Fleece. Most legends say that Argus, son of Phrixus, was the builder, with the help of Athena. Lestari and the Bakrie group, for example, have grown oil palm trees in their rubber plantations or sold their rubber plantations to concentrate on expansion of oil palm plantations. However, in the past two years they begun to set eye on rubber plantations when the price of rubber climbed.
In 2009, Indonesia still had 3.4 million hectares of rubber plantations but with lower productivity compared with Thailand's rubber plantations of 2.67 million hectares.
Sumatra Sumatra (smä`trə), island (1990 pop. 36,471,731), c.183,000 sq mi (473,970 sq km), Indonesia, in the Indian Ocean along the equator, S and W of the Malay Peninsula (from which it has the largest plantations of rubber plantations with 2.4 million hectares or 70% of the total area of rubber plantations in Indonesia. The largest rubber plantation by province is in South Sumatra totaling 672,000 hectares in 2009, followed by rubber plantations in North Sumatra North Sumatra (Indonesian: Sumatera Utara) is a province of Indonesia. Its capital is Medan. Geography and population
The province of North Sumatra stretches across the island of Sumatra between the Indian Ocean and the Strait Malacca. , Riau For other uses, see Riau (disambiguation).
Riau is a province of Indonesia, located in the center of Sumatra island along the Strait of Malacca. The provincial capital and largest city is Pekanbaru. Other major cities includes Dumai, Bangkinang and Siak Sri Indrapura. and Jambi. Other larges plantations are found in West Kalimantan West Kalimantan (Indonesian: Kalimantan Barat often abbreviated to Kalbar) is a province of Indonesia. It is one of four Indonesian provinces in Kalimantan, the Indonesian part of the island of Borneo. Its capital city Pontianak is located right on the Equator line. and Central Kalimantan Central Kalimantan (Indonesian: Kalimantan Tengah often abbreviated to Kalteng) is a province of Indonesia, one of four in Kalimantan - the Indonesian part of the island of Borneo. Its provincial capital is Palangkaraya.
The province has a population of 1. , and in Central Java Central Java (Indonesian: Provinsi Jawa Tengah) is a province of Indonesia. The administrative capital is Semarang. It is one of the six provinces of the island of Java. Central Java is both a political entity and a cultural concept. and West Java.
Unlike in Sumatra and Kalimantan Kalimantan: see Borneo. , rubber plantations in Java are dominated by state plantation companies and private plantation companies. Smallholders account for only a small part of rubber plantations in Java. Sumatra and Kalimantan the plantations are dominated by smallholders.
Condition of plants
When the price of rubber fell such as in the 1997-2003 period. Many plantations were left lying idle untended for year and some of them were converted into more profitable plantations such as oil palm plantations. The rubber price began to scale up in 2008 to follow the soaring oil prices.
At that time, however many of the plantations had been damaged. Rubber plantations in Indonesia. Therefore were much less productive than those of Malaysia and Thailand Thailand (tī`lănd, –lənd), Thai Prathet Thai [land of the free], officially Kingdom of Thailand, constitutional monarchy (2005 est. pop. 65,444,000), 198,455 sq mi (514,000 sq km), Southeast Asia. two other major rubber producing countries.
Improving productivity. Therefore is the main target if the country wants to become the world's largest producer of natural rubber. The country has the largest plantations much larger than Thailand's plantations but Thailand is the largest producer.
The agriculture ministry said rubber trees in around 400.000 hectares of plantations have been too old and damaged and need replanting. Director General of Plantations Achmad Mangga Barani A Barani can refer to:
Replanting. Therefore is needed to improve the productivity of the rubber plantations. The government has set a replanting target over 400.000 hectares.
Development of the country rubber plantations is to be launched through the Plantation Revitalization Program including expansion. Replanting and rehabilitations of plantations. The program will be supported with subsidized sub·si·dize
tr.v. sub·si·dized, sub·si·diz·ing, sub·si·diz·es
1. To assist or support with a subsidy.
2. To secure the assistance of by granting a subsidy. investment credits.
The government will also provide support through non revitalization program in the form of fertilizer fertilizer, organic or inorganic material containing one or more of the nutrients—mainly nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, and other essential elements required for plant growth. and procurement The fancy word for "purchasing." The procurement department within an organization manages all the major purchases. of seedlings for replanting.
The government is to launch revitalization program in rubber plantations covering 10.000 hectares of the plantations in 2010. Up from 4.631 hectares in 2009 and expansion through non revitalization program to cover 18.688 hectares up from 11.667 hectares in 2009.
State rubber plantations
Rubber plantations owned by state companies and private companies are generally well tended
Among the state plantation companies. PT PN III in North Sumatra has the largest rubber plantations of 45.327 hectares. PTPN PTPN Physical Therapy Provider Network
PTPN Protein-Tyrosine Phosphatase, Nonreceptor-Type
PTPN Preemptive Time Petri Net III also has rubber plasma plantations totaling 9.150.8 hectares cultivated cultivated,
n in herbal medicine, used to describe plants that are commercially farmed rather than collected from the wild. by local farmers. In addition, PTPN III has oil palm and cacao plantations. Altogether its plantations total 166.000 hectares.
PT PN VII has 34.439 hectares of rubber plantations in South Sumatra and Lampung or the second largest. But if combined with its plasma plantations of 31.467 hectares. It has the largest rubber plantations totaling 65.800 hectares.
Rubber plantations owned by private companies
The areas of rubber plantations owned by private companies have been reduced in size over the past decade as many of the plantations have been used to grow oil palm trees. Among the companies maintaining its rubber plantations is PT Perusahaan Perkebunan London Sumatera Indonesia Tbk and PT Socfin.
PT Perusahaan Perkebunan London Sumatera Indonesia Tbk
PT Perusahaan Plantations London Sumatra Indonesia Tbk has one of the largest rubber plantations among private companies. This company was established more than century ago that was in 1906 by Harrisons & Crossfield Plc. a London-based plantation and trading company. Perkebunan London-Sumatera. Better known as "Lonsum". Expanded to become one of the world's leading plantation companies with 100.000 hectares of plantations of oil palm, Rubber, Tea and cacao in four Indonesia's main islands.
After the Indonesian independence Lonsum focused more on expanding its rubber plantations and in 1980 it began to concentrate more on oil palm plantations. At the end of this decade palm oil because it's main commodity instead of rubber.
Lonsum has 38 nucleus nucleus, in physics
nucleus, in physics, the extremely dense central core of an atom. The Nature of the Nucleus
plantations and 14 plasma plantations in Sumatra. Java. Kalimantan and Sulawesi. It plantation business include plant breeding plant breeding, science of altering the genetic pattern of plants in order to increase their value. Increased crop yield is the primary aim of most plant-breeding programs; advantages of the hybrids and new varieties developed include adaptation to new agricultural . Planting. Harvesting processing and sales of commodities that include palm oil. Rubber. Cacao and tea. The company has 20 processing factories in Sumatra. Java and Sulawesi.
In 1994. Harrisons & Crossfield sold its entire Lonsum assets to PT Pan London Sumatra Plantations (PPLS PPLS Pesticide Product Label System
PPLS Pre Paid Legal Services, Inc.
PPLS Provincial Pharmacy Locum Services (UK) ). This later listed Lonsum on the Jakarta Stock Exchange Jakarta Stock Exchange
Established in 1977, the largest securities exchange in Indonesia. and Surabaya Stock Exchange in 1996. In October 2007. Indofood Agri Resources Ltd. a subsidiary of the food giant PT Indofood Sukses Makmur Tbk. became the majority shareholder of the company through PT Salim Ivomas Pratama.
Toward the end of December 2009. Its nucleus estates exceeded 100.000 hectares with oil palm plantations making up 70%. Rubber plantations 17% and other plantations making up the rest. Currently Lonsum had rubber plantations totaling 17.394 hectares in North Sumatra. South Sumatra and South Sulawesi South Sulawesi is a province of Indonesia, located on the western southern peninsula of Sulawesi island. The province is bordered by Central Sulawesi province to the north, South East Sulawesi province to the east and West Sulawesi province to the west (West Sulawesi province was . PT Lonsum also cooperates with local farmer in 36.209 hectares of plasma plantations including oil palm plantations making up 89% and rubber plantations 11%.
Lonsum has seven factories producing sheet rubber and crumb rubber Crumb rubber is generally manufactured from automotive and truck scrap tires. During the manufacturing process steel and fluff is removed leaving tire rubber with a granular consistency. for both domestic sales and export. In 2009. Sold 22.110 tons of rubber down slightly from 22.870 tons in 2008.
PT. Socfin Indonesia is a foreign investment (PMA PMA (papillary-marginal-attached),
n a system of epidemiologic scoring of periodontal disease devised by Schour and Massler in which the symbols denote the areas involved in gingival inflammation.
PMA Progressive muscular atrophy ) company with plantations in North Sumatra and Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam.
PT. Socfin Indonesia was established December 1930 with the name of Socfin Medan S.A. In 1965. PT. Socfin Indonesia was put under the supervision of the government based on a presidential decision No. 6 Year 1965.
In 1968. PT. Socfin Indonesia became a joint venture company between Plantation Nord Sumatra S.A.--Belgium (the owner of Socfin) and the Indonesian government with the name of PT. Socfin Indonesia (Socfindo). Based on the foreign investment law No. 01/1967 with 60% of the shares held by Plantation Nord Sumatra and 40% by the government of Indonesia.
On 13 December 2001. Under privatization privatization: see nationalization.
Transfer of government services or assets to the private sector. State-owned assets may be sold to private owners, or statutory restrictions on competition between privately and publicly owned program 90% of Socfindo is owned by Plantation Nord Sumatra with 10% retained by the government.
PT. Socfin Indonesia has 5 rubber plantations totaling 10.000 hectares. Located in North Sumatra. It has secured the certificates of ISO (1) See ISO speed.
(2) (International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland, www.iso.ch) An organization that sets international standards, founded in 1946. The U.S. member body is ANSI. 9001-2008. ISO 14001-2007 and OHSAS OHSAS Occupational Health and Safety Management System
OHSAS Occupational Health & Safety Assessment Series
OHSAS Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Scheme (UK) 18000 in recognition of the quality of its products.
PT. Socfin Indonesia planted high yield clone clone, group of organisms, all of which are descended from a single individual through asexual reproduction, as in a pure cell culture of bacteria. Except for changes in the hereditary material that come about by mutation, all members of a clone are genetically such as PB 260. PB 340. PB 217. And RRIM RRIM Reinforced Reaction Injection Molding 712.
The use of the clones has contributed to increasing the productivity and production of its rubber plantations. The clones are more resistant to diseases and change in climate.
Bakrie Sumatera Plantation
PT Bakrie Sumatera Plantation Tbk (UNSP). This has rubber and oil palm plantations. Was established in 1911 as a rubber plantation company with the name of NV Hollandsch-Amerikanse Plantege Maatschpij. By the Dutch colonial administration. It was acquired by Uniroyal Inc. In 1957 and it was renamed United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. Rubber Sumatra Plantation (USRSP).
In 1965 it was nationalized. But later it was taken over by Uniroyal and its name was changed with PT Uniroyal Sumatra Plantations (UnSp). In 1986. PT Bakrie and Brother acquired the majority share of the company and its name was changed with PT Bakrie Sumatra Plantation and it began to start business in oil palm plantations.
The company has plantations in North Sumatra. Riau. West Sumatra West Sumatra (Indonesian: Sumatera Barat, abbreviated to Sumbar) is a province of Indonesia. It lies on the west coast of the island Sumatra, and borders the provinces of North Sumatra (Sumatera Utara) to the north, Riau and Jambi to the east, and . Jambi. South Sumatra. Batam and Central Kalimantan. Its cultivated plantations totaled 79.338 hectares. Its largest plantations are in North Sumatra totaling 24.600 hectares. Including rubber plantations making up 75% and oil palm plantation making up the rest.
Rubber plantations account for 24% or 18.8.000 hectares of its cultivated plantations.
The company also cooperates with local farmers under nucleus smallholder Noun 1. smallholder - a person owning or renting a smallholding
Britain, Great Britain, U.K., UK, United Kingdom, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland - a monarchy in northwestern Europe occupying most of the British Isles; divided into England and scheme with 14.500 hectares of plasma plantations.
In the period of 1994-2003. The country's rubber production was almost stagnant stagnant /stag·nant/ (stag´nant)
1. motionless; not flowing or moving.
2. inactive; not developing or progressing. . Increase was recorded only since 2004 when production reached 2.06 million tons from 1.79 million tons in 2003. The production rose again to reach 3.04 million tons in 2009.
Increase was recorded mainly by smallholder plantations. The increase in price encouraged the farmers to boost production through productivity improvement or expansion of plantations. Meanwhile. The plantations owned by the state and private companies recorded no significant change was they already reach their maximum productivity with no expansion of plantations.
Production by locations and plantation owners
Sumatra accounted for the largest part or 72% or 2.23 million tons of country's total rubber production in 2009. By province South Sumatra relegated North Sumatra as the largest producer. In 2009. South Sumatra produced 593.000 tons. The second largest producer is North Sumatra. Followed by Riau and Jambi.
Productivity of the country's rubber plantations is lower than those of Thailand and Malaysia. The productivity of the country's rubber plantations, based on the total plantation areas, averages only 812 kg per hectare per year, but based on the productive areas, the productivity is around 954 kg per hectare per year.
With good maintenance and using high quality clones the production of the country rubber plantations could reach 1,500-2,000 kg per hectare per year.
Smallholder plantations are lower in productivity compared with those of state plantation companies (PBN PBN Paint By Number
PBN Procurement Business Number
PBN Pyrolytic Boron Nitride
PBN Policy-Based Networking
PBN Performance-Based Navigation
PBN Progressive Bengali Network
PBN Paintball Nation
PBN Permanent Background Notices ) and private plantation companies (PBS PBS
in full Public Broadcasting Service
Private, nonprofit U.S. corporation of public television stations. PBS provides its member stations, which are supported by public funds and private contributions rather than by commercials, with educational, cultural, ). Averagely, smallholder rubber plantations have a productivity of around 954 kg/hectare as against PBN's 1409 kg/hectare and PBS' 1666 kg/hectare. Only in Sulawesi, smallholder plantations have a fairly high productivity exceeding PBN and PBS merely as the three in the plantations owned by both PBN and PBS have not reach the productive age
Plantation director general Achmad Mangga Barani said smallholder plantations need replanting to improve their productivity outside the program of revitalization.
The development target for non-revitalization rubber plantations in 2010 is set at 8,688 hectares in 51 regencies in 16 provinces. Implementation in 2009 reached 7,035 hectares in 43 regencies in 13 provinces.
The development program for non-revitalization rubber plantations is financed subsidy subsidy, financial assistance granted by a government or philanthropic foundation to a person or association for the purpose of promoting an enterprise considered beneficial to the public welfare. of Rp20 billion per hectare from state budget as much or Rp173.7 billion for the 8,688 hectare target in 2010. Development of non-revitalization smallholder plantation will add to the country's total rubber plantations of 2.4 million hectares at present.
Types of Natural Rubber
Natural rubber commodities include latex latex, emulsion of a polymer (e.g., rubber) in water (see colloid). Natural latexes are produced by a number of plants, are usually white in color, and often contain, in addition to rubber, various gums, oils, and waxes. , block rubber, sheet and crumb rubber--all as basic materials in downstream From the provider to the customer. Downloading files and Web pages from the Internet is the downstream side. The upstream is from the customer to the provider (requesting a Web page, sending e-mail, etc.). industry.
Conventional natural rubber
The processed product of natural rubber is known in trade as conventional natural rubber that includes sheet and crepe crepe (krāp), thin fabric of crinkled texture, woven originally in silk but now available in all major fibers. There are two kinds of crepe. . The types of natural rubber categorized cat·e·go·rize
tr.v. cat·e·go·rized, cat·e·go·riz·ing, cat·e·go·riz·es
To put into a category or categories; classify.
cat as conventional include Ribbed rib
a. One of a series of long curved bones occurring in 12 pairs in humans and extending from the spine to or toward the sternum.
b. A similar bone in most vertebrates.
2. smoked sheet (RSS). White crepe and pale crepe are the crepe types in white color either thin or thick.
Thick latex enters the market after the process of creaming and centrifugation Centrifugation
A mechanical method of separating immiscible liquids or solids from liquids by the application of centrifugal force. This force can be very great, and separations which proceed slowly by gravity can be speeded up enormously in centrifugal to turn out creamed latex and centrifuged latex. Generally thick latex is used only for thin rubber materials with high quality such as medical rubber hand gloves.
Block rubber is crumb rubber after being dried and milled into bales in certain sizes. Some bock Noun 1. bock - a very strong lager traditionally brewed in the fall and aged through the winter for consumption in the spring
lager beer, lager - a general term for beer made with bottom fermenting yeast (usually by decoction mashing); originally rubber has light color but each category has different colors.
Rubber with technical specifications (Crumb Rubber)
Rubber with technical specifications or crumb rubber is specially processed that the quality is guaranteed. The quality is determined based on technical characteristics. The quality and category of crumb rubber are not base don visual evaluation such as in the case of sheet, crepe and thick latex.
Production of crumb rubber
The types of rubber products produced and exported by Indonesia are not many and dominated by primary products (raw material) and semi finished products. Indonesia is still behind Thailand and Malaysia, in developing rubber products.
Most of the country's rubber production is processed into crumb rubber with codification The collection and systematic arrangement, usually by subject, of the laws of a state or country, or the statutory provisions, rules, and regulations that govern a specific area or subject of law or practice. of "Standard Indonesian Rubber' (SIR). Others are RSS and latex.
Currently, the country has 23 units of latex-based rubber processing facilities with a total capacity of 144,520 ton/year, and 87 units of crumb rubber plants with a capacity of 1,957,400 ton/year. The capacity of crumb rubber processing facilities is enough to process the basic material produced in the country.
The agriculture ministry recommended temporarily stop issuing license for new crumb rubber plant as the country still has capacity, which is larger than the country's rubber production.
Indonesia's rubber production per year is around 2.6 million to 2.7 million tons. Around 15% or more than 300,000 tons of the total production is for domestic consumption mainly tire industry. The rest are exported.
The country exports most of its rubber production. In 2003, around 2.3 million tons of the total productions of 2.9 million ton were exported.
Exports have fluctuated in volume from 1999 to 2008 but tended to increase in the latter four years.
Prices predicted to remain high
The price of rubber in the world market hit a 20-month record in April. 2010 on short fall in supply. The price is predicted to rise still as supply is expected to remain scarce with protracted pro·tract
tr.v. pro·tract·ed, pro·tract·ing, pro·tracts
1. To draw out or lengthen in time; prolong: disputants who needlessly protracted the negotiations.
2. dry season.
Encouraging trend of the economy especially the US economy will also push up demand for natural rubber from tire makers.
In the past two years. Rubber producers gained form the strong rubber market after years of being in the doldrums doldrums (dŏl`drəmz) or equatorial belt of calms, area around the earth centered slightly north of the equator between the two belts of trade winds. . In 2004 the rubber prices averaged Rp 7.200 kilograms. The price surged to Rp13.500 per kilogram in 2005. In September 2006, the export price averaged Rp17.550 per kilogram and the prices received by farmers averaged Rp14.500 per kilogram for raw rubber.
The price of natural rubber once dropped by more than 66% to 110 US cents per kilogram in July and December 2008. The decline followed weak demand amid the global economic slowdown. The price shot up to 287 cents per kg in December 2009.
The North Sumatra's Association of rubber companies (Gapkindo) said in April 2010. The price of dry rubber of the TSR 20 type was US$3.33 per kg for May's delivery. down to US$ 3.32 per kg for June delivery. The price of RSS 3 was US$3.99 per kg for May delivery and US$3.86 per kg for June delivery.
The price of natural rubber is considered too high. It is the highest since the World War II. Producers of natural rubber said if the price remained high tire factories may choose to use synthetic rubber synthetic rubber: see rubber. . threatening the survival of the natural rubber industry.
The price. However. Is expected to remain high with the improved condition of the world's economy.
Three countries to control the price.
The high price of natural rubber since 2003 is determined partly by the success of three world's largest producers Thailand. Indonesia and Malaysia--in establishing cartel to control production and exports.
The tripartite TRIPARTITE. Consisting of three parts, as a deed tripartite, between A of the first part, B of the second part, and C of the third part. cooperation succeeded in shoring up Noun 1. shoring up - the act of propping up with shores
propping up, shoring
supporting, support - the act of bearing the weight of or strengthening; "he leaned against the wall for support" the price of natural rubber in previous years. Toward the end of 2001 (before the signing of the Bali Declaration 2001) the price of natural rubber was only around 46 US cents to 52 cents/kg. After the implementation of AETS AETS Adult Education and Training Survey (Canada)
AETS Association for the Education of Teachers in Science
AETS Airborne Electronic Threat Simulator (Agreed Export Tonnage TONNAGE, mar. law. The capacity of a ship or vessel.
2. The act of congress of March 2, 1799, s. 64, 1 Story's L. U. S. 630, directs that to ascertain the tonnage of any ship or vessel, the surveyor, &c. Scheme) and SMS (1) (Storage Management System) Software used to routinely back up and archive files. See HSM.
(2) (Systems Management Server) Systems management software from Microsoft that runs on Windows NT Server. (Supply Management Scheme). The price was picking up. In January 2002, the price rose to 53.88 cents/kg and in August 2003 it was 83.06 cents/kg.
After the signing of a MOU (Minutes Of Usage) A metric used to compute billing and/or statistics for telephone calls or other network use. on 8 August 2002, the price scaled up again to reach 89.55 cent per kg in September 2002. In March 2003, the price peaked at 96.50 cents/kg after the 1997 crisis. Before falling to 81 cents/kg in April. In May that year it rose again to 82 cents/kg.
Since 2004, the price began to leapfrog to follow the soaring prices of oil that made synthetic rubber too expensive and less competitive facing natural rubber.
The three countries Indonesia. Malaysia. And Thailand agreed to continue cooperation in controlling the price of natural rubber in the world market.
In a meeting early 2010, the three countries grouped in the Association of Natural Rubber Producing Countries (ANRPC ANRPC Association of Natural Rubber Producing Countries ) agreed to keep the price in international market at US$ 2 to US$ 3 per kilogram (kg). In order to maintain the price level. The three countries arrange supply management.
The International Tripartite Rubber Council (ITRC ITRC Identity Theft Resource Center
ITRC Instructional Technology Resource Center
ITRC Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council
ITRC Interstate Technology and Regulatory Cooperation
ITRC Information Technology Research Centre (Canada) ) meeting also discussed proposal of Vietnam to join the ITCR ITCR Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica . Currently the three countries of the ANRPC account for 70% of the world supply of natural rubber. Indonesia alone accounts for 25%-27%. If Vietnam joins. The organization would control 90%-95% of the world market of natural rubber.
Investment in rubber plantation small
Difficulty in securing cheap fund is still the main problem hampering expansion of the country's rubber plantation. Low and sharp fluctuations of rubber prices in the past discouraged dis·cour·age
tr.v. dis·cour·aged, dis·cour·ag·ing, dis·cour·ag·es
1. To deprive of confidence, hope, or spirit.
2. To hamper by discouraging; deter.
3. long term investment in the sector.
In a bid to cope with the problem, the government launched a program to revitalize re·vi·tal·ize
tr.v. re·vi·tal·ized, re·vi·tal·iz·ing, re·vi·tal·iz·es
To impart new life or vigor to: plans to revitalize inner-city neighborhoods; tried to revitalize a flagging economy. the plantation sector including in oil palm, cacao and rubber plantations especially smallholder plantations.
However, after the launch of the program in 2007, realization is far from expectation especially in the rubber sector. Rubber plantations had only a share of Rp 146.34 billion of the total spending of Rp 5.56 trillion One thousand times one billion, which is 1, followed by 12 zeros, or 10 to the 12th power. See space/time.
(mathematics) trillion - In Britain, France, and Germany, 10^18 or a million cubed.
In the USA and Canada, 10^12. on the program until 2009. The bulk of the fund or Rp 5.39 trillion went to the oil palm sector with the cacao plantation sector having the smallest share of Rp 35.14 billion.
The implementation of the program covered a total area of 146,092 hectares. Oil palm plantations totaled 140,488 hectares, rubber plantations 4,147 hectares and cacao plantations 1,457 hectares.
The realization was still far way from the target of 2 million hectares with credit allocation The apportionment or designation of an item for a specific purpose or to a particular place.
In the law of trusts, the allocation of cash dividends earned by a stock that makes up the principal of a trust for a beneficiary usually means that the dividends will be treated as of Rp 76 trillion until the end of 2010.
Under the program, which is to end this year, the government hopes to see an expansion of 1.37 million hectares of oil palm plantations and replanting over 125,000 hectares. Expansion of rubber plantation is projected at 50,000 hectares with replanting covering 250,000 hectares. Expansion target for cacao plantations is 110,000 hectares with replanting to cover 90,000 hectares and rehabilitation rehabilitation: see physical therapy. 36,000 hectares.
In 2010, the government sets revitalization target at 364,100 hectares including expansion around 225,500 hectares, replanting 127,600 hectares and rehabilitation 11,000 hectares.
Banks feel safer to deal with farmers in oil palm sector than with those in rubber or cacao plantations as oil palm farmers have their guarantors in plantation companies as the nucleus companies. There is no such cooperation in the rubber and cacao plantations. Therefore, the bulk of the bank credits go to the oil palm plantation sector.
Under the program of plantation revitalization, the government provides subsidy on credit interest. The interest rate is 6% on rubber farmers' credits and 7% on the credits for oil palm and cacao farmers. The government pays the difference with him rate set by banks. A number of major banks have pledged credits for the program including Bank BRI See ISDN.
BRI - Basic Rate Interface , Bank Mandiri Bank Mandiri (JSX : BMRI) is the largest bank in Indonesia in term of assets, loans and deposits. Total assets as of Q3 2006 were IDR 253.7 trillion (or USD 25.7 billion). It also has Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR) of 23% (including market risk), Return on Asset (RoA) of 0. , Bank Bukopin, Bank Agro, Bank Niaga, Bank BCA, and banks owned by regional administrations such as BPD Borderline personality disorder (BPD)
A pattern of behavior characterized by impulsive acts, intense but chaotic relationships with others, identity problems, and emotional instability. Sumbar, BPD Sumsel, BPD Sumut, BPD Riau, BPD Papua and BPD Kaltim.
The year 2010 is the last year for the program, but there has not been much headway head·way
1. Forward movement or the rate of forward movement, especially of a ship.
2. Progress toward a goal.
3. The clear vertical space beneath a ceiling or archway; clearance.
4. made in the implementation of the program. In addition, smallholder plantations have yet to complete administrative matters. Many smallholder plantations have no certificate which is needed as one of the requirements set by banks as collateral for credits.
New License for Crumb Rubber Industry Stopped Temporarily
The association of rubber companies (Gapkindo) has asked the government to stop issuing new license for crumb rubber industry as the capacity of 1 million tons a year the existing factories has exceeded the country's rubber production. The proposal was supported by the agriculture ministry that the country's crumb rubber industry already has idle capacity.
In addition, the government has no intention of expanding the country's tuber plantation in line with the policy agreed by the three countries--Indonesia, Thailand and Malaysia which are group in the International Tripartite Rubber Council (ITRC) to control the price of that commodity in international markets. The government wants only replanting to improve the productivity. The three countries agreed that if the price fell below USS USS
1. United States Senate
2. United States ship
USS abbr (= United States Ship) → Namensteil von Schiffen der Kriegsmarine 1.6 per kg, they would not release their stocks to the market to prop up the price.
In 2008, the price of natural rubber was around US$1.36 per kg. The three countries, therefore, formed ITRC and agreed to cut production by at least 250,000 tons each in 2009. Thailand and Malaysia were required to cut production by 200,000 tons and Indonesia 50,000 tons. The policy succeeded in pushing up the price to US$ 2.8 per kg in December that year.
Prospects of Rubber Agribusiness agribusiness
Agriculture operated by business; specifically, that part of a modern national economy devoted to the production, processing, and distribution of food and fibre products and byproducts.
The greater awareness of the people of the importance of friendly environment would contribute to better prospects of natural rubber. Tire factories would be led to producing green tires that have higher content of natural rubber that synthetic rubber from oil.
Polymer factories are also expected to use more natural rubber as their basic material. This will help reduce the exploitation of non-renewable natural resources of oil and coal as the basic material for synthetic rubber. Demand for natural rubber, therefore, is expected to be higher in the future.
Indonesia wants to regain position as world's largest producer
Indonesia's production of rubber has continued to scale up since 2004 when the price of that commodity began to rise. Farmers are encouraged to tend their long abandoned rubber plantations. Meanwhile, Malaysia's production is expected to scale down as more rubber plantations have been converted into oil palm plantations.
Thailand is also expected to face difficulty in expanding its rubber plantations on limited availability When customers of the PSTN make telephone calls, they commonly make use of a telecommunications network called a switched-circuit network. In a switched-circuit network, devices known as switches are used to connect the caller to the callee. of suitable land.
Indonesia faces no such problem. The country already has large plantations. It needs only to improve the productivity through replanting in old and damaged plantations.
* The prospects of business in natural rubber are encouraging with the greater awareness of the people of the importance of maintaining healthy environment. Tire factories are expected to use more natural rubber as the basic material to produce what is called green tire.
* Since 2004, the price of natural rubber in the world market has continued to scale up. A decline was recorded only in 2008 as a result of the global economic slowdown and financial crisis. The price, however, remained high at around US$ 3 per kg
* With the oil price soaring and is expected to remain high at around US$75 per barrel, the price of natural rubber is expected to remain high that the prospects of long term investment in rubber plantations at present are more encouraging.
* Indonesia has the opportunity become the world's largest producer of natural rubber again because it already has the largest plantation areas. It only needs to improve its productivity through replanting.
* With the price remaining high the farmers are encouraged to grow rubber and seek to boost their productivity.
* The government has launched what is called program of revitalization in the plantation sector including rubber plantations. However, there has not been much headway made in the implementation of the program, which already started in 2007. There are a number of factors coming in the way including administrative matter like land certificate. Many plantations owned by the farmers have no certificate that could be use as collateral for bank loan. There is no company to serve as nucleus estate such as in oil palm plantations to provide guarantee for bank loans.
* The government has also launched a program of non revitalization in the rubber plantation sector using fund of state budget for development of smallholder rubber plantations. The amount, however, is too small and would not be enough to meet the requirement.
* The government has no plan for expansion of the country's rubber plantations and issue license for new crumb rubber factories as the capacity of the existing factories already exceeded the country's rubber production. New investment, therefore, is encouraged more in the downstream sector to process more rubber in the country.
Table - 1 Rubber plantations all over Indonesia, 1994 -2010 Year Areas (Hectares) PR PBN PBS Total 1994 2.892.994 280.543 298.842 3.472.379 1995 2.952.684 248.393 294.824 3.495.901 1996 2.978.507 246.246 293.688 3.518.441 1997 2.957.538 226.839 290.025 3.474.402 1998 3.082.330 229.809 295.156 3.607.295 1999 3.086.543 218.344 290.173 3.595.060 2000 2.882.795 212.617 277.009 3.372.421 2001 2.838.421 221.876 284.470 3.344.767 2002 2.825.476 221.228 271.655 3.318.359 2003 2.772.490 241.625 275.997 3.290.112 2004 2.747.899 239.118 275.250 3.262.267 2005 2.767.021 237.612 274.758 3.279.391 2006 2.832.982 238.003 275.442 3.346.427 2007 2.899.679 238.246 275.792 3.413.717 2008 2.910.208 238.210 275.799 3.424.217 2009 *) 2.913.960 238.161 275.860 3.427.981 2010 **) 2.936.181 235.922 273.214 3.445.317 Note: PR: Smallholder plantations PBN: State plantations, PBS : Private plantation companies Source: Statistics of the plantation directorate general Table - 2 Areas of rubber plantations in Indonesia by provinces And owners, 2009 No. Province PR (Ha) PBN (Ha) 1 Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam 74.480 31.048 2 North Sumatra 306.011 68.295 3 West Sumatra 127.557 0 4 Riau 355.576 12.735 5 Riau Islands 29.300 0 6 Jambi 444.662 0 7 South Sumatra 627.999 22.422 8 Kep. Bangka Belitung 30.926 0 9 Bengkulu 62.506 6.874 10 Lampung 53.291 18.603 SUMATRA 2.112.308 159.977 11 DKI Jakarta 0 0 12 West Java 7.078 25.003 13 Banten 16.312 2.067 14 Central Java 1.456 23.433 15 D.I. Yogyakarta 0 0 16 East Java 0 16.711 JAVA 24.846 67.214 17 Bali 0 0 18 West Nusa Tenggara 0 0 19 East Nusa Tenggara 0 0 NUSATENGGARA 0 0 20 West Kalimantan 402.542 1.099 21 Central Kalimantan 269.934 4.745 22 South Kalimantan 117.121 10.455 23 East Kalimantan 45.375 2.282 KALIMANTAN 834.972 18.581 24 North Sulawesi 0 0 25 Gorontalo 0 0 26 Central Sulawesi 2.060 1.100 27 South Sulawesi 13.237 0 28 West Sulawesi 400 0 29 Southeast Sulawesi 0 0 SULAWESI 15.697 1.100 30 Maluku 0 0 31 North Maluku 0 0 32 Papua 5.127 0 33 West Papua 35 0 MALUKU + PAPUA 5.162 0 INDONESIA 2.992.985 246.872 No. Province PBS (Ha) Total (Ha) 1 Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam 17.543 123.071 2 North Sumatra 106.284 480.590 3 West Sumatra 3.297 130.854 4 Riau 23.779 392.090 5 Riau Islands 3.224 32.524 6 Jambi 6.955 451.617 7 South Sumatra 21.869 672.290 8 Kep. Bangka Belitung 0 30.923 9 Bengkulu 6.014 75.394 10 Lampung 14.073 85.967 SUMATRA 203.038 2.475.320 11 DKI Jakarta 0 0 12 West Java 21.624 53.705 13 Banten 5.189 23.568 14 Central Java 6.271 31.160 15 D.I. Yogyakarta 0 0 16 East Java 9.119 25.830 JAVA 42.203 134.263 17 Bali 95 95 18 West Nusa Tenggara 0 0 19 East Nusa Tenggara 0 0 NUSATENGGARA 95 95 20 West Kalimantan 8.112 411.753 21 Central Kalimantan 2.834 277.513 22 South Kalimantan 11.260 138.836 23 East Kalimantan 10.567 58.224 KALIMANTAN 32.773 886.326 24 North Sulawesi 0 0 25 Gorontalo 0 0 26 Central Sulawesi 0 3.160 27 South Sulawesi 5.808 19.045 28 West Sulawesi 809 1.209 29 Southeast Sulawesi 0 0 SULAWESI 6.617 23.414 30 Maluku 0 0 31 North Maluku 0 0 32 Papua 0 5.127 33 West Papua 0 35 MALUKU + PAPUA 0 5.162 INDONESIA 284.726 3.524.580 Source: Statistics of the plantation directorate general Table - 3 Areas of plantations by owners and condition of crops, 2003 - 2009 (Hectares) Year/owners Immature Mature Damaged Total 2003 * Smallholders 739.700 1.985.930 46.860 2.772.490 * State co. 41.849 187.060 12.716 241.625 * Private co. 84.269 171.017 20.711 275.997 * Total 865.818 2.344.007 80.287 3.290.112 2004 * Smallholders 610.453 2.099.739 37.707 2.747.899 * State co. 40.014 189.226 9.878 239.118 * Private co. 82.161 173.251 19.838 275.250 * Total 732.628 2.462.216 67.423 3.262.267 2005 * Smallholders 497.912 2.247.544 21.565 2.767.021 * State co. 27.993 201.332 8.287 237.612 * Private co. 70.292 185.318 19.148 274.758 * Total 596.197 2.634.194 49.000 3.279.391 2006 * Smallholders 466.588 2.333.874 32.520 2.832.982 * State co. 24.974 204.560 8.469 238.003 * Private co. 68.151 187.424 19.867 275.442 * Total 559.713 2.725.858 60.856 3.346.427 2007 * Smallholders 486.669 2.381.466 31.544 2.899.679 * State co. 24.558 205.303 8.384 238.246 * Private co. 67.487 188.778 19.527 275.792 * Total 578.714 2.775.547 59.455 3.413.717 2008 * Smallholders 429.558 2.486.250 27.923 2.943.731 * State co. 24.040 214.336 7.422 245.798 * Private co. 66.062 197.084 17.285 280.431 * Total 519.660 2.897.670 52.630 3.469.960 2009 * Smallholders 454.123 2.517.825 25.037 2.996.985 * State co. 23.159 217.058 6.655 246.872 * Private co. 65.640 199.587 15.499 280.726 * Total 542.922 2.934.470 47.191 3.524.583 Source: Statistics of the plantation directorate general Table - 4 Rubber plantation areas and production of state companies, 2009 Companies Location Areas of rubber plantations PT Perkebunan NAD (Aceh) Nucleus estate Nusantara I 11.918 hectares (PTPNI) Plasma 10.118 hectares PTPN II North Sumatra 11.265 hectares PTPN III North Sumatra Nucleus estate 45.327 hectares Plasma 9.150 hectares PTPN V North Sumatra Nucleus estate 14.322 hectares Plasma 17.861 hectares PTPN VI North Sumatra Nucleus estate 6.384 hectares Plasma 35.878 hectares PTPN VII Southern Sumatra Nucleus estate 34.439 hectares Plasma 31.467 hectares PTPN VIII West Java Nucleus estate 27.245 hectares Plasma 2.446 hectares PTPN IX Central Java Nucleus estate 23.546 hectares PTPN XII East Java Nucleus estate 14.943 hectares PTPN XIII Kalimantan Nucleus estate 14.898 hectares Plasma 46.342 hectares PTPN XIV Sulawesi Nucleus estate 2.513 hectares Plasma 2.556 hectares Companies Production per year PT Perkebunan RSS : 1.906 tons Nusantara I SIR : 14.328 tons (PTPNI) PTPN II RSS: 4.200 tons SIR 3 L: 600 tons SIR 10/20: 1.600 tons BSR: 200 tons C.L. : 2.100 tons Thick latex : 2.224 tons PTPN III RSS : 2.885 tons SIR 3 CV : 2.329 tons SIR 3 L : 1.250 tons SIR 3 WF : 155 tons SIR 10 : 12.334 tons SIR 20 : 1.370 tons Sediment : 1.496 to PTPN V SIR - 3L: 4.221 tons SIR - 3 WF: 469 tons SIR 1 and 10: 11.041 tons RSS: 45 tons PTPN VI SIR - 3L: 139 tons SIR - 3 WF: 2.121 tons SIR 10: 6.269 tons SIR 20: 5.274 tons PTPN VII SIR: 38.393 tons RSS: 4.016 tons PTPN VIII RSS : 6.624 tons TPC : 1.620 tons Thick latex : 3.979 tons SIR : 8.098 tons PTPN IX Rubber: 12.529 tons Thick latex : 4.500 tons PTPN XII Rubber : 10.351 tons PTPN XIII RSS : 5.124 tons SIR : 24.956 tons Br. crepe : 1.212 tons PTPN XIV RSS : 1.299 tons SIR : 3.076 tons Br. crepe : 430 tons Source: Statistics of the plantation directorate general Table Areas of rubber plantations of PT PP London Sumatra Indonesia, 2008 -2009 Nucleus Mature Immature Total (hectares) (hectares) (hectares) 2008 12.854 4.476 17.330 2009 12.858 4.537 17.394 Source: PT Lonsum. annual report Table - 5 Rubber production by plantation owners Year Production (Tons) PR PBN 1998 1.242.751 192.512 1999 1.206.410 181.522 2000 1.125.161 169.866 2001 1.209.284 182.578 2002 1.226.647 186.535 2003 1.396.244 191.699 2004 1.662.016 196.088 2005 1.723.318 196.673 2006 2.082.597 265.813 2007 2.176.686 277.200 2008 2.308.385 293.972 2009 *) 2.401.798 305.868 Year PBS Total 226.635 1.661.898 216.427 1.604.359 1998 206.401 1.501.428 1999 215.599 1.607.461 2000 217.177 1.630.359 2001 204.405 1.792.348 2002 207.713 2.065.817 2003 208.432 2.128.423 2004 288.821 2.637.231 2005 301.286 2.755.172 2006 319.515 2.921.872 2007 332.444 3.040.110 2008 2009 *) Note:*) provisional figure Source: Directorate general of plantations Table - 6 Rubber production by provinces and owners, 2009 * No. Provinces PR PBN (Tons) (Tons) 1 Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam 62.635 27.869 2 North Sumatra 269.142 88.396 3 West Sumatra 97.344 0 4 Riau 342.745 17.616 5 Riau Islands 23.337 0 6 Jambi 345.252 0 7 South Sumatra 533.417 28.780 8 Bangka Belitung 21.346 0 9 Bengkulu 44.531 9.954 10 Lampung 43.687 26.992 SUMATRA 1.783.436 199.607 11 DKI Jakarta 0 0 12 West Java 4.672 33.415 13 Banten 10.324 1.566 14 Central Java 594 26.241 15 D.I. Yogyakarta 0 0 16 East Java 0 20.723 JAVA 15.590 81.945 17 Bali 0 0 18 West Nusa Tenggara 0 0 19 East Nusa Tenggara 0 0 NUSA TENGGARA 0 0 20 West Kalimantan 289.195 1.654 21 Central Kalimantan 199.824 5.651 22 South Kalimantan 86.027 13.781 23 East Kalimantan 21.348 1.609 KALIMANTAN 596.394 22.695 24 North Sulawesi 0 0 25 Gorontalo 0 0 26 Central Sulawesi 2.104 1.621 27 South Sulawesi 2.082 0 28 West Sulawesi 401 0 29 Southeast Sulawesi 0 0 SULAWESI 4.587 1.621 30 Maluku 0 0 31 North Maluku 0 0 32 Papua 1.764 0 33 West Papua 27 0 MALUKU + PAPUA 1.791 0 INDONESIA 2.401.798 305.868 No. Provinces PBS Total (Tons) Production (Tons) 1 Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam 9.533 100.037 2 North Sumatra 151.510 509.048 3 West Sumatra 4.287 101.631 4 Riau 35.832 396.193 5 Riau Islands 1.319 24.656 6 Jambi 3.752 349.004 7 South Sumatra 31.050 593.247 8 Bangka Belitung 0 21.346 9 Bengkulu 1.844 56.329 10 Lampung 8.540 79.219 SUMATRA 247.667 2.230.710 11 DKI Jakarta 0 0 12 West Java 27.739 65.826 13 Banten 5.197 17.087 14 Central Java 6.912 33.747 15 D.I. Yogyakarta 0 0 16 East Java 6.424 27.147 JAVA 46.272 143.807 17 Bali 118 118 18 West Nusa Tenggara 0 0 19 East Nusa Tenggara 0 0 NUSA TENGGARA 118 118 20 West Kalimantan 7.669 298.518 21 Central Kalimantan 2.550 208.025 22 South Kalimantan 13.870 113.678 23 East Kalimantan 6.183 29.140 KALIMANTAN 30.272 649.361 24 North Sulawesi 0 0 25 Gorontalo 0 0 26 Central Sulawesi 0 3.725 27 South Sulawesi 7.108 9.190 28 West Sulawesi 1.006 1.407 29 Southeast Sulawesi 0 0 SULAWESI 8.114 14.322 30 Maluku 0 0 31 North Maluku 0 0 32 Papua 0 1.764 33 West Papua 0 27 MALUKU + PAPUA 0 1.791 INDONESIA 332.444 3.040.110 Note: *) provisional figure Source: Directorate general of plantations Table - 7 Plantation areas and production (PR + PBN + PBS) by provinces and condition of plants No. Province Area (Hectares) TBM/ TM/ Immature Mature 1 NAD 13,794 104,834 2 North Sumatra 44,653 430,940 3 West Sumatra 29,671 95,881 4 Riau 32,369 357,511 5 Riau Islands 5,439 26,533 6 Jambi 66,789 381,197 7 South Sumatra 106,538 562,479 8 Bangka Belitung 8,526 22,363 9 Bengkulu 15,312 59,151 10 Lampung 21,742 64,058 SUMATRA 344,833 2,104,947 11 DKI Jakarta 0 0 12 West Java 5,773 44,825 13 Banten 2,173 19,604 14 Central Java 7,650 23,511 15 D.I. Yogyakarta 0 16 East Java 6,795 18,004 JAVA 22,391 105,944 17 Bali 0 94 18 West Nusa Tenggara 0 0 19 East Nusa Tenggara 0 0 NUSA TENGGARA 0 94 20 West Kalimantan 59,427 348,087 21 Central Kalimantan 60,441 215,085 22 South Kalimantan 25,269 112,686 23 East Kalimantan 18,737 30,991 KALIMANTAN 163,874 706,849 24 North Sulawesi 0 0 25 Gorontalo 0 0 26 Central Sulawesi 0 3,157 27 South Sulawesi 11,818 7,224 28 West Sulawesi 0 1,209 29 Southeast Sulawesi 0 0 SULAWESI 11,818 11,590 30 Maluku 0 0 31 North Maluku 0 0 32 Papua 0 5,018 33 West Papua 6 29 MALUKU + PAPUA 6 5,047 INDONESIA 542,922 2,934,471 Area (Hectares) No. Province Damaged Total plantations 1 NAD 4,443 123,071 2 North Sumatra 4,996 480,590 3 West Sumatra 5,302 130,854 4 Riau 2,210 392,090 5 Riau Islands 552 32,524 6 Jambi 3,630 451,617 7 South Sumatra 3,272 672,290 8 Bangka Belitung 37 30,926 9 Bengkulu 931 75,394 10 Lampung 167 85,967 SUMATRA 25,540 2,475,323 11 DKI Jakarta 0 0 12 West Java 3,170 53,705 13 Banten 1,791 23,568 14 Central Java 0 31,160 15 D.I. Yogyakarta 0 0 16 East Java 1,032 25,830 JAVA 5,993 134,263 17 Bali 1 95 18 West Nusa Tenggara 0 0 19 East Nusa Tenggara 0 0 NUSA TENGGARA 1 95 20 West Kalimantan 4,240 411,753 21 Central Kalimantan 1,988 277,513 22 South Kalimantan 881 138,836 23 East Kalimantan 8,496 58,224 KALIMANTAN 15,605 886,326 24 North Sulawesi 0 0 25 Gorontalo 0 0 26 Central Sulawesi 3 3,160 27 South Sulawesi 3 19,045 28 West Sulawesi 0 1,209 29 Southeast Sulawesi 0 0 SULAWESI 6 23,414 30 Maluku 0 0 31 North Maluku 0 0 32 Papua 109 5,127 33 West Papua 0 35 MALUKU + PAPUA 109 5,162 INDONESIA 47,254 3,524,583 Production to total area No. Province Production TM (Ton) (Kg/ha) 1 NAD 100,037 954 2 North Sumatra 509,048 1,181 3 West Sumatra 101,631 1,060 4 Riau 396,193 1,108 5 Riau Islands 24,656 929 6 Jambi 349,004 916 7 South Sumatra 593,247 1,055 8 Bangka Belitung 21,346 955 9 Bengkulu 56,329 952 10 Lampung 79,219 1,237 SUMATRA 2,230,710 1,060 11 DKI Jakarta 0 0 12 West Java 65,826 1,469 13 Banten 17,087 872 14 Central Java 33,747 1,435 15 D.I. Yogyakarta 0 0 16 East Java 27,147 1,508 JAVA 143,807 1,357 17 Bali 118 1,255 18 West Nusa Tenggara 0 0 19 East Nusa Tenggara 0 0 NUSA TENGGARA 118 1,255 20 West Kalimantan 298,518 858 21 Central Kalimantan 208,025 967 22 South Kalimantan 113,678 1,009 23 East Kalimantan 29,140 940 KALIMANTAN 649,361 919 24 North Sulawesi 0 0 25 Gorontalo 0 0 26 Central Sulawesi 3,725 1,180 27 South Sulawesi 9,190 1,272 28 West Sulawesi 1,407 1,164 29 Southeast Sulawesi 0 0 SULAWESI 14,322 1,236 30 Maluku 0 0 31 North Maluku 0 0 32 Papua 1,764 352 33 West Papua 27 936 MALUKU + PAPUA 1,791 355 INDONESIA 3,040,109 1,036 No. Province Production to total area Total (Kg/ha) 1 NAD 813 2 North Sumatra 1,059 3 West Sumatra 777 4 Riau 1,010 5 Riau Islands 758 6 Jambi 773 7 South Sumatra 882 8 Bangka Belitung 690 9 Bengkulu 747 10 Lampung 922 SUMATRA 901 11 DKI Jakarta 12 West Java 1,226 13 Banten 725 14 Central Java 1,083 15 D.I. Yogyakarta 16 East Java 1,051 JAVA 1,071 17 Bali 1,242 18 West Nusa Tenggara 19 East Nusa Tenggara NUSA TENGGARA 1,242 20 West Kalimantan 725 21 Central Kalimantan 750 22 South Kalimantan 819 23 East Kalimantan 500 KALIMANTAN 733 24 North Sulawesi 25 Gorontalo 26 Central Sulawesi 1,179 27 South Sulawesi 483 28 West Sulawesi 1,164 29 Southeast Sulawesi SULAWESI 612 30 Maluku 31 North Maluku 32 Papua 344 33 West Papua 771 MALUKU + PAPUA 347 INDONESIA 863 Note: TBM = Plantations not yet producing TM = Producing plantations Source: Plantation Directorate General, Data Consult/ICN Table - 8 Productivity of rubber plantations by owners, 2004 - 2009 (Kg/hectare/year) Year Smallholders Government Private Total 2004 792 1,036 1,199 839 2005 818 1,042 1,200 862 2006 892 1,299 1,541 967 2007 914 1,350 1,596 993 2008 928 1,372 1,621 1,008 2009 *) 954 1,409 1,666 1,036 Source: Data Consult/ICN Table - 9 Production of crumb rubber, 2004 - 2007 Year Prod. Capacity Production (tons/year) (tons) 2004 2060000 1907768 2005 2246000 1900023 2006 2470000 2174334 2007 2470000 2270000 Source: Ministry of Industry, Data Consult processed Table - 10 Rubber exports, 1999 - 2008 Export Imports Year Volume Value Volume Value (Tons) (000 US$) (Tons) (000 US$) 1999 1.494.543 849.200 17.962 10.727 2000 1.379.612 888.623 32.548 18.120 2001 1.453.382 786.197 9.298 6.557 Export Imports Year Volume Value Volume Value (Tons) (000 US$) (Tons) (000 US$) 2002 1.495.987 1.037.562 9.911 7.334 2003 1.662.210 1.494.811 17.840 15.555 2004 1.874.261 2.180.029 7.648 6.876 2005 2.024.593 2.582.875 6.687 6.441 2006 2.286.897 4.321.525 6.905 12.926 2007 2.407.972 4.868.700 9.915 13.327 2008 2.283.154 6.023.296 12.570 24.204 Source: BPS Table - 11 Rubber prices in the world market (US$/lb), 1994 - 2009 Year Type of rubber in quality RSS-I 1994 57.68 1995 78.81 1996 70.01 1997 52.32 1998 38.61 1999 34.68 2000 36.64 2001 33.18 2002 41.18 2003 55.55 2004 66.99 2005 65.55 2006 105.09 2007 112.00 2008 69.44 2009 85.41 Source: Weekly report of Bank Indonesia